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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088535/neurobiological-consequences-of-juvenile-stress-a-gabaergic-perspective-on-risk-and-resilience
#1
REVIEW
Anne Albrecht, Iris Müller, Ziv Ardi, Gürsel Çalışkan, David Gruber, Sebastian Ivens, Menahem Segal, Joachim Behr, Uwe Heinemann, Oliver Stork, Gal Richter-Levin
ALBRECHT, A., MÜLLER, I., ARDI, Z., ÇALIŞKAN, G., GRUBER, D., IVENS, S., SEGAL, M., BEHR, J., HEINEMANN, U., STORK, O., and RICHTER-LEVIN, G. Neurobiological consequences of juvenile stress: a GABAergic perspective on risk and resilience. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XXX-XXX, 2016. - Childhood adversity is among the most potent risk factors for developing mood and anxiety disorders later in life. Therefore, understanding how stress during childhood shapes and rewires the brain may optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies for these disorders...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062924/memory-formation-orchestrates-the-wiring-of-adult-born-hippocampal-neurons-into-brain-circuits
#2
Petnoi Petsophonsakul, Kevin Richetin, Trinovita Andraini, Laurent Roybon, Claire Rampon
During memory formation, structural rearrangements of dendritic spines provide a mean to durably modulate synaptic connectivity within neuronal networks. New neurons generated throughout the adult life in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus contribute to learning and memory. As these neurons become incorporated into the network, they generate huge numbers of new connections that modify hippocampal circuitry and functioning. However, it is yet unclear as to how the dynamic process of memory formation influences their synaptic integration into neuronal circuits...
January 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056342/pathway-and-cell-specific-kappa-opioid-receptor-modulation-of-excitation-inhibition-balance-differentially%C3%A2-gates-d1-and-d2-accumbens-neuron-activity
#3
Hugo A Tejeda, Jocelyn Wu, Alana R Kornspun, Marco Pignatelli, Vadim Kashtelyan, Michael J Krashes, Brad B Lowell, William A Carlezon, Antonello Bonci
Endogenous dynorphin signaling via the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) powerfully mediates negative affective states and stress reactivity. Excitatory inputs from the hippocampus and amygdala play a fundamental role in shaping the activity of both NAcc D1 and D2 MSNs, which encode positive and negative motivational valences, respectively. However, a circuit-based mechanism by which KOR modulation of excitation-inhibition balance modifies D1 and D2 MSN activity is lacking. Here, we provide a comprehensive synaptic framework wherein presynaptic KOR inhibition decreases the excitatory drive of D1 MSN activity by the amygdala, but not the hippocampus...
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030563/the-involvement-of-pial-microvessels-in-leukocyte-invasion-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Rongzi Shan, Nicole Thomasian, Adam Chodobski
The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are not well understood, but likely involve neuroinflammation. Here the controlled cortical impact model of mTBI in rats was used to test this hypothesis. Mild TBI caused a rapid (within 6 h post-mTBI) upregulation of synthesis of TNF-α and IL-1β in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, followed by an increase in production of neutrophil (CXCL1-3) and monocyte (CCL2) chemoattractants. While astrocytes were not a significant source of CXC chemokines, they highly expressed CCL2...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013041/ca3-hippocampal-field-cellular-changes-and-its-relation-with-blood-nitro-oxidative-stress-reveal-a-balancing-function-of-ca3-area-in-rats-exposed-to-repetead-restraint-stress
#5
Vlad Al Toma, Anca D Farcas, Marcel Parvu, Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioana Roman
Rats exposed to repeated restraint stress exhibit structural and functional deficits in hippocampus that are similar to those observed in patients with depressive illnesses. Blood corticosterone concentrations are proportionally increased with catalase and glutathione-peroxidase activity and are inversely proportional with 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations.Cytochrome c oxidase, adenosin tryphosphatase and monoamine oxidase activities of CA3 hippocampal field mark a stress-time dependent decrease. Acridine-orange labeling of the CA3 field reveals an enhancing green fluorescence of glyocites in stress conditions...
December 22, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007910/neuronal-pentraxin-1-depletion-delays-neurodegeneration-and-extends-life-in-sandhoff-disease-mice
#6
Alexander W M Hooper, Javier F A González, Rosemarie E Venier, Deda C Gillespie, Suleiman A Igdoura
GM2 gangliosidoses are a group of lysosomal storage disorders which include Sandhoff disease and Tay-Sachs disease. Dysregulation of glutamate receptors has been recently postulated in the pathology of Sandhoff disease. Glutamate receptor association with neuronal pentraxins 1 and 2, and the neuronal pentraxin receptor facilitates receptor potentiation and synaptic shaping. In this study, we have observed an upregulation of a novel form of neuronal pentraxin 1 (NP1-38) in the brains of a mouse model of Sandhoff disease and Tay-Sachs disease...
