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mathematical model hemorrhage

Haley Manella, Shyam Sivasankar, Jeffrey J Perry, Sam Pfeil, Josh Senyak, Ross Shachter, Prasanthi Govindarajan
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a leaking aneurysm is a neurological emergency. SAH patients often present with headache-a common chief complaint among emergency department patients. If unrecognized, 70% of the patients with re-bleeds die and one third are left with neurological deficits. Therefore, it is critical to distinguish the signs and symptoms of SAH from benign causes of headache, perform the appropriate diagnostic tests and treat in a timely manner in order to reduce the disability and mortality associated with this condition...
January 21, 2018: Curēus
Thorsten Tjardes, Markus Luecking
Introduction: To achieve the aim of zero preventable deaths on the battlefield a deeper understanding of uncontrolled hemorrhage from junctional or proximal extremity sources is mandatory. While tourniquet application to the extremities has drastically reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still room for improvement regarding the timing of tourniquet placement as the available evidence clearly points out a tight correlation between timing of tourniquet application and outcome. To save as many lives as possible the "point of no return" regarding the circulatory breakdown due to hemorrhage, colloquially addressed as platinum 5 min, needs to be determined...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Cayley Bowles, Daniel Canuto, Joseph Teran, Erik Dutson, David Plurad, Jeff Eldredge, Peyman Benharash
As animal models fall out of favor, there is demand for simulators to train medical personnel in the management of trauma and hemorrhage. Realism is essential to the development of simulators for training in the management of trauma and hemorrhage, but is difficult to achieve because it is difficult to create models that accurately represent bleeding organs. We present a simulation platform that uses real-time mathematical modeling of hemodynamics after hemorrhage and trauma and visually represents the injury described by the model...
October 1, 2017: American Surgeon
Fatima Nazish Khan, Sahar Qazi, Khushnuma Tanveer, Khalid Raza
Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of Filoviridae virus family under the genus Ebolavirus, has emerged as a dangerous and potential threat to human health globally. It causes a severe and deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans and other mammals, called Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). In recent outbreaks of EVD, there has been loss of large numbers of individual's life. Therefore, EBOV has attracted researchers and increased interests in developing new models for virus evolution, and therapies. The EBOV interacts with the immune system of the host which led to understand how the virus functions and effects immune system behaviour...
December 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Alla A Popruha, Lyudmyla E Bobyreva, Larisa A Samarchenko, Tatyana E Mykhaylychenko
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the leading risk factors for cerebrovascular disorders. The risk of stroke is 3-4 times higher in this population. In 10% of cases of vascular accidents in diabetic patients leads to fatal. The mortality rate for ischemic stroke is undergoing 50-60% and 70-95% of hemorrhagic form. It is known that diabetes increases the course of acute disorders of cerebral circulation. At the same time, there are data that about 415 million of the inhabitants of the planet suffer from diabetes, in 95% of cases they have type 2 diabetes, which is the second risk factor for the development of ischemic stroke after an arterial hypertension...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Marc Souris, Willy Valdivia-Granda
As successive epidemics have swept the world, the scientific community has quickly learned from them about the emergence and transmission of communicable diseases. Epidemics usually occur when health systems are unprepared. During an unexpected epidemic, health authorities engage in damage control, fear drives action, and the desire to understand the threat is greatest. As humanity recovers, policy-makers seek scientific expertise to improve their "preparedness" to face future events.Global spread of disease is exemplified by the spread of yellow fever from Africa to the Americas, by the spread of dengue fever through transcontinental migration of mosquitos, by the relentless influenza virus pandemics, and, most recently, by the unexpected emergence of Ebola virus, spread by motorbike and long haul carriers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Charles R Sims, Luis R Delima, Arthur Calimaran, Robert Hester, W Andrew Pruett
BACKGROUND: Blood conservation strategies and transfusion guidelines remain a heavily debated clinical topic. Previous investigational trials have shown that acute isovolemic hemodilution does not limit adequate oxygen delivery; however, a true critical hemoglobin level has never been investigated or defined due to safety concerns for human volunteers. Validated physiologic modeling may be useful to investigate hemodilution at critical hemoglobin levels without the ethical or safety hazards of clinical trials...
