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Hippocampus shape

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326035/hippocampal-and-amygdala-gray-matter-loss-in-elderly-controls-with-subtle-cognitive-decline
#1
Davide Zanchi, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Stefan Borgwardt, Cristelle Rodriguez, Sven Haller
In contrast to the idea that hippocampal and amygdala volume loss occur in late phases of neurodegeneration, recent contributions point to the relevance of preexisting structural deficits that are associated with aging and are independent of amyloid deposition in preclinical Alzheimer disease cases. The present work explores GM hippocampal and amygdala volumes in elderly controls displaying the first signs of cognitive decline. 455 subjects (263 females), including 374 controls (228 females) and 81 middle cognitive impairment subjects (35 females), underwent two neuropsychological evaluations (baseline and 18 months follow-up) and a MRI-T1 examination (only baseline)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324222/bdnf-mrna-splice-variants-differentially-impact-ca1-and-ca3-dendrite-complexity-and-spine-morphology-in-the-hippocampus
#2
Kristen R Maynard, John W Hobbs, Mahima Sukumar, Alisha S Kardian, Dennisse V Jimenez, Robert J Schloesser, Keri Martinowich
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an activity-dependent neurotrophin critical for neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus. BDNF is encoded by multiple transcripts with alternative 5' untranslated regions (5'UTRS) that display activity-induced targeting to distinct subcellular compartments. While individual Bdnf 5'UTR transcripts influence dendrite morphology in cultured hippocampal neurons, it is unknown whether Bdnf splice variants impact dendrite arborization in functional classes of neurons in the intact hippocampus...
March 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319111/volumetric-two-photon-imaging-of-neurons-using-stereoscopy-vtwins
#3
Alexander Song, Adam S Charles, Sue Ann Koay, Jeff L Gauthier, Stephan Y Thiberge, Jonathan W Pillow, David W Tank
Two-photon laser scanning microscopy of calcium dynamics using fluorescent indicators is a widely used imaging method for large-scale recording of neural activity in vivo. Here, we introduce volumetric two-photon imaging of neurons using stereoscopy (vTwINS), a volumetric calcium imaging method that uses an elongated, V-shaped point spread function to image a 3D brain volume. Single neurons project to spatially displaced 'image pairs' in the resulting 2D image, and the separation distance between projections is proportional to depth in the volume...
March 20, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294135/bidirectional-control-of-anxiety-related-behaviours-in-mice-role-of-inputs-arising-from-the-ventral-hippocampus-to-the-lateral-septum-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Gustavo Morrone Parfitt, Robin Nguyen, Jee Yoon Bang, Afif Aqrabawi, Matthew M Tran, D Kanghoon Seo, Blake A Richards, Jun Chul Kim
Anxiety is an adaptive response to potentially threatening situations. Exaggerated and uncontrolled anxiety responses become maladaptive and lead to anxiety disorders. Anxiety is shaped by a network of forebrain structures, including the hippocampus, septum, and prefrontal cortex. In particular, neural inputs arising from the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) to the lateral septum (LS) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are thought to serve as principal components of the anxiety circuit. However, the role of vHPC-to-LS and vHPC-to-mPFC signals in anxiety is unclear, as no study has directly compared their behavioural contribution at circuit level...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269165/principal-component-analysis-of-the-shape-deformations-of-the-hippocampus-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Xiaoying Tang, Jiong Wu
In this paper, we present the principal component analysis (PCA) of shape deformations of bilateral hippocampi in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as derived in the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping setting. We investigated the PCA patterns (the scores and loadings) of the bilateral hippocampi for 51 subjects, 28 of which had AD while 23 were normal aging. Student's t-tests were used to select the components displaying significant group difference for a more purposed analysis. Our findings revealed that the head part of the hippocampus in each hemisphere, to be specific the CA1 and subiculum subregions, contributed the most to the significant group differences...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264071/prediction-and-classification-of-alzheimer-disease-based-on-quantification-of-mri-deformation
#6
Xiaojing Long, Lifang Chen, Chunxiang Jiang, Lijuan Zhang
Detecting early morphological changes in the brain and making early diagnosis are important for Alzheimer's disease (AD). High resolution magnetic resonance imaging can be used to help diagnosis and prediction of the disease. In this paper, we proposed a machine learning method to discriminate patients with AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from healthy elderly and to predict the AD conversion in MCI patients by computing and analyzing the regional morphological differences of brain between groups. Distance between each pair of subjects was quantified from a symmetric diffeomorphic registration, followed by an embedding algorithm and a learning approach for classification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261058/late-onset-cognitive-impairments-after-early-life-stress-are-shaped-by-inherited-differences-in-stress-reactivity
#7
Silja McIlwrick, Tobias Pohl, Alon Chen, Chadi Touma
Early-life stress (ELS) has been associated with lasting cognitive impairments and with an increased risk for affective disorders. A dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the body's main stress response system, is critically involved in mediating these long-term consequences of adverse early-life experience. It remains unclear to what extent an inherited predisposition for HPA axis sensitivity or resilience influences the relationship between ELS and cognitive impairments, and which neuroendocrine and molecular mechanisms may be involved...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256580/par1-activation-induces-rapid-changes-in-glutamate-uptake-and-astrocyte-morphology
