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Hippocampus shape

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913407/whole-brain-analysis-reveals-increased-neuroanatomical-asymmetries-in-dementia-for-hippocampus-and-amygdala
#1
Christian Wachinger, David H Salat, Michael Weiner, Martin Reuter
Structural magnetic resonance imaging data are frequently analysed to reveal morphological changes of the human brain in dementia. Most contemporary imaging biomarkers are scalar values, such as the volume of a structure, and may miss the localized morphological variation of early presymptomatic disease progression. Neuroanatomical shape descriptors, however, can represent complex geometric information of individual anatomical regions and may demonstrate increased sensitivity in association studies. Yet, they remain largely unexplored...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909002/anatomy-of-subcortical-structures-predicts-age-related-differences-in-skill-acquisition
#2
Sima Chalavi, Hamed Zivari Adab, Lisa Pauwels, Iseult A M Beets, Peter van Ruitenbeek, Matthieu P Boisgontier, Thiago Santos Monteiro, Celine Maes, Stefan Sunaert, Stephan P Swinnen
Skill acquisition capabilities vary substantially from one individual to another. Volumetric brain studies have demonstrated that global volume of several subcortical structures predicts variations in learning outcome in young adults (YA) and older adults (OA). In this study, for the first time, we utilized shape analysis, which offers a more sensitive detection of subregional brain anatomical deformations, to investigate whether subregional anatomy of subcortical structures is associated with training-induced performance improvement on a bimanual task in YA and OA, and whether this association is age-dependent...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889766/telencephalic-neuronal-activation-associated-with-spatial-memory-in-the-terrestrial-toad-rhinella-arenarum-participation-of-the-medial-pallium-during-navigation-by-geometry
#3
María Inés Sotelo, M Florencia Daneri, Verner Peter Bingman, Rubén N Muzio
Amphibians are central to discussions of vertebrate evolution because they represent the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life, a transition with profound consequences for the selective pressures shaping brain evolution. Spatial navigation is one class of behavior that has attracted the interest of comparative neurobiologists because of the relevance of the medial pallium/hippocampus, yet, surprisingly, in this regard amphibians have been sparsely investigated. In the current study, we trained toads to locate a water goal relying on the boundary geometry of a test environment (Geometry-Only) or boundary geometry coupled with a prominent, visual feature cue (Geometry-Feature)...
November 26, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885550/neural-activity-patterns-underlying-spatial-coding-in-the-hippocampus
#4
Marielena Sosa, Anna K Gillespie, Loren M Frank
The hippocampus is well known as a central site for memory processing-critical for storing and later retrieving the experiences events of daily life so they can be used to shape future behavior. Much of what we know about the physiology underlying hippocampal function comes from spatial navigation studies in rodents, which have allowed great strides in understanding how the hippocampus represents experience at the cellular level. However, it remains a challenge to reconcile our knowledge of spatial encoding in the hippocampus with its demonstrated role in memory-dependent tasks in both humans and other animals...
November 25, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875186/visualizing-shape-deformations-with-variation-of-geometric-spectrum
#5
Jiaxi Hu, Hajar Hamidian, Zichun Zhong, Jing Hua
This paper presents a novel approach based on spectral geometry to quantify and visualize non-isometric deformations of 3D surfaces by mapping two manifolds. The proposed method can determine multi-scale, non-isometric deformations through the variation of Laplace-Beltrami spectrum of two shapes. Given two triangle meshes, the spectra can be varied from one to another with a scale function defined on each vertex. The variation is expressed as a linear interpolation of eigenvalues of the two shapes. In each iteration step, a quadratic programming problem is constructed, based on our derived spectrum variation theorem and smoothness energy constraint, to compute the spectrum variation...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859793/selective-contribution-of-the-telencephalic-arcopallium-to-the-social-facilitation-of-foraging-efforts-in-the-domestic-chick
#6
Qiuhong Xin, Yukiko Ogura, Leo Uno, Toshiya Matsushima
To investigate the neural basis of socio-economic behaviors in birds, we examined the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of arcopallium (Arco, the major descending pallial area of the avian telencephalon) and the surrounding nuclei in domestic chicks. We tested foraging effort (running distance) in an I-shaped maze with two food patches that delivered food in a biased manner according to a variable interval schedule. Normally, chicks run back and forth between the patches, and the patch use time matches the respective food delivery rate...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857685/conditional-knockout-of-cav2-1-disrupts-the-accuracy-of-spatial-recognition-of-ca1-place-cells-and-spatial-contextual-recognition-behavior
#7
Dahee Jung, Yu J Hwang, Hoon Ryu, Masanobu Kano, Kenji Sakimura, Jeiwon Cho
Hippocampal pyramidal neurons play an essential role in processing spatial information as implicated with its place-dependent firing. Although, previous slice physiology studies have reported that voltage gated calcium channels contribute to spike shapes and corresponding firing rate in the hippocampus, the roles of P/Q type calcium channels (Cav2.1) underlying neural activity in behaving mice have not been well-investigated. To determine physiological and behavioral roles of Cav2.1, we conducted place cell recordings in CA1 and hippocampus dependent learning/memory tasks using mice lacking Cav2...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825288/calendars-in-the-brain-their-perceptual-characteristics-and-possible-neural-substrate
#8
Vilayanur S Ramachandran, Melissa Vajanaphanich, Chaipat Chunharas
When we visualize a calendar, we have a vague impression of a rectangular grid hovering in front. But 1% of the population "see" vivid, crisp "calendar form" - e.g. an odd V shape as in subject ML. We found that (1) ML could "read off", months of her calendar - or alternate months - backward, unlike controls; (2) her eyes and index finger unconsciously "tracked" her reading; (3) her calendar moved with her gaze and tilted with her head; (4) after looking at a contracting spiral, her calendar expanded. In a second subject EA, the calendar was body centered and the access to episodic memories was partially "blocked" when she "looked away"...
