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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945054/intracranial-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#1
Andrew A Fanous, Dheerendra Prasad, David Mathieu, Andrew J Fabiano
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is the use of a single high dose of radiation, stereotactically directed to an intracranial region of interest, in order to create a lesion or obliterate a preexisting one. This technology has evolved over the years into the use of multiple radiation sources oriented at a variety of angles, thus permitting the creation of various treatment target shapes. This allows for non-open surgical treatment of intracranial pathologies, which significantly decreases the risk of morbidity...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943702/efficient-multi-atlas-registration-using-an-intermediate-template-image
#2
Blake E Dewey, Aaron Carass, Ari M Blitz, Jerry L Prince
Multi-atlas label fusion is an accurate but time-consuming method of labeling the human brain. Using an intermediate image as a registration target can allow researchers to reduce time constraints by storing the deformations required of the atlas images. In this paper, we investigate the effect of registration through an intermediate template image on multi-atlas label fusion and propose a novel registration technique to counteract the negative effects of through-template registration. We show that overall computation time can be decreased dramatically with minimal impact on final label accuracy and time can be exchanged for improved results in a predictable manner...
February 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943240/control-of-cell-shape-neurite-outgrowth-and-migration-by-a-nogo-a-hspg-interaction
#3
Anissa Kempf, Enrica Boda, Jessica C F Kwok, Rafael Fritz, Valentina Grande, Andrea M Kaelin, Zorica Ristic, Andre Schmandke, Antonio Schmandke, Bjoern Tews, James W Fawcett, Olivier Pertz, Annalisa Buffo, Martin E Schwab
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) critically modulate adhesion-, growth-, and migration-related processes. Here, we show that the transmembrane protein, Nogo-A, inhibits neurite outgrowth and cell spreading in neurons and Nogo-A-responsive cell lines via HSPGs. The extracellular, active 180 amino acid Nogo-A region, named Nogo-A-Δ20, binds to heparin and brain-derived heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) but not to the closely related chondroitin sulfate GAGs. HSPGs are required for Nogo-A-Δ20-induced inhibition of adhesion, cell spreading, and neurite outgrowth, as well as for RhoA activation...
September 18, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942965/biallelic-c1qbp-mutations-cause-severe-neonatal-childhood-or-later-onset-cardiomyopathy-associated-with-combined-respiratory-chain-deficiencies
#4
René G Feichtinger, Monika Oláhová, Yoshihito Kishita, Caterina Garone, Laura S Kremer, Mikako Yagi, Takeshi Uchiumi, Alexis A Jourdain, Kyle Thompson, Aaron R D'Souza, Robert Kopajtich, Charlotte L Alston, Johannes Koch, Wolfgang Sperl, Elisa Mastantuono, Tim M Strom, Saskia B Wortmann, Thomas Meitinger, Germaine Pierre, Patrick F Chinnery, Zofia M Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Robert N Lightowlers, Salvatore DiMauro, Sarah E Calvo, Vamsi K Mootha, Maurizio Moggio, Monica Sciacco, Giacomo P Comi, Dario Ronchi, Kei Murayama, Akira Ohtake, Pedro Rebelo-Guiomar, Masakazu Kohda, Dongchon Kang, Johannes A Mayr, Robert W Taylor, Yasushi Okazaki, Michal Minczuk, Holger Prokisch
Complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein (C1QBP; also known as p32) is a multi-compartmental protein whose precise function remains unknown. It is an evolutionary conserved multifunctional protein localized primarily in the mitochondrial matrix and has roles in inflammation and infection processes, mitochondrial ribosome biogenesis, and regulation of apoptosis and nuclear transcription. It has an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting peptide that is proteolytically processed after import into the mitochondrial matrix, where it forms a homotrimeric complex organized in a doughnut-shaped structure...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942896/visuo-spatial-orienting-during-active-exploratory-behavior-processing-of-task-related-and-stimulus-related-signals
#5
Emiliano Macaluso, Akitoshi Ogawa
Functional imaging studies have associated dorsal and ventral fronto-parietal regions with the control of visuo-spatial attention. Previous studies demonstrated that the activity of both the dorsal and the ventral attention systems can be modulated by many different factors, related both to the stimuli and the task. However, the vast majority of this work utilized stereotyped paradigms with simple and repeated stimuli. This is at odd with any real life situation that instead involve complex combinations of different types of co-occurring signals, thus raising the question of the ecological significance of the previous findings...
September 5, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940049/the-gut-microbiota-and-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-recent-findings
#6
REVIEW
Helen Tremlett, Emmanuelle Waubant
Pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, life-long neurological condition associated with inflammation and degeneration in the brain and spinal cord. Fortunately, < 5% of people with MS have their onset in childhood years. However, studying these very-early-onset cases of MS offers key advantages. In particular, with fewer years lived, children have had a limited range of exposures, potentially enhancing our ability to identify what might cause MS. Further, as the actual timing of the biological MS onset is unknown, the possibility to study these children much closer to the real onset of disease is far greater than in the typical adult with MS...
