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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767995/structure-activity-relationships-and-therapeutic-potentials-of-5-ht7-receptor-ligands-an-update
#1
Maria N Modica, Enza Lacivita, Sebastiano Intagliata, Loredana Salerno, Giuseppe Romeo, Valeria Pittala, Marcello Leopoldo
Serotonin 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) has been the subject of intense research efforts because of its presence in brain areas such as hippocampus, hypothalamus, and cortex. Preclinical data link the 5-HT7R to a variety of central nervous system processes such as regulation of circadian rhythms, mood, cognitions, pain processing, and mechanisms of addiction. 5-HT7R blockade has antidepressant effects and may ameliorate cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. 5-HT7R has been recently shown to modulate neuronal morphology, excitability, and plasticity, thus contributing to shape brain networks during development and to remodel neuronal wiring in the mature brain...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760178/region-and-activity-dependent-regulation-of-extracellular-glutamate
#2
Nawrin F Pinky, Crystal M Wilkie, Jocelyn R Barnes, Matthew P Parsons
Transporter-mediated glutamate uptake plays an essential role in shaping synaptic neurotransmission. The rapid removal of synaptically-released glutamate ensures the high temporal dynamics characteristic of fast excitatory chemical neurotransmission and prevents the overexcitation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors that have been implicated in synaptic plasticity impairments and cell death. Despite clear regional differences in plasticity and excitotoxic thresholds, few studies have compared extracellular glutamate dynamics across different brain regions and in response to a range of neural activity including plasticity-inducing stimuli...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712780/the-neural-correlates-of-hierarchical-predictions-for-perceptual-decisions
#3
Veith Weilnhammer, Heiner Stuke, Philipp Sterzer, Katharina Schmack
Sensory information is inherently noisy, sparse and ambiguous. In contrast, visual experience is usually clear, detailed and stable. Bayesian theories of perception resolve this discrepancy by assuming that prior knowledge about the causes underlying sensory stimulation actively shapes perceptual decisions. To this end, the central nervous system is believed to entertain a generative model aligned to dynamic changes in the hierarchical states of our volatile sensory environment. Here, we used model-based fMRI to study the neural correlates of the dynamic updating of hierarchically structured predictions in male and female human observers...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695149/changes-in-the-hippocampal-volume-and-shape-in-early-onset-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Seok Woo Moon, Boram Lee, Young Chil Choi
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the change in the hippocampal volume and shape in early-onset mild cognitive impairment (EO-MCI) associated with the APOE ε4 carrier state. Methods: This study had 50 subjects aged 55-63 years, all of whom were diagnosed with MCI at baseline via the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet. The EO-MCI patients were divided into the MCI continued (MCIcont) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) converted (ADconv) groups 2 years later...
April 27, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660108/early-development-of-the-longsnout-seahorse-hippocampus-reidi-syngnathidae-within-the-male-brood-pouch
#5
B Novelli, F Otero Ferrer, J A Socorro, L Molina Domínguez
Fertilized and unfertilized eggs and embryos of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi were collected at different stages of development and provided the basis for a description of morphological development from fertilization until release from the paternal pouch. Images of fertilized eggs, as well as their rupture after a few minutes in seawater are reported for the first time. The yolk sac transitioned from ovoid to spherical shape and was reabsorbed progressively until release. The tail began rising from the surface of the deuteroplasm while embryos were in the egg envelope...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621410/exploring-the-effect-of-chronotype-on-hippocampal-volume-and-shape-a-combined-approach
#6
Charlotte Mary Horne, Ray Norbury
Current evidence suggests that acute depression is associated with reduced total hippocampal volume and regional atrophy. Here, using structural magnetic resonance imaging, we assayed linear effects of chronotype on total hippocampal volume and morphology. Later chronotype was associated with localised atrophy in the subiculum region of the right hippocampus in the absence of changes in total volume. The hippocampus forms a key node in a network of brain regions implicated in emotional regulation and alterations in the structure of this region may underpin, in part, the increased vulnerability for depression in late chronotype individuals...
April 5, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618742/early-life-stress-induces-long-term-changes-in-limbic-areas-of-a-teleost-fish-the-role-of-catecholamine-systems-in-stress-coping
#7
Marco A Vindas, Stefanos Fokos, Michail Pavlidis, Erik Höglund, Sylvia Dionysopoulou, Lars O E Ebbesson, Nikolaos Papandroulakis, Catherine R Dermon
Early life stress (ELS) shapes the way individuals cope with future situations. Animals use cognitive flexibility to cope with their ever-changing environment and this is mainly processed in forebrain areas. We investigated the performance of juvenile gilthead seabream, previously subjected to an ELS regime. ELS fish showed overall higher brain catecholaminergic (CA) signalling and lower brain derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) and higher cfos expression in region-specific areas. All fish showed a normal cortisol and serotonergic response to acute stress...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588222/the-transformation-of-multi-sensory-experiences-into-memories-during-sleep
#8
Gideon Rothschild
Our everyday lives present us with a continuous stream of multi-modal sensory inputs. While most of this information is soon forgotten, sensory information associated with salient experiences can leave long-lasting memories in our minds. Extensive human and animal research has established that the hippocampus is critically involved in this process of memory formation and consolidation. However, the underlying mechanistic details are still only partially understood. Specifically, the hippocampus has often been suggested to encode information during experience, temporarily store it, and gradually transfer this information to the cortex during sleep...
