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Hippocampus morphometry

Takuya Kobayashi, Masafumi Kubota, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ayaka Nakasato, Taro Nomura, Junichi Furuya, Hisatomo Kondo
PURPOSE: One of the most prominent issues in a super-aging society is the rapid increase in dementia patients. Cross-sectional studies in dentistry have indicated that patients with dementia have worse oral health compared to healthy people. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of tooth loss on brain structure by comparing the volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) between edentulous and dentulous subjects. METHODS: Subjects were recruited from the Denture Clinic at Iwate Medical University Hospital Dental Center...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
Salvatore Aguilar-Ortiz, Pilar Salgado-Pineda, Josep Marco-Pallarés, Juan C Pascual, Daniel Vega, Joaquim Soler, Cristina Brunel, Ana Martin-Blanco, Angel Soto, Joan Ribas, Teresa Maristany, Salvador Sarró, Raymond Salvador, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Peter J McKenna
BACKGROUND: Structural imaging studies of borderline personality disorder (BPD) have found regions of reduced cortical volume, but these have varied considerably across studies. Reduced hippocampus and amygdala volume have also been a regular finding in studies using conventional volumetric measurement. How far comorbid major depression, which is common in BPD and can also affect in brain structure, influences the findings is not clear. METHODS: Seventy-six women with BPD and 76 matched controls were examined using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
2018: PloS One
Lisa Frank, Matthias Lüpke, Draginja Kostic, Wolfgang Löscher, Andrea Tipold
BACKGROUND: One of the most common chronic neurological disorders in dogs is idiopathic epilepsy (IE) diagnosed as epilepsy without structural changes in the brain. In the current study the hypothesis should be proven that subtle grey matter changes occur in epileptic dogs. Therefore, magnetic resonance (MR) images of one dog breed (Beagles) were used to obtain an approximately uniform brain shape. Local differences in grey matter volume (GMV) were compared between 5 healthy Beagles and 10 Beagles with spontaneously recurrent seizures (5 dogs with IE and 5 dogs with structural epilepsy (SE)), using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
February 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
J Komatsu, I Matsunari, M Samuraki, K Shima, M Noguchi-Shinohara, K Sakai, T Hamaguchi, K Ono, H Matsuda, M Yamada
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) has been introduced as an alternative to conventional voxel-based morphometry, there are scant data available regarding the optimal image-processing settings. The aim of this study was to optimize image-processing and ROI settings for the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease using DARTEL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between May 2002 and August 2014, we selected 158 patients with Alzheimer disease and 198 age-matched healthy subjects; 158 healthy subjects served as the control group against the patients with Alzheimer disease, and the remaining 40 served as the healthy data base...
February 1, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Austin T Mudd, Joanne E Fil, Laura C Knight, Fan Lam, Zhi-Pei Liang, Ryan N Dilger
Early-life iron deficiency has lifelong influences on brain structure and cognitive function, however characterization of these changes often requires invasive techniques. There is a need for non-invasive assessment of early-life iron deficiency with potential to translate findings to the human clinical setting. In this study, 28 male pigs were provided either a control diet (CONT; n = 14; 23.5 mg Fe/L milk replacer) or an iron-deficient diet (ID; n = 14; 1.56 mg Fe/L milk replacer) for phase 1 of the study, from postnatal day (PND) 2 until 32...
January 27, 2018: Nutrients
Mário Ribeiro, João Castelhano, Lorena I Petrella, José Sereno, Tiago Rodrigues, Christian Neves, Liliana Letra, Filipa I Baptista, Raquel Seiça, Paulo Matafome, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder with a broad range of complications in the brain that depend on the conditions that precede its onset, such as obesity and metabolic syndromes. It has been suggested that neurotransmitter and metabolic perturbations may emerge even before the early stages of T2DM and that high-caloric intake could adversely influence the brain in such states. Notwithstanding, evidence for neurochemical and structural alterations in these conditions are still sparse and controversial...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Ana Paula Arantes Bueno, Walter Hugo L Pinaya, Luciana M Moura, Maxime Bertoux, Ratko Radakovic, Matthew C Kiernan, Antonio Lucio Teixeira, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Michael Hornberger, João Ricardo Sato
Cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is heterogeneous but now recognized as a feature in non-demented patients and no longer exclusively attributed to executive dysfunction. However, despite common reports of temporal lobe changes and memory deficits in ALS, episodic memory has been less explored. In the current study, we examined how the Papez circuit-a circuit known to participate in memory processes-is structurally and functionally affected in ALS patients (n = 20) compared with healthy controls (n = 15), and whether these changes correlated with a commonly used clinical measure of episodic memory...
