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Sourav Dutta, K Bavya Devi, Sanjay Gupta, Biswanath Kundu, Vamsi Krishna Balla, Mangal Roy
In order to make magnesium (Mg) a successful candidate for fracture fixation devices, it is imperative to control the corrosion rate and enhance its elastic modulus. In the present work, we have prepared bioactive glass (BG) reinforced magnesium composite using spark plasma sintering (SPS). Simultaneous application of heat and pressure during SPS decreased the softening point of BG (600°C), allowing it to coat the Mg particles partially. As a result, BG was found along the Mg particle boundaries, which was confirmed by elemental mapping...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Takashi Ijiri, Hideki Todo, Akira Hirabayashi, Kenji Kohiyama, Yoshinori Dobashi
In this paper, we present a three-dimensional (3D) digitization technique for natural objects, such as insects and plants. The key idea is to combine X-ray computed tomography (CT) and photographs to obtain both complicated 3D shapes and surface textures of target specimens. We measure a specimen by using an X-ray CT device and a digital camera to obtain a CT volumetric image (volume) and multiple photographs. We then reconstruct a 3D model by segmenting the CT volume and generate a texture by projecting the photographs onto the model...
2018: PloS One
Matthew J Zdilla, Janusz Skrzat, Magdalena Kozerska, Bartosz Leszczyński, Jacek Tarasiuk, Sebastian Wroński
BACKGROUND: The oval window is an important structure with regard to stapes surgeries, including stapedotomy for the treatment of otosclerosis. Recent study of perioperative imaging of the oval window has revealed that oval window niche height can indicate both operative difficulty and subjective discomfort during otosclerosis surgery. With regard to shape, structures incorporated into the oval window niche, such as cartilage grafts, must be compatible with the shape of the oval window...
April 11, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Amy J Nelson, Shyamal K Roy, Kristi Warren, Katherine Janike, Geoffrey M Thiele, Ted R Mikuls, Debra J Romberger, Dong Wang, Benjamin Swanson, Jill A Poole
Skeletal health consequences associated with inflammatory diseases of the airways significantly contribute to morbidity. Sex differences have been described independently for lung and bone diseases. Repetitive inhalant exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces bone loss and deterioration in male mice, but comparison effects in females are unknown. Using an intranasal inhalation exposure model, 8-week-old C57BL/6 male and female mice were treated daily with LPS (100 ng) or saline for 3 weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, lung tissues, tibias, bone marrow cells, and blood were collected...
December 2018: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Camila Galleti Espir, Camila Almeida Nascimento, Juliane Maria Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Idomeo Bonetti-Filho, Mário Tanomaru-Filho
Context: Root canal anatomy is evaluated using different methodologies. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate and classify root canal morphology and dentin thicknesses (DT), comparing radiographic and micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis. Materials and Methods: Canal diameter and DT of mandibular incisors ( n = 520) were evaluated using digital radiographs in buccolingual (BL) and mesiodistal (MD) directions. The diameter ratio (DR) BL/MD was classified: flattened (FL, DR >4); oval (OV, 2≤ DR ≥4); rounded (RN, 1...
January 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Mariana Quirino Silveira Soares, Jeroen Van Dessel, Reinhilde Jacobs, Paulo Sérgio da Silva Santos, Tania Mary Cestari, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet, Marco Antonio Hungaro Duarte, Thaís Sumie Nozu Imada, Ivo Lambrichts, Izabel Regina Fischer Rubira-Bullen
PURPOSE: The aim was to assess the effect of a relevant regimen of zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment for the study of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw on alveolar bone microstructure and vasculature. A sub-objective was to use 3-dimensional imaging to describe site-specific changes induced by ZA in the alveolar bone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five Wistar rats received ZA (0.6 mg/kg) and five (controls) received saline solution in the same volume. The compounds were administered intraperitoneally in 5 doses every 28 days...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Wei Zhang, Lili Zheng
Through castrated rats osteoporosis models, this study aims to explore whether the intraperitoneal injection of Scutellaria baicalensis