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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149715/robust-brain-roi-segmentation-by-deformation-regression-and-deformable-shape-model
#1
Zhengwang Wu, Yanrong Guo, Sang Hyun Park, Yaozong Gao, Pei Dong, Seong-Whan Lee, Dinggang Shen
We propose a robust and efficient learning-based deformable model for segmenting regions of interest (ROIs) from structural MR brain images. Different from the conventional deformable-model-based methods that deform a shape model locally around the initialization location, we learn an image-based regressor to guide the deformable model to fit for the target ROI. Specifically, given any voxel in a new image, the image-based regressor can predict the displacement vector from this voxel towards the boundary of target ROI, which can be used to guide the deformable segmentation...
November 10, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149320/organic-scintillator-for-real-time-neutron-dosimetry
#2
Kyle A Beyer, Angela Di Fulvio, Liliana Stolarczyk, Wiktor Parol, Natalia Mojzeszek, Renata Kopéc, Shaun D Clarke, Sara A Pozzi
We developed a radiation detector based on an organic scintillator for spectrometry and dosimetry of out-of-field secondary neutrons from clinical proton beams. The detector consists of an EJ-299-34 crystalline organic scintillator, coupled by fiber optic cable to a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). Proof of concept measurements were taken with 137Cs and 252Cf, and corresponding simulations were performed in MCNPX-PoliMi. Despite its small size, the detector is able to discriminate between neutron and gamma-rays via pulse shape discrimination...
November 15, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148800/size-and-shape-of-amyloid-fibrils-induced-by-ganglioside-nanoclusters-role-of-sialyl-oligosaccharide-in-fibril-formation
#3
Teruhiko Matsubara, Masaya Nishihara, Hanaki Yasumori, Mako Nakai, Katsuhiko Yanagisawa, Toshinori Sato
Ganglioside-enriched microdomains in the presynaptic neuronal membrane play a key role in the initiation of amyloid ß-protein (Aß) assembly related to Alzheimer's disease. We previously isolated lipids from a detergent-resistant membrane microdomain fraction of synaptosomes prepared from aged mouse brain and found that spherical Aß assemblies were formed on Aß-sensitive ganglioside nanoclusters (ASIGN) of reconstituted lipid bilayers in the synaptosomal fraction. In the present study, we investigated the role of oligosaccharides in Aß fibril formation induced by ganglioside-containing mixed lipid membranes that mimic the features of ASIGN...
November 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148114/on-the-character-and-production-of-active-participation-in-neuro-rehabilitation-an-actor-network-perspective
#4
Simon Horton, Kathryn Mares, Neil Coull, Fiona Poland
The importance of patients' active involvement in neuro-rehabilitation after acquired brain injury has been consistently emphasised in recent years. However, most approaches fail to show how 'active participation' is practically enacted, focusing on individualised explanations of patient choice and behaviours, or notions of inherent patient traits. Using actor-network theory (ANT) as a sensitising concept, we investigated neuro-rehabilitation practices, asking how participation is shaped through biological and socio-material specificities, how rights to knowledge and expertise are constructed, and how a body acclimatises and adjusts within an order of participation and transformation...
November 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148040/the-endocranial-shape-of-australopithecus-africanus-surface-analysis-of-the-endocasts-of-sts-5-and-sts-60
#5
Amélie Beaudet, Jean Dumoncel, Frikkie de Beer, Stanley Durrleman, Emmanuel Gilissen, Anna Oettlé, Gérard Subsol, John Francis Thackeray, José Braga
Assessment of global endocranial morphology and regional neuroanatomical changes in early hominins is critical for the reconstruction of evolutionary trajectories of cerebral regions in the human lineage. Early evidence of cortical reorganization in specific local areas (e.g. visual cortex, inferior frontal gyrus) is perceptible in the non-human South African hominin fossil record. However, to date, little information is available regarding potential global changes in the early hominin brain. The introduction of non-invasive imaging techniques opens up new perspectives for the study of hominin brain evolution...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145972/cancer-immunotherapy-getting-brainy-visualizing-the-distinctive-cns-metastatic-niche-to-illuminate-therapeutic-resistance
#6
Mark Owyong, Niloufar Hosseini-Nassab, Gizem Efe, Alexander Honkala, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Vicki Plaks, Bryan Ronain Smith
The advent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) and its success in treating primary and metastatic cancer may offer substantially improved outcomes for patients. Despite recent advancements, many malignancies remain resistant to CIT, among which are brain metastases, a particularly virulent disease with no apparent cure. The immunologically unique niche of the brain has prompted compelling new questions in immuno-oncology such as the effects of tissue-specific differences in immune response, heterogeneity between primary tumors and distant metastases, and the role of spatiotemporal dynamics in shaping an effective anti-tumor immune response...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142321/design-of-cultured-neuron-networks-in-vitro-with-predefined-connectivity-using-asymmetric-microfluidic-channels
#7
Arseniy Gladkov, Yana Pigareva, Daria Kutyina, Vladimir Kolpakov, Anton Bukatin, Irina Mukhina, Victor Kazantsev, Alexey Pimashkin
