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Hippocampus shape

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928740/microbiome-derived-lipopolysaccharide-enriched-in-the-perinuclear-region-of-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#1
Yuhai Zhao, Lin Cong, Vivian Jaber, Walter J Lukiw
Abundant clinical, epidemiological, imaging, genetic, molecular, and pathophysiological data together indicate that there occur an unusual inflammatory reaction and a disruption of the innate-immune signaling system in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Despite many years of intense study, the origin and molecular mechanics of these AD-relevant pathogenic signals are still not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that an intensely pro-inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), part of a complex mixture of pro-inflammatory neurotoxins arising from abundant Gram-negative bacilli of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, are abundant in AD-affected brain neocortex and hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921762/inhibition-shapes-the-organization-of-hippocampal-representations
#2
Sam McKenzie
Hippocampal neurons become tuned to stimuli that predict behaviorally salient outcomes. This plasticity suggests that memory formation depends upon shifts in how different anatomical inputs can drive hippocampal activity. Here, I present evidence that inhibitory neurons can provide such a mechanism for learning-related changes in the tuning of pyramidal cells. Inhibitory currents arriving on the dendrites of pyramidal cells determine whether an excitatory input can drive action potential output. Specificity and plasticity of this dendritic modulation allows for precise, modifiable changes in how afferent inputs are integrated, a process that defines a neuron's receptive field...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917608/environmental-enrichment-in-the-absence-of-wheel-running-produces-beneficial-behavioural-and-anti-oxidative-effects-in-rats
#3
F Mármol, J Sánchez, M N Torres, V D Chamizo
The effects of early environmental enrichment (EE) when solving a simple spatial task in adult male rats were assessed. After weaning, rats were housed in pairs in enriched or standard cages (EE and control groups) for two and a half months. Then the rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool. As expected, enriched rats reached the platform faster than control animals...
September 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917017/physiological-ripples-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-100%C3%A2-hz-in-spike-free-scalp-eegs-of-children-with-and-without-epilepsy
#4
Anne H Mooij, Renee C M A Raijmann, Floor E Jansen, Kees P J Braun, Maeike Zijlmans
Pathological high frequency oscillations (HFOs, >80 Hz) are considered new biomarkers for epilepsy. They have mostly been recorded invasively, but pathological ripples (80-250 Hz) can also be found in scalp EEGs with frequent epileptiform spikes. Physiological HFOs also exist. They have been recorded invasively in hippocampus and neocortex. There are no reports of spontaneously occurring physiological HFOs recorded with scalp EEG. We aimed to study ripples in spike-free scalp EEGs. We included 23 children (6 with, 17 without epilepsy) who had an EEG without interictal epileptiform spikes recorded during sleep...
September 15, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912162/regional-cellular-environment-shapes-phenotypic-variations-of-hippocampal-and-neocortical-chandelier-cells
#5
Yugo Ishino, Michael J Yetman, Serena M Sossi, André Steinecke, Yasufumi Hayano, Hiroki Taniguchi
Different cortical regions processing distinct information, such as the hippocampus and the neocortex, share common cellular components and circuit motifs but form unique networks by modifying these cardinal units. Cortical circuits include diverse types of GABAergic interneurons (INs) that shape activity of excitatory principal neurons (PNs). Canonical IN types conserved across distinct cortical regions have been defined by their morphological, electrophysiological, and neurochemical properties. However, it remains largely unknown whether canonical IN types undergo specific modifications in distinct cortical regions and display "regional variants"...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893979/exposure-to-unpredictable-maternal-sensory-signals-influences-cognitive-development-across-species
#6
Elysia Poggi Davis, Stephanie A Stout, Jenny Molet, Brian Vegetabile, Laura M Glynn, Curt A Sandman, Kevin Heins, Hal Stern, Tallie Z Baram
Maternal care is a critical determinant of child development. However, our understanding of processes and mechanisms by which maternal behavior influences the developing human brain remains limited. Animal research has illustrated that patterns of sensory information is important in shaping neural circuits during development. Here we examined the relation between degree of predictability of maternal sensory signals early in life and subsequent cognitive function in both humans (n = 128 mother/infant dyads) and rats (n = 12 dams; 28 adolescents)...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884145/sensory-experience-shapes-the-integration-of-adult-born-neurons-into-the-olfactory-bulb
#7
Elizabeth Hanson, Jessica Swanson, Benjamin R Arenkiel
Olfaction is an ancient sensory modality which is heavily involved in viscerally-important tasks like finding food and identifying mates. Olfactory processing involves interpreting stimuli from a non-continuous odor space, and translating them into an organized pattern of neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb. Additionally, olfactory processing is rapidly modulated by behavioral states and vice versa. This implies strong bidirectional neuromodulation between the olfactory bulb and other brain regions that include the cortex, hippocampus, and basal forebrain...
