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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906458/apolipoprotein-e-plays-crucial-roles-in-maintaining-bone-mass-by-promoting-osteoblast-differentiation-via-erk1-2-pathway-and-by-suppressing-osteoclast-differentiation-via-c-fos-nfatc1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#1
Takaaki Noguchi, Kosuke Ebina, Makoto Hirao, Satoru Otsuru, Adam J Guess, Ryota Kawase, Tohru Ohama, Shizuya Yamashita, Yuki Etani, Gensuke Okamura, Hideki Yoshikawa
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays crucial roles not only in lipid metabolism but also in bone metabolism. Specifically ApoE4, one of major ApoE isoforms, has been demonstrated to be associated with increased risk of developing osteoporosis compared to another major isoform ApoE3. However, the detailed mechanism of how the different ApoE isoforms affect bone metabolism remains unclear. Micro-CT analyses of distal femora demonstrated severely decreased bone mass in 48-week-old female homozygous ApoE-knockout (ApoE-KO) mice compared to age- and gender-matched wild type C57BL/6 J (WT) mice...
June 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903498/betti-number-ratios-as-quantitative-indices-for-bone-morphometry-in-three-dimensions
#2
Takashi Teramoto, Takeshi Kamiya, Taira Sakurai, Fuminori Kanaya
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Computational homology is an emerging mathematical tool for characterizing shapes of data. In this work, we present a methodology using computational homology for obtaining quantitative measurements of the connectivity in bone morphometry. We introduce the Betti number ratios as novel morphological descriptor for the classification of bone fine structures in three dimensions. METHODS: A total of 51 Japanese white rabbits were used to investigate the connectivity of bone trabeculae after the administration of alendronate in a tendon graft model in rabbits...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901109/effects-of-strontium-ranelate-on-wear-particle%C3%A2-induced-aseptic-loosening-in-female-ovariectomized-mice
#3
Tianxiang Geng, Xi Chen, Mengxue Zheng, Haochen Yu, Shuai Zhang, Shouxuan Sun, Haohui Guo, Qunhua Jin
Aseptic loosening and menopause‑induced osteoporosis are caused by an imbalance between bone formation and osteolysis. With an aging population, the probability of simultaneous occurrence of such conditions in an elderly individual is increasing. Strontium ranelate (SR) is an anti‑osteoporosis drug that promotes bone formation and inhibits osteolysis. The present study compared the effects of SR with those of the traditional anti‑osteoporosis drug alendronate (ALN) using an ovariectomized mouse model of osteolysis...
June 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899632/biomechanical-studies-on-the-effect-of-iatrogenic-dentin-removal-on-vertical-root-fractures
#4
A Ossareh, M Rosentritt, A Kishen
Introduction: The aim of this study was to understand the mechanism by which iatrogenic root dentin removal influences radicular stress distribution and subsequently affects the resistance to vertical root fractures (VRF) in endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: The experiments were conducted in two phases. Phase 1: freshly extracted premolar teeth maintained in phosphate-buffered saline were instrumented to simulate three different degrees of dentin removal, designated as low, medium, and extreme groups...
May 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898174/alveolar-bone-healing-in-rats-micro-ct-immunohistochemical-and-molecular-analysis
#5
Jaqueline Suemi Hassumi, Gabriel Mulinari-Santos, André Luis da Silva Fabris, Ricardo Garcia Mureb Jacob, Alaíde Gonçalves, Ana Cláudia Rossi, Alexandre Rodrigues Freire, Leonardo Pérez Faverani, Roberta Okamoto
INTRODUCTION: Alveolar bone healing after upper incisor extraction in rats is a classical model of preclinical studies. The underlying morphometric, cellular and molecular mechanism, however, remains imprecise in a unique study. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the alveolar bone healing after upper incisor extraction in rats by micro computed tomographic (Micro-CT), immunohistochemical and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898060/segmentation-methods-for-micro-ct-images-a-comparative-study-using-human-bone-samples
#6
Karla Rovaris, Polyane Mazucatto Queiroz, Karla de Faria Vasconcelos, Lívia Dos Santos Corpas, Bernardo Mattos da Silveira, Deborah Queiroz Freitas
X-ray microtomography (microCT) is a nondestructive technique used to assess bone morphometry. For an accurate analysis, it is necessary to segment the bone tissue from the background images, avoiding under- or overestimation of the real bone volume. Thus, segmentation methods for microCT can influence the accuracy of bone morphometry analysis. The purpose of this study was to compare two different image segmentation methods available on microCT software (subjective and objective) regarding to the human bone morphometric analysis...