December 22, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992325/neurogenesis-enhances-response-specificity-to-spatial-pattern-stimulation-in-hippocampal-cultures
#7
Yukimi Tanaka, Takuya Isomura, Kenta Shimba, Kiyoshi Kotani, Yasuhiko Jimbo
OBJECTIVE: Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus facilitates cognitive functions such as pattern separation in mammals. However, it remains unclear how newborn neurons mediate changes in neural networks to enhance pattern separation ability. Here, we developed an in vitro model of adult neurogenesis using rat hippocampal cultures in order to investigate whether newborn neurons can be directly incorporated into neural networks related to pattern separation to produce functional improvements...
December 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976715/heritability-of-the-shape-of-subcortical-brain-structures-in-the-general-population
#8
Gennady V Roshchupkin, Boris A Gutman, Meike W Vernooij, Neda Jahanshad, Nicholas G Martin, Albert Hofman, Katie L McMahon, Sven J van der Lee, Cornelia M van Duijn, Greig I de Zubicaray, André G Uitterlinden, Margaret J Wright, Wiro J Niessen, Paul M Thompson, M Arfan Ikram, Hieab H H Adams
The volumes of subcortical brain structures are highly heritable, but genetic underpinnings of their shape remain relatively obscure. Here we determine the relative contribution of genetic factors to individual variation in the shape of seven bilateral subcortical structures: the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen and thalamus. In 3,686 unrelated individuals aged between 45 and 98 years, brain magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping was performed. The maximal heritability of shape varies from 32...
December 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960072/an-alternative-splicing-switch-shapes-neurexin-repertoires-in-principal-neurons-versus-interneurons-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#9
Thi-Minh Nguyen, Dietmar Schreiner, Le Xiao, Lisa Traunmüller, Caroline Bornmann, Peter Scheiffele
The unique anatomical and functional features of principal and interneuron populations are critical for the appropriate function of neuronal circuits. Cell type-specific properties are encoded by selective gene expression programs that shape molecular repertoires and synaptic protein complexes. However, the nature of such programs, particularly for post-transcriptional regulation at the level of alternative splicing is only beginning to emerge. We here demonstrate that transcripts encoding the synaptic adhesion molecules neurexin-1,2,3 are commonly expressed in principal cells and interneurons of the mouse hippocampus but undergo highly differential, cell type-specific alternative splicing...
December 13, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932977/human-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-rescues-cognitive-defects-in-app-ps1-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-enhancing-neuronal-connectivity-and-metabolic-activity
#10
Xueyuan Li, Hua Zhu, Xicai Sun, Fuxing Zuo, Jianfeng Lei, Zhanjing Wang, Xinjie Bao, Renzhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most frequent type of dementia, is featured by Aβ pathology, neural degeneration and cognitive decline. To date, there is no cure for this disease. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation provides new promise for treating AD. Many studies report that intra-hippocampal transplantation of murine NSCs improved cognition in rodents with AD by alleviating neurodegeneration via neuronal complement or replacement. However, few reports examined the potential of human NSC transplantation for AD...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927961/nasal-respiration-entrains-human-limbic-oscillations-and-modulates-cognitive-function
#11
Christina Zelano, Heidi Jiang, Guangyu Zhou, Nikita Arora, Stephan Schuele, Joshua Rosenow, Jay A Gottfried
: The need to breathe links the mammalian olfactory system inextricably to the respiratory rhythms that draw air through the nose. In rodents and other small animals, slow oscillations of local field potential activity are driven at the rate of breathing (∼2-12 Hz) in olfactory bulb and cortex, and faster oscillatory bursts are coupled to specific phases of the respiratory cycle. These dynamic rhythms are thought to regulate cortical excitability and coordinate network interactions, helping to shape olfactory coding, memory, and behavior...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913407/whole-brain-analysis-reveals-increased-neuroanatomical-asymmetries-in-dementia-for-hippocampus-and-amygdala
#12
Christian Wachinger, David H Salat, Michael Weiner, Martin Reuter
Structural magnetic resonance imaging data are frequently analysed to reveal morphological changes of the human brain in dementia. Most contemporary imaging biomarkers are scalar values, such as the volume of a structure, and may miss the localized morphological variation of early presymptomatic disease progression. Neuroanatomical shape descriptors, however, can represent complex geometric information of individual anatomical regions and may demonstrate increased sensitivity in association studies. Yet, they remain largely unexplored...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909002/anatomy-of-subcortical-structures-predicts-age-related-differences-in-skill-acquisition
#13
Sima Chalavi, Hamed Zivari Adab, Lisa Pauwels, Iseult A M Beets, Peter van Ruitenbeek, Matthieu P Boisgontier, Thiago Santos Monteiro, Celine Maes, Stefan Sunaert, Stephan P Swinnen
Skill acquisition capabilities vary substantially from one individual to another. Volumetric brain studies have demonstrated that global volume of several subcortical structures predicts variations in learning outcome in young adults (YA) and older adults (OA). In this study, for the first time, we utilized shape analysis, which offers a more sensitive detection of subregional brain anatomical deformations, to investigate whether subregional anatomy of subcortical structures is associated with training-induced performance improvement on a bimanual task in YA and OA, and whether this association is age-dependent...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889766/telencephalic-neuronal-activation-associated-with-spatial-memory-in-the-terrestrial-toad-rhinella-arenarum-participation-of-the-medial-pallium-during-navigation-by-geometry
#14
María Inés Sotelo, M Florencia Daneri, Verner Peter Bingman, Rubén N Muzio
Amphibians are central to discussions of vertebrate evolution because they represent the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life, a transition with profound consequences for the selective pressures shaping brain evolution. Spatial navigation is one class of behavior that has attracted the interest of comparative neurobiologists because of the relevance of the medial pallium/hippocampus, yet, surprisingly, in this regard amphibians have been sparsely investigated. In the current study, we trained toads to locate a water goal relying on the boundary geometry of a test environment (Geometry-Only) or boundary geometry coupled with a prominent, visual feature cue (Geometry-Feature)...
