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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118106/sleep-in-humans-stabilizes-pattern-separation-performance
#1
A Hanert, F D Weber, A Pedersen, J Born, T Bartsch
Replay of hippocampal neural representations during sleep is thought to promote systems consolidation of declarative memory. How this reprocessing of memory during sleep affects the hippocampal representation itself, is unclear. Here we tested hippocampal stimulus processing, i.e., pattern separation, before and after periods of sleep and wakefulness in humans (female and male participants). Pattern separation deteriorated across the wake period but remained stable across sleep (p = .013) with this sleep-wake difference being most pronounced for stimuli with low similarity to targets (p = ...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116882/lingering-cognitive-states-shape-fundamental-mnemonic-abilities
#2
Anuya Patil, Katherine Duncan
Why are people sometimes able to recall associations in exquisite detail while at other times left frustrated by the deficiencies of memory? Although this apparent fickleness of memory has been extensively studied by investigating factors that build strong memory traces, researchers know less about whether memory success also depends on cognitive states that are in place when a cue is encountered. Motivating this possibility, neurocomputational models propose that the hippocampus's capacity to support associative recollection (pattern completion) is biased by persistent neurochemical states, which can be elicited by exposure to familiarity and novelty...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107186/a-bell-shaped-dependence-between-amyloidosis-and-gaba-accumulation-in-astrocytes-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Bianca Brawek, Robert Chesters, Daniel Klement, Julia Müller, Chommanad Lerdkrai, Marina Hermes, Olga Garaschuk
Functioning at the interface between the nervous and immune systems, in the amyloid-depositing brain, astrocytes become hypertrophic and accumulate around senile plaques. Moreover, hippocampal astrocytes upregulate their γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content and enhance tonic inhibition, likely causing local circuit imbalance. It remains, however, unclear whether this effect is hippocampus specific and how it is regulated during disease progression. Here, we studied changes in astrocytic morphology and GABA content in the frontal cortex and dentate gyrus of control and amyloid-depositing mice...
October 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101600/normal-diet-vs-high-fat-diet-a-comparative-study-behavioral-and-neuroimmunological-changes-in-adolescent-male-mice
#4
Huali Wu, Qiongzhen Liu, Praveen Kumar Kalavagunta, Qiaoling Huang, Wenting Lv, Xiaohong An, Haijuan Chen, Tao Wang, Rakotomalala Manda Heriniaina, Tong Qiao, Jing Shang
Recent evidence has established that consumption of High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is associated with deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory/learning and mood states. Nevertheless the link between obesity and emotional disorders still remains to be elucidated. This issue is of particular interest during adolescence, which is important period for shaping learning/memory and mood regulation that can be sensitive to the detrimental effects of HFD. Our present study is focused to investigate behavioral and metabolic influences of short-term HFD intake in adolescent C57BL/6 mice...
November 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080714/hippocampal-morphology-mediates-biased-memories-of-chronic-pain
#5
Sara E Berger, Étienne Vachon-Presseau, Taha B Abdullah, Alex T Baria, Thomas J Schnitzer, A Vania Apkarian
Experiences and memories are often mismatched. While multiple studies have investigated psychological underpinnings of recall error with respect to emotional events, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the divergence between experiences and memories remain relatively unexplored in the domain of chronic pain. Here we examined the discrepancy between experienced chronic low back pain (CBP) intensity (twice daily ratings) and remembered pain intensity (n = 48 subjects) relative to psychometric properties, hippocampus morphology, memory capabilities, and personality traits related to reward...
November 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060217/chronic-multi-region-recording-from-the-rat-hippocampus-in-vivo-with-a-flexible-parylene-based-multi-electrode-array
#6
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman, Kee Scholten, Ellis Meng, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song
Neural activities of free-moving animals provide valuable insights into behavior, memory formation and cognitive function of the hippocampus. Unitary activities simultaneously recorded from multiple sub-regions of the hippocampus enable detailed study of hippocampal neural circuits, but require high fidelity recordings with high temporal and spatial resolution. In this work, we explored the possibility of using Parylene-C as the structural material for a penetrating, multi-electrode array designed to record from multiple sub-region of the rat hippocampus...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058356/predicting-auditory-feedback-control-of-speech-production-from-subregional-shape-of-subcortical-structures
#7
Xiaoying Tang, Na Chen, Siyun Zhang, Jeffery A Jones, Baofeng Zhang, Jingyuan Li, Peng Liu, Hanjun Liu
Although a growing body of research has focused on the cortical sensorimotor mechanisms that support auditory feedback control of speech production, much less is known about the subcortical contributions to this control process. This study examined whether subregional anatomy of subcortical structures assessed by statistical shape analysis is associated with vocal compensations and cortical event-related potentials in response to pitch feedback errors. The results revealed significant negative correlations between the magnitudes of vocal compensations and subregional shape of the right thalamus, between the latencies of vocal compensations and subregional shape of the left caudate and pallidum, and between the latencies of cortical N1 responses and subregional shape of the left putamen...
