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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645204/when-homoplasy-is-not-homoplasy-dissecting-trait-evolution-by-contrasting-composite-and-reductive-coding
#1
Alejandro Torres-Montúfar, Thomas Borsch, Helga Ochoterena
The conceptualization and coding of characters is a difficult issue in phylogenetic systematics, no matter which inference method is used when reconstructing phylogenetic trees or if the characters are just mapped onto a specific tree. Complex characters are groups of features that can be divided into simpler hierarchical characters (reductive coding), although the implied hierarchical relational information may change depending on the type of coding (composite vs reductive). Up to now, there is no common agreement to either code characters as complex or simple...
June 22, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645173/spatially-resolved-metabolic-analysis-reveals-a-central-role-for-transcriptional-control-in-carbon-allocation-to-wood
#2
Melissa Roach, Stéphanie Arrivault, Amir Mahboubi, Nicole Krohn, Ronan Sulpice, Mark Stitt, Totte Niittylä
The contribution of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation to modifying carbon allocation to developing wood of trees is not well defined. To clarify the role of transcriptional regulation, the enzyme activity patterns of eight central primary metabolism enzymes across phloem, cambium, and developing wood of aspen (Populus tremula L.) were compared with transcript levels obtained by RNA sequencing of sequential stem sections from the same trees. Enzymes were selected on the basis of their importance in sugar metabolism and in linking primary metabolism to lignin biosynthesis...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645070/passive-smoking-and-mortality-from-aortic-dissection-or-aneurysm
#3
Tomomi Kihara, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Hiroyasu Iso, Akiko Tamakoshi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evidence on the association between passive smoking and risk of aortic dissection or aneurysm is limited. This study aimed to investigate whether passive smoking increases risk of mortality from aortic dissection or aneurysm. METHODS: The Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study is a prospective community-based cohort study begun in 1988-90 and followed up to the end of 2009. We examined 48,677 individuals (mean age, 56 years; women, 46%) without history of stroke, coronary heart disease, or cancer, who provided valid responses to a lifestyle questionnaire including questions on active and passive smoking...
June 9, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644907/optimal-duration-of-fasting-period-after-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-for-gastric-epithelial-neoplasia-a-prospective-evaluation-of-short-versus-long-fasting-period
#4
Kwang Hoon Oh, Sang Jin Lee, Jong Kyu Park
OBJECTIVE: There are currently no standardized guidelines for adequate determination of fasting period following gastric ESD. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate length of fasting period. METHODS: Enrolled patients were randomized into a short fasting group and a long fasting group. In the short fasting group, patients had been fasting until the next day after ESD. In the long fasting group, patients had been fasting until two days after ESD. A second-look endoscopy was performed immediately prior to starting diet...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644897/trpa1-and-trpv1-contribute-to-propofol-mediated-antagonism-of-u46619-induced-constriction-in-murine-coronary-arteries
#5
Pritam Sinharoy, Ian N Bratz, Sayantani Sinha, Loral E Showalter, Spencer R Andrei, Derek S Damron
BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels have emerged as key components contributing to vasoreactivity. Propofol, an anesthetic is associated with adverse side effects including hypotension and acute pain upon infusion. Our objective was to determine the extent to which TRPA1 and/or TRPV1 ion channels are involved in mediating propofol-induced vasorelaxation of mouse coronary arterioles in vitro and elucidate the potential cellular signal transduction pathway by which this occurs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644878/tumor-location-as-a-novel-high-risk-parameter-for-stage-ii-colorectal-cancers
#6
Biyuan Wang, Jiao Yang, Shuting Li, Meng Lv, Zheling Chen, Enxiao Li, Min Yi, Jin Yang
Current studies do not accurately evaluate the influence of tumor location on survival of colorectal cancer patients. This study aimed to explore whether tumor location could be identified as another high-risk factor in stage II colorectal cancer by using data identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. All colorectal cancer patients between 2004 and 2008 were grouped into three according to tumor location. Of 33,789 patients diagnosed with stage II colorectal cancer, 46.8% were right colon cancer, 37...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644220/completion-lymph-node-dissection-in-patients-with-melanoma-and-positive-sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy
#7
Jacqueline Link
Melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer that represents a significant disease burden, making diagnosis and appropriate control of disease vital for improving morbidity and mortality. The most recent guidelines for melanoma treatment advise performing a sentinel lymph node biopsy for intermediate thickness melanomas, with subsequent completion lymph node dissection (CLND) if sentinel nodes are positive. This guideline is controversial due to the limited availability of data on this topic. CLND is an extensive surgery with known risks and complications and a small survival benefit...