March 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897047/the-effects-of-image-homogenisation-on-simulated-transcranial-ultrasound-propagation
#7
James L B Robertson, Jillian Urban, Joel Stitzel, Bradley E Treeby
Transcranial transmission of ultrasound is increasingly used in a variety of clinical and research applications, including high intensity ablation, opening the blood brain barrier, and neural stimulation. Numerical simulations of ultrasound propagation in the head are used to enable effective transcranial focusing and predict intracranial fields. Such simulations require maps of the acoustic properties of the head, which can be derived from clinical CT images. However, the spatial resolution of these images is typically coarser than the scale of heterogeneities within the skull bone, which are known to exert a major influence on ultrasound propagation...
June 13, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896644/3d-imaging-of-cells-in-scaffolds-direct-labelling-for-micro-ct
#8
David V Shepherd, Jennifer H Shepherd, Serena M Best, Ruth E Cameron
The development of in-vitro techniques to characterise the behaviour of cells in biomedical scaffolds is a rapidly developing field. However, until now it has not been possible to visualise, directly in 3D, the extent of cell migration using a desktop X-ray microCT. This paper describes a new technique based on cell labelling with a radio opacifier (barium sulphate), which permits cell tracking without the need for destructive sample preparation. The ability to track cells is highlighted via a comparison of cell migration through demonstrator lyophilised collagen scaffolds with contrasting pore size and interconnectivity...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895312/mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-porous-%C3%AE-tricalcium-phosphate-composites-prepared-through-stem-cell-screen-enrich-combine-biomaterials-circulating-system-for-the-repair-of-critical-size-bone-defects-in-goat-tibia
#9
Wenxiang Chu, Yaokai Gan, Yifu Zhuang, Xin Wang, Jie Zhao, Tingting Tang, Kerong Dai
BACKGROUND: Efficacious bone substitute is essential for the treatment of a critical size bone defect. Currently, the bone substitutes commonly used in clinical practice lack osteogenic capacity and the therapeutic efficacy is not ideal. Herein, a novel stem cell screen-enrich-combine(-biomaterials) circulating system (SECCS) was introduced to provide the substitutes with osteogenic ability. The stem cell screening, enrichment, and recombination with substitutes could be integrated during the surgical operation...
June 13, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894463/the-accuracy-of-cone-beam-computed-tomography-for-evaluating-bone-density-and-cortical-bone-thickness-at-the-implant-site-micro-computed-tomography-and-histologic-analysis
#10
Srisurang Suttapreyasri, Pradipat Suapear, Narit Leepong
The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for determining cortical thickness and the gray value, investigating its correlation with micro-computed tomography (CT) and histology analysis. Sixty-two bone samples from 4 anatomic regions of the jaw were analyzed. A radiographic surgical stent was used during CBCT and bone sample harvesting. The cortical thickness and gray value of the planned implant were evaluated by CBCT. Bone volumetric fractions, bone mineral density, and % porosity assessed by micro-CT and mineralized material by histology analysis from harvested bone samples were analyzed and assessed for the association with the CBCT using Pearson correlation...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891857/icariin-prevents-bone-loss-by-inhibiting-bone-resorption-and-stabilizing-bone-biological-apatite-in-a-hindlimb-suspension-rodent-model
#11
Jin-Peng He, Xiu Feng, Ju-Fang Wang, Wen-Gui Shi, He Li, Sergei Danilchenko, Aleksei Kalinkevich, Mykhailo Zhovner
Bone loss induced by microgravity is a substantial barrier to humans in long-term spaceflight. Recent studies have revealed that icariin (ICA) can attenuate osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and ovariectomized rats. However, whether ICA can protect against microgravity-induced bone loss remains unknown. In this study, the effects of ICA on a hindlimb suspension rodent model were investigated. Two-month-old female Wistar rats were hindlimb suspended and treated with ICA (25 mg·kg-1 ·d-1 , i.g.) or a vehicle for 4 weeks (n = 6)...
