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Hippocampus shape

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548460/internally-generated-hippocampal-sequences-as-a-vantage-point-to-probe-future-oriented-cognition
#1
REVIEW
Giovanni Pezzulo, Caleb Kemere, Matthijs A A van der Meer
Information processing in the rodent hippocampus is fundamentally shaped by internally generated sequences (IGSs), expressed during two different network states: theta sequences, which repeat and reset at the ∼8 Hz theta rhythm associated with active behavior, and punctate sharp wave-ripple (SWR) sequences associated with wakeful rest or slow-wave sleep. A potpourri of diverse functional roles has been proposed for these IGSs, resulting in a fragmented conceptual landscape. Here, we advance a unitary view of IGSs, proposing that they reflect an inferential process that samples a policy from the animal's generative model, supported by hippocampus-specific priors...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536274/mapping-22q11-2-gene-dosage-effects-on-brain-morphometry
#2
Amy Lin, Christopher R K Ching, Ariana Vajdi, Daqiang Sun, Rachel K Jonas, Maria Jalbrzikowski, Leila Kushan-Wells, Laura Pacheco Hansen, Emma Krikorian, Boris Gutman, Deepika Dokoru, Gerhard Helleman, Paul M Thompson, Carrie E Bearden
Reciprocal chromosomal rearrangements at the 22q11.2 locus are associated with elevated risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. The 22q11.2 deletion confers the highest known genetic risk for schizophrenia, but a duplication in the same region is strongly associated with autism and is less common in schizophrenia cases than in the general population. Here we conducted the first study of 22q11.2 gene dosage effects on brain structure in a sample of 143 human subjects: 66 with 22q11.2 deletions (22q-del; 32 males), 21 with 22q11...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520598/imaging-plus-x-multimodal-models-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#3
Neil P Oxtoby, Daniel C Alexander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article argues that the time is approaching for data-driven disease modelling to take centre stage in the study and management of neurodegenerative disease. The snowstorm of data now available to the clinician defies qualitative evaluation; the heterogeneity of data types complicates integration through traditional statistical methods; and the large datasets becoming available remain far from the big-data sizes necessary for fully data-driven machine-learning approaches...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510808/development-of-a-contouring-guide-in-three-different-head-set-ups-for-hippocampal-sparing-radiotherapy-a-practical-approach
#4
Saide Di Biase, Marianna Trignani, Luciana Caravatta, Paul Ioan Voicu, Clelia Di Carlo, Annamaria Vinciguerra, Antonietta Augurio, Francesca Perrotti, Valentina Panara, Domenico Genovesi
BACKGROUNDS: Irradiation of the hippocampus plays a role in neurocognitive toxicity. Its delineation is complex and in practice different head position can vary hippocampus morphology on axial images; so atlas in a single standard position can result ineffective to describe different hippocampal morphologies in different head set-up. The purpose of our study was to develop a guide based on magnetic resonance imaging for hippocampus delineation in three different head set-ups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three patients were selected to elaborate our guide...
May 16, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487399/the-zinc-paradigm-for-metalloneurochemistry
#5
REVIEW
Chelsea A Barr, Shawn C Burdette
Neurotransmission and sensory perception are shaped through metal ion-protein interactions in various brain regions. The term "metalloneurochemistry" defines the unique field of bioinorganic chemistry focusing on these processes, and zinc has been the leading target of metalloneurochemists in the almost 15 years since the definition was introduced. Zinc in the hippocampus interacts with receptors that dictate ion flow and neurotransmitter release. Understanding the intricacies of these interactions is crucial to uncovering the role that zinc plays in learning and memory...
May 9, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477384/cognitive-deficits-caused-by-prefrontal-cortical-and-hippocampal-neural-disinhibition
#6
REVIEW
Tobias Bast, Marie Pezze, Stephanie McGarrity
We review recent evidence concerning the significance of inhibitory GABA transmission and of neural disinhibition, i.e. deficient GABA transmission, within prefrontal cortex and hippocampus for clinically relevant cognitive functions. Both regions support important cognitive functions, including attention and memory, and their dysfunction has been implicated in cognitive deficits characterizing neuropsychiatric disorders. GABAergic inhibition shapes cortico-hippocampal neural activity and, recently, prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition has emerged as a pathophysiological feature of major neuropsychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia and age-related cognitive decline...
