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Hippocampus shape

Daniel M Vahaba, Luke Remage-Healey
Steroid hormones, such as estrogens, were once thought to be exclusively synthesized in the ovaries and enact transcriptional changes over the course of hours to days. However, estrogens are also locally synthesized within neural circuits, wherein they rapidly (within minutes) modulate a range of behaviors, including spatial cognition and communication. Here, we review the role of brain-derived estrogens (neuroestrogens) as modulators within sensory circuits in songbirds. We first present songbirds as an attractive model to explore how neuroestrogens in auditory cortex modulate vocal communication processing and learning...
March 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Harmanpreet Singh, Chateshwar Kumar, Narpinder Singh, Surinder Paul, Subheet Kumar Jain
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a vital structural component of neuronal tissue, which is critically required during pre- and post-natal brain development. Its liquid nature, fishy odor, poor bioavailability and oxidative stability are the major challenges in the development of a pharmaceutically elegant and stable formulation. In the present study, nanocapsules of DHA from microalgae oil were prepared using different combinations of wall materials (carbohydrates, polymers, gum and proteins). The encapsulation using spray drying was done to prepare a pharmaceutically stable DHA formulation...
March 16, 2018: Food & Function
Katherine D Duncan, Margaret L Schlichting
How does the hippocampus represent interrelated experiences in memory? We review prominent yet seemingly contradictory theoretical perspectives, which propose that the hippocampus distorts experiential representations to either emphasize their distinctiveness or highlight common elements. These fundamentally different kinds of memory representations may be instantiated in the brain via conjunctive separated codes and adaptively differentiated codes on the one hand, or integrated relational codes on the other...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Susanne G Mueller, Paul A Yushkevich, Sandhitsu Das, Lei Wang, Koen Van Leemput, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Kate Alpert, Adam Mezher, Peter Ng, Katrina Paz, Michael W Weiner
Objective: Subfield-specific measurements provide superior information in the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases compared to global hippocampal measurements. The overall goal was to systematically compare the performance of five representative manual and automated T1 and T2 based subfield labeling techniques in a sub-set of the ADNI2 population. Methods: The high resolution T2 weighted hippocampal images (T2-HighRes) and the corresponding T1 images from 106 ADNI2 subjects (41 controls, 57 MCI, 8 AD) were processed as follows...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Afif J Aqrabawi, Jun Chul Kim
Top-down processes conveying contextual information play a major role in shaping odor representations within the olfactory system, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The hippocampus (HPC) is a major source of olfactory top-down modulation, providing direct excitatory inputs to the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON). However, HPC-AON projections remain uncharacterized. In an effort to understand how hippocampal inputs are distributed within the AON, we systematically outlined their organization using anterograde and retrograde tracing methods...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Amy E Perkins, Michelle K Piazza, Terrence Deak
Aging is associated with a substantial decline in the expression of social behavior, as well as increased neuroinflammation. Since immune activation and subsequent increased expression of cytokines can suppress social behavior in young rodents, we examined age and sex differences in microglia within brain regions critical to social behavior regulation (PVN, BNST, and MEA) as well as in the hippocampus. Adult (3-month) and aged (18-month) male and female F344 (N = 26, n = 5-8/group) rats were perfused and Iba-1 immunopositive microglia were assessed using unbiased stereology and optical density...
February 26, 2018: Neuroscience
Annalisa Nobili, Paraskevi Krashia, Alberto Cordella, Livia La Barbera, Maria Concetta Dell'Acqua, Angela Caruso, Annabella Pignataro, Ramona Marino, Francesca Sciarra, Filippo Biamonte, Maria Luisa Scattoni, Martine Ammassari-Teule, Francesco Cecconi, Nicola Berretta, Flavio Keller, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Marcello D'Amelio
Imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission cause brain network dysfunction and are central to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Parvalbumin interneurons are highly implicated in this imbalance. Here, we probed the social behavior and hippocampal function of mice carrying a haploinsufficiency for Ambra1, a pro-autophagic gene crucial for brain development. We show that heterozygous Ambra1 mice (Ambra+/- ) are characterized by loss of hippocampal parvalbumin interneurons, decreases in the inhibition/excitation ratio, and altered social behaviors that are solely restricted to the female gender...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Ana Cicvaric, Jiaye Yang, Tanja Bulat, Alice Zambon, Manuel Dominguez-Rodriguez, Rebekka Kühn, Michael G Sadowicz, Anjana Siwert, Joaquim Egea, Daniela D Pollak, Thomas Moeslinger, Francisco J Monje
The Fibronectin Leucine-Rich Transmembrane protein 2 (FLRT2) has been implicated in several hormone -and sex-dependent physiological and pathological processes (including chondrogenesis, menarche and breast cancer); is known to regulate developmental synapses formation, and is expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure central for learning and memory. However, the role of FLRT2 in the adult hippocampus and its relevance in sex-dependent brain functions remains unknown. We here used adult single-allele FLRT2 knockout (FLRT2+/- ) mice and behavioral, electrophysiological, and molecular/biological assays to examine the effects of FLRT2 haplodeficiency on synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning and memory...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brittany M Jeye, Sean P MacEvoy, Jessica M Karanian, Scott D Slotnick
In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we aimed to evaluate whether distinct regions of the hippocampus were associated with spatial memory for items presented in different locations of the visual field. In Experiment 1, during the study phase, participants viewed abstract shapes in the left or right visual field while maintaining central fixation. At test, old shapes were presented at fixation and participants classified each shape as previously in the "left" or "right" visual field followed by an "unsure"-"sure"-"very sure" confidence rating...