October 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053191/perceived-stress-is-associated-with-smaller-hippocampal-volume-in-adolescence
#8
Luciane R Piccolo, Kimberly G Noble
Perceived stress has been associated with decreased hippocampal, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex volume, as well as decreased memory and executive functioning performance in adulthood. Parents' perceived stress has been linked to decreased hippocampal volume in young children. However, no studies have investigated the links between self-perceived stress and brain structure or function in adolescents. Additionally, findings from previous research with younger or older samples are inconsistent, likely in part due to inconsistencies in participants' age range...
October 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037598/hierarchical-subcortical-sub-regional-shape-network-analysis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Jingyuan Li, Yujing Gong, Xiaoying Tang
In this paper, by utilizing surface diffeomorphic deformations, we constructed and analyzed subcortical shape morphometric networks in 210 healthy control (HC) subjects and 175 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), aiming to identify AD-induced abnormalities in the subcortical shape network. We quantitatively analyzed pertinent network attributes of the entire network and each node. Further to this, hierarchical analyses were performed; group comparisons were conducted at the structure level first and then the sub-region level...
October 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034421/hippocampal-deformations-and-entorhinal-cortex-atrophy-as-an-anatomical-signature-of-long-term-cognitive-impairment-from-the-mcao-rat-model-to-the-stroke-patient
#10
C Delattre, C Bournonville, F Auger, R Lopes, C Delmaire, H Henon, A M Mendyk, S Bombois, J C Devedjian, D Leys, C Cordonnier, R Bordet, M Bastide
Stroke patients have an elevated risk of developing long-term cognitive disorders or dementia. The latter is often associated with atrophy of the medial temporal lobe. However, it is not clear whether hippocampal and entorhinal cortex atrophy is the sole predictor of long-term post-stroke dementia. We hypothesized that hippocampal deformation (rather than atrophy) is a predictive marker of long-term post-stroke dementia on a rat model and tested this hypothesis in a prospective cohort of stroke patients.Male Wistar rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and assessed 6 months later...
October 16, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032391/representation-of-environmental-shape-in-the-hippocampus-of-domestic-chicks-gallus-gallus
#11
Uwe Mayer, Rachel Bhushan, Giorgio Vallortigara, Sang Ah Lee
The hippocampus plays an important role in spatial encoding and memory across various vertebrate species. In rodents, hippocampal neurons are particularly sensitive to a change in environmental geometry. Given the similarities in function between the mammalian and avian hippocampi, we aimed to measure whether enclosures varying in geometric shape (square and rectangle) can differentially activate hippocampal cells in the domestic chick (Gallus gallus domesticus). Chicks exposed to both a square and a rectangular arena exhibited a significantly higher neural activation (as measured by c-Fos expression) than those exposed twice to just the square or just the rectangle (both of which were significantly higher in activation than a one-environment control group)...
October 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974382/dual-effect-of-serotonin-on-the-dendritic-growth-of-cultured-hippocampal-neurons-involvement-of-5-ht1a-and-5-ht7-receptors
#12
P S Rojas, F Aguayo, D Neira, M Tejos, E Aliaga, J P Muñoz, C S Parra, J L Fiedler
Serotonin acts through its receptors (5-HTRs) to shape brain networks during development and modulates essential functions in mature brain. The 5-HT1AR is mainly located at soma of hippocampal neurons early during brain development and its expression gradually shifts to dendrites during postnatal development. The 5-HT7R expressed early during hippocampus development, shows a progressive reduction in its expression postnatally. Considering these changes during development, we evaluated in cultured hippocampal neurons whether the 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R change their expression, modulate dendritic growth, and activate signaling pathways such as ERK1/2, AKT/GSK3β and LIMK/cofilin, which may sustain dendrite outgrowth by controlling cytoskeleton dynamics...