The architecture of neuron connectivity in brain networks is one of the basic mechanisms by which to organize and sustain a particular function of the brain circuitry. There are areas of the brain composed of well-organized layers of neurons connected by unidirectional synaptic connections (e.g., cortex, hippocampus). Re-engineering of the neural circuits with such a heterogeneous network structure in culture may uncover basic mechanisms of emergent information functions of these circuits. In this study, we present such a model designed with two subpopulations of primary hippocampal neurons (E18) with directed connectivity grown in a microfluidic device with asymmetric channels...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138109/mesopontine-neurons-implicated-in-anesthetic-loss-of-consciousness-have-either-ascending-or-descending-axonal-projections-but-not-both
#8
Adi Miriam Goldenberg, Anne Minert, Yelena Fishman, Gilly Wolf, Marshall Devor
The MPTA (mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area) is a key node in a network of axonal pathways that collectively engage the key components of general anesthesia: immobility and atonia, analgesia, amnesia and loss-of-consciousness. In this study we have applied double retrograde tracing to analyze MPTA connectivity, with a focus on axon collateralization. Prior tracer studies have shown that collectively, MPTA neurons send descending projections to spinal and medullary brain targets associated with atonia and analgesia as well as ascending projections to forebrain structures associated with amnesia and arousal...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136034/a-fast-stochastic-framework-for-automatic-mr-brain-images-segmentation
#9
Marwa Ismail, Ahmed Soliman, Mohammed Ghazal, Andrew E Switala, Georgy Gimel'farb, Gregory N Barnes, Ashraf Khalil, Ayman El-Baz
This paper introduces a new framework for the segmentation of different brain structures (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid) from 3D MR brain images at different life stages. The proposed segmentation framework is based on a shape prior built using a subset of co-aligned training images that is adapted during the segmentation process based on first- and second-order visual appearance characteristics of MR images. These characteristics are described using voxel-wise image intensities and their spatial interaction features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135963/comprehensive-survey-on-improved-focality-and-penetration-depth-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-employing-multi-coil-arrays
#10
Xile Wei, Yao Li, Meili Lu, Jiang Wang, Guosheng Yi
Multi-coil arrays applied in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are proposed to accurately stimulate brain tissues and modulate neural activities by an induced electric field (EF). Composed of numerous independently driven coils, a multi-coil array has alternative energizing strategies to evoke EFs targeting at different cerebral regions. To improve the locating resolution and the stimulating focality, we need to fully understand the variation properties of induced EFs and the quantitative control method of the spatial arrangement of activating coils, both of which unfortunately are still unclear...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134693/microglia-from-offspring-of-dams-with-allergic-asthma-exhibit-epigenomic-alterations-in-genes-dysregulated-in-autism
#11
Annie Vogel Ciernia, Milo Careaga, Janine M LaSalle, Paul Ashwood
Dysregulation in immune responses during pregnancy increases the risk of a having a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among pregnant women, and symptoms often worsen during pregnancy. We recently developed a mouse model of maternal allergic asthma (MAA) that induces changes in sociability, repetitive, and perseverative behaviors in the offspring. Since epigenetic changes help a static genome adapt to the maternal environment, activation of the immune system may epigenetically alter fetal microglia, the brain's resident immune cells...
November 14, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130981/endocranial-casts-of-pre-mammalian-therapsids-reveal-an-unexpected-neurological-diversity-at-the-deep-evolutionary-root-of-mammals
#12
Julien Benoit, Vincent Fernandez, Paul R Manger, Bruce S Rubidge
The origin and evolution of the mammalian brain has long been the focus of scientific enquiry. Conversely, little research has focused on the palaeoneurology of the stem group of Mammaliaformes, the Permian and Triassic non-mammaliaform Therapsida (NMT). This is because the majority of the NMT have a non-ossified braincase, making the study of their endocranial cast (sometimes called the "fossil brain") problematic. Thus, descriptions of the morphology and size of NMT endocranial casts have been based largely on approximations rather than reliable determination...
November 8, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130599/interstitial-microdeletion-of-17q11-2-is-associated-with-hypotonia-fatigue-intellectual-disability-and-a-subtle-facial-phenotype-in-three-unrelated-patients
#13
Deborah Osio, Julia Rankin, Hannele Koillinen, Adele Reynolds, Hilde Van Esch
Over the past decade chromosomal microarray analysis (array CGH) has allowed the discovery of many novel disease-causing recurrent microdeletion and microduplication syndromes. Here we present three unrelated patients (2F; 1M) from three different countries, with developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, fatigue, and highly similar dysmorphic facial features. Shared facial features are a broad and wide forehead, similar shape of the eyes with long palpebral fissures, a bulbous tip of the nose and thick lips...