March 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575911/t-2-mycotoxin-treatment-of-newborn-rat-pups-does-not-significantly-affect-nervous-system-functions-in-adulthood
#9
Petra Varró, Melinda Béldi, Melinda Kovács, Ildikó Világi
T-2 toxin is primarily produced by Fusarium sp. abundant under temperate climatic conditions. Its main harmful effect is the inhibition of protein synthesis. Causing oxidative stress, it also promotes lipid peroxidation and changes plasma membrane phospholipid composition; this may lead to nervous system alterations. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a single dose of T-2 toxin administered at newborn age has any long-lasting effects on nervous system functions. Rat pups were treated on the first postnatal day with a single intraperitoneal dose of T-2 toxin (0...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572476/linear-and-inverted-u-shaped-dose-response-functions-describe-estrogen-effects-on-hippocampal-activity-in-young-women
#10
Janine Bayer, Jan Gläscher, Jürgen Finsterbusch, Laura H Schulte, Tobias Sommer
In animals, 17-beta-estradiol (E2) enhances hippocampal plasticity in a dose-dependent, monotonically increasing manner, but this relationship can also exhibit an inverted U-shaped function. To investigate E2's dose-response function in the human hippocampus, we pharmacologically increased E2 levels in 125 naturally cycling women (who were in their low-hormone menstruation phase) to physiological (equivalent to menstrual cycle peak) and supraphysiological (equivalent to levels during early pregnancy) concentrations in a placebo-controlled design...
March 23, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555375/neuroestrogens-rapidly-shape-auditory-circuits-to-support-communication-learning-and-perception-evidence-from-songbirds
#11
REVIEW
Daniel M Vahaba, Luke Remage-Healey
Steroid hormones, such as estrogens, were once thought to be exclusively synthesized in the ovaries and enact transcriptional changes over the course of hours to days. However, estrogens are also locally synthesized within neural circuits, wherein they rapidly (within minutes) modulate a range of behaviors, including spatial cognition and communication. Here, we review the role of brain-derived estrogens (neuroestrogens) as modulators within sensory circuits in songbirds. We first present songbirds as an attractive model to explore how neuroestrogens in auditory cortex modulate vocal communication processing and learning...
March 29, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546895/nanoencapsulation-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-using-a-combination-of-food-grade-polymeric-wall-materials-and-its-application-for-improvement-in-bioavailability-and-oxidative-stability
#12
Harmanpreet Singh, Chateshwar Kumar, Narpinder Singh, Surinder Paul, Subheet Kumar Jain
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a vital structural component of neuronal tissue, which is critically required during pre- and post-natal brain development. Its liquid nature, fishy odor, poor bioavailability and oxidative stability are the major challenges in the development of a pharmaceutically elegant and stable formulation. In the present study, nanocapsules of DHA from microalgae oil were prepared using different combinations of wall materials (carbohydrates, polymers, gum and proteins). The encapsulation using spray drying was done to prepare a pharmaceutically stable DHA formulation...