January 27, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Peng Liu, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Ru Li, Yanfei Liu, Geliang Wang, Yichen Wei, Yong Pang, Demao Deng, Wei Qin
BACKGROUND: Functional brain abnormalities have been noted in premenstrual syndrome (PMS). However, the brain structural alterations related to PMS remain unclear. This study aimed to identify possible abnormalities in gray matter (GM) volumes and structural covariance patterns among PMS patients. METHODS: Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from 20 PMS patients and 20 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was applied to examine GM volumes changes between the two groups...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Gianluca Coppola, Barbara Petolicchio, Antonio Di Renzo, Emanuele Tinelli, Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Vincenzo Parisi, Mariano Serrao, Valentina Calistri, Stefano Tardioli, Gaia Cartocci, Anna Ambrosini, Francesca Caramia, Vittorio Di Piero, Francesco Pierelli
BACKGROUND: To date, few MRI studies have been performed in patients affected by chronic migraine (CM), especially in those without medication overuse. Here, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses to investigate the gray matter (GM) volume of the whole brain in patients affected by CM. Our aim was to investigate whether fluctuations in the GM volumes were related to the clinical features of CM. METHODS: Twenty untreated patients with CM without a past medical history of medication overuse underwent 3-Tesla MRI scans and were compared to a group of 20 healthy controls (HCs)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
R A L Menke, M Proudfoot, K Talbot, M R Turner
MRI has emerged as one of several urgently needed candidate disease progression biomarkers for the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), not least due to its unique ability to non-invasively assess structural and functional cerebral pathology. We sought to identify the extent of detectable change in cerebral MRI metrics over a more prolonged period. Analysis of multi-modal MRI data was performed in a cohort of sixteen patients (13 ALS and 3 with primary lateral sclerosis) in whom it was possible to acquire six-monthly images over two years...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Liyun Zheng, Guo Bin, Hongwu Zeng, Dongfang Zou, Junling Gao, Jian Zhang, Bingsheng Huang
We aimed to perform a meta-analysis to systematically determine the most consistent regions of gray matter volume (GMV) abnormality in patients of unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), and to reveal the difference of GMV abnormality between the patients with left-sided and right-sided MTLE-HS. A comprehensive and systematic search was performed in PubMed for voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of MTLE-HS. A total of 12 MTLE-HS studies, including 9 left-sided MTLE-HS (LMTLE-HS) and 8 right-sided MTLE-HS (RMTLE-HS) studies were included...
January 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yichien Lee, Olga C Rodriguez, Chris Albanese, Victor Rodrigues Santos, José Antônio Cortes de Oliveira, Ana Luiza Ferreira Donatti, Artur Fernandes, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Prosper N'Gouemo, Patrick A Forcelli
Acoustically evoked seizures (e.g., audiogenic seizures or AGS) are common in models of inherited epilepsy and occur in a variety of species including rat, mouse, and hamster. Two models that have been particularly well studied are the genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR-3) and the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strains. Acute and repeated AGS, as well as comorbid conditions, displays a close phenotypic overlap in these models. Whether these similarities arise from convergent or divergent structural changes in the brain remains unknown...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
Manuela Tondelli, Fabio Pizza, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Giuseppe Plazzi, Stefano Meletti
Study Objectives: Neuroimaging studies on structural alterations in patients with type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) have shown controversial and heterogeneous results. The purpose of this study was to investigate microstructural brain changes in patients with NT1 close to disease onset. Methods: We examined cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes in 20 drug-naïve children and adolescents with NT1 compared with 19 healthy controls; whole-brain voxel-based morphometry, shape and volumetric analyses, and cortical thickness analysis were used...
