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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791872/gene-expression-in-cord-blood-links-genetic-risk-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders-with-maternal-psychological-distress-and-adverse-childhood-outcomes
#1
Michael S Breen, Aliza P Wingo, Nastassja Koen, Kirsten A Donald, Mark Nicol, Heather J Zar, Kerry J Ressler, Joseph D Buxbaum, Dan J Stein
Prenatal exposure to maternal stress and depression has been identified as a risk factor for adverse behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. However, the molecular mechanisms through which maternal psychopathology shapes offspring development remain poorly understood. We applied transcriptome-wide screens to 149 umbilical cord blood samples from neonates born to mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n=20), depression (n=31) and PTSD with comorbid depression (n=13), compared to carefully matched trauma exposed controls (n=23) and healthy mothers (n=62)...
May 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790805/climbing-the-ladder-from-neuron-to-brain-in-harold-atwood-s-laboratory
#2
J Martin Wojtowicz
Twenty years spent in one laboratory is sufficient to build a legacy of publications and a body of work to make an impact. However, the impact of our work was highest at the personal level, and time spent in Harold Atwood's laboratory was not a culmination of my career but rather a crucial path toward learning and maturing as a researcher. During that time, I experienced discoveries and lessons that shaped the next steps of my career. This article is written in gratitude for wonderful experiences and describes a few highlights that were especially memorable and influential...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790025/ampar-mediated-interictal-discharges-in-neurons-of-entorhinal-cortex-experiment-and-model
#3
A V Chizhov, D V Amakhin, A V Zaizev, L G Magazanik
The mechanisms of interictal discharges (IID) were studied under the conditions of the 4-aminopyridine model of spontaneous epileptiform activity in surviving rat brain slice preparations. Addition of the agents blocking GABA and NMDA receptors failed to inhibit IID generation in the entorhinal cortex. A mathematical model of IID has been developed on the basis of the excitatory neuron interaction mediated by the AMPA receptor. Short-term synaptic depression and slow afterspike-hyperpolarization are the key factors required to terminate a single IID...
March 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789523/focal-brain-lesions-induced-with-ultraviolet-irradiation
#4
Mariko Nakata, Kazuaki Nagasaka, Masayuki Shimoda, Ichiro Takashima, Shinya Yamamoto
Lesion and inactivation methods have played important roles in neuroscience studies. However, traditional techniques for creating a brain lesion are highly invasive, and control of lesion size and shape using these techniques is not easy. Here, we developed a novel method for creating a lesion on the cortical surface via 365 nm ultraviolet (UV) irradiation without breaking the dura mater. We demonstrated that 2.0 mWh UV irradiation, but not the same amount of non-UV light irradiation, induced an inverted bell-shaped lesion with neuronal loss and accumulation of glial cells...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789379/correlated-gene-expression-and-anatomical-communication-support-synchronized-brain-activity-in-the-mouse-functional-connectome
#5
Brian D Mills, David S Grayson, Anandakumar Shunmugavel, Oscar Miranda-Dominguez, Eric Feczko, Eric Earl, Kim Neve, Damien A Fair
Cognition and behavior depend on synchronized intrinsic brain activity that is organized into functional networks across the brain. Research has investigated how anatomical connectivity both shapes and is shaped by these networks, but not how anatomical connectivity interacts with intra-areal molecular properties to drive functional connectivity. Here, we present a novel linear model to explain functional connectivity by integrating systematically obtained measurements of axonal connectivity, gene expression, and resting state functional connectivity MRI in the mouse brain...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789127/maternal-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-dietary-supply-modulates-microglia-lipid-content-in-the-offspring
#6
Charlotte Rey, Agnès Nadjar, Florent Joffre, Camille Amadieu, Agnès Aubert, Carole Vaysse, Véronique Pallet, Sophie Layé, Corinne Joffre
The brain is highly enriched in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) that are esterified into phospholipids, the major components of cell membranes. They accumulate during the perinatal period when the brain is rapidly developing. Hence, the levels of LC-PUFAs in the brains of the offspring greatly depend on maternal dietary intake. Perinatal n-3 PUFA consumption has been suggested to modulate the activity of microglial cells, the brain's innate immune cells which contribute to the shaping of neuronal network during development...
