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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031107/accuracy-precision-and-inter-rater-reliability-of-micro-ct-analysis-of-false-starts-on-bones-a-preliminary-validation-study
#1
Guido Pelletti, Giovanni Cecchetto, Alessia Viero, Paolo Fais, Michael Weber, Diego Miotto, Massimo Montisci, Guido Viel, Chiara Giraudo
Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) has already been proposed as a useful technique for the qualitative analysis of false starts (FS) produced on human bones, although the reliability and the error rate of this technique have not been tested yet, neither for qualitative nor for quantitative assessments. The aim of the present study was to test the morphological agreement, accuracy, precision and inter-rater reliability of micro-CT analysis of FS on bones. The morphological agreement was assessed through the degree of concordance among the 3 independent blind raters in the identification of the shape of 24 FS manually produced on bones by 3 different saws (8 FS for each saw)...
October 6, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028629/a-dual-energy-micro-ct-methodology-for-visualization-and-quantification-of-biofilm-formation-and-dentin-demineralization
#2
Paula Maciel Pires, Thais Pires Dos Santos, Andrea Fonseca-Gonçalves, Matheus Melo Pithon, Ricardo Tadeu Lopes, Aline de Almeida Neves
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to induce artificial caries in human sound dentin by means of a microcosm model using human saliva as source of bacteria and to apply a novel dual-energy micro-CT technique to quantify biofilm formation and evaluate its demineralization potential. DESIGN: Eight sound third molars had the occlusal enamel removed by cutting with a diamond disk and five cylindrical cavities (±2mm diameter; ±1.5mm depth) were prepared over the dentin surface in each specimen (n=40 cavities)...
October 7, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025668/sustained-raloxifene-release-from-hyaluronan-alendronate-functionalized-titanium-nanotube-arrays-capable-of-enhancing-osseointegration-in-osteoporotic-rabbits
#3
Caiyun Mu, Yan Hu, Ling Huang, Xinkun Shen, Menghuan Li, Liqi Li, Hao Gu, Yonglin Yu, Zhining Xia, Kaiyong Cai
To enhance the localized bone remodeling at titanium-based implants under osteoporotic conditions, TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNT) were used as nanoreserviors for raloxifene (Ral) and then covered with the hybrid multilayered coating of chitosan and alendronate grafted hyaluronic acid (HA-Aln) via a spin-assisted layer-by-layer technique. The fabrication of this system (TNT/Ral/LBL-Aln) was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022190/in-vivo-study-of-a-bioactive-nanoparticle-gelatin-composite-scaffold-for-bone-defect-repair-in-rabbits
#4
Guojin Hou, Fang Zhou, Yan Guo, Zhongwei Yang, Ailing Li, Chen Wang, Dong Qiu
The purpose is to study the in vivo bioactivity of this scaffold and verify its ability to simulate the characteristics of cancellous bone. Twenty-four adult New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups. Bone defects above the femoral condylar of both sides were created. A newly designed bioactive nanoparticle-gelatin composite scaffold was implanted to the experimental side, while the control side was left without implantation. The repair of bone defect was monitored by X-ray examination, gross observation, Micro-CT examination and histological observation of the area of bone defect 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016190/effect-of-flapless-osteoperforation-assisted-tooth-movement-on-atrophic-alveolar-ridge-histomorphometric-and-gene-enrichment-analysis
#5
Ji-Won Lee, Jung-Yul Cha, Ki-Ho Park, Yoon-Goo Kang, Su-Jung Kim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of flapless osteoperforation on the tissue response of the atrophic alveolar ridge affected by orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An atrophic alveolar ridge model was established in the mandibular quadrants of eight beagle dogs. As a split-mouth design, the quadrants were randomly divided into group C (OTM only) and group OP (OTM with flapless osteoperforation). The rate of OTM for 10 weeks was compared between groups, and micro-CT-based histomorphometric analysis and RNA-sequencing-based gene-enrichment analysis were performed targeting the atrophic ridge...