#8
Amanda M Sweeney, Kelsey E Fleming, John P McCauley, Marvin F Rodriguez, Elliot T Martin, Alioscka A Sousa, Richard D Leapman, Annalisa Scimemi
The G-protein coupled, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a membrane protein expressed in astrocytes. Fine astrocytic processes are in tight contact with neurons and blood vessels and shape excitatory synaptic transmission due to their abundant expression of glutamate transporters. PAR1 is proteolytically-activated by bloodstream serine proteases also involved in the formation of blood clots. PAR1 activation has been suggested to play a key role in pathological states like thrombosis, hemostasis and inflammation...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227394/principal-component-analysis-of-the-shape-deformations-of-the-hippocampus-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Xiaoying Tang, Jiong Wu, Xiaoying Tang, Jiong Wu, Xiaoying Tang, Jiong Wu
In this paper, we present the principal component analysis (PCA) of shape deformations of bilateral hippocampi in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as derived in the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping setting. We investigated the PCA patterns (the scores and loadings) of the bilateral hippocampi for 51 subjects, 28 of which had AD while 23 were normal aging. Student's t-tests were used to select the components displaying significant group difference for a more purposed analysis. Our findings revealed that the head part of the hippocampus in each hemisphere, to be specific the CA1 and subiculum subregions, contributed the most to the significant group differences...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225843/-poverty-and-mental-disability-in-the-criminal-law-the-invisibles
#10
Ezequiel N Mercurio
In recent decades neuroscience research show the negative consequences of poverty in cognitive development. Environmental factors, such as material deprivation, exposure to stressful situations, violence, nutritional deprivation, environmental toxins may shape the developing brain. The changes of the structure and function of the brain since prenatal stages and their consequences can remain stable throughout the life cycle except early interventions are made. Research investigating have found significant link between child poverty and function and structural brain focusing on prefrontal cortex (i...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219813/an-adverse-early-life-environment-can-enhance-stress-resilience-in-adulthood
#11
Sara Santarelli, Christoph Zimmermann, Georgia Kalideris, Sylvie L Lesuis, Janine Arloth, Andrés Uribe, Carine Dournes, Georgia Balsevich, Jakob Hartmann, Mercè Masana, Elisabeth B Binder, Dietmar Spengler, Mathias V Schmidt
Chronic stress is a major risk factor for depression. Interestingly, not all individuals develop psychopathology after chronic stress exposure. In contrast to the prevailing view that stress effects are cumulative and increase stress vulnerability throughout life, the match/mismatch hypothesis of psychiatric disorders. The match/mismatch hypothesis proposes that individuals who experience moderate levels of early life psychosocial stress can acquire resilience to renewed stress exposure later in life. Here, we have tested this hypothesis by comparing the developmental effects of 2 opposite early life conditions, when followed by 2 opposite adult environments...
February 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199858/associations-between-hippocampal-morphology-diffusion-characteristics-and-salivary-cortisol-in-older-men
#12
Simon R Cox, Maria Del Carmen Valdés Hernández, Jaeil Kim, Natalie A Royle, Sarah E MacPherson, Karen J Ferguson, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Devasuda Anblagan, Benjamin S Aribisala, Mark E Bastin, Jinah Park, John M Starr, Ian J Deary, Alasdair M J MacLullich, Joanna M Wardlaw
High, unabated glucocorticoid (GC) levels are thought to selectively damage certain tissue types. The hippocampus is thought to be particularly susceptible to such effects, and though findings from animal models and human patients provide some support for this hypothesis, evidence for associations between elevated GCs and lower hippocampal volumes in older age (when GC levels are at greater risk of dysregulation) is inconclusive. To address the possibility that the effects of GCs in non-pathological ageing may be too subtle for gross volumetry to reliably detect, we analyse associations between salivary cortisol (diurnal and reactive measures), hippocampal morphology and diffusion characteristics in 88 males, aged ∼73 years...
January 27, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191031/level-set-based-hippocampus-segmentation-in-mr-images-with-improved-initialization-using-region-growing
#13
Xiaoliang Jiang, Zhaozhong Zhou, Xiaokang Ding, Xiaolei Deng, Ling Zou, Bailin Li
The hippocampus has been known as one of the most important structures referred to as Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. However, segmentation of the hippocampus from MR images is still a challenging task due to its small size, complex shape, low contrast, and discontinuous boundaries. For the accurate and efficient detection of the hippocampus, a new image segmentation method based on adaptive region growing and level set algorithm is proposed. Firstly, adaptive region growing and morphological operations are performed in the target regions and its output is used for the initial contour of level set evolution method...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177723/fish-oil-and-treadmill-exercise-have-age-dependent-effects-on-episodic-memory-and-oxidative-state-of-the-hippocampus
#14
Patrícia Fortes Cavalcanti de Macêdo, Janatar Stella Vasconcelos de Melo, Laís Alves Ribeiro Costa, Glauber Rudá Feitoza Braz, Shirley M de Sousa, Cláudia J Lagranha, Manuella Batista-de-Oliveira Hornsby
There is a growing interest to better understand how lifestyle choices can improve memory functions. Treadmill exercise (Ex) and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in fish oil (Fo) are able to stimulate hippocampal antioxidant defenses and improve memory. The aim was to test whether (Fo) and (Ex) can improve rat's performance on memory tasks and optimize hippocampal antioxidant state in an age-dependent manner. Therefore, young and adult rats were exercised and received (Fo) during four weeks...