October 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786023/microstructural-integrity-of-hippocampal-subregions-is-impaired-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Sandra E Leh, Clemens Schroeder, Jen-Kai Chen, M Mallar Chakravarty, Min Tae M Park, Bob Cheung, Sonja C Huntgeburth, Nadia Gosselin, Christoph Hock, Alain Ptito, Michael Petrides
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) affects a large number of individuals and diffusion tensor imaging can be used to investigate microstructural integrity of brain tissue after mTBI. However, results have varied considerably between studies and gray matter (GM) integrity has been largely neglected in these investigations. Given impaired working memory processing after mTBI and its possible association with Alzheimer's disease, we investigated hippocampal integrity and parcellated this structure into five subregions: subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) 1, CA 2/3, CA 4/dentate gyrus, and stratum radiatum/lacunosum-moleculare...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778407/the-effects-of-hiv-and-aging-on-subcortical-shape-alterations-a-3d-morphometric-study
#10
Taylor Kuhn, Daniel Schonfeld, Philip Sayegh, Alyssa Arentoft, Jacob D Jones, Charles H Hinkin, Susan Y Bookheimer, April D Thames
Standard volumetric neuroimaging studies have demonstrated preferential atrophy of subcortical structures among individuals with HIV. However, to our knowledge, no study has investigated subcortical shape alterations secondary to HIV and whether advancing age impacts that relationship. This study employed 3D morphometry to examine the independent and interactive effects of HIV and age on shape differences in nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen, and thalamus in 81 participants ranging in age from 24 to 76 including 59 HIV+ individuals and 22 HIV-seronegative controls...
October 25, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778347/hippocampal-gabaergic-transmission-a-new-target-for-adenosine-control-of-excitability
#11
Diogo M Rombo, Joaquim A Ribeiro, Ana M Sebastião
Physiological network functioning in the hippocampus is dependent on a balance between glutamatergic cell excitability and the activity of diverse local circuit neurons that release the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Tuners of neuronal communication such as adenosine, an endogenous modulator of synapses, control hippocampal network operations by regulating excitability. Evidence has been recently accumulating on the influence of adenosine on different aspects of GABAergic transmission to shape hippocampal function...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776515/protective-effects-of-hydroponic-teucrium-polium-on-hippocampal-neurodegeneration-in-ovariectomized-rats
#12
K V Simonyan, V A Chavushyan
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus is a target of ovarian hormones, and is necessary for memory. Ovarian hormone loss is associated with a progressive reduction in synaptic strength and dendritic spine. Teucrium polium has beneficial effects on learning and memory. However, it remains unknown whether Teucrium polium ameliorates hippocampal cells spike activity and morphological impairments induced by estrogen deficiency. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the effects of hydroponic Teucrium polium on hippocampal neuronal activity and morpho-histochemistry of bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707967/neuronal-dystroglycan-is-necessary-for-formation-and-maintenance-of-functional-cck-positive-basket-cell-terminals-on-pyramidal-cells
#13
Simon Früh, Jennifer Romanos, Patrizia Panzanelli, Daniela Bürgisser, Shiva K Tyagarajan, Kevin P Campbell, Mirko Santello, Jean-Marc Fritschy
: Distinct types of GABAergic interneurons target different subcellular domains of pyramidal cells, thereby shaping pyramidal cell activity patterns. Whether the presynaptic heterogeneity of GABAergic innervation is mirrored by specific postsynaptic factors is largely unexplored. Here we show that dystroglycan, a protein responsible for the majority of congenital muscular dystrophies when dysfunctional, has a function at postsynaptic sites restricted to a subset of GABAergic interneurons...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686278/deficient-fear-extinction-memory-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#14
Manon Wicking, Frauke Steiger, Frauke Nees, Slawomira J Diener, Oliver Grimm, Michaela Ruttorf, Lothar R Schad, Tobias Winkelmann, Gustav Wirtz, Herta Flor
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might be maintained by deficient extinction memory. We used a cued fear conditioning design with extinction and a post-extinction phase to provoke the return of fear and examined the role of the interplay of amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal regions. METHODS: We compared 18 PTSD patients with two healthy control groups: 18 trauma-exposed subjects without PTSD (nonPTSD) and 18 healthy controls (HC) without trauma experience...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646656/hippocampal-shape-alterations-are-associated-with-regional-a%C3%AE-load-in-cognitively-normal-elderly-individuals
#15