October 10, 2017: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993243/diagnosis-and-staging-of-caries-using-spectral-factors-derived-from-the-blue-laser-induced-autofluorescence-spectrum
#6
Ching-Chang Ko, Dong-Ho Yi, Dong Joon Lee, Jane Kwon, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Yong Hoon Kwon
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the factors derived from the 405nm laser-induced autofluorescence (AF) spectra that could be used to diagnose and stage caries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Teeth (20 teeth per stage) were classified as sound, stage II, III, and IV based on a visual and tactile inspection. The specimens were re-examined and reclassified based on micro-CT analysis. From the teeth, the AF was obtained using a 405nm laser. Three spectral factors (spectral slope at 550-600nm, area under the curve at 500-590nm, and two-peak ratio between 625 and 667nm) were derived from the AF spectra...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987694/on-the-effect-of-computed-tomography-resolution-to-distinguish-between-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-wall-tissue-and-calcification-a-proof-of-concept
#7
H E Barrett, E M Cunnane, J M O Brien, M A Moloney, E G Kavanagh, M T Walsh
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal target CT spatial resolution for accurately imaging abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall characteristics, distinguishing between tissue and calcification components, for an accurate assessment of rupture risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ruptured and non-ruptured AAA-wall samples were acquired from eight patients undergoing open surgical aneurysm repair upon institutional review board approval and informed consent was obtained from all patients...
October 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986929/evolution-of-brain-region-volumes-during-artificial-selection-for-relative-brain-size
#8
Alexander Kotrschal, Hong-Li Zeng, Wouter van der Bijl, Caroline Öhman-Mägi, Kurt Kotrschal, Kristiaan Pelckmans, Niclas Kolm
The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size...
October 6, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986856/spin-lattice-relaxation-epr-po2-images-may-direct-the-location-of-radiation-tumor-boosts-to-enhance-tumor-cure
#9
Boris Epel, Martyna Krzykawska-Serda, Victor Tormyshev, Matthew C Maggio, Eugene D Barth, Charles A Pelizzari, Howard J Halpern
Radiation treatment success and high tumor oxygenation and success have been known to be highly correlated. This suggests that radiation therapy guided by images of tumor regions with low oxygenation, oxygen-guided radiation therapy (OGRT) may be a promising enhancement of cancer radiation treatment. Before applying the technique to human subjects, OGRT needs to be tested in animals, most easily in rodents. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging provides quantitative maps of tissue and tumor oxygen in rodents with 1 mm spatial resolution and 1 torr pO2 resolution at low oxygen levels...
October 6, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986143/validation-of-calcaneus-trabecular-microstructure-measurements-by-hr-pqct
#10
Louis M Metcalf, Enrico Dall'Ara, Margaret A Paggiosi, John R Rochester, Nicolas Vilayphiou, Graham J Kemp, Eugene V McCloskey
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of calcaneus microstructure using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) might be used to improve fracture risk predictions or to assess responses to pharmacological and physical interventions. To develop a standard clinical protocol for the calcaneus, we validated calcaneus trabecular microstructure measured by HR-pQCT against 'gold-standard' micro-CT measurements. METHODS: Ten human cadaveric feet were scanned in situ using HR-pQCT (isotropic 82μm voxel size) at 100, 150 and 200ms integration times, and at 100ms integration time following removal of the calcaneus from the foot (ex vivo)...
October 3, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984085/immunoprotective-effects-of-a-hemin-binding-peptide-derived-from-hemagglutinin-2-against-infection-with-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#11
Yongchao Zhu, Ting An, Ying Liu, Zilu Zhang, Qiubo Yang
The principal etiologic agent in periodontal disease, Porphyromonas gingivalis, generates cysteine proteases that bind heme with domains such as hemagglutinin-2 (HA2). High-affinity HA2-hemin binding supplies the porphyrin and ferric iron needed for growth and virulence. The DHYAVMISK peptide, recently identified at the hemin-binding site of HA2 inhibits hemin binding. We now evaluate the protective effect of vaccination with DGFPGDHYAVMISK (termed DK) against P. gingivalis using a rat infection model. Rats immunized with DK generated anti-peptide serum IgGs and salivary sIgAs (as measured by ELISA)...