January 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Raphaëlle Métras, Guillaume Fournié, Laure Dommergues, Anton Camacho, Lisa Cavalerie, Philippe Mérot, Matt J Keeling, Catherine Cêtre-Sossah, Eric Cardinale, W John Edmunds
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a major zoonotic and arboviral hemorrhagic fever. The conditions leading to RVF epidemics are still unclear, and the relative role of climatic and anthropogenic factors may vary between ecosystems. Here, we estimate the most likely scenario that led to RVF emergence on the island of Mayotte, following the 2006-2007 African epidemic. We developed the first mathematical model for RVF that accounts for climate, animal imports and livestock susceptibility, which is fitted to a 12-years dataset...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Elisabeth M W Kooi, Elise A Verhagen, Jan Willem J Elting, Marek Czosnyka, Topun Austin, Flora Y Wong, Marcel J H Aries
The preterm born infant's ability to regulate its cerebral blood flow (CBF) is crucial in preventing secondary ischemic and hemorrhagic damage in the developing brain. The relationship between arterial blood pressure (ABP) and CBF estimates, such as regional cerebral oxygenation as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), is an attractive option for continuous non-invasive assessment of cerebrovascular autoregulation. Areas covered: The authors performed a literature search to provide an overview of the current literature on various current clinical practices and methods to measure cerebrovascular autoregulation in the preterm infant by NIRS...
August 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Rachel Pardes Berger, Brian J Pak, Mariya D Kolesnikova, Janet Fromkin, Richard Saladino, Bruce E Herman, Mary Clyde Pierce, David Englert, Paul T Smith, Patrick M Kochanek
Importance: Abusive head trauma is the leading cause of death from physical abuse. Missing the diagnosis of abusive head trauma, particularly in its mild form, is common and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Serum biomarkers may have potential as quantitative point-of-care screening tools to alert physicians to the possibility of intracranial hemorrhage. Objective: To identify and validate a set of biomarkers that could be the basis of a multivariable model to identify intracranial hemorrhage in well-appearing infants using the Ziplex System...
June 5, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
M K Premaratne, S S N Perera, G N Malavige, Saroj Jayasinghe
Aims. Predicting the risk of severity at an early stage in an individual patient will be invaluable in preventing morbidity and mortality caused by dengue. We hypothesized that such predictions are possible by analyzing multiple parameters using mathematical modeling. Methodology. Data from 11 adult patients with dengue fever (DF) and 25 patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) were analyzed. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to study the characteristics and interactions of parameters using dengue NS1 antigen levels, dengue IgG antibody levels, platelet counts, and lymphocyte counts...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Rajash K Handa, Paul R Territo, Philip M Blomgren, Scott A Persohn, Chen Lin, Cynthia D Johnson, Lei Jiang, Bret A Connors, Gary D Hutchins
The current accepted standard for quantifying shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)-induced tissue damage is based on morphometric detection of renal hemorrhage in serial tissue sections from fixed kidneys. This methodology is time and labor intensive and is tissue destructive. We have developed a non-destructive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method that permits rapid assessment of SWL-induced hemorrhagic lesion volumes in post-mortem kidneys using native tissue contrast to reduce cycle time. Kidneys of anesthetized pigs were targeted with shock waves using the Dornier Compact S lithotripter...
October 2017: Urolithiasis
Kaoru Aishima, Tatsuya Shimizu, Masanori Aihara, Yuhei Yoshimoto
BACKGROUND: Recent prospective multicenter studies have shown that the probability of rupture of unruptured aneurysms with maximal diameter <7 mm is rather low. However, the overall risks and long-term impact of unruptured aneurysms on lifetime quality of life are still unknown. METHODS: A mathematical model of the natural history of intracranial aneurysms was constructed, in which the hypothetical individuals with or without unruptured aneurysm transit between discrete health states...