September 22, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938181/cortical-inhibitory-interneurons-control-sensory-processing
#7
REVIEW
Katherine C Wood, Jennifer M Blackwell, Maria Neimark Geffen
Inhibitory and excitatory neurons form intricate interconnected circuits in the mammalian sensory cortex. Whereas the function of excitatory neurons is largely to integrate and transmit information within and between brain areas, inhibitory neurons are thought to shape the way excitatory neurons integrate information, and they exhibit context-specific and behavior-specific responses. Over the last few years, work across sensory modalities has begun unraveling the function of distinct types of cortical inhibitory neurons in sensory processing, identifying their contribution to controlling stimulus selectivity of excitatory neurons and modulating information processing based on the behavioral state of the subject...
September 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937014/sex-bias-in-basic-and-preclinical-noise-induced-hearing-loss-research
#8
Amanda Marie Lauer, Katrina Marie Schrode
INTRODUCTION: Sex differences in brain biochemistry, physiology, structure, and function have been gaining increasing attention in the scientific community. Males and females can have different responses to medications, diseases, and environmental variables. A small number of the approximately 7500 studies of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) have identified sex differences, but the mechanisms and characterization of these differences have not been thoroughly studied. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) issued a mandate in 2015 to include sex as a biological variable in all NIH-funded research beginning in January 2016...
September 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936158/bayesian-tractography-using-geometric-shape-priors
#9
Xiaoming Dong, Zhengwu Zhang, Anuj Srivastava
The problem of estimating neuronal fiber tracts connecting different brain regions is important for various types of brain studies, including understanding brain functionality and diagnosing cognitive impairments. The popular techniques for tractography are mostly sequential-tracts are grown sequentially following principal directions of local water diffusion profiles. Despite several advancements on this basic idea, the solutions easily get stuck in local solutions, and can't incorporate global shape information...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935625/topographic-diagnosis-of-craniopharyngiomas-the-accuracy-of-mri-findings-observed-on-conventional-t1-and-t2-images
#10
R Prieto, J M Pascual, L Barrios
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The topography of craniopharyngiomas has proved fundamental in predicting the involvement of vital brain structures and the possibility of achieving a safe radical resection. Beyond the imprecise term "suprasellar," indiscriminately used for craniopharyngiomas, an accurate definition of craniopharyngioma topography should be assessed by preoperative MR imaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the MRI findings that help define craniopharyngioma topography...
September 21, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933255/organizational-hierarchy-and-structural-diversity-of-microvascular-pericytes-in-adult-mouse-cortex
#11
Roger I Grant, David A Hartmann, Robert G Underly, Andrée-Anne Berthiaume, Narayan R Bhat, Andy Y Shih
Smooth muscle cells and pericytes, together called mural cells, coordinate many distinct vascular functions. Canonically, smooth muscle cells are ring-shaped and cover arterioles with circumferential processes, whereas pericytes extend thin processes that run longitudinally along capillaries. In between these canonical mural cell types are cells with features of both smooth muscle cells and pericytes. Recent studies suggest that these transitional cells are critical for controlling blood flow to the capillary bed during health and disease, but there remains confusion on how to identify them and where they are located in the brain microvasculature...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930691/dna-methylome-analysis-identifies-transcription-factor-based-epigenomic-signatures-of-multilineage-competence-in-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#12
Tsukasa Sanosaka, Takuya Imamura, Nobuhiko Hamazaki, MuhChyi Chai, Katsuhide Igarashi, Maky Ideta-Otsuka, Fumihito Miura, Takashi Ito, Nobuyuki Fujii, Kazuho Ikeo, Kinichi Nakashima
Regulation of the epigenome during in vivo specification of brain stem cells is still poorly understood. Here, we report DNA methylome analyses of directly sampled cortical neural stem and progenitor cells (NS/PCs) at different development stages, as well as those of terminally differentiated cortical neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We found that sequential specification of cortical NS/PCs is regulated by two successive waves of demethylation at early and late development stages, which are responsible for the establishment of neuron- and glia-specific low-methylated regions (LMRs), respectively...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930562/alzheimer-s-disease-diagnostics-by-a-3d-deeply-supervised-adaptable-convolutional-network
#13
Ehsan Hosseini-Asl, Mohammed Ghazal, Ali Mahmoud, Ali Aslantas, Ahmed M Shalaby, Manual F Casanova, Gregory N Barnes, Georgy Gimel'farb, Robert Keynton, Ayman El-Baz
Early diagnosis is playing an important role in preventing progress of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). This paper proposes to improve the prediction of AD with a deep 3D Convolutional Neural Network (3D-CNN), which can show generic features capturing AD biomarkers extracted from brain images, adapt to different domain datasets, and accurately classify subjects with improved fine-tuning method. The 3D-CNN is built upon a convolutional autoencoder, which is pre-trained to capture anatomical shape variations in structural brain MRI scans for source domain...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928740/microbiome-derived-lipopolysaccharide-enriched-in-the-perinuclear-region-of-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#14