January 9, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176504/morphological-and-microstructural-changes-of-the-hippocampus-in-early-mci-a-study-utilizing-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-database
#15
Peter Lee, Hojin Ryoo, Jinah Park, Yong Jeong
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: With the aim of facilitating the early detection of Alzheimer's disease, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative proposed two stages based on the memory performance: early mild cognitive impairment (EMCI) and late mild cognitive impairment (LMCI). The current study was designed to investigate structural differences in terms of surface atrophy and microstructural changes of the hippocampus in EMCI and LMCI. METHODS: Hippocampal shape modeling based on progressive template surface deformation was performed on T1-weighted MRI images obtained from 20 cognitive normal (CN) subjects, 17 EMCI patients, and 20 LMCI patients...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140659/protective-effect-of-mild-induced-hypothermia-against-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-involved-in-necroptotic-and-apoptotic-pathways
#16
Hai-Bo Zhang, Shi-Xiang Cheng, Yue Tu, Sai Zhang, Shi-Ke Hou, Zhen Yang
AIM: To investigate the protective effect of hypothermia (HT) on brain injury in moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) rat models and the potential mechanisms, especially the involvement of RIPK1 in apoptosis and necroptosis. METHODS: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four groups: sham+normothermia (sham+NT), sham+hypothermia (sham+HT), moderate TBI+normothermia (TBI+NT) and moderate TBI+hypothermia (TBI+HT). The sham+HT and TBI+HT groups were submitted to 32°C for 6 hours...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131016/rod-shaped-microglia-morphology-is-associated-with-aging-in-2-human-autopsy-series
#17
Adam D Bachstetter, Eseosa T Ighodaro, Yasmin Hassoun, Danah Aldeiri, Janna H Neltner, Ela Patel, Erin L Abner, Peter T Nelson
A subtype of microglia is defined by the morphological appearance of the cells as rod shaped. Little is known about this intriguing cell type, as there are only a few case reports describing rod-shaped microglia in the neuropathological literature. Rod-shaped microglia were shown recently to account for a substantial proportion of the microglia cells in the hippocampus of both demented and cognitively intact aged individuals. We hypothesized that aging could be a defining feature in the occurrence of rod-shaped microglia...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130744/effects-of-social-adversity-and-hiv-on-subcortical-shape-and-neurocognitive-function
#18
April D Thames, Taylor P Kuhn, Zanjbeel Mahmood, Robert M Bilder, Timothy J Williamson, Elyse J Singer, Alyssa Arentoft
The purpose of the current study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of social adversity (SA) and HIV infection on subcortical shape alterations and cognitive functions. Participants included HIV+ (n = 70) and HIV- (n = 23) individuals who underwent MRI, neurocognitive and clinical assessment, in addition to completing questionnaires from which responses were used to create an SA score. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were extracted from T1-weighted images. Parametric statistical analyses were used to compare the radial distance of the structure surface to a median curve to determine the presence of localized shape differences as a function of HIV, SA and their interaction...
January 27, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124986/the-anterior-prefrontal-cortex-and-the-hippocampus-are-negatively-correlated-during-false-memories
#19
Brittany M Jeye, Jessica M Karanian, Scott D Slotnick
False memories commonly activate the anterior/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (A/DLPFC) and the hippocampus. These regions are assumed to work in concert during false memories, which would predict a positive correlation between the magnitudes of activity in these regions across participants. However, the A/DLPFC may also inhibit the hippocampus, which would predict a negative correlation between the magnitudes of activity in these regions. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, during encoding, participants viewed abstract shapes in the left or right visual field...
January 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124205/development-of-short-snouted-seahorse-hippocampus-hippocampus-l-1758-osteological-and-morphological-aspects
#20
B Novelli, F Otero-Ferrer, J A Socorro, M J Caballero, A Segade-Botella, L Molina Domínguez
Information about early development after male release lags behind studies of juveniles and adult seahorses, and newborn seahorses, similar in shape to adults, are considered juveniles or fry. During early life, Hippocampus hippocampus present behavioural (shift in habitat, from planktonic to benthic) and morphological changes; for this reasons, the aims of this study are to define the stage of development of H. hippocampus after they are expelled from the male brood pouch and to establish direct or indirect development through an osteological analysis...
January 25, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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