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Brain Morphometry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930678/structural-differences-in-insular-cortex-reflect-vicarious-injustice-sensitivity
#1
Thomas Baumgartner, Anne Saulin, Grit Hein, Daria Knoch
Sensitivity to injustice inflicted on others is a strong motivator of human social behavior. There are, however, enormous individual differences in vicarious injustice sensitivity. Some people are strongly affected when witnessing injustice, while others barely notice it, but the factors behind this heterogeneity are poorly understood. Here we examine the neuroanatomical basis of these differences using voxel-based morphometry and Freesurfer image analysis suite. Whole brain corrected analyses show that a person's propensity to be vicariously affected by injustice to others is reflected by the gray matter volume and thickness of the bilateral mid insular cortex...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923638/dance-and-music-share-gray-matter-structural-correlates
#2
Falisha J Karpati, Chiara Giacosa, Nicholas E V Foster, Virginia B Penhune, Krista L Hyde
Intensive practise of sensorimotor skills, such as music and dance, is associated with brain structural plasticity. While the neural correlates of music have been well-investigated, less is known about the neural correlates of dance. Additionally, the gray matter structural correlates of dance versus music training have not yet been directly compared. The objectives of the present study were to compare gray matter structure as measured by surface- and voxel-based morphometry between expert dancers, expert musicians and untrained controls, as well as to correlate gray matter structure with performance on dance- and music-related tasks...
December 3, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922605/pattern-of-structural-brain-changes-in-social-anxiety-disorder-after-cognitive-behavioral-group-therapy-a-longitudinal-multimodal-mri-study
#3
V R Steiger, A B Brühl, S Weidt, A Delsignore, M Rufer, L Jäncke, U Herwig, J Hänggi
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fears of social and performance situations. Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has in general positive effects on symptoms, distress and avoidance in SAD. Prior studies found increased cortical volumes and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SAD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-three participants diagnosed with SAD attended in a 10-week CBGT and were scanned before and after therapy. We applied three neuroimaging methods-surface-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging and network-based statistics-each with specific longitudinal processing protocols, to investigate CBGT-induced structural brain alterations of the gray and white matter (WM)...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922332/effect-of-moderate-and-high-intensity-chronic-exercise-on-the-pancreatic-islet-morphometry-in-healthy-rats-bdnf-receptor-participation
#4
Alberto Jiménez-Maldonado, Adolfo Virgen-Ortiz, Valery Melnikov, Alejandrina Rodríguez-Hernández, Armando Gamboa-Domínguez, Sergio Montero, Jesús Muñiz-Murguía, Mónica Lemus, Elena Roces de Álvarez-Buylla
A B S T R A C T The function and morphology of β-cells is largely dependent on insulin demand. As β-cells cover a bigger cell proportion in pancreas islets, changes of insulin producer cells affect the whole pancreatic islet morphology. Growth factors as the neurotrophins regulate the pancreas physiology, besides; physical exercise increases insulin sensitivity, and further modifies brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration in plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exercise (running in a treadmill for eight weeks) intensity on pancreatic islet morphometry in healthy state...
December 6, 2016: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919546/brain-morphometry-predicts-individual-creative-potential-and-the-ability-to-combine-remote-ideas
#5
David Bendetowicz, Marika Urbanski, Clarisse Aichelburg, Richard Levy, Emmanuelle Volle
For complex mental functions such as creative thinking, inter-individual variability is useful to better understand the underlying cognitive components and brain anatomy. Associative theories propose that creative individuals have flexible semantic associations, which allows remote elements to be formed into new combinations. However, the structural brain variability associated with the ability to combine remote associates has not been explored. To address this question, we performed a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study and explored the anatomical connectivity of significant regions...
November 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916985/the-obese-brain-as-a-heritable-phenotype-a-combined-morphometry-and-twin-study
#6
C M Weise, P Piaggi, M Reinhardt, K Chen, C R Savage, J Krakoff, B Pleger
BACKGROUND: Body weight and adiposity are heritable traits. To date it remains unknown whether obesity-associated brain structural alterations are under a similar level of genetic control. METHODS: For this study we utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from the Human Connectome Project. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate associations between body mass index (BMI) and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in a sample of 875 young adults with a wide BMI range (386m/489f; age 28...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914042/perfectionism-mediated-the-relationship-between-brain-structure-variation-and-negative-emotion-in-a-nonclinical-sample
#7
Di Wu, Kangcheng Wang, Dongtao Wei, Qunlin Chen, Xue Du, Junyi Yang, Jiang Qiu
In maladaptive respects, perfectionism reflects an individual's concern over making mistakes and doubting the quality of his or her own actions excessively, which would affect one's emotion. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms associated with the perfectionism and negative affect. In this study, voxel-based morphometry was performed to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in perfectionism, which was measured by the Chinese Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (CFMPS), in a large sample of nonclinical young adults...