August 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878682/experience-related-changes-in-place-cell-responses-to-new-sensory-configuration-that-does-not-occur-in-the-natural-environment-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#8
Dan Zou, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Yusaku Takamura, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
The hippocampal formation (HF) is implicated in a comparator that detects sensory conflict (mismatch) among convergent inputs. This suggests that new place cells encoding the new configuration with sensory mismatch develop after the HF learns to accept the new configuration as a match. To investigate this issue, HF CA1 place cell activity in rats was analyzed after the adaptation of the rats to the same sensory mismatch condition. The rats were placed on a treadmill on a stage that was translocated in a figure 8-shaped pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878628/early-correlated-network-activity-in-the-hippocampus-its-putative-role-in-shaping-neuronal-circuits
#9
REVIEW
Marilena Griguoli, Enrico Cherubini
Synchronized neuronal activity occurring at different developmental stages in various brain structures represents a hallmark of developmental circuits. This activity, which differs in its specific patterns among animal species may play a crucial role in de novo formation and in shaping neuronal networks. In the rodent hippocampus in vitro, the so-called giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) constitute a primordial form of neuronal synchrony preceding more organized forms of activity such as oscillations in the theta and gamma frequency range...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866684/functional-connectivity-pattern-of-the-internal-hippocampal-network-in-awake-pigeons-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#10
Mehdi Behroozi, Felix Ströckens, Martin Stacho, Onur Güntürkün
In the last two decades, the avian hippocampus has been repeatedly studied with respect to its architecture, neurochemistry, and connectivity pattern. We review these insights and conclude that we unfortunately still lack proper knowledge on the interaction between the different hippocampal subregions. To fill this gap, we need information on the functional connectivity pattern of the hippocampal network. These data could complement our structural connectivity knowledge. To this end, we conducted a resting-state fMRI experiment in awake pigeons in a 7-T MR scanner...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866680/on-the-value-of-reptilian-brains-to-map-the-evolution-of-the-hippocampal-formation
#11
Sam Reiter, Hua-Peng Liaw, Tracy M Yamawaki, Robert K Naumann, Gilles Laurent
Our ability to navigate through the world depends on the function of the hippocampus. This old cortical structure plays a critical role in spatial navigation in mammals and in a variety of processes, including declarative and episodic memory and social behavior. Intense research has revealed much about hippocampal anatomy, physiology, and computation; yet, even intensely studied phenomena such as the shaping of place cell activity or the function of hippocampal firing patterns during sleep remain incompletely understood...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862266/genomic-and-epigenomic-mechanisms-of-glucocorticoids-in-the-brain
#12
REVIEW
Jason D Gray, Joshua F Kogan, Jordan Marrocco, Bruce S McEwen
Following the discovery of glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus and other brain regions, research has focused on understanding the effects of glucocorticoids in the brain and their role in regulating emotion and cognition. Glucocorticoids are essential for adaptation to stressors (allostasis) and in maladaptation resulting from allostatic load and overload. Allostatic overload, which can occur during chronic stress, can reshape the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through epigenetic modification of genes in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and other stress-responsive brain regions...
September 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856240/heterogeneity-in-kv2-channel-expression-shapes-action-potential-characteristics-and-firing-patterns-in-ca1-versus-ca2-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons
#13
Stephanie Palacio, Vivien Chevaleyre, David H Brann, Karl D Murray, Rebecca A Piskorowski, James S Trimmer
The CA1 region of the hippocampus plays a critical role in spatial and contextual memory, and has well-established circuitry, function and plasticity. In contrast, the properties of the flanking CA2 pyramidal neurons (PNs), important for social memory, and lacking CA1-like plasticity, remain relatively understudied. In particular, little is known regarding the expression of voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels and the contribution of these channels to the distinct properties of intrinsic excitability, action potential (AP) waveform, firing patterns and neurotransmission between CA1 and CA2 PNs...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837234/a-precision-3d-conformal-treatment-technique-in-rats-application-to-whole-brain-radiotherapy-with-hippocampal-avoidance
#14
Suk W Yoon, Christina K Cramer, Devin A Miles, Michael H Reinsvold, Kyeung M Joo, David G Kirsch, Mark Oldham
PURPOSE: To develop and validate 3D conformal hippocampal sparing whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) for Wistar rats utilizing precision 3D printed immobilization and micro-blocks. This technique paves the way for future pre-clinical studies investigating brain treatments that reduce neurotoxicity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A novel pre-clinical treatment planning and delivery process was developed to enable precision 3D conformal treatment and hippocampal avoidance capability for the Xrad 225cx small animal irradiator...