Yuhai Zhao, Lin Cong, Vivian Jaber, Walter J Lukiw
Abundant clinical, epidemiological, imaging, genetic, molecular, and pathophysiological data together indicate that there occur an unusual inflammatory reaction and a disruption of the innate-immune signaling system in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Despite many years of intense study, the origin and molecular mechanics of these AD-relevant pathogenic signals are still not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that an intensely pro-inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), part of a complex mixture of pro-inflammatory neurotoxins arising from abundant Gram-negative bacilli of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, are abundant in AD-affected brain neocortex and hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928692/contour-integration-in-dynamic-scenes-impaired-detection-performance-in-extended-presentations
#15
Axel Grzymisch, Cathleen Grimsen, Udo A Ernst
Since scenes in nature are highly dynamic, perception requires an on-going and robust integration of local information into global representations. In vision, contour integration (CI) is one of these tasks, and it is performed by our brain in a seemingly effortless manner. Following the rule of good continuation, oriented line segments are linked into contour percepts, thus supporting important visual computations such as the detection of object boundaries. This process has been studied almost exclusively using static stimuli, raising the question of whether the observed robustness and "pop-out" quality of CI carries over to dynamic scenes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928641/comparison-of-navigation-related-brain-regions-in-migratory-versus-non-migratory-noctuid-moths
#16
Liv de Vries, Keram Pfeiffer, Björn Trebels, Andrea K Adden, Ken Green, Eric Warrant, Stanley Heinze
Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species-thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927641/gentle-touch-perception-from-early-childhood-to-adolescence
#17
Ilona Croy, Isac Sehlstedt, Helena Backlund Wasling, Rochelle Ackerley, Håkan Olausson
Affective touch plays an important role in children's social interaction and is involved in shaping the development of the social brain. The positive affective component of touch is thought to be conveyed via a group of unmyelinated, low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents, known as C-tactile fibers that are optimally activated by gentle, slow, stroking touch. Touch targeting these C-tactile fibers has been shown to decrease the heart rate in infants. The current study investigated the relationship between age and psychophysical ratings in response to affective touch...
August 18, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925354/dynamic-representation-of-partially-occluded-objects-in-primate-prefrontal-and-visual-cortex
#18
Amber M Fyall, Yasmine El-Shamayleh, Hannah Choi, Eric Shea-Brown, Anitha Pasupathy
Successful recognition of partially occluded objects is presumed to involve dynamic interactions between brain areas responsible for vision and cognition, but neurophysiological evidence for the involvement of feedback signals is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that neurons in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) of monkeys performing a shape discrimination task respond more strongly to occluded than unoccluded stimuli. In contrast, neurons in visual area V4 respond more strongly to unoccluded stimuli...
September 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924006/the-neural-basis-of-aversive-pavlovian-guidance-during-planning
#19
Níall Lally, Quentin J M Huys, Neir Eshel, Paul Faulkner, Peter Dayan, Jonathan P Roiser
Important real-world decisions are often arduous as they frequently involve sequences of choices, with initial selections affecting future options. Evaluating every possible combination of choices is computationally intractable, particularly for longer multi-step decisions. Therefore, humans frequently employ heuristics to reduce the complexity of decisions. We recently used a goal-directed planning task to demonstrate the profound behavioral influence and ubiquity of one such shortcut, namely aversive pruning, a reflexive Pavlovian process that involves neglecting parts of the decision space residing beyond salient negative outcomes...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923360/when-theory-and-biology-differ-the-relationship-between-reward-prediction-errors-and-expectancy
#20
Chad C Williams, Cameron D Hassall, Robert Trska, Clay B Holroyd, Olave E Krigolson
Comparisons between expectations and outcomes are critical for learning. Termed prediction errors, the violations of expectancy that occur when outcomes differ from expectations are used to modify value and shape behaviour. In the present study, we examined how a wide range of expectancy violations impacted neural signals associated with feedback processing. Participants performed a time estimation task in which they had to guess the duration of one second while their electroencephalogram was recorded. In a key manipulation, we varied task difficulty across the experiment to create a range of different feedback expectancies - reward feedback was either very expected, expected, 50/50, unexpected, or very unexpected...
September 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
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