Clemens Schroeder, Min Tae M Park, Jürgen Germann, M Mallar Chakravarty, Lars Michels, Spyros Kollias, Sara L Kroll, Alfred Buck, Valerie Treyer, Egemen Savaskan, Paul G Unschuld, Roger M Nitsch, Andrea M Kälin, Christoph Hock, Anton F Gietl, Sandra E Leh
Aβ deposition is a driving force of Alzheimer's disease pathology and can be detected early by amyloid positron emission tomography. Identifying presymptomatic structural brain changes associated with Aβ deposition might lead to a better understanding of its consequences and provide early diagnostic information. In this respect we analyzed measures of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes along with hippocampal, thalamic and striatal shape and surface area by applying novel analysis strategies for structural magnetic resonance imaging...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624722/reelin-regulates-the-maturation-of-dendritic-spines-synaptogenesis-and-glial-ensheathment-of-newborn-granule-cells
#16
Carles Bosch, Nuria Masachs, David Exposito-Alonso, Albert Martínez, Cátia M Teixeira, Isabel Fernaud, Lluís Pujadas, Fausto Ulloa, Joan X Comella, Javier DeFelipe, Angel Merchán-Pérez, Eduardo Soriano
: The Reelin pathway is essential for both neural migration and for the development and maturation of synaptic connections. However, its role in adult synaptic formation and remodeling is still being investigated. Here, we investigated the impact of the Reelin/Dab1 pathway on the synaptogenesis of newborn granule cells (GCs) in the young-adult mouse hippocampus. We show that neither Reelin overexpression nor the inactivation of its intracellular adapter, Dab1, substantially alters dendritic spine numbers in these neurons...
September 13, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618765/reconfiguration-of-parietal-circuits-with-cognitive-tutoring-in-elementary-school-children
#17
Dietsje Jolles, Kaustubh Supekar, Jennifer Richardson, Caitlin Tenison, Sarit Ashkenazi, Miriam Rosenberg-Lee, Lynn Fuchs, Vinod Menon
Cognitive development is shaped by brain plasticity during childhood, yet little is known about changes in large-scale functional circuits associated with learning in academically relevant cognitive domains such as mathematics. Here, we investigate plasticity of intrinsic brain circuits associated with one-on-one math tutoring and its relation to individual differences in children's learning. We focused on functional circuits associated with the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and angular gyrus (AG), cytoarchitectonically distinct subdivisions of the human parietal cortex with different roles in numerical cognition...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615412/immunohistochemical-localization-of-somatostatin-in-the-brain-of-chinese-alligator-alligator-sinensis
#18
Huan Wang, Ruidong Zhang, Shengzhou Zhang, Yongkang Zhou, Xiaobing Wu
In this study, the regional distribution and histological localization of somatostatin (SS) immunoreactive (IR) perikarya and fibers was investigated for the first time in the brain of adult Chinese alligator by immunohistochemical method. The results showed SS-IR perikarya and fibers were widely distributed in various parts of the brain except for olfactory bulbs. In the telencephalon, SS-IR perikarya were predominantly located in the cellular layer and deep plexiform layer of dorsomedial and medial cortex, less in the dorsal and lateral cortex, while SS-IR fibers were found in all layers of the cerebral cortex...
September 12, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592810/retrieved-emotional-context-influences-hippocampal-involvement-during-recognition-of-neutral-memories
#19
Atsuko Takashima, Frauke van der Ven, Marijn C W Kroes, Guillén Fernández
It is well documented that emotionally arousing experiences are better remembered than mundane events. This is thought to occur through hippocampus-amygdala crosstalk during encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Here we investigated whether emotional events (context) also cause a memory benefit for simultaneously encoded non-arousing contents and whether this effect persists after a delay via recruitment of a similar hippocampus-amygdala network. Participants studied neutral pictures (content) encoded together with either an arousing or a neutral sound (that served as context) in two study sessions three days apart...
December 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578147/early-developmental-bisphenol-a-exposure-sex-independently-impairs-spatial-memory-by-remodeling-hippocampal-dendritic-architecture-and-synaptic-transmission-in-rats
#20
Zhi-Hua Liu, Jin-Jun Ding, Qian-Qian Yang, Hua-Zeng Song, Xiang-Tao Chen, Yi Xu, Gui-Ran Xiao, Hui-Li Wang
Bisphenol-A (BPA, 4, 4'-isopropylidene-2-diphenol), a synthetic xenoestrogen that widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, has been reported to impair hippocampal development and function. Our previous study has shown that BPA exposure impairs Sprague-Dawley (SD) male hippocampal dendritic spine outgrowth. In this study, the sex-effect of chronic BPA exposure on spatial memory in SD male and female rats and the related synaptic mechanism were further investigated. We found that chronic BPA exposure impaired spatial memory in both SD male and female rats, suggesting a dysfunction of hippocampus without gender-specific effect...
2016: Scientific Reports
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