May 6, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450849/striatal-and-hippocampal-atrophy-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-patients-without-dementia-a-morphometric-analysis
#7
Jared J Tanner, Nikolaus R McFarland, Catherine C Price
BACKGROUND: Analyses of subcortical gray structure volumes in non-demented idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) often, but not always, show volume loss of the putamen, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. There is building evidence that structure morphometry might be more sensitive to disease-related processes than volume. OBJECTIVE: To assess morphometric differences of subcortical structures (putamen, caudate nucleus, thalamus, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala) as well as the hippocampus in non-demented individuals with PD relative to age and education matched non-PD peers...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440219/correction-an-alternative-splicing-switch-shapes-neurexin-repertoires-in-principal-neurons-versus-interneurons-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#8
Thi-Minh Nguyen, Dietmar Schreiner, Le Xiao, Lisa Traunmüller, Caroline Bornmann, Peter Scheiffele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418206/anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-during-pregnancy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Xue Xiao, Shunping Gui, Peng Bai, Yi Bai, Dan Shan, Yayi Hu, Tri M Bui-Nguyen, Rong Zhou
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDA-R) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder that was first described by Dr Vitaliani in 2005. In 2007, Dalmau et al. found anti-NMDA-R antibody expressed both in the hippocampus and prefrontal nerve cell membrane, finally proposing the diagnosis of autoimmune anti-NMDA-R encephalitis. Most of the patients are female (91%), with ages ranging from 4 to 76 years. The average age is 23 years, a birth peak age, although anti-NMDA-R encephalitis is rare during pregnancy...
April 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410463/vegf-treatment-during-status-epilepticus-attenuates-long-term-seizure-associated-alterations-in-astrocyte-morphology
#10
Janice R Lenzer-Fanara, Thomas Li, Elisa A Salerni, Firmause Payen, Susan D Croll
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) causes sustained preservation of behavioral function in rats in the absence of enduring neuroprotection (Nicoletti et al., 2010), suggesting the possibility that other cells or mechanisms could be involved in the beneficial effects of VEGF during SE. Astrocytes have been reported to contribute to epileptiform discharges in the hippocampus (Tian et al., 2005; Kang et al., 1998) and to express VEGF receptors (Krum & Rosenstein, 2002)...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396399/context-dependent-spatially-periodic-activity-in-the-human-entorhinal-cortex
#11
Zoltan Nadasdy, T Peter Nguyen, Ágoston Török, Jason Y Shen, Deborah E Briggs, Pradeep N Modur, Robert J Buchanan
The spatially periodic activity of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of the rodent, primate, and human provides a coordinate system that, together with the hippocampus, informs an individual of its location relative to the environment and encodes the memory of that location. Among the most defining features of grid-cell activity are the 60° rotational symmetry of grids and preservation of grid scale across environments. Grid cells, however, do display a limited degree of adaptation to environments. It remains unclear if this level of environment invariance generalizes to human grid-cell analogs, where the relative contribution of visual input to the multimodal sensory input of the EC is significantly larger than in rodents...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390437/brain-structural-investigation-and-hippocampal-tractography-in-medication-overuse-headache-a-native-space-analysis
#12
M Meyer, G Di Scala, M Edde, B Dilharreguy, F Radat, M Allard, S Chanraud
BACKGROUND: Spatial normalization of brain images, a prerequisite for voxel based morphometry analysis, may account for the large variability of the volumetric data in medication overuse headache (MOH); possibly because this disease concerns patients differing on both sex and age, and hence with different brain size and shape. METHODS: The present study aimed at providing a subject-based analysis of macrostructure using a native space volumes segmentation (Freesurfer), and microstructure using a region of interest (ROI: i...
April 8, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377882/subtle-hippocampal-deformities-in-breast-cancer-survivors-with-reduced-episodic-memory-and-self-reported-cognitive-concerns
#13
Alexandra C Apple, Anthony J Ryals, Kathryn I Alpert, Lynne I Wagner, Pei-An Shih, Mehmet Dokucu, David Cella, Frank J Penedo, Joel L Voss, Lei Wang
Cancer survivors have lingering cognitive problems, however the anatomical basis for these problems has yet to be fully elucidated. Clinical studies as well as animal models of chemotherapy have pinpointed cell and volume loss to the hippocampus, however, few studies have performed shape analysis of the hippocampus on cancer survivors. This study used high-dimensional deformation mapping analysis to test whether localized hippocampal deformation differs in breast cancer survivors who received adjuvant chemotherapy coupled with hormone blockade therapy, and if deformation was related to subjective self-reported concerns and cognitive performance...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371658/clinical-correlates-of-hippocampus-volume-and-shape-in-antipsychotic-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia
#14
Sunil Vasu Kalmady, Venkataram Shivakumar, Rashmi Arasappa, Aditi Subramaniam, S Gautham, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Bangalore N Gangadhar
While volume deficit of hippocampus is an established finding in schizophrenia, very few studies have examined large sample of patients without the confounding effect of antipsychotic treatment. Concurrent evaluation of hippocampus shape will offer additional information on the hippocampal aberrations in schizophrenia. In this study, we analyzed the volume and shape of hippocampus in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients (N=71) in comparison to healthy controls (N=82). Using 3-T MRI data, gray matter (GM) volume (anterior and posterior sub-divisions) and shape of the hippocampus were analyzed...