December 2, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911301/tau-platelets-correlate-with-regional-brain%C3%A2-atrophy-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s%C3%A2-disease
#8
Andrea Slachevsky, Leonardo Guzmán-Martínez, Carolina Delgado, Pablo Reyes, Gonzalo A Farías, Carlos Muñoz-Neira, Eduardo Bravo, Mauricio Farías, Patricia Flores, Cristian Garrido, James T Becker, Oscar L López, Ricardo B Maccioni
BACKGROUND: Intracellular neurofibrillary tangles are part of the core pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which are mainly composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to determine whether high molecular weight (HMW) or low molecular weight (LMW) tau protein levels, as well as the ratio HMW/LMW, present in platelets correlates with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) structural changes in normal and cognitively impaired subjects...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909413/sex-effects-on-smoking-cue-perception-in-non-smokers-smokers-and-ex-smokers-a-pilot-study
#9
Davide Zanchi, Arthur Brody, Stefan Borgwardt, Sven Haller
INTRODUCTION: Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. METHODS: First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 females and 8 males), smokers (10 females and 8 males), and ex-smokers (10 females and 7 males)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908444/clinical-application-of-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-mapping-in-voxel-based-morphometry-in-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
H Takahashi, K Ishii, N Kashiwagi, Y Watanabe, H Tanaka, T Murakami, N Tomiyama
AIM: To evaluate the performance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping compared with voxel-based morphometry and to demonstrate the clinical usefulness of ADC mapping in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population comprised 31 patients with AD (group A) and 24 patients without dementia (group B) who underwent three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted imaging (WI) and two-dimensional (2D) echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 T...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905410/association-between-preterm-brain-injury-and-exposure-to-chorioamnionitis-during-fetal-life
#11
Devasuda Anblagan, Rozalia Pataky, Margaret J Evans, Emma J Telford, Ahmed Serag, Sarah Sparrow, Chinthika Piyasena, Scott I Semple, Alastair Graham Wilkinson, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Preterm infants are susceptible to inflammation-induced white matter injury but the exposures that lead to this are uncertain. Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) reflects intrauterine inflammation, can trigger a fetal inflammatory response, and is closely associated with premature birth. In a cohort of 90 preterm infants with detailed placental histology and neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data at term equivalent age, we used Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data and computational morphometry analysis to compute the volumes of whole brain, tissue compartments and cerebrospinal fluid, to test the hypothesis that HCA is an independent antenatal risk factor for preterm brain injury...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903329/prediction-of-free-and-cued-selective-reminding-test-performance-using-volumetric-and-amyloid-based-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Lisa Quenon, Laurence Dricot, John L Woodard, Bernard Hanseeuw, Nathalie Gilis, Renaud Lhommel, Adrian Ivanoiu
OBJECTIVES: Relatively few studies have investigated relationships between performance on clinical memory measures and indexes of underlying neuropathology related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated predictive relationships between Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) cue efficiency (CE) and free-recall (FR) measures and brain amyloid levels, hippocampal volume (HV), and regional cortical thickness. METHODS: Thirty-one older controls without memory complaints and 60 patients presenting memory complaints underwent the FCSRT, amyloid imaging using [F18]-flutemetamol positron emission tomography, and surface-based morphometry (SBM) using brain magnetic resonance imaging...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895606/being-in-a-romantic-relationship-is-associated-with-reduced-gray-matter-density-in-striatum-and-increased-subjective-happiness
#13
Hiroaki Kawamichi, Sho K Sugawara, Yuki H Hamano, Kai Makita, Masahiro Matsunaga, Hiroki C Tanabe, Yuichi Ogino, Shigeru Saito, Norihiro Sadato
Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893017/evaluation-of-cognitive-deficits-and-structural-hippocampal-damage-in-encephalitis-with-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-1-antibodies
#14
Carsten Finke, Harald Prüss, Josephine Heine, Sigrid Reuter, Ute A Kopp, Florian Wegner, Florian Then Bergh, Sebastian Koch, Olav Jansen, Thomas Münte, Günther Deuschl, Klemens Ruprecht, Winfried Stöcker, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Friedemann Paul, Thorsten Bartsch
Importance: Limbic encephalitis with leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibodies is one of the most frequent variants of autoimmune encephalitis with antibodies targeting neuronal surface antigens. However, the neuroimaging pattern and long-term cognitive outcome are not well understood. Objective: To study cognitive outcome and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alterations in patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Departments of Neurology at Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin and University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany...