June 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786167/neuroplasticity-in-stroke-recovery-the-role-of-microglia-in-engaging-and-modifying-synapses-and-networks
#7
REVIEW
Ioanna Sandvig, Ingrid Lovise Augestad, Asta Kristine Håberg, Axel Sandvig
Neuroplasticity after ischemic injury involves both spontaneous rewiring of neural networks and circuits as well as functional responses in neurogenic niches. These events involve complex interactions with activated microglia, which evolve in a dynamic manner over time. Although the exact mechanisms underlying these interactions remain poorly understood, increasing experimental evidence suggests a determining role of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial activation profiles in shaping both synaptogenesis and neurogenesis...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785155/the-volume-of-the-cerebellum-in-the-second-semester-of-gestation
#8
Damiana Vulturar, Alexandru Fărcăşanu, Flaviu Turcu, Dan Boitor, Carmen Crivii
Background and aims: The cerebellum ("little brain"), the largest part of hind brain, lies in the posterior cranial fossa, beneath the occipital lobe and dorsal to the brainstem. It develops over a long period: it is one of the first structures in the brain to begin to differentiate, but one of the last to mature. The use of ultrasonography has significantly improved the evaluation of fetal growth and development and has permitted prenatal diagnosis of a variety of congenital malformations...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781581/brain-correlates-of-continuous-pain-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-as-measured-by-pulsed-arterial-spin-labeling
#9
Yvonne C Lee, Alexander Fine, Ekaterina Protsenko, Elena Massarotti, Robert R Edwards, Ishtiaq Mawla, Vitaly Napadow, Marco L Loggia
OBJECTIVE: Central nervous system pathways involving pain modulation shape the pain experience in patients with chronic pain. Our objectives were to understand the mechanisms underlying pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and identify brain signals that may serve as imaging markers for developing targeted treatments for RA pain. METHODS: Subjects with RA and matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, using pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL)...
May 21, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780197/trafic-fiber-tract-classification-using-deep-learning
#10
Prince D Ngattai Lam, Gaetan Belhomme, Jessica Ferrall, Billie Patterson, Martin Styner, Juan C Prieto
We present TRAFIC, a fully automated tool for the labeling and classification of brain fiber tracts. TRAFIC classifies new fibers using a neural network trained using shape features computed from previously traced and manually corrected fiber tracts. It is independent from a DTI Atlas as it is applied to already traced fibers. This work is motivated by medical applications where the process of extracting fibers from a DTI atlas, or classifying fibers manually is time consuming and requires knowledge about brain anatomy...
February 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779740/the-influence-of-sensorimotor-experience-on-the-aesthetic-evaluation-of-dance-across-the-life-span
#11
Louise P Kirsch, Emily S Cross
Understanding how action perception, embodiment, and emotion interact is essential for advancing knowledge about how we perceive and interact with each other in a social world. One tool that has proved particularly useful in the past decade for exploring the relationship between perception, action, and affect is dance. Dance is, in its essence, a rich and multisensory art form that can be used to help answer not only basic questions about social cognition but also questions concerning how aging shapes the relationship between action perception, and the role played by affect, emotion, and aesthetics in social perception...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779737/neurodevelopmental-perspectives-on-dance-learning-insights-from-early-adolescence-and-young-adulthood
#12
Dilini K Sumanapala, Jon Walbrin, Louise P Kirsch, Emily S Cross
Studies investigating human motor learning and movement perception have shown that similar sensorimotor brain regions are engaged when we observe or perform action sequences. However, the way these networks enable translation of complex observed actions into motor commands-such as in the context of dance-remains poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that the ability to encode specific visuospatial and kinematic movement properties encountered via different routes of sensorimotor experience may be an integral component of action learning throughout development...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778854/proposed-stages-of-myocardial-phenotype-development-in-fabry-disease
#13
Sabrina Nordin, Rebecca Kozor, Katia Medina-Menacho, Amna Abdel-Gadir, Shanat Baig, Daniel M Sado, Ilaria Lobascio, Elaine Murphy, Robin H Lachmann, Atul Mehta, Nicola C Edwards, Uma Ramaswami, Richard P Steeds, Derralynn Hughes, James C Moon
OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to explore the Fabry myocardium in relation to storage, age, sex, structure, function, electrocardiogram changes, blood biomarkers, and inflammation/fibrosis. BACKGROUND: Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, x-linked lysosomal storage disorder. Mortality is mainly cardiovascular with men exhibiting cardiac symptoms earlier than women. By cardiovascular magnetic resonance, native T1 is low in FD because of sphingolipid accumulation. METHODS: A prospective, observational study of 182 FD (167 adults, 15 children; mean age 42 ± 17 years, 37% male) who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance including native T1, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and extracellular volume fraction, 12-lead electrocardiogram, and blood biomarkers (troponin and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide)...
