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Brain Morphometry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789029/pediatric-brain-development-in-down-syndrome-a-field-in-its-infancy
#1
Taralee Hamner, Manisha D Udhnani, Karol Z Osipowicz, Nancy Raitano Lee
OBJECTIVES: As surprisingly little is known about the developing brain studied in vivo in youth with Down syndrome (DS), the current review summarizes the small DS pediatric structural neuroimaging literature and begins to contextualize existing research within a developmental framework. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was completed, effect sizes from published studies were reviewed, and results are presented with respect to the DS cognitive behavioral phenotype and typical brain development...
May 23, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778275/quantifying-the-effects-of-16p11-2-copy-number-variants-on-brain-structure-a-multisite-genetic-first-study
#2
Sandra Martin-Brevet, Borja Rodríguez-Herreros, Jared A Nielsen, Clara Moreau, Claudia Modenato, Anne M Maillard, Aurélie Pain, Sonia Richetin, Aia E Jønch, Abid Y Qureshi, Nicole R Zürcher, Philippe Conus, Wendy K Chung, Elliott H Sherr, John E Spiro, Ferath Kherif, Jacques S Beckmann, Nouchine Hadjikhani, Alexandre Reymond, Randy L Buckner, Bogdan Draganski, Sébastien Jacquemont
BACKGROUND: 16p11.2 breakpoint 4 to 5 copy number variants (CNVs) increase the risk for developing autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and language and cognitive impairment. In this multisite study, we aimed to quantify the effect of 16p11.2 CNVs on brain structure. METHODS: Using voxel- and surface-based brain morphometric methods, we analyzed structural magnetic resonance imaging collected at seven sites from 78 individuals with a deletion, 71 individuals with a duplication, and 212 individuals without a CNV...
March 27, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776018/voxel-based-morphometry-in-creative-writers-gray-matter-increase-in-a-prefronto-thalamic-cerebellar-network
#3
Nicola Neumann, Martin Domin, Katharina Erhard, Martin Lotze
Continuous practice modulates those features of brain anatomy specifically associated with requirements of the respective training task. The current study aimed to highlight brain structural changes going along with long-term experience in creative writing. To this end, we investigated the gray-matter volume of 23 expert writers with voxel-based morphometry and compared it to 28 matched non-expert controls. Expert writers had higher gray-matter volume in the right superior frontal and middle frontal gyri (BA 9,10) as well as left middle frontal gyrus (BA 9, 10, 46), the bilateral medial dorsal nuclei of the thalamus and left posterior cerebellum...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773998/larger-gray-matter-volume-in-the-basal-ganglia-of-heavy-cannabis-users-detected-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-subcortical-volumetric-analysis
#4
Ana Moreno-Alcázar, Begoña Gonzalvo, Erick J Canales-Rodríguez, Laura Blanco, Diana Bachiller, Anna Romaguera, Gemma C Monté-Rubio, Carlos Roncero, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet
Background: Structural imaging studies of cannabis users have found evidence of both cortical and subcortical volume reductions, especially in cannabinoid receptor-rich regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. However, the findings have not been consistent. In the present study, we examined a sample of adult heavy cannabis users without other substance abuse to determine whether long-term use is associated with brain structural changes, especially in the subcortical regions. Method: We compared the gray matter volume of 14 long-term, heavy cannabis users with non-using controls...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756356/neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-individuals-exhibiting-parkinson-s-disease-risk-markers
#5
Marcus Heldmann, Janna Heeren, Christine Klein, Linus Rauch, Johann Hagenah, Thomas F Münte, Meike Kasten, Norbert Brüggemann
BACKGROUND: The concept of prodromal Parkinson's disease (PD) involves variable combinations of nonmotor features and subtle motor abnormalities as a result of ongoing neurodegeneration in the brain stem including substantia nigra (SN) and abnormal findings upon transcranial sonography and nuclear imaging. Except for nuclear imaging, the predictive value of risk markers for the conversion to overt PD is low. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether PD risk markers are associated with changes in brain structure and to what extent cognitive changes are risk markers for PD...
May 14, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755611/morphological-biomarker-differentiating-mci-converters-from-nonconverters-longitudinal-evidence-based-on-hemispheric-asymmetry
#6
Xiaojing Long, Chunxiang Jiang, Lijuan Zhang
Identifying subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who may probably progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important for better understanding the disease mechanisms and facilitating early treatments. In addition to the direct volumetric and thickness measurement based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hemispheric asymmetry could be a potential index to detect morphological variations in MCI patients with a high risk of conversion to AD. The present study collected a set of longitudinal MRI data from 53 MCI converters and nonconverters and investigated the asymmetry differences between groups...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748773/preliminary-evidence-of-altered-gray-matter-volume-in-subjects-with-internet-gaming-disorder-associations-with-history-of-childhood-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms
#7
Deokjong Lee, Kee Namkoong, Junghan Lee, Young-Chul Jung
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly comorbid with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Although childhood ADHD symptoms may decline during late brain maturation, structural alterations in some brain areas may persist into adulthood. This study investigated whether young adults with IGD and a history of childhood ADHD symptoms had gray matter volume (GMV) alterations that were distinct from subjects without a history of childhood ADHD. As an exploratory investigation, we conducted a whole-brain voxel-based morphometry with the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm and applied an uncorrected threshold at the voxel level for multiple comparisons...