February 20, 2018: Brain Research
Qing Ye, Haifeng Chen, Fan Su, Hao Shu, Liang Gong, Chunming Xie, Hong Zhou, Feng Bai
OBJECTIVE: Higher functional connectivity (FC) in resting-state networks has been shown in individuals at risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by many studies. However, the longitudinal trajectories of the FC remain unknown. The present 35-month follow-up study aimed to explore longitudinal changes in higher FC in multiple resting-state networks in subjects with the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (ApoE4) and/or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: Fifty-one subjects with aMCI and 64 cognitively normal (CN) subjects underwent neuropsychological tests and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans twice from April 2011 to June 2015...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Lisa Frank, Matthias Lüpke, Draginja Kostic, Wolfgang Löscher, Andrea Tipold
BACKGROUND: One of the most common chronic neurological disorders in dogs is idiopathic epilepsy (IE) diagnosed as epilepsy without structural changes in the brain. In the current study the hypothesis should be proven that subtle grey matter changes occur in epileptic dogs. Therefore, magnetic resonance (MR) images of one dog breed (Beagles) were used to obtain an approximately uniform brain shape. Local differences in grey matter volume (GMV) were compared between 5 healthy Beagles and 10 Beagles with spontaneously recurrent seizures (5 dogs with IE and 5 dogs with structural epilepsy (SE)), using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
February 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Itamar S Grunfeld, Ekaterina Likhtik
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regulates expression of emotional behavior. The mPFC combines multivariate information from its inputs, and depending on the imminence of threat, activates downstream networks that either increase or decrease the expression of anxiety-related motor behavior and autonomic activation. Here, we selectively highlight how subcortical input to the mPFC from two example structures, the amygdala and ventral hippocampus, help shape mixed selectivity encoding and action selection during emotional processing...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Hong Pan, Bárbara Oliveira, Gesine Saher, Ekrem Dere, Daniel Tapken, Marina Mitjans, Jan Seidel, Janina Wesolowski, Debia Wakhloo, Christina Klein-Schmidt, Anja Ronnenberg, Kerstin Schwabe, Ralf Trippe, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Stefan Berghoff, Yazeed Al-Krinawe, Henrik Martens, Martin Begemann, Winfried Stöcker, Franz-Josef Kaup, Reinhard Mischke, Susann Boretius, Klaus-Armin Nave, Joachim K Krauss, Michael Hollmann, Fred Lühder, Hannelore Ehrenreich
Autoantibodies of the IgG class against N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunit-NR1 (NMDAR1-AB) were considered pathognomonic for anti-NMDAR encephalitis. This view has been challenged by the age-dependent seroprevalence (up to >20%) of functional NMDAR1-AB of all immunoglobulin classes found in >5000 individuals, healthy or affected by different diseases. These findings question a merely encephalitogenic role of NMDAR1-AB. Here, we show that NMDAR1-AB belong to the normal autoimmune repertoire of dogs, cats, rats, mice, baboons, and rhesus macaques, and are functional in the NMDAR1 internalization assay based on human IPSC-derived cortical neurons...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Michelangelo Corcelli, Kate Hawkins, Filipa Vlahova, Avina Hunjan, Kate Dowding, Paolo De Coppi, Anna L David, Donald Peebles, Pierre Gressens, Henrik Hagberg, Mariya Hristova, Pascale V Guillot
Human amniotic fluid contains two morphologically-distinct sub-populations of stem cells with regenerative potential, spindle-shaped (SS-hAFSCs) and round-shaped human amniotic fluid stem cells (RS-hAFSCs). However, it is unclear whether morphological differences correlate with functionality, and this lack of knowledge limits their translational applications. Here, we show that SS-hAFSCs and RS-hAFSCs differ in their neuro-protective ability, demonstrating that a single contralateral injection of SS-hAFSCs into hypoxic-ischemic P7 mice conferred a 47% reduction in hippocampal tissue loss and 43-45% reduction in TUNEL-positive cells in the hippocampus and striatum 48 hours after the insult, decreased microglial activation and TGFβ1 levels, and prevented demyelination...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Isidro Ferrer, Meritxell Aguiló García, Irene López González, Daniela Diaz Lucena, Aina Roig Villalonga, Margarita Carmona Tech, Franc Llorens, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Alejandra Martinez-Maldonado, Margalida Frau Mendez, Benjamín Torrejón Escribano, Joan Josep Bech Serra, Eduard Sabido, Carolina de la Torre Gómez, José Antonio Del Rio
Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG) is defined by the presence of two types of tau-bearing astrocytes: thorn-shaped astrocytes (TSAs) and granular/fuzzy astrocytes in the brain of old-aged individuals. The present study is focused on TSAs in rare forms of ARTAG with no neuronal tau pathology or restricted to entorhinal and transentorhinal cortices, to avoid bias from associated tauopathies. TSAs show 4Rtau phosphorylation at several specific sites and abnormal tau conformation, but they lack ubiquitin and they are not immunostained with tau-C3 antibodies which recognize truncated tau at Asp421...