October 6, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976988/presence-of-skeletal-banding-in-a-reef-building-tropical-crustose-coralline-alga
#12
Bonnie Lewis, Janice M Lough, Merinda C Nash, Guillermo Diaz-Pulido
The presence of banding in the skeleton of coralline algae has been reported in many species, primarily from temperate and polar regions. Similar to tree rings, skeletal banding can provide information on growth rate, age, and longevity; as well as records of past environmental conditions and the coralline alga's growth responses to such changes. The aim of this study was to explore the presence and characterise the nature of banding in the tropical coralline alga Porolithon onkodes, an abundant and key reef-building species on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Australia, and the Indo-Pacific in general...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976847/effect-of-light-activation-of-pulp-capping-materials-and-resin-composite-on-dentin-deformation-and-the-pulp-temperature-change
#13
C J Soares, M S Ferreira, A A Bicalho, M de Paula Rodrigues, Ssl Braga, A Versluis
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effect of pulp-capping materials and resin composite light activation on strain and temperature development in the pulp and on the interfacial integrity at the pulpal floor/pulp-capping materials in large molar class II cavities. METHODS: Forty extracted molars received large mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity bur preparation with 1.0 mm of dentin remaining at the pulp floor. Four pulp-capping materials (self-etching adhesive system, Clearfil SE Bond [CLE], Kuraray), two light-curing calcium hydroxide cements (BioCal [BIO], Biodinâmica, and Ultra-Blend Plus [ULT], Ultradent), and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement- (Vitrebond [VIT], 3M ESPE) were applied on the pulpal floor...
October 4, 2017: Operative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968875/effects-of-tofacitinib-in-early-arthritis-induced-bone-loss-in-an-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-rat-model
#14
Bruno Vidal, Rita Cascão, Mikko A J Finnilä, Inês P Lopes, Vânia G da Glória, Simo Saarakkala, Peter Zioupos, Helena Canhão, João Eurico Fonseca
Objectives: The main goal of this work was to analyse how treatment intervention with tofacitinib prevents the early disturbances of bone structure and mechanics in the rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis. This is the first study to access the impact of tofacitinib on the skeletal bone effects of inflammation. Methods: Fifty Wistar rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis were randomly housed in experimental groups, as follows: non-arthritic healthy group (n = 20); arthritic non-treated group (n = 20); and 10 animals undergoing tofacitinib treatment...
August 10, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968592/drought-induced-embolism-in-stems-of-sunflower-a-comparison-of-in%C3%A2-vivo-micro-ct-observations-and-destructive-hydraulic-measurements
#15
Tadeja Savi, Andrea Miotto, Francesco Petruzzellis, Adriano Losso, Serena Pacilè, Giuliana Tromba, Stefan Mayr, Andrea Nardini
Vulnerability curves (VCs) are a useful tool to investigate the susceptibility of plants to drought-induced hydraulic failure, and several experimental techniques have been used for their measurement. The validity of the bench dehydration method coupled to hydraulic measurements, considered as a 'golden standard', has been recently questioned calling for its validation with non-destructive methods. We compared the VCs of a herbaceous crop plant (Helianthus annuus) obtained during whole-plant dehydration followed by i) hydraulic flow measurements in stem segments (classical destructive method) or by ii) in vivo micro-CT observations of stem xylem conduits in intact plants...