December 13, 2017: Sleep
James H Bishop, Marina Shpaner, Antoni Kubicki, Sarah Clements, Richard Watts, Magdalena R Naylor
Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a condition that influences central nervous system structure. In this study, we combined novel structural neuroimaging techniques, using well-validated software packages including FSL, Mrtrix3, and DSI Studio, to characterize brain grey (GM) and white matter (WM) differences in chronic musculoskeletal pain participants (n = 74), compared to age-matched pain-free controls (n = 31). In participants with chronic pain, we identified significantly higher volume in subcortical GM structures using voxel-based morphometry (FSLVBM)...
December 11, 2017: NeuroImage
Janine Gellrich, Pengfei Han, Cedric Manesse, Amelie Betz, Anne Junghanns, Claudia Raue, Valentin A Schriever, Thomas Hummel
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Olfactory dysfunction is thought to be associated with reduced gray matter (GM) volume in olfactory-related brain areas. The aim of this study was to determine GM structural changes within olfactory-related regions of the brain in patients with smell loss due to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) before and after olfactory rehabilitation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective intervention case-control study. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging structural brain images were collected from 30 patients with smell loss due to URTI and 31 controls...
December 14, 2017: Laryngoscope
Sadhana Singh, Subash Khushu, Pawan Kumar, Satnam Goyal, Triptish Bhatia, Smita N Deshpande
PURPOSE: Schizophrenia patients show cognitive and mood impairments, including memory loss and depression, suggesting damage in the brain regions. The hippocampus is a brain structure that is significantly involved in memory and mood function and shows impairment in schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined the regional hippocampal changes in schizophrenia patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), Freesurfer, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) procedures. METHODS: 1 H MRS and high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were collected in both healthy control subjects (N = 28) and schizophrenia patients (N = 28) using 3-Tesla whole body MRI system...
February 2018: Neuroradiology
Emmanuel C Nwosu, Frances C Robertson, Martha J Holmes, Mark F Cotton, Els Dobbels, Francesca Little, Barbara Laughton, Andre van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
Even with the increased roll out of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), paediatric HIV infection is associated with neurodevelopmental delays and neurocognitive deficits that may be accompanied by alterations in brain structure. Few neuroimaging studies have been done in children initiating ART before 2 years of age, and even fewer in children within the critical stage of brain development between 5 and 11 years. We hypothesized that early ART would limit HIV-related brain morphometric deficits at age 7...
December 5, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
Christian Ledig, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Juha Koikkalainen, Jussi P Posti, Riikka S K Takala, Ari Katila, Janek Frantzén, Henna Ala-Seppälä, Anna Kyllönen, Henna-Riikka Maanpää, Jussi Tallus, Jyrki Lötjönen, Ben Glocker, Olli Tenovuo, Daniel Rueckert
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by a sudden external force and can be very heterogeneous in its manifestation. In this work, we analyse T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) brain images that were prospectively acquired from patients who sustained mild to severe TBI. We investigate the potential of a recently proposed automatic segmentation method to support the outcome prediction of TBI. Specifically, we extract meaningful cross-sectional and longitudinal measurements from acute- and chronic-phase MR images...
2017: PloS One
Austin T Mudd, Stephen A Fleming, Beau Labhart, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Sharon M Donovan, Ryan N Dilger
Sialic acid (SA) is a key component of gangliosides and neural cell adhesion molecules important during neurodevelopment. Human milk contains SA in the form of sialyllactose (SL) an abundant oligosaccharide. To better understand the potential role of dietary SL on neurodevelopment, the effects of varying doses of dietary SL on brain SA content and neuroimaging markers of development were assessed in a newborn piglet model. Thirty-eight male pigs were provided one of four experimental diets from 2 to 32 days of age...
November 28, 2017: Nutrients
Artemis Synn, Annu Mothakunnel, Fiona Kumfor, Yu Chen, Olivier Piguet, John R Hodges, Muireann Irish
Impaired capacity for Theory of Mind (ToM) represents one of the hallmark features of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and is suggested to underpin an array of socioemotional disturbances characteristic of this disorder. In contrast, while social processing typically remains intact in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cognitive loading of socioemotional tasks may adversely impact mentalizing performance in AD. Here, we employed the Frith-Happé animations as a dynamic on-line assessment of mentalizing capacity with reduced incidental task demands in 18 bvFTD, 18 AD, and 25 age-matched Controls...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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