May 11, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744798/the-effect-of-future-time-perspective-on-procrastination-the-role-of-parahippocampal-gyrus-and-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex
#8
Peiwei Liu, Tingyong Feng
Procrastination is an almost universal affliction, which occurs across culture and brings serious consequences across multiple fields, such as finance, health and education. Previous research has showed procrastination can be influenced by future time perspective (FTP). However, little is known about the neural basis underlying the impact of FTP on procrastination. To address this question, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on brain structure. In line with previous findings, the behavioral result indicated that FTP inventory scores were significantly negatively correlated with procrastination inventory scores (r = -0...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740296/distinguishing-adolescents-with-conduct-disorder-from-typically-developing-youngsters-based-on-pattern-classification-of-brain-structural-mri
#9
Jianing Zhang, Weixiang Liu, Jing Zhang, Qiong Wu, Yidian Gao, Yali Jiang, Junling Gao, Shuqiao Yao, Bingsheng Huang
Background: Conduct disorder (CD) is a mental disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents antisocial behaviors, and is associated with structural alterations in brain. However, whether these structural alterations can distinguish CD from healthy controls (HCs) remains unknown. Here, we quantified these structural differences and explored the classification ability of these quantitative features based on machine learning (ML). Materials and Methods: High-resolution 3D structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) was acquired from 60 CD subjects and 60 age-matched HCs...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734487/cortical-thickness-and-white-matter-integrity-abnormalities-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-combined-multimodal-surface-based-morphometry-and-tract-based-spatial-statistics-study
#10
Cong Zhou, Jian Xu, Liangliang Ping, Fengrui Zhang, Wei Chen, Zonglin Shen, Linling Jiang, Xiufeng Xu, Yuqi Cheng
BACKGROUND: Cerebral morphological abnormalities may play a key role in pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have used multimodal imaging strategies to investigate alterations of cortical morphometry and white matter (WM) integrity. This study aimed to evaluate cortical thickness, cortical and subcortical volume, and WM integrity characteristics in OCD patients comprehensively. METHODS: We acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 52 OCD patients and 46 well-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
May 7, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734343/combining-gray-matter-volume-in-the-cuneus-and-the-cuneus-prefrontal-connectivity-may-predict-early-relapse-in-abstinent-alcohol-dependent-patients
#11
Junkai Wang, Yunli Fan, Yue Dong, Mengying Ma, Yuru Dong, Yajuan Niu, Yin Jiang, Hong Wang, Zhiyan Wang, Liuzhen Wu, Hongqiang Sun, Cailian Cui
BACKGROUND: Developing more effective strategies to prevent relapse remains one of the major challenges of treating substance dependence. Previous studies have identified brain abnormalities in abstinent alcoholics. However, whether these persistent brain deficits in abstinence could predict early relapse to alcohol use has not been well established. This study aimed to identify biomarkers of relapse vulnerability by investigating persistent brain abnormalities in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729893/memantine-ameliorates-depressive-like-behaviors-by-regulating-hippocampal-cell-proliferation-and-neuroprotection-in-olfactory-bulbectomized-mice
#12
Kohei Takahashi, Osamu Nakagawasai, Wataru Nemoto, Shogo Kadota, Jinichi Isono, Takayo Odaira, Wakana Sakuma, Yuichiro Arai, Takeshi Tadano, Koichi Tan-No
Our previous study suggested that the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine (MEM) inhibits dopamine (DA) reuptake and turnover by inhibiting brain monoamine oxidase. Clinical studies have reported that MEM may improve depressive symptoms; however, specific mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. We performed emotional behavior, tail suspension, and forced swimming tests to examine whether MEM has antidepressant effects in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice, an animal model of depression...
May 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727807/voxel-based-morphometry-analysis-of-structural-brain-scans-in-skin-picking-disorder
#13
Anne Schienle, Jonas Potthoff, Albert Wabnegger
BACKGROUND: Skin-picking disorder (SPD) is characterized by the excessive and repetitive manipulation of one's own skin resulting in tissue damage and impaired social functioning. There are only a few studies with small sample sizes that examined possible brain abnormalities in SPD, which is classified as a syndrome related to obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). METHOD: The current voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study compared data from 35 SPD patients and 35 control participants including both genders (mean age = 35 years, SD = 15)...