February 3, 2018: Brain Pathology
Ece Durmusoglu, Onur Ugurlu, Sebnem Akan, Fatma Simsek, Gozde Kizilates, Omer Kitis, Burcu Aksoy Ozkul, Cagdas Eker, Kerry L Coburn, Ali Saffet Gonul
BACKGROUND: Although reduced hippocampal volume (HCV) is a common finding in depression, it is unclear whether the structural alterations leading to reduction of HCV are pre-existing risk factors before the onset of clinical symptoms or a cumulative process that begins with the onset of clinical symptoms. The aim of the present study was to understand the anatomical status of the hippocampus prior to the clinical symptoms in subjects with high familial risk for depression. METHODS: Twenty-seven young women (mean age: 22...
January 9, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Chad A Tagge, Andrew M Fisher, Olga V Minaeva, Amanda Gaudreau-Balderrama, Juliet A Moncaster, Xiao-Lei Zhang, Mark W Wojnarowicz, Noel Casey, Haiyan Lu, Olga N Kokiko-Cochran, Sudad Saman, Maria Ericsson, Kristen D Onos, Ronel Veksler, Vladimir V Senatorov, Asami Kondo, Xiao Z Zhou, Omid Miry, Linnea R Vose, Katisha R Gopaul, Chirag Upreti, Christopher J Nowinski, Robert C Cantu, Victor E Alvarez, Audrey M Hildebrandt, Erich S Franz, Janusz Konrad, James A Hamilton, Ning Hua, Yorghos Tripodis, Andrew T Anderson, Gareth R Howell, Daniela Kaufer, Garth F Hall, Kun P Lu, Richard M Ransohoff, Robin O Cleveland, Neil W Kowall, Thor D Stein, Bruce T Lamb, Bertrand R Huber, William C Moss, Alon Friedman, Patric K Stanton, Ann C McKee, Lee E Goldstein
The mechanisms underpinning concussion, traumatic brain injury, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and the relationships between these disorders, are poorly understood. We examined post-mortem brains from teenage athletes in the acute-subacute period after mild closed-head impact injury and found astrocytosis, myelinated axonopathy, microvascular injury, perivascular neuroinflammation, and phosphorylated tau protein pathology. To investigate causal mechanisms, we developed a mouse model of lateral closed-head impact injury that uses momentum transfer to induce traumatic head acceleration...
January 18, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Zimbul Albo, Johannes Gräff
Long-lasting memories form the basis of our identity as individuals and lie central in shaping future behaviours that guide survival. Surprisingly, however, our current knowledge of how such memories are stored in the brain and retrieved, as well as the dynamics of the circuits involved, remains scarce despite seminal technical and experimental breakthroughs in recent years. Traditionally, it has been proposed that, over time, information initially learnt in the hippocampus is stored in distributed cortical networks...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Christopher R Madan
OBJECTIVES: With an increasing aging population, it is important to understand biological markers of aging. Subcortical volume is known to differ with age; additionally considering shape-related characteristics may provide a better index of age-related differences. Fractal dimensionality is more sensitive to age-related differences, but is borne out of mathematical principles, rather than neurobiological relevance. We considered four distinct measures of shape and how they relate to aging and fractal dimensionality: surface-to-volume ratio, sphericity, long-axis curvature, and surface texture...
January 11, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
R A L Menke, M Proudfoot, K Talbot, M R Turner
MRI has emerged as one of several urgently needed candidate disease progression biomarkers for the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), not least due to its unique ability to non-invasively assess structural and functional cerebral pathology. We sought to identify the extent of detectable change in cerebral MRI metrics over a more prolonged period. Analysis of multi-modal MRI data was performed in a cohort of sixteen patients (13 ALS and 3 with primary lateral sclerosis) in whom it was possible to acquire six-monthly images over two years...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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