November 21, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888657/electroconvulsive-therapy-induced-brain-structural-and-functional-changes-in-major-depressive-disorders-a-longitudinal-study
#15
Haitang Qiu, Xirong Li, Wenjing Zhao, Lian Du, Peiyu Huang, Yixiao Fu, Tian Qiu, Peng Xie, Huaqing Meng, Qinghua Luo
BACKGROUND This study aimed to study the brain structural and functional changes after 8 courses of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). MATERIAL AND METHODS MRI scans were performed on 12 depressive patients before and after 8 courses of ECT and compared with those of 15 normal controls. Data were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using SPM8 software. Functional MRI (fMRI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) analyses were used to assess the functional changes after ECT...
November 26, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888414/structural-brain-abnormalities-in-patients-with-vestibular-migraine
#16
Roberta Messina, Maria A Rocca, Bruno Colombo, Roberto Teggi, Andrea Falini, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi
New advances in understanding the pathophysiology of vestibular migraine (VM) have suggested a large overlap between migraine and vestibular pathways. We explored the regional distribution of gray (GM) and white matter (WM) abnormalities in VM patients in comparison to migraine patients with (MWA) and without aura (MWoA) and their correlations with patients' clinical manifestations. Using a 3.0 Tesla scanner, brain T2-weighted and 3D T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired from 19 VM, 19 MWA, 19 MWoA and 20 age-matched controls...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887721/comparative-multimodal-meta-analysis-of-structural-and-functional-brain-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
Christina O Carlisi, Luke J Norman, Steve S Lukito, Joaquim Radua, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share inhibitory control deficits possibly underlying poor control over stereotyped and repetitive g., v/r/ dACC /MPFC); and (iv) to indicate a pathway (e.g., if this is a pathway: bilateral putamen/caudate/nucleus accumbens / pallidum /amygdala/insula). BPS style does not allow virgules to be used to represent expressions of duality or alternatives. Please express these as and/or, and, or or . BPS style does not allow virgules to be used to represent a compound modifier such as "rostral/ dorsomedial ," which should be changed to hyphen(s), such as rostral- dorsomedial ...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884877/associations-between-measures-of-structural-morphometry-and-sensorimotor-performance-in-individuals-with-nonspecific-low-back-pain
#18
K Caeyenberghs, M Pijnenburg, N Goossens, L Janssens, S Brumagne
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To date, most structural brain imaging studies in individuals with nonspecific low back pain have evaluated volumetric changes. These alterations are particularly found in sensorimotor-related areas. Although it is suggested that specific measures, such as cortical surface area and cortical thickness, reflect different underlying neural architectures, the literature regarding these different measures in individuals with nonspecific low back pain is limited. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the association between the performance on a sensorimotor task, more specifically the sit-to-stand-to-sit task, and cortical surface area and cortical thickness in individuals with nonspecific low back pain and healthy controls...
November 24, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884738/development-of-the-human-oculomotor-nuclear-complex-centrally-projecting-edinger-westphal-nucleus
#19
Katsuyuki Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: The cytoarchitecturally defined Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) is now referred to by many investigators as the centrally-projecting EW (EWcp) in humans. Although the mature structure is well-characterized, there have been few reports describing the precise morphology of this nucleus during the second half of gestation. SUBJECTS/DESIGN: Eleven brains were examined from preterm infants, aged 20-39 postmenstrual weeks, who died of various causes. After fixation, the brains were embedded in celloidin and serial sections of 30-μm thickness were cut in the horizontal plane...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871637/comparing-brain-morphometry-across-multiple-childhood-psychiatric-disorders
#20
Andrea L Gold, Melissa A Brotman, Nancy E Adleman, Sara N Lever, Elizabeth R Steuber, Stephen J Fromm, Sven C Mueller, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft
OBJECTIVE: In both children and adults, psychiatric illness is associated with structural brain alterations, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, most studies compare gray matter volume (GMV) in healthy volunteers (HVs) to one psychiatric group. We compared GMV among youth with anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder (BD), disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and HVs. METHOD: 3-Tesla T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 184 youths (39 anxious, 20 BD, 52 DMDD, 20 ADHD, and 53 HV)...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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