May 11, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778625/the-mediating-role-of-phosphodiesterase-type-4-in-the-dopaminergic-modulation-of-motor-impulsivity
#14
P R A Heckman, A Blokland, N P Van Goethem, B T J Van Hagen, J Prickaerts
The current study investigated the mediating role of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) regulated cAMP in the dopaminergic modulation of premature responding (action restraint) in rats. Response inhibition, which includes action restraint, finds its neurobiological origin in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry and can be modulated by dopamine. Intracellularly, the effect of dopamine is largely mediated through the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade. Areas in the prefrontal cortex are very sensitive to their neurochemical environment, including catecholamine levels...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777401/bantam-regulates-the-axonal-geometry-of-drosophila-larval-brain-by-modulating-actin-regulator-enabled
#15
Animesh Banerjee, Jagat Kumar Roy
During development, axonogenesis, an integral part of neurogenesis, is based on well-concerted events comprising generation, rearrangement, migration, elongation, and adhesion of neurons. Actin, specifically the crosstalk between the guardians of actin polymerization, like enabled, chickadee, capping protein plays an essential role in crafting several events of axonogenesis. Recent evidences reflect multifaceted role of microRNA during axonogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of bantam miRNA, a well-established miRNA in Drosophila, in regulating the actin organization during brain development...
May 18, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775717/temozolomide-loaded-nano-lipid-based-chitosan-hydrogel-for-nose-to-brain-delivery-characterization-nasal-absorption-histopathology-and-cell-line-study
#16
Anam Khan, Mohd Aqil, Syed Sarim Imam, Abdul Ahad, Yasmin Sultana, Asgar Ali, Khalid Khan
The present study was designed to develop and optimize Temozolomide nano lipid chitosan gel delivery (TMZNLCHG) to target the brain through nasal route. The formulation was developed using chitosan as a gelling agent and Vit E: gelucire 44/14 blend as lipid. The formulations were evaluated for particle size, drug loading, morphology, drug release, nasal diffusion, cell line study, and histopathology study. The average particle size, PDI, %EE, loading, drug release, and % permeation were found to be 134 nm, 0...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774342/the-distinct-structural-preferences-of-tau-protein-repeat-domains
#17
Xuhua Li, Xuewei Dong, Guanghong Wei, Martin Margittai, Ruth Nussinov, Buyong Ma
The tau fibrillar structures from the brain of an Alzheimer's patient have a core with a C-shaped motif of the third and fourth repeat domains (R3-R4). Our simulations indicated that the C-shaped motif is only stable for R3-R4, while R1-R2 tends to be linear in shape. These two structural motifs appear in the most stable K18 protofilament. Heparin can further stabilize the C-shaped R3-R4 motif, but not other repeats.
May 18, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774263/a-cross-cultural-analysis-of-posthumous-reproduction-the-significance-of-the-gender-and-margins-of-life-perspectives
#18
Yael Hashiloni-Dolev, Silke Schicktanz
The scholarly discussion of posthumous reproduction (PHR) focuses on informed consent and the welfare of the future child, for the most part overlooking cultural differences between societies. Based on a cross-cultural comparison of legal and regulatory documents, analysis of pivotal cases and study of scholarly and media discussions in Israel and Germany, this paper analyses the relevant ethical and policy issues, and questions how cultural differences shape the practice of PHR. The findings challenge the common classifications of PHR by highlighting the gender perspective and adding brain-dead pregnant women to the debate...
June 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773817/electrical-synapses-between-inhibitory-neurons-shape-the-responses-of-principal-neurons-to-transient-inputs-in-the-thalamus-a-modeling-study
#19
Tuan Pham, Julie S Haas
As multimodal sensory information proceeds to the cortex, it is intercepted and processed by the nuclei of the thalamus. The main source of inhibition within thalamus is the reticular nucleus (TRN), which collects signals both from thalamocortical relay neurons and from thalamocortical feedback. Within the reticular nucleus, neurons are densely interconnected by connexin36-based gap junctions, known as electrical synapses. Electrical synapses have been shown to coordinate neuronal rhythms, including thalamocortical spindle rhythms, but their role in shaping or modulating transient activity is less understood...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773223/corrigendum-to-non-muscle-myosin-iia-and-iib-differentially-regulate-cell-shape-changes-during-zebrafish-brain-morphogenesis-dev-biol-397-2015-103-115
#20
Jennifer H Gutzman, Srishti U Sahu, Constance Kwas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Developmental Biology
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