April 26, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723600/cognitive-training-with-action-related-verbs-induces-neural-plasticity-in-the-action-representation-system-as-assessed-by-gray-matter-brain-morphometry
#14
Marta Ghio, Matteo Locatelli, Andrea Tettamanti, Daniela Perani, Roberto Gatti, Marco Tettamanti
Embodied cognition theories of semantic memory still face the need for multiple sources of converging evidence in support of the involvement of sensory-motor systems in action-related knowledge. Previous studies showed that training manual actions improves semantic processing of verbs referring to the trained actions. The present work aimed to provide complementary evidence by measuring the brain plasticity effects of a cognitive training requiring sustained lexical-semantic processing of action-related verbs...
April 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717540/brainmap-vbm-an-environment-for-structural-meta-analysis
#15
Thomas J Vanasse, P Mickle Fox, Daniel S Barron, Michaela Robertson, Simon B Eickhoff, Jack L Lancaster, Peter T Fox
The BrainMap database is a community resource that curates peer-reviewed, coordinate-based human neuroimaging literature. By pairing the results of neuroimaging studies with their relevant meta-data, BrainMap facilitates coordinate-based meta-analysis (CBMA) of the neuroimaging literature en masse or at the level of experimental paradigm, clinical disease, or anatomic location. Initially dedicated to the functional, task-activation literature, BrainMap is now expanding to include voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in a separate sector, titled: BrainMap VBM...
May 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707531/morphometric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-in-children-with-primary-monosymptomatic-nocturnal-enuresis
#16
Mengxing Wang, Anyi Zhang, Jilei Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Shuai Xu, Zhaoxia Qin, Jun Ma, Xiaoxia Du
Objective: Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) refers to bed-wetting in children who have no other lower urinary tract symptoms and are never dry for more than 6 months. Our previous studies demonstrated that children with PMNE exhibited brain functional abnormalities compared with healthy controls; however, researches on the abnormalities in gray matter were limited. This study aimed to investigate brain structural changes in gray matter of children with PMNE using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704671/apathy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia-distinct-clinical-profiles-and-neural-correlates
#17
Fiona Kumfor, Alice Zhen, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Muireann Irish
OBJECTIVE: Apathy is the most prevalent and disabling non-cognitive symptom of dementia and affects 90% of patients across the disease course. Despite its pervasiveness, how apathy manifests across dementia syndromes and the neurobiological mechanisms driving these symptoms are poorly understood. Here, we applied the multidimensional ABC model of apathy, which recognizes Affective, Behavioural and Cognitive apathy, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD)...
March 29, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702462/manual-dexterity-and-brain-structure-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-whole-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#18
Shinsuke Hidese, Miho Ota, Daimei Sasayama, Junko Matsuo, Ikki Ishida, Moeko Hiraishi, Toshiya Teraishi, Kotaro Hattori, Hiroshi Kunugi
The Purdue Pegboard Test (PPT) is a motor coordination task used to assess manual dexterity. Although several brain regions are thought to be involved in PPT performance, the relationship of the task with decreased insular volume has not been investigated. The PPT was administered to 83 subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia (mean ± standard deviation age: 38.6 ± 11.2 years; 47 males, 36 females) and 130 healthy controls (42.1 ± 15.2 years; 67 males, 63 females). All subjects were Japanese and right-handed...
April 14, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699465/alterations-of-brain-grey-matter-density-and-olfactory-bulb-volume-in-patients-with-olfactory-loss-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Pengfei Han, Nicole Winkler, Cornelia Hummel, Antje Hähner, Johannes Gerber, Thomas Hummel
Olfactory loss and traumatic brain injury (TBI) both lead to anatomical brain alterations in humans. Little research has been done on the structural brain changes for TBI patients with olfactory loss. Using voxel-based morphometry, the grey matter (GM) density was examined for twenty-two TBI patients with hyposmia, twenty-four TBI patients with anosmia, and twenty-two age-matched controls. Olfactory bulb (OB) volumes were measured by manual segmentation of acquired T2 weighted coronal slices using a standardized protocol...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697762/longitudinal-trajectories-of-brain-volume-and-cortical-thickness-in-treated-and-untreated-primary-hiv-infection
#20
Ryan Sanford, Beau M Ances, Dieter J Meyerhoff, Richard W Price, Dietmar Fuchs, Henrik Zetterberg, Serena Spudich, D Louis Collins
Background: HIV penetrates the brain in early infection. We used neuroimaging to longitudinally examine the impact of HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on the brain in treated and untreated HIV-positive participants starting in primary HIV infection (PHI). Methods: Sixty-five participants, enrolled during PHI, underwent longitudinal MRI, 30 of whom commenced cART during follow-up. Cross-sectional data from 16 chronic HIV-infected (CHI) and 19 HIV-negative participants were included for comparison...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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