June 11, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891419/micro-ct-evaluation-of-marginal-and-internal-fit-of-cemented-polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network-material-crowns-manufactured-after-conventional-and-digital-impressions
#12
Rinet Dauti, Barbara Cvikl, Bledar Lilaj, Patrick Heimel, Andreas Moritz, Andreas Schedle
PURPOSE: Purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of fit of cemented polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) material crowns manufactured after digital and conventional impression techniques using micro computed tomography (CT). Furthermore to determine the cement space volume and porosities in the cement layer. METHODS: A molar typodont tooth was prepared for PICN material crowns and replicated thirty times. The dies were randomly divided into three groups of 10 specimens each according to the impression technique: 3M True Definition Scanner (TDS), cara TRIOS (Trios) and Impregum Penta Soft (Impregum)...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891135/11-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-regulates-synovitis-joint-destruction-and-systemic-bone-loss-in-chronic-polyarthritis
#13
R S Hardy, C Fenton, A P Croft, A J Naylor, R Begum, G Desanti, C D Buckley, G Lavery, M S Cooper, K Raza
OBJECTIVE: In rheumatoid arthritis, the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is highly expressed at sites of inflammation, where it converts inactive glucocorticoids (GC) to their active counterparts. In conditions of GC excess it has been shown to be a critical regulator of muscle wasting and bone loss. Here we examine the contribution of 11β-HSD1 to the pathology of persistent chronic inflammatory disease. METHODS: To determine the contribution of 11β-HSD1 to joint inflammation, destruction and systemic bone loss associated with persistent inflammatory arthritis, we generated mice with global and mesenchymal specific 11β-HSD1 deletions in the TNF-transgenic (TNF-tg) model of chronic polyarthritis...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890807/-eestablishment-of-the-model-of-goat-lumbar-spinal-fusion-by-3d-printing-technology-and-experimental-perioperative-management
#14
Feng Zhang, Jian-Tao Liu, Rui Wang, Teng Lu, Bin-Bin Niu, Jie Qie, Xuan Cai, Ting Zhang, Peng-Rong Ouyang, Xi-Jing He
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility and the attention of perioperative management of goat lumbar fusion model for individualized 3D printing technology. METHODS: According to preoperative X-ray and CT three dimensional reconstruction data of 10 males Boer goat's lumbar(1-2 years old, weight 35-45 kg), the preoperative open height were determined, meanwhile, according to the theoretical entry point of nails, the length of steel plate, arc, and setting position, screw length for reference were determined, the lumbar lateral anterior plate was designed and 3D-printed...
