keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Brain shape

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351691/out-of-field-doses-in-children-treated-for-large-arteriovenous-malformations-using-hypofractionated-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-and-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy
#1
Marijke De Saint-Hubert, Marija Majer, Hrvoje Hršak, Zdravko Heinrich, Željka Kneževic, Saveta Miljanic, Paulina Porwol, Liliana Stolarczyk, Filip Vanhavere, Roger M Harrison
The purpose of this study was to measure out-of-field organ doses in two anthropomorphic child phantoms for the treatment of large brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) using hypofractionated gamma knife (GK) radiosurgery and to compare these with an alternative treatment using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Target volume was identical in size and shape in all cases. Radiophotoluminescent (RPL), thermoluminescent (TL) and optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters were used for out-of-field dosimetry during GK treatment and a good agreement within 1-2% between results was shown...
January 17, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351614/a-membrane-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-is-necessary-but-not-sufficient-for-sex-differences-in-zebra-finch-auditory-coding
#2
Amanda A Krentzel, Matheus Macedo-Lima, Maaya Z Ikeda, Luke Remage-Healey
Estradiol acts as a neuromodulator in brain regions important for cognition and sensory processing. Estradiol also shapes brain sex differences, but rarely have these concepts been considered simultaneously. In male and female songbirds, estradiol rapidly increases within the auditory forebrain during song exposure and enhances local auditory processing. We tested whether GPER1, a membrane bound estrogen receptor, is necessary and sufficient for neuroestrogen regulation of forebrain auditory processing in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
January 17, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351513/neuroimmune-interactions-from-the-brain-to-the-immune-system-and-vice-versa
#3
Robert Dantzer
Because of the compartmentalization of disciplines that shaped the academic landscape of biology and biomedical sciences in the past, physiological systems have long been studied in isolation from each other. This has particularly been the case for the immune system. As a consequence of its ties with pathology and microbiology, immunology as a discipline has largely grown independently of physiology. Accordingly, it has taken a long time for immunologists to accept the concept that the immune system is not self-regulated but functions in close association with the nervous system...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351282/a-four-component-model-of-the-action-potential-in-mouse-detrusor-smooth-muscle-cell
#4
Mithun Padmakumar, Keith L Brain, John S Young, Rohit Manchanda
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: Detrusor smooth muscle cells (DSMCs) of the urinary bladder are electrically connected to one another via gap junctions and form a three dimensional syncytium. DSMCs exhibit spontaneous electrical activity, including passive depolarizations and action potentials. The shapes of spontaneous action potentials (sAPs) observed from a single DSM cell can vary widely. The biophysical origins of this variability, and the precise components which contribute to the complex shapes observed are not known...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349291/spontaneous-infraslow-fluctuations-modulate-hippocampal-epsp-ps-coupling
#5
Michael B Dash, Stephen Ajayi, Lynde Folsom, Paul E Gold, Donna L Korol
Extensive trial-to-trial variability is a hallmark of most behavioral, cognitive, and physiological processes. Spontaneous brain activity (SBA), a ubiquitous phenomenon that coordinates levels and patterns of neuronal activity throughout the brain, may contribute to this variability by dynamically altering neuronal excitability. In freely-behaving male rats, we observed extensive variability of the hippocampal evoked response across 28-min recording periods despite maintaining constant stimulation parameters of the medial perforant path...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348324/plexind1-signaling-controls-morphological-changes-and-migration-termination-in-newborn-neurons
#6
Masato Sawada, Nobuhiko Ohno, Mitsuyasu Kawaguchi, Shih-Hui Huang, Takao Hikita, Youmei Sakurai, Huy Bang Nguyen, Truc Quynh Thai, Yuri Ishido, Yutaka Yoshida, Hidehiko Nakagawa, Akiyoshi Uemura, Kazunobu Sawamoto
Newborn neurons maintain a very simple, bipolar shape, while they migrate from their birthplace toward their destinations in the brain, where they differentiate into mature neurons with complex dendritic morphologies. Here, we report a mechanism by which the termination of neuronal migration is maintained in the postnatal olfactory bulb (OB). During neuronal deceleration in the OB, newborn neurons transiently extend a protrusion from the proximal part of their leading process in the resting phase, which we refer to as a filopodium-like lateral protrusion (FLP)...