April 25, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535044/hippocampal-representations-as-a-function-of-time-subregion-and-brain-state
#13
Katherine D Duncan, Margaret L Schlichting
How does the hippocampus represent interrelated experiences in memory? We review prominent yet seemingly contradictory theoretical perspectives, which propose that the hippocampus distorts experiential representations to either emphasize their distinctiveness or highlight common elements. These fundamentally different kinds of memory representations may be instantiated in the brain via conjunctive separated codes and adaptively differentiated codes on the one hand, or integrated relational codes on the other...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527502/systematic-comparison-of-different-techniques-to-measure-hippocampal-subfield-volumes-in-adni2
#14
Susanne G Mueller, Paul A Yushkevich, Sandhitsu Das, Lei Wang, Koen Van Leemput, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Kate Alpert, Adam Mezher, Peter Ng, Katrina Paz, Michael W Weiner
Objective: Subfield-specific measurements provide superior information in the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases compared to global hippocampal measurements. The overall goal was to systematically compare the performance of five representative manual and automated T1 and T2 based subfield labeling techniques in a sub-set of the ADNI2 population. Methods: The high resolution T2 weighted hippocampal images (T2-HighRes) and the corresponding T1 images from 106 ADNI2 subjects (41 controls, 57 MCI, 8 AD) were processed as follows...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520221/topographic-organization-of-hippocampal-inputs-to-the-anterior-olfactory-nucleus
#15
Afif J Aqrabawi, Jun Chul Kim
Top-down processes conveying contextual information play a major role in shaping odor representations within the olfactory system, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The hippocampus (HPC) is a major source of olfactory top-down modulation, providing direct excitatory inputs to the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON). However, HPC-AON projections remain uncharacterized. In an effort to understand how hippocampal inputs are distributed within the AON, we systematically outlined their organization using anterograde and retrograde tracing methods...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496632/stereological-analysis-of-microglia-in-aged-male-and-female-fischer-344-rats-in-socially-relevant-brain-regions
#16
Amy E Perkins, Michelle K Piazza, Terrence Deak
Aging is associated with a substantial decline in the expression of social behavior as well as increased neuroinflammation. Since immune activation and subsequent increased expression of cytokines can suppress social behavior in young rodents, we examined age and sex differences in microglia within brain regions critical to social behavior regulation (PVN, BNST, and MEA) as well as in the hippocampus. Adult (3-month) and aged (18-month) male and female F344 (N = 26, n = 5-8/group) rats were perfused and Iba-1 immunopositive microglia were assessed using unbiased stereology and optical density...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488136/ambra1-shapes-hippocampal-inhibition-excitation-balance-role-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#17
Annalisa Nobili, Paraskevi Krashia, Alberto Cordella, Livia La Barbera, Maria Concetta Dell'Acqua, Angela Caruso, Annabella Pignataro, Ramona Marino, Francesca Sciarra, Filippo Biamonte, Maria Luisa Scattoni, Martine Ammassari-Teule, Francesco Cecconi, Nicola Berretta, Flavio Keller, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Marcello D'Amelio
Imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission cause brain network dysfunction and are central to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Parvalbumin interneurons are highly implicated in this imbalance. Here, we probed the social behavior and hippocampal function of mice carrying a haploinsufficiency for Ambra1, a pro-autophagic gene crucial for brain development. We show that heterozygous Ambra1 mice (Ambra+/- ) are characterized by loss of hippocampal parvalbumin interneurons, decreases in the inhibition/excitation ratio, and altered social behaviors that are solely restricted to the female gender...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487336/enhanced-synaptic-plasticity-and-spatial-memory-in-female-but-not-male-flrt2-haplodeficient-mice
#18
Ana Cicvaric, Jiaye Yang, Tanja Bulat, Alice Zambon, Manuel Dominguez-Rodriguez, Rebekka Kühn, Michael G Sadowicz, Anjana Siwert, Joaquim Egea, Daniela D Pollak, Thomas Moeslinger, Francisco J Monje
The Fibronectin Leucine-Rich Transmembrane protein 2 (FLRT2) has been implicated in several hormone -and sex-dependent physiological and pathological processes (including chondrogenesis, menarche and breast cancer); is known to regulate developmental synapses formation, and is expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure central for learning and memory. However, the role of FLRT2 in the adult hippocampus and its relevance in sex-dependent brain functions remains unknown. We here used adult single-allele FLRT2 knockout (FLRT2+/- ) mice and behavioral, electrophysiological, and molecular/biological assays to examine the effects of FLRT2 haplodeficiency on synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning and memory...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475070/distinct-regions-of-the-hippocampus-are-associated-with-memory-for-different-spatial-locations
#19
Brittany M Jeye, Sean P MacEvoy, Jessica M Karanian, Scott D Slotnick
In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we aimed to evaluate whether distinct regions of the hippocampus were associated with spatial memory for items presented in different locations of the visual field. In Experiment 1, during the study phase, participants viewed abstract shapes in the left or right visual field while maintaining central fixation. At test, old shapes were presented at fixation and participants classified each shape as previously in the "left" or "right" visual field followed by an "unsure"-"sure"-"very sure" confidence rating...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474008/an-inverse-u-shaped-curve-of-resting-state-networks-in-individuals-at-high-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Qing Ye, Haifeng Chen, Fan Su, Hao Shu, Liang Gong, Chunming Xie, Hong Zhou, Feng Bai
OBJECTIVE: Higher functional connectivity (FC) in resting-state networks has been shown in individuals at risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by many studies. However, the longitudinal trajectories of the FC remain unknown. The present 35-month follow-up study aimed to explore longitudinal changes in higher FC in multiple resting-state networks in subjects with the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (ApoE4) and/or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: Fifty-one subjects with aMCI and 64 cognitively normal (CN) subjects underwent neuropsychological tests and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans twice from April 2011 to June 2015...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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