July 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644162/would-lipophilic-statin-therapy-as-a-prognostic-factor-improve-survival-in-patients-with-uterine-cervical-cancer
#8
Moo-Kon Song, Byoung-Sub Shin, Chung-Sik Ha, Won-Young Park
OBJECTIVES: In vitro studies showed that lipophilic statins inhibit cell growth, adhesion, and invasion and induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines. In uterine cervical cancer, several important factors including age, stage, anemia, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node metastases, and parametrial spread were known to significantly predict survival. We investigated whether statin therapy as a prognostic factor would significantly predict survival in cervical cancer. METHODS: Patients with stages IB to IV cervical cancer who received radical hysterectomy and/or para-aortic lymph node dissection were included...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644156/clinical-case-of-the-month-a-57-year-old-man-with-an-axillary-mass
#9
Palak Desai, Andrew Myers, Brian Boulmay, Fred A Lopez
A 57-year-old man presented to the surgical oncology clinic with a mildly tender mass under his right arm. Four years prior, the patient had a melanoma removed from his right shoulder along with an ipsilateral right axillary sentinel lymph sampling. Computed tomography (CT) scan was negative for metastatic disease at that time. The patient did not undergo completion axillary node dissection and was lost to follow-up. The patient was originally from Australia, did not tan but reported multiple sunburns before age 18...
May 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644065/ventricular-pseudodiverticula-from-intraparenchymal-cerebrospinal-fluid-dissection-secondary-to-high-grade-obstructive-hydrocephalus-in-children-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings
#10
Sonia F Calloni, Bruno P Soares, Thierry Agm Huisman
We report on a series of three children who presented with a focal cerebrospinal fluid collection within the periventricular white matter of the temporal and occipital lobes in the setting of high-grade obstructive hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal defect within the ventricular wall associated with leakage of cerebrospinal fluid into the adjacent white matter. The white matter tracts appeared primarily displaced. This entity should be referred to as ventricular pseudodiverticulum, not lined by ependymal cells, in contrast to a true ventricular diverticulum in which the cerebrospinal fluid is contained by a focal outpouching of the intact ventricular wall lined by a dilated and prolapsed layer of ependymal cells...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643909/the-fate-of-osterix-expressing-mesenchymal-cells-in-dental-root-formation-and-maintenance
#11
A Takahashi, N Ono, W Ono
OBJECTIVES: Osterix (Osx)-expressing mesenchymal cells are progenitors for tooth root forming cells. The aim of this study was to reveal the fates of Osx-expressing cells during and after root formation using a lineage tracing experiment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To reveal the fates of Osx-expressing dental mesenchymal progenitors, we took advantage of tamoxifen-inducible Cre reporter system. Osx-creER; R26R-tdTomato mice received tamoxifen (0.1 mg/body) at postnatal day 3 (P3)...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643890/anatomical-evaluation-of-the-thoracolumbar-nerves-related-to-the-transversus-abdominis-plane-block-technique-in-the-dog
#12
F E Castañeda-Herrera, E F Buriticá-Gaviria, D F Echeverry-Bonilla
Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) is a fascial plane containing the thoracolumbar nerve branches that innervate the abdominal wall. Limited information is available on the anatomical organization of these nerve branches in the dog, which is of great importance for the success of the TAP block anaesthetic technique. The aim of this study was to describe the origin and conformation of thoracolumbar nerves running through the TAP in 20 hemi-abdominal walls of 10 adult mongrel dog cadavers with an average body weight of 12...
June 23, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643797/deep-sclerectomy-for-uveitic-glaucoma-long-term-outcomes
#13
K Mercieca, L Steeples, N Anand
PurposeTo report long-term outcomes of deep sclerectomy (DS) in eyes with raised intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma secondary to uveitis.Patients and methodsRetrospective consecutive case series of 43 eyes of 43 patients with uveitic glaucoma. Mitomycin C (MMC) 0.2-0.4 mg/ml was applied sub-conjunctivally prior to scleral flap dissection for 2-3 min in 35 eyes (81%). Combined phacoemulsification and DS was done in 4 cases (9%).ResultsMean follow-up was 68.5±33.5 months. In total, 23 eyes (53.5%) had previous intraocular surgery...