August 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833732/grey-matter-volume-in-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa-and-associated-eating-disorder-symptoms
#15
Beatriz Martin Monzon, Luke A Henderson, Sloane Madden, Vaughan G Macefield, Stephen Touyz, Michael R Kohn, Simon Clarke, Nasim Foroughi, Phillipa Hay
Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a mental health disorder of complex aetiology. Previous neuroimaging studies have found consistent global reductions in global grey matter volume of underweight girls with AN, however differences in regional grey matter volumes are less consistent. The aims of this study were to investigate grey matter regional volumes of adolescent girls with AN before and after weight recovery and the relationship of any changes with clinical characteristics. We collected high-resolution T1-weighted images from 26 underweight girls with AN before weight gain and 20 healthy control volunteers...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780167/emotion-related-brain-structures-associated-with-trait-creativity-in-middle-children
#16
Yunman Xia, Kaixiang Zhuang, Jiangzhou Sun, Qunlin Chen, Dongtao Wei, Wenjing Yang, Jiang Qiu
Middle childhood is an important period for individual trait shaping, during which children are likely to generate and own their distinct neuromechanism of creative-related traits. This study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify the brain structures that underlie trait creativity (as measured by the Williams Creativity Aptitude Test) in a sample of typical developing children (aged 9-12, n=64). The results indicated that several emotion-related regions may relate to trait creativity in middle children...
August 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769763/development-of-serotonergic-fibers-in-the-post-natal-mouse-brain
#17
Giacomo Maddaloni, Alice Bertero, Marta Pratelli, Noemi Barsotti, Annemarie Boonstra, Andrea Giorgi, Sara Migliarini, Massimo Pasqualetti
Serotonin (5-HT)-synthetizing neurons, which are confined in the raphe nuclei of the rhombencephalon, provide a pervasive innervation of the central nervous system (CNS) and are involved in the modulation of a plethora of functions in both developing and adult brain. Classical studies have described the post-natal development of serotonergic axons as a linear process of terminal field innervation. However, technical limitations have hampered a fine morphological characterization. With the advent of genetic mouse models, the possibility to label specific neuronal populations allowed the rigorous measurement of their axonal morphological features as well as their developmental dynamics...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742496/experience-dependent-shaping-of-hippocampal-ca1-intracellular-activity-in-novel-and-familiar-environments
#18
Jeremy D Cohen, Mark Bolstad, Albert K Lee
The hippocampus is critical for producing stable representations of familiar spaces. How these representations arise is poorly understood, largely because changes to hippocampal inputs have not been measured during spatial learning. Here, using intracellular recording, we monitored inputs and plasticity-inducing complex spikes (CSs) in CA1 neurons while mice explored novel and familiar virtual environments. Inputs driving place field spiking increased in amplitude - often suddenly - during novel environment exploration...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740744/hippocampal-volume-as-an-amplifier-of-the-effect-of-social-context-on-adolescent-depression
#19
Roberta A Schriber, Zainab Anbari, Richard W Robins, Rand D Conger, Paul D Hastings, Amanda E Guyer
Recent models have focused on how brain-based individual differences in social sensitivity shape affective development in adolescence, when rates of depression escalate. Given the importance of the hippocampus in binding contextual and affective elements of experience, as well as its putative role in depression, we examined hippocampal volume as a moderator of the effects of social context on depressive symptoms in a sample of 209 Mexican-origin adolescents. Adolescents with larger versus smaller hippocampal volumes showed heightened sensitivity in their depressive symptoms to a protective factor inside the home (sense of family connectedness) and a risk factor outside of it (community crime exposure)...
July 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737295/towards-a-unified-analysis-of-brain-maturation-and-aging-across-the-entire-lifespan-a-mri-analysis
#20
Pierrick Coupé, Gwenaelle Catheline, Enrique Lanuza, José Vicente Manjón
There is no consensus in literature about lifespan brain maturation and senescence, mainly because previous lifespan studies have been performed on restricted age periods and/or with a limited number of scans, making results instable and their comparison very difficult. Moreover, the use of nonharmonized tools and different volumetric measurements lead to a great discrepancy in reported results. Thanks to the new paradigm of BigData sharing in neuroimaging and the last advances in image processing enabling to process baby as well as elderly scans with the same tool, new insights on brain maturation and aging can be obtained...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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