January 18, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347046/cortical-geometry-as-a-determinant-of-brain-activity-eigenmodes-neural-field-analysis
#7
Natasha C Gabay, P A Robinson
Perturbation analysis of neural field theory is used to derive eigenmodes of neural activity on a cortical hemisphere, which have previously been calculated numerically and found to be close analogs of spherical harmonics, despite heavy cortical folding. The present perturbation method treats cortical folding as a first-order perturbation from a spherical geometry. The first nine spatial eigenmodes on a population-averaged cortical hemisphere are derived and compared with previous numerical solutions. These eigenmodes contribute most to brain activity patterns such as those seen in electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346099/cell-membrane-tracking-in-living-brain-tissue-using-differential-interference-contrast-microscopy
#8
John Lee, Ilya Kolb, Craig R Forest, Christopher J Rozell
Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is widely used for observing unstained biological samples that are otherwise optically transparent. Combining this optical technique with machine vision could enable the automation of many life science experiments; however, identifying relevant features under DIC is challenging. In particular, precise tracking of cell boundaries in a thick ( ) slice of tissue has not previously been accomplished. We present a novel deconvolution algorithm that achieves the state-of-the-art performance at identifying and tracking these membrane locations...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344979/in-vivo-estimation-of-transverse-relaxation-time-constant-t2-of-17-human-brain-metabolites-at-3t
#9
Patrik O Wyss, Claudio Bianchini, Milan Scheidegger, Ioannis A Giapitzakis, Andreas Hock, Alexander Fuchs, Anke Henning
PURPOSE: The transverse relaxation times T2 of 17 metabolites in vivo at 3T is reported and region specific differences are addressed. METHODS: An echo-time series protocol was applied to one, two, or three volumes of interest with different fraction of white and gray matter including a total number of 106 healthy volunteers and acquiring a total number of 128 spectra. The data were fitted with the 2D fitting tool ProFit2, which included individual line shape modeling for all metabolites and allowed the T2 calculation of 28 moieties of 17 metabolites...
January 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343707/sensory-neuronal-p2rx4-receptors-controls-bdnf-signaling-in-inflammatory-pain
#10
Sarah Lalisse, Jennifer Hua, Manon Lenoir, Nathalie Linck, François Rassendren, Lauriane Ulmann
Chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pains are major public health concerns. Potential therapeutic targets include the ATP-gated purinergic receptors (P2RX) that contribute to these pathological types of pain in several different cell types. The purinergic receptors P2RX2 and P2RX3 are expressed by a specific subset of dorsal root ganglion neurons and directly shape pain processing by primary afferents. In contrast the P2RX4 and P2RX7 are mostly expressed in myeloid cells, where activation of these receptors triggers the release of various pro-inflammatory molecules...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343574/novel-human-polyomavirus-non-coding-control-regions-differ-in-bi-directional-gene-expression-according-to-host-cell-large-t-antigen-expression-and-clinically-occurring-rearrangements
#11
Elvis T Ajuh, Zongsong Wu, Emma Kraus, Fabian H Weissbach, Tobias Bethge, Rainer Gosert, Nicole Fischer, Hans H Hirsch
Human polyomavirus (HPyV) DNA genomes contain three regions denoted early viral gene region (EVGR) encoding the regulatory T-antigens and one microRNA, late viral gene region (LVGR) encoding the structural Vp capsid proteins, and non-coding control region (NCCR). The NCCR harbours the origin of viral genome replication and bi-directional promoter/enhancer functions governing EVGR- and LVGR-expression on opposite DNA strands. Despite principle similarities, HPyV-NCCRs differ in length, sequence, and architecture...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342146/a-theory-of-how-active-behavior-stabilises-neural-activity-neural-gain-modulation-by-closed-loop-environmental-feedback
#12
Christopher L Buckley, Taro Toyoizumi
During active behaviours like running, swimming, whisking or sniffing, motor actions shape sensory input and sensory percepts guide future motor commands. Ongoing cycles of sensory and motor processing constitute a closed-loop feedback system which is central to motor control and, it has been argued, for perceptual processes. This closed-loop feedback is mediated by brainwide neural circuits but how the presence of feedback signals impacts on the dynamics and function of neurons is not well understood. Here we present a simple theory suggesting that closed-loop feedback between the brain/body/environment can modulate neural gain and, consequently, change endogenous neural fluctuations and responses to sensory input...
January 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341900/lamotrigine-loaded-poly-%C3%A9-d-l-lactide-co-caprolactone-nanoparticles-as-brain-delivery-system
#13
Hussein O Ammar, Mahmoud M Ghorab, Azza A Mahmoud, Iman M Higazy
Management of epilepsy requires brain delivery therapy, therefore, this study was aimed to prepare lamotrigine loaded poly-ɛ-(d,l-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) nanoparticles using spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method. Nanoparticles for brain delivery required to have a particle size <200 nm, polydispesity index <0.2 and a sustained drug release properties. For such aim different factors were considered in preparing the nanoparticles as PLCL monomers' ratio, type of organic solvent used to prepare the nanoparticles, amount of PLCL and Pluronic®F127 in the nanoparticles...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340998/on-pacing-trials-while-scanning-brain-hemodynamics-the-case-of-the-snarc-effect
#14
Sabrina Brigadoi, Sara Basso Moro, Roberta Falchi, Simone Cutini, Roberto Dell'Acqua
Experimental designs used to describe psychological effects on overt human behavior are seldom suited to localize their corresponding neural substrates based on the analysis of stimulus-evoked brain hemodynamic responses. This is because stimuli in behavioral studies are usually separated by intertrial intervals (ITIs) in the order of 1 second or so following a behavioral response, which is notoriously too brief a time to detect a corresponding hemodynamic response. In fact, a solution commonly adopted in neuroimaging studies is to prolong the ITI up to several seconds...