May 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887962/mir-10a-5p-mir-99a-5p-and-mir-21-5p-are-steroid-responsive-circulating-micrornas
#15
Zheng Li, Chao Jiang, Canhua Ye, Shibai Zhu, Xi Chen, William Kk Wu, Wenwei Qian
Steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a common orthopedic disease. The lack of specific manifestations and effective diagnostic methods make it difficult for this disease to be diagnosed at early stages. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNA) participate in the development of steroid-induced ONFH, but there is limited research into the diagnostic use of circulating miRNAs. Blood samples from 23 human subjects (7 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with steroid-induced ONFH; 7 SLE controls without ONFH; and 9 healthy controls) and 71 rats (19 with steroid-induced ONFH; 28 receiving steroids without ONFH; and 24 untreated controls) were collected to verify the abundance of changes of 6 previously identified ONFH-associated plasma miRNAs (miR-423-5p, miR-99a-5p, miR-10a-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-130a-3p and miR-6787-5p) by quantitative RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction)...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885461/activation-of-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-is-required-for-tumor-neovascularization-in-a-murine-model-of-melanoma
#16
James Hutchenreuther, Krista Vincent, Chris Norley, Michael Racanelli, Stephen B Gruber, Timothy M Johnson, Douglas R Fullen, Leon Raskin, Bernard Perbal, David W Holdsworth, Lynne-Marie Postovit, Andrew Leask
Metastatic melanoma is highly fatal. Within the tumor microenvironment, the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in melanoma metastasis and progression is relatively understudied. The matricellular protein CCN2 (formerly termed connective tissue growth factor) is overexpressed, in a fashion independent of BRAF mutational status, by CAFs in melanoma. Herein, we find, in human melanoma patients, that CCN2 expression negatively correlates with survival and positively correlates with expression of neovascularization markers...
June 6, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884369/spray-chilling-encapsulation-of-2-acetyl-1-pyrroline-zinc-chloride-complex-using-hydrophobic-materials-feasibility-and-characterization-of-microcapsules
#17
Yun Yin, Keith R Cadwallader
A moisture-sensitive 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline zinc chloride complex (2AP-ZnCl2 ) was successfully encapsulated by spray-chilling, using a hydrophobic moisture barrier as a practical way to protect the complex and to help facilitate its general use in food applications. Use of octacosane as wall material provided a flavor retention of 65.3%. The results from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray micro-computed tomography (X-ray micro-CT) indicated desirable morphological characteristics of the matrix type microcapsules...
November 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884337/accuracy-of-digital-periapical-radiography-and-cone-beam-computed-tomography-for-diagnosis-of-natural-and-simulated-external-root-resorption
#18
Ângela Graciela Deliga Schröder, Fernando Henrique Westphalen, Julio Cesar Schröder, Ângela Fernandes, Vânia Portela Ditzel Westphalen
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of digital periapical radiography and cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging in the detection of natural and simulated external root resorptions (ERRs) with micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging as the reference standard. METHODS: One hundred twenty-six teeth were scanned using the SkyScan 1172 micro-CT scanner (Bruker microCT, Kontich, Belgium), and the images were evaluated using NRecon software (Bruker microCT)...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883825/atlases-with-arcuate-foramen-present-cortical-bone-thickening-that-may-contribute-to-a-lower-fracture-risk
#19
Juan A Sanchis-Gimeno, Susanna Llido, David Guede, Shahed Nalla, Francisco Martinez-Soriano, Esther Blanco-Perez, Jose R Caeiro
BACKGROUND: To date, no information about the cortical bone microstructural properties in atlas vertebrae with arcuate foramen has been reported. As a result, we aimed to test in an experimental model if there is a cortical bone thickening in an atlas vertebra which has an arcuate foramen that may play a protective role against bone fracture. METHODS: We analyzed by means of micro-computed tomography the cortical bone thickness, the cortical volume, and the medullary volume (SkyScan 1172 Bruker micro-CT NV, Kontich, Belgium) in cadaveric dry atlas vertebrae with arcuate foramen and without arcuate foramen...
June 5, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883786/a-bone-targeting-drug-delivery-system-based-on-semaphorin-3a-gene-therapy-ameliorates-bone-loss-in-osteoporotic-ovariectomized-mice
#20
K Yang, R J Miron, Z Bian, Y F Zhang
Osteoporosis is a serious health problem worldwide. Semaphorins (Sema) have been described as key molecules involved in the cross-talk between bone cells (osteoblasts/osteoclasts). In this study, we investigated whether plasmid containing Sema3a could ameliorate bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model via (AspSerSer)6 , a selectively bone-targeting moiety. Plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)-Sema3a-GFP was fabricated and transfected cells with the plasmid demonstrated statistically higher levels of Sema3A in vitro (p < 0...
June 5, 2018: Bone
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