March 29, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370142/morphological-study-of-a-connexin-43-gfp-reporter-mouse-highlights-glial-heterogeneity-amacrine-cells-and-olfactory-ensheathing-cells
#15
Panos Theofilas, Christian Steinhäuser, Martin Theis, Amin Derouiche
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the main astrocytic connexin and forms the basis of the glial syncytium. The morphology of connexin-expressing cells can be best studied in transgenic mouse lines expressing cytoplasmic fluorescent reporters, since immunolabeling the plaques can obscure the shapes of the individual cells. The Cx43kiECFP mouse generated by Degen et al. (FASEBJ 26:4576, 2012) expresses cytosolic ECFP and has previously been used to establish that Cx43 may not be expressed by all astrocytes within a population, and this can vary in a region-dependent way...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366865/glucocorticoid-administration-into-the-dorsolateral-but-not-dorsomedial-striatum-accelerates-the-shift-from-a-spatial-toward-procedural-memory
#16
Cristina Siller-Pérez, Norma Serafín, Roberto A Prado-Alcalá, Benno Roozendaal, Gina L Quirarte
Glucocorticoid stress hormones are known to enhance the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial and contextual memory. Recent findings indicate that glucocorticoids also enhance the consolidation of procedural memory that relies on the dorsal striatum. The dorsal striatum can be functionally subdivided into the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), which is primarily implicated in shaping procedural memories, and the dorsomedial striatum (DMS), which is engaged in spatial memory. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that posttraining glucocorticoid administration into the DLS promotes the formation of a procedural memory that will normally take place only with extensive training...
March 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360847/effects-of-different-exercise-strategies-and-intensities-on-memory-performance-and-neurogenesis
#17
Kai Diederich, Anna Bastl, Heike Wersching, Anja Teuber, Jan-Kolja Strecker, Antje Schmidt, Jens Minnerup, Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz
It is well established that physical exercise affects both hippocampal neurogenesis and memory functions. Until now, distinctive effects of controlled and voluntary training (VT) on behavior and neurogenesis as well as interactions between exercise intensity, neurogenesis and memory performance are still elusive. The present study tested the impact of moderate controlled and VT on memory formation and hippocampal neurogenesis and evaluated interactions between exercise performance, learning efficiency and proliferation of progenitor cells in the hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349920/profiling-the-mapk-erk-dependent-and-independent-activity-regulated-transcriptional-programs-in-the-murine-hippocampus-in-vivo
#18
Nils Blüthgen, Mirjam van Bentum, Barbara Merz, Dietmar Kuhl, Guido Hermey
Activity-dependent alteration of the transcriptional program is central for shaping neuronal connectivity. Constitutively expressed transcription factors orchestrate the initial response to neuronal stimulation and serve as substrates for second messenger-regulated kinase signalling cascades. The mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK conveys signalling from the synapse to the nucleus but its genetic signature following neuronal activity has not been revealed. The goal of the present study was to identify ERK dependent and independent activity regulated transcriptional programs in the murine hippocampus...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345503/physical-fitness-and-shapes-of-subcortical-brain-structures-in-children
#19
Francisco B Ortega, Daniel Campos, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Signe Altmäe, Cristina Martínez-Zaldívar, Miguel Martín-Matillas, Andrés Catena, Cristina Campoy
A few studies have recently reported that higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with higher volumes of subcortical brain structures in children. It is, however, unknown how different fitness measures relate to shapes of subcortical brain nuclei. We aimed to examine the association of the main health-related physical fitness components with shapes of subcortical brain structures in a sample of forty-four Spanish children aged 9·7 (sd 0·2) years from the NUtraceuticals for a HEALthier life project...
March 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342697/recent-publications-from-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-reviewing-progress-toward-improved-ad-clinical-trials
#20
REVIEW
Michael W Weiner, Dallas P Veitch, Paul S Aisen, Laurel A Beckett, Nigel J Cairns, Robert C Green, Danielle Harvey, Clifford R Jack, William Jagust, John C Morris, Ronald C Petersen, Andrew J Saykin, Leslie M Shaw, Arthur W Toga, John Q Trojanowski
INTRODUCTION: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has continued development and standardization of methodologies for biomarkers and has provided an increased depth and breadth of data available to qualified researchers. This review summarizes the 450+ publications using ADNI data during 2014 and 2015. METHODS: We used standard searches to find publications using ADNI data. RESULTS: (1) Structural and functional changes, including subtle changes to hippocampal shape and texture, atrophy in areas outside of hippocampus, and disruption to functional networks, are detectable in presymptomatic subjects before hippocampal atrophy; (2) In subjects with abnormal β-amyloid deposition (Aβ+), biomarkers become abnormal in the order predicted by the amyloid cascade hypothesis; (3) Cognitive decline is more closely linked to tau than Aβ deposition; (4) Cerebrovascular risk factors may interact with Aβ to increase white-matter (WM) abnormalities which may accelerate Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression in conjunction with tau abnormalities; (5) Different patterns of atrophy are associated with impairment of memory and executive function and may underlie psychiatric symptoms; (6) Structural, functional, and metabolic network connectivities are disrupted as AD progresses...
March 22, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
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