January 16, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340286/cancer-imaging-phenomics-toolkit-quantitative-imaging-analytics-for-precision-diagnostics-and-predictive-modeling-of-clinical-outcome
#15
Christos Davatzikos, Saima Rathore, Spyridon Bakas, Sarthak Pati, Mark Bergman, Ratheesh Kalarot, Patmaa Sridharan, Aimilia Gastounioti, Nariman Jahani, Eric Cohen, Hamed Akbari, Birkan Tunc, Jimit Doshi, Drew Parker, Michael Hsieh, Aristeidis Sotiras, Hongming Li, Yangming Ou, Robert K Doot, Michel Bilello, Yong Fan, Russell T Shinohara, Paul Yushkevich, Ragini Verma, Despina Kontos
The growth of multiparametric imaging protocols has paved the way for quantitative imaging phenotypes that predict treatment response and clinical outcome, reflect underlying cancer molecular characteristics and spatiotemporal heterogeneity, and can guide personalized treatment planning. This growth has underlined the need for efficient quantitative analytics to derive high-dimensional imaging signatures of diagnostic and predictive value in this emerging era of integrated precision diagnostics. This paper presents cancer imaging phenomics toolkit (CaPTk), a new and dynamically growing software platform for analysis of radiographic images of cancer, currently focusing on brain, breast, and lung cancer...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335516/an-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-pulse-shape-on-grey-and-white-matter-stimulation-in-the-rat-brain
#16
Marjolijn Deprez, Kelly Luyck, Laura Luyten, Tim Tambuyzer, Bart Nuttin, Myles Mc Laughlin
Despite the current success of neuromodulation, standard biphasic, rectangular pulse shapes may not be optimal to achieve symptom alleviation. Here, we compared stimulation efficiency (in terms of charge) between complex and standard pulses in two areas of the rat brain. In motor cortex, Gaussian and interphase gap stimulation (IPG) increased stimulation efficiency in terms of charge per phase compared with a standard pulse. Moreover, IPG stimulation of the deep mesencephalic reticular formation in freely moving rats was more efficient compared to a standard pulse...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334141/characterization-of-macromolecular-baseline-of-human-brain-using-metabolite-cycled-semi-laser-at-9-4t
#17
Ioannis-Angelos Giapitzakis, Nikolai Avdievich, Anke Henning
PURPOSE: Macromolecular resonances (MM) arise mainly from cytosolic proteins and overlap with metabolites, influencing metabolite quantification. Macromolecules can serve as valuable biomarkers for diseases and pathologies. The objectives of this study were to characterize MM at 9.4T in the human brain (occipital and left parietal lobe) and to describe the RF coil setup used for MM acquisition in the two regions. METHODS: An adiabatic inversion pulse was optimised for metabolite nulling at 9...
January 15, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331615/increased-brain-glucocorticoid-actions-following-social-defeat-in-rats-facilitates-the-long-term-establishment-of-social-subordination
#18
Meltem Weger, Yannick Sevelinges, Jocelyn Grosse, Isabelle Guillot de Suduiraut, Olivia Zanoletti, Carmen Sandi
Social rank is frequently established through aggressive encounters between new conspecifics. Despite increasing evidence suggesting that social rank is critical for the well-being of both humans and animals, knowledge about the factors influencing social rank remain scarce. Stress was previously shown to affect the establishment and maintenance of social hierarchies in rats. Likewise, increasing systemic corticosterone levels post-encounter in the emerging subordinate rat facilitates the long-term establishment of social subordination...
January 10, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325714/aging-related-sumoylation-pattern-in-the-cortex-and-blood-plasma-of-wild-type-mice
#19
E Ficulle, M D Shah Sufian, C Tinelli, M Corbo, M Feligioni
Protein activities and mechanisms related to aging has become a growing interest nowadays. Since SUMOylation is implicated in several cellular processes, its investigation related to senescence, aging and frailty is of high interest. In our study, wild type mice cortical lysates, synaptosomes and plasma have been processed to evaluate SUMOylation and SUMO machinery expression (Ubc9 and SENP1 enzymes) profile at different ages. In cortical lysates, SUMO-1ylation reached a peak at 6 months followed by a decrease; while in synaptosomes, it progressively increased till 18 months...
January 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323935/shape-related-characteristics-of-age-related-differences-in-subcortical-structures
#20
Christopher R Madan
OBJECTIVES: With an increasing aging population, it is important to understand biological markers of aging. Subcortical volume is known to differ with age; additionally considering shape-related characteristics may provide a better index of age-related differences. Fractal dimensionality is more sensitive to age-related differences, but is borne out of mathematical principles, rather than neurobiological relevance. We considered four distinct measures of shape and how they relate to aging and fractal dimensionality: surface-to-volume ratio, sphericity, long-axis curvature, and surface texture...
January 11, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
keyword
keyword
101976
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"