November 12, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128836/characterization-of-liposome-containing-spions-conjugated-with-anti-cd20-developed-as-a-novel-theranostic-agent-for-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#14
S Saesoo, S Sathornsumetee, P Anekwiang, C Treetidnipa, P Thuwajit, S Bunthot, W Maneeprakorn, L Maurizi, H Hofmann, Ruktanonchai Uracha Rungsardthong, N Saengkrit
Despite advances in neuroscience cancer research during the past decades, the survival of cancer patients has only marginally improved and the cure remains unlikely. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle protecting the entry of therapeutic agents to central nervous system, especially for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Thus, the use of small nanoparticle as a drug carrier may be new strategies to overcome this problem. In this study, we fabricated liposome consisting of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) functionalized with anti-CD20 (Rituximab; RTX)...
November 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128628/optogenetic-noise-photostimulation-on-the-brain-increases-somatosensory-spike-firing-responses
#15
Nayeli Huidobro, Braniff De la Torre-Valdovinos, Abraham Mendez, Mario Treviño, Oscar Arias-Carrion, Fermin Chavez, Ranier Gutierrez, Elias Manjarrez
We examined whether the optogenetic noise-photostimulation (ONP) of the barrel cortex (BC) of anesthetized Thy1-ChR2-YFP transgenic mice increases the neuronal multiunit-activity response evoked by whisker mechanical stimulation (whisker-evoked MUA). In all transgenic mice, we found that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of such whisker-evoked MUA signals exhibited an inverted U-like shape as a function of the ONP level. Numerical simulations of a ChR2-expressing neuron model qualitatively support our experimental data...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128127/a-crossbow-suicide
#16
Laura Panata, Massimo Lancia, Alessandra Persichini, Sergio Scalise Pantuso, Mauro Bacci
The crossbow is an ancient ranged weapon originally conceived for war and hunting. Although nowadays its use in warfare has been surpassed by firearms, it continues to be used in hunting, sports and recreation. The authors present the case of a 40-year-old man who suffered from severe depression. When his condition further deteriorated, doctors ordered a forced hospitalization but, just a few hours before the measure became effective, the man committed suicide using a crossbow. The autopsy and police investigation showed possession of the crossbow darts which the man used to shoot himself in the head...
October 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126252/monoamines-in-glioblastoma-complex-biology-with-therapeutic-potential
#17
Seamus Patrick Caragher, Robert Raymond Hall, Riasat Ahsan, Atique U Ahmed
Glioblastoma (GBM) is characterized by extremely poor prognoses, despite the use of gross surgical resection, alkylating chemotherapeutic agents, and radiotherapy. Evidence increasingly highlights the role of the tumor microenvironment in enabling this aggressive phenotype. Despite this interest, the role of neurotransmitters, brain-specific messengers underlying synaptic transmission, remains murky. These signaling molecules influence a complex network of molecular pathways and cellular behaviors in many CNS-resident cells including neural stem cells and progenitor cells, neurons, and glia cells...
November 4, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124791/impact-of-different-intensities-of-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-on-the-cortical-properties-during-tms-eeg-and-working-memory-performance
#18
Sung Wook Chung, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Caley M Sullivan, Robin F H Cash, Paul B Fitzgerald
Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of increasing cortical excitability beyond the stimulation period. Due to the rapid induction of modulatory effects, prefrontal application of iTBS is gaining popularity as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders such as depression. In an attempt to increase efficacy, higher than conventional intensities are currently being applied. The assumption that this increases neuromodulatory may be mechanistically false for iTBS...
November 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124054/a-method-for-the-analysis-of-ap-foot-convexity-insights-into-smooth-muscle-biophysics
#19
Shailesh Appukuttan, Mithun Padmakumar, Keith L Brain, Rohit Manchanda
Action potential (AP) profiles vary based on the cell type, with cells of the same type typically producing APs with similar shapes. But in certain syncytial tissues, such as the smooth muscle of the urinary bladder wall, even a single cell is known to exhibit APs with diverse profiles. The origin of this diversity is not currently understood, but is often attributed to factors such as syncytial interactions and the spatial distribution of parasympathetic nerve terminals. Thus, the profile of an action potential is determined by the inherent properties of the cell and influenced by its biophysical environment...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123465/autoimmunity-as-a-driving-force-of-cognitive-evolution
#20
Serge Nataf
In the last decades, increasingly robust experimental approaches have formally demonstrated that autoimmunity is a physiological process involved in a large range of functions including cognition. On this basis, the recently enunciated "brain superautoantigens" theory proposes that autoimmunity has been a driving force of cognitive evolution. It is notably suggested that the immune and nervous systems have somehow co-evolved and exerted a mutual selection pressure benefiting to both systems. In this two-way process, the evolutionary-determined emergence of neurons expressing specific immunogenic antigens (brain superautoantigens) has exerted a selection pressure on immune genes shaping the T-cell repertoire...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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