September 30, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968928/effects-of-tianmagouteng-particles-on-brain-cognitive-function-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-with-hyperactivity-of-liver-yang-a-f-18-fdg-micro-pet-imaging-study
#13
Xiu-Jing Zhang, Tian-Cai Sun, Zi-Wang Liu, Feng-Jiao Wang, Yong-De Wang, Jing Liu
OBJECTIVE: To collect visualized proof of Tianmagouteng particles (TMGTP) in alleviating cognitive dysfunction and to explore its effects on brain activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with hyperactivity of liver-yang (Gan Yang Shang Kang, GYSK). METHODS: Sixteen SHRs were randomized into treatment group and non-treatment. The SHR with GYSK was induced by gavaging aconite decoction (10mL/kg at 0.2g/mL). After the SHR models were prepared, the rats in the treatment group were administered TMGTP (10mL/kg) once a day for 14days...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968811/human-parahippocampal-cortex-supports-spatial-binding-in-visual-working-memory
#14
Neil Michael Dundon, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq Katshu, Bronson Harry, Daniel Roberts, E Charles Leek, Paul Downing, Ayelet Sapir, Craig Roberts, Giovanni d'Avossa
Studies investigating the functional organization of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) suggest that parahippocampal cortex (PHC) generates representations of spatial and contextual information used by the hippocampus in the formation of episodic memories. However, evidence from animal studies also implicates PHC in spatial binding of visual information held in short term, working memory. Here we examined a 46-year-old man (P.J.), after he had recovered from bilateral medial occipitotemporal cortex strokes resulting in ischemic lesions of PHC and hippocampal atrophy, and a group of age-matched healthy controls...
September 15, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960441/application-of-2-and-3-dimensional-sonography-using-the-virtual-organ-computer-aided-analysis-technique-to-measure-the-hippocampal-formation-and-its-correlation-with-corrected-gestational-age-in-neonates
#15
Xiaokang Chen, Shiyin Hu, Guorong Lv
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to use transcranial 2- and 3-dimensional sonography with the Virtual Organ computer-aided analysis (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) technique to observe the morphologic characteristics of the hippocampal formation and to analyze its correlation with the corrected gestational age. METHODS: Transcranial sonography was performed from the sagittal plane of the anterior fontanel to the sagittal plane of the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950954/neurobiology-of-infant-attachment-attachment-despite-adversity-and-parental-programming-of-emotionality
#16
REVIEW
Rosemarie E Perry, Clancy Blair, Regina M Sullivan
We review recent findings related to the neurobiology of infant attachment, emphasizing the role of parenting quality in attachment formation and emotional development. Current findings suggest that the development of brain structures important for emotional expression and regulation (amygdala, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus) is deeply associated with the quality of care received in infancy, with sensitive caregiving providing regulation vital for programming these structures, ultimately shaping the development of emotion into adulthood...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945591/skeletal-shape-correspondence-through-entropy
#17
Liyun Tu, Martin Styner, Jared Vicory, Shireen Elhabian, Rui Wang, Junpyo Hong, Beatriz Paniagua, Juan C Prieto, Dan Yang, Ross Whitaker, Stephen M Pizer
We present a novel approach for improving the shape statistics of medical image objects by generating correspondence of skeletal points. Each object's interior is modeled by an s-rep, i.e., by a sampled, folded, 2-sided skeletal sheet with spoke vectors proceeding from the skeletal sheet to the boundary. The skeleton is divided into three parts: the up side, the down side and the fold curve. The spokes on each part are treated separately and, using spoke interpolation, are shifted along that skeleton in each training sample so as to tighten the probability distribution on those spokes' geometric properties while sampling the object interior regularly...
September 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928740/microbiome-derived-lipopolysaccharide-enriched-in-the-perinuclear-region-of-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#18
Yuhai Zhao, Lin Cong, Vivian Jaber, Walter J Lukiw
Abundant clinical, epidemiological, imaging, genetic, molecular, and pathophysiological data together indicate that there occur an unusual inflammatory reaction and a disruption of the innate-immune signaling system in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Despite many years of intense study, the origin and molecular mechanics of these AD-relevant pathogenic signals are still not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that an intensely pro-inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), part of a complex mixture of pro-inflammatory neurotoxins arising from abundant Gram-negative bacilli of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, are abundant in AD-affected brain neocortex and hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921762/inhibition-shapes-the-organization-of-hippocampal-representations
#19
Sam McKenzie
Hippocampal neurons become tuned to stimuli that predict behaviorally salient outcomes. This plasticity suggests that memory formation depends upon shifts in how different anatomical inputs can drive hippocampal activity. Here, I present evidence that inhibitory neurons can provide such a mechanism for learning-related changes in the tuning of pyramidal cells. Inhibitory currents arriving on the dendrites of pyramidal cells determine whether an excitatory input can drive action potential output. Specificity and plasticity of this dendritic modulation allows for precise, modifiable changes in how afferent inputs are integrated, a process that defines a neuron's receptive field...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917608/environmental-enrichment-in-the-absence-of-wheel-running-produces-beneficial-behavioural-and-anti-oxidative-effects-in-rats
#20
F Mármol, J Sánchez, M N Torres, V D Chamizo
The effects of early environmental enrichment (EE) when solving a simple spatial task in adult male rats were assessed. After weaning, rats were housed in pairs in enriched or standard cages (EE and control groups) for two and a half months. Then the rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool. As expected, enriched rats reached the platform faster than control animals...
November 2017: Behavioural Processes
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