September 23, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963864/microrna-495-inhibits-new-bone-regeneration-via-targeting-high-mobility-group-at-hook-2-hmga2
#16
Zhao Tian, Haizhen Zhou, Yuben Xu, Jie Bai
BACKGROUND MicroRNAs play critical roles in post-translational gene expression. In this study, we explored the role of miR-495 in new bone regeneration. MATERIAL AND METHODS Murine calvarial osteoblasts were isolated and cultured. Microarray was performed to identify differential miRNAs in medicarpin-induced osteoblasts differentiation. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to identify the target gene of miRNA. Murine osteoblast cells were transfected with miC, miR-495, or anti-miR-495. CCK-8 and flow cytometry were performed to detect osteoblasts proliferation and apoptosis...
September 30, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963813/application-of-autofluorescence-robotic-histology-for-quantitative-evaluation-of-the-3-dimensional-morphology-of-murine-articular-cartilage
#17
Patricia Das Neves Borges, Tonia L Vincent, Massimo Marenzana
Murine models of osteoarthritis (OA) are increasingly important for understating pathogenesis and for testing new therapeutic approaches. Their translational potential is, however, limited by the reduced size of mouse limbs which requires a much higher resolution to evaluate their articular cartilage compared to clinical imaging tools. In experimental models, this tissue has been predominantly assessed by time-consuming histopathology using standardized semi-quantitative scoring systems. This study aimed to develop a novel imaging method for 3-dimensional (3D) histology of mouse articular cartilage, using a robotic system-termed here "3D histocutter"-which automatically sections tissue samples and serially acquires fluorescence microscopy images of each section...
September 30, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963438/dlx3-promotes-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-proliferation-through-h19-mir-675-axis
#18
Na Zhao, Li Zeng, Yang Liu, Dong Han, Haochen Liu, Jian Xu, Yuxi Jiang, Cuiying Li, Tao Cai, Hailan Feng, Yixiang Wang
The underlying molecular mechanism of the increased bone mass phenotype in Tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome remains largely unknown. Our previous study has shown that the TDO point mutation c.533A>G, Q178R in DLX3 could increase bone density in a TDO patient and transgenic mice partially through delaying senescence in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). In the present study, we provided a new complementary explanation for TDO syndrome: the DLX3 (Q178R) mutation increased BMSCs proliferation through H19/miR-675 axis...
September 28, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963125/daily-parathyroid-hormone-administration-enhances-bone-turnover-and-preserves-bone-structure-after-severe-immobilization-induced-bone-loss
#19
Lauren Harlow, Karim Sahbani, Jeffry S Nyman, Christopher P Cardozo, William A Bauman, Hesham A Tawfeek
Immobilization, as a result of motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI), is associated with severe osteoporosis. Whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration would reduce bone loss after SCI remains unclear. Thus, female mice underwent sham or surgery to produce complete spinal cord transection. PTH (80 μg/kg) or vehicle was injected subcutaneously (SC) daily starting on the day of surgery and continued for 35 days. Isolated tibias and femurs were examined by microcomputed tomography scanning (micro-CT) and histology and serum markers of bone turnover were measured...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962655/a-unique-heterologous-fibrin-sealant-hfs-as-a-candidate-biological-scaffold-for-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-osteoporotic-rats
#20
Patrícia Rodrigues Orsi, Fernanda Cruz Landim-Alvarenga, Luis Antônio Justulin, Ramon Kaneno, Marjorie de Assis Golim, Daniela Carvalho Dos Santos, Camila Fernanda Zorzella Creste, Eunice Oba, Leandro Maia, Benedito Barraviera, Rui Seabra Ferreira
BACKGROUND: The injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) directly into the bone of osteoporotic (OP) patients for rapid recovery has been studied worldwide. Scaffolds associated with MSCs are used to maintain and avoid cell loss after application. A unique heterologous fibrin sealant (HFS) derived from snake venom was evaluated for the cytotoxicity of its main components and as a three-dimensional biological scaffold for MSCs to repair a critical femur defect in osteoporotic rats. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of HFS was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay and transmission electron microscopy...
September 29, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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