November 26, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885550/neural-activity-patterns-underlying-spatial-coding-in-the-hippocampus
#15
Marielena Sosa, Anna K Gillespie, Loren M Frank
The hippocampus is well known as a central site for memory processing-critical for storing and later retrieving the experiences events of daily life so they can be used to shape future behavior. Much of what we know about the physiology underlying hippocampal function comes from spatial navigation studies in rodents, which have allowed great strides in understanding how the hippocampus represents experience at the cellular level. However, it remains a challenge to reconcile our knowledge of spatial encoding in the hippocampus with its demonstrated role in memory-dependent tasks in both humans and other animals...
November 25, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875186/visualizing-shape-deformations-with-variation-of-geometric-spectrum
#16
Jiaxi Hu, Hajar Hamidian, Zichun Zhong, Jing Hua
This paper presents a novel approach based on spectral geometry to quantify and visualize non-isometric deformations of 3D surfaces by mapping two manifolds. The proposed method can determine multi-scale, non-isometric deformations through the variation of Laplace-Beltrami spectrum of two shapes. Given two triangle meshes, the spectra can be varied from one to another with a scale function defined on each vertex. The variation is expressed as a linear interpolation of eigenvalues of the two shapes. In each iteration step, a quadratic programming problem is constructed, based on our derived spectrum variation theorem and smoothness energy constraint, to compute the spectrum variation...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859793/selective-contribution-of-the-telencephalic-arcopallium-to-the-social-facilitation-of-foraging-efforts-in-the-domestic-chick
#17
Qiuhong Xin, Yukiko Ogura, Leo Uno, Toshiya Matsushima
To investigate the neural basis of socio-economic behaviors in birds, we examined the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of arcopallium (Arco, the major descending pallial area of the avian telencephalon) and the surrounding nuclei in domestic chicks. We tested foraging effort (running distance) in an I-shaped maze with two food patches that delivered food in a biased manner according to a variable interval schedule. Normally, chicks run back and forth between the patches, and the patch use time matches the respective food delivery rate...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857685/conditional-knockout-of-cav2-1-disrupts-the-accuracy-of-spatial-recognition-of-ca1-place-cells-and-spatial-contextual-recognition-behavior
#18
Dahee Jung, Yu J Hwang, Hoon Ryu, Masanobu Kano, Kenji Sakimura, Jeiwon Cho
Hippocampal pyramidal neurons play an essential role in processing spatial information as implicated with its place-dependent firing. Although, previous slice physiology studies have reported that voltage gated calcium channels contribute to spike shapes and corresponding firing rate in the hippocampus, the roles of P/Q type calcium channels (Cav2.1) underlying neural activity in behaving mice have not been well-investigated. To determine physiological and behavioral roles of Cav2.1, we conducted place cell recordings in CA1 and hippocampus dependent learning/memory tasks using mice lacking Cav2...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825288/calendars-in-the-brain-their-perceptual-characteristics-and-possible-neural-substrate
#19
Vilayanur S Ramachandran, Melissa Vajanaphanich, Chaipat Chunharas
When we visualize a calendar, we have a vague impression of a rectangular grid hovering in front. But 1% of the population "see" vivid, crisp "calendar form" - e.g. an odd V shape as in subject ML. We found that (1) ML could "read off", months of her calendar - or alternate months - backward, unlike controls; (2) her eyes and index finger unconsciously "tracked" her reading; (3) her calendar moved with her gaze and tilted with her head; (4) after looking at a contracting spiral, her calendar expanded. In a second subject EA, the calendar was body centered and the access to episodic memories was partially "blocked" when she "looked away"...
October 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786023/microstructural-integrity-of-hippocampal-subregions-is-impaired-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Sandra E Leh, Clemens Schroeder, Jen-Kai Chen, M Mallar Chakravarty, Min Tae M Park, Bob Cheung, Sonja C Huntgeburth, Nadia Gosselin, Christoph Hock, Alain Ptito, Michael Petrides
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) affects a large number of individuals and diffusion tensor imaging can be used to investigate microstructural integrity of brain tissue after mTBI. However, results have varied considerably between studies and gray matter (GM) integrity has been largely neglected in these investigations. Given impaired working memory processing after mTBI and its possible association with Alzheimer's disease, we investigated hippocampal integrity and parcellated this structure into five subregions: subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) 1, CA 2/3, CA 4/dentate gyrus, and stratum radiatum/lacunosum-moleculare...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
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