June 23, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643474/long-term-failure-of-amplatzer-plugs-in-the-treatment-of-aortic-pathology
#14
Jeremy Song, Benjamin Ascherman, Kyle W Eudailey, Monir Mohar, Michael Argenziano, Hiroo Takayama, Isaac George
We present two cases of Amplatzer® device deployment that exhibited long-term failure necessitating surgical correction. The first case illustrates recanalization of a ruptured Valsalva aneurysm with worsening aortic insufficiency after percutaneous repair with the Amplatzer Vascular Plugs and Amplatzer duct occluder, while the second case illustrates recanalization after deployment of the Amplatzer septal occluder in a patient with a pseudoaneursym in a bovine aorta after type I aortic dissection repair. These two cases illustrate the potential long-term complications and limitations in durability with these devices...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643339/ruptured-ventricular-septum-dissection-into-the-right-ventricle
#15
Yuta Kanazawa, Yasuyuki Yamada, Yusuke Takei, Hirotsugu Fukuda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643319/-progress-of-the-application-of-optical-coherence-tomography-in-gastrointestinal-tumor-surgery
#16
Yongsheng Li, Hao Liu, Haipeng Huang, Yu Zhu, Haijun Deng, Jiang Yu, Site Luo, Li Huo, Li Lin, Huikai Xie, Guoxin Li
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a real-time, cross-sectional optical imaging technology. It is analogous to ultrasonography, except that OCT uses light waves instead of sound waves, and can provide three-dimensional morphological images of living tissues with a micrometer resolution. Through the use of endoscopes, needles, catheters and laparoscopes, OCT has demonstrated tremendous imaging potential in tumor surgery. The current studies suggest that OCT has potential for clinical applications in the following fields of gastrointestinal tumor surgery: (1) Early tumor detection and diagnosis: OCT can distinguish differences between polyp tissue, normal tissue and malignant tissue...
June 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643311/-long-term-outcomes-of-laparoscopic-low-anterior-resection-of-rectal-carcinoma-with-preservation-of-the-left-colic-artery
#17
Jian Shen, Minzhe Li, Yanfu Du, Dehong Xie, Hao Qu, Yudong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term outcomes of laparoscopic low anterior resection of rectal carcinoma with preservation of the left colic artery(LCA). METHODS: Clinicopathological and follow-up data of 322 cases with rectal carcinoma undergoing laparoscopic low anterior resection in Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from January 2007 to December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the different surgical methods of inferior mesenteric artery (IMA), cases were divided into the trial group (LCA preservation plus lymph nodes around IMA root dissection, 168 cases) and the control group(origin of IMA ligation, 154 cases)...
June 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643308/-anatomical-strategies-of-henle-trunk-in-laparoscopic-right-hemi-colectomy-for-right-colon-cancer
#18
Bo Feng, Xialin Yan, Sen Zhang, Pei Xue, Zirui He, Minhua Zheng
The advancement of laparoscopic surgery serves as a trigger for better understanding of the vascular structure at the inferior border of the pancreas, especially Henle trunk. Henle trunk was first found as convergence to superior mesenteric vein (SMV) conjoined by sub-right colon vein (SRCV) and right gastroepiploic vein (RGEV), but decades later, anterior superior pancreatic duodenal vein (ASPDV) was described as another conjoint vein of Henle trunk. These tributaries are the basic elements of Henle trunk in early years' study...
June 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643302/-comparison-of-robotic-and-laparoscopic-total-mesorectal-excision
#19
Pan Chi, Zhifen Chen
Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) has been commonly applied in the operation of mid-low rectal cancer, but the conventional laparoscopic TME has the disadvantages of major operative difficulty and long learning-curve, due to its limitations of 2-dimension vision and common laparoscopic instruments. Robotic surgical system with high-qualified 3-dimenstion vision and flexible Endo Wrist instruments can overcome those limitations of conventional laparoscopy, and is useful for the TME that demands deep pelvic operation and flexible dissection in the space of distal rectum...
June 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643300/-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-minimally-invasive-surgery-in-colorectal-cancer-surgery
#20
Minhua Zheng, Junjun Ma
Since the emergence of minimally invasive technology twenty years ago, as a surgical concept and surgical technique for colorectal cancer surgery, its obvious advantages have been recognized. Laparoscopic technology, as one of the most important technology platform, has got a lot of evidence-based support for the oncological safety and effectiveness in colorectal cancer surgery Laparoscopic technique has advantages in terms of identification of anatomic plane and autonomic nerve, protection of pelvic structure, and fine dissection of vessels...
June 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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