November 2016: World Neurosurgery
Ibrahim Diakite, Eric Q Mooring, Gustavo E Velásquez, Megan B Murray
BACKGROUND: During the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, policy-makers were confronted with difficult decisions on how best to test the efficacy of EVD vaccines. On one hand, many were reluctant to withhold a vaccine that might prevent a fatal disease from study participants randomized to a control arm. On the other, regulatory bodies called for rigorous placebo-controlled trials to permit direct measurement of vaccine efficacy prior to approval of the products. A stepped-wedge cluster study (SWCT) was proposed as an alternative to a more traditional randomized controlled vaccine trial to address these concerns...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Won Sup Oh, Sung-Bin Chon
Fluid resuscitation, hemostasis, and transfusion is essential in care of hemorrhagic shock. Although estimation of the residual blood volume is crucial, the standard measuring methods are impractical or unsafe. Vital signs, central venous or pulmonary artery pressures are inaccurate. We hypothesized that the residual blood volume for acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage was calculable using serial hematocrit measurements and the volume of isotonic solution infused. Blood volume is the sum of volumes of red blood cells and plasma...
May 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Margo S Harrison, Jennifer B Griffin, Elizabeth M McClure, Bonnie Jones, Katelin Moran, Robert L Goldenberg
Objective The aim of the study is to evaluate clinical interventions to significantly reduce maternal mortality from prolonged labor, obstructed labor, and prolonged obstructed labor (PL/OL/POL) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods A mathematical model-Maternal and Neonatal Directed Assessment of Technology ("MANDATE")-was created for SSA with estimated prevalence for PL/OL/POL and case fatality rates from hemorrhage, infection, and uterine rupture. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, the model was populated with estimated likelihoods of the current healthcare system ability to diagnose, transfer, and treat women with these conditions...
July 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Sarah Thomas, Jonathan Meadows, K A Kelly McQueen
BACKGROUND: Despite global efforts to reduce the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) through the World Health Organization's (WHO) Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG5), MMR remains unacceptably high in low-income countries (LICs). Maternal death and disability from hemorrhage, infection, and obstructed labor may be averted by timely cesarean section (CS). Most LICs have CS rates less than that recommended by the WHO. Without access to timely CS, it is unlikely that MMR in LICs will be further reduced...
July 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Laura Facchini, Alberto Bellin, Eleuterio Francisco Toro
The fiber matrix of the surface glycocalyx layer internally coating the endothelial cells and plugging the intercellular clefts is crucial for microvascular wall homeostasis. Disruption of the glycocalyx is found in clinical conditions characterized by microvascular and endothelial dysfunction such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure and cerebrovascular disease. Shedding of its components may also occur during oxidative stress and systemic inflammatory states including septis. In this work, we investigate the effects of glycocalyx degradation, either due to enzymatic digestion or to agonist recruitment, on plasma filtration and solute extravasation...
2016: Current Neurovascular Research
Ajay Malhotra, Xiao Wu, Vivek B Kalra, Joseph Schindler, Howard P Forman
OBJECTIVES: Accurate diagnosis of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is critical in thunderclap headache patients due to high morbidity and mortality associated with missed aneurysmal bleeds. The objective of this study was to determine the utility of computed tomography angiography (CTA) in managing patients with acute, severe headaches and negative noncontrast CT and assess the cost-effectiveness of three different screening strategies-no follow up, CTA, and lumbar puncture (LP). METHODS: A modeling-based economic evaluation was performed with a time horizon of 1 year for thunderclap headache patients in the emergency department with negative noncontrast CT for SAH...
March 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Pierre Nouvellet, Tini Garske, Harriet L Mills, Gemma Nedjati-Gilani, Wes Hinsley, Isobel M Blake, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Anne Cori, Ilaria Dorigatti, Thibaut Jombart, Steven Riley, Christophe Fraser, Christl A Donnelly, Neil M Ferguson
Ebola emerged in West Africa around December 2013 and swept through Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, giving rise to 27,748 confirmed, probable and suspected cases reported by 29 July 2015. Case diagnoses during the epidemic have relied on polymerase chain reaction-based tests. Owing to limited laboratory capacity and local transport infrastructure, the delays from sample collection to test results being available have often been 2 days or more. Point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests offer the potential to substantially reduce these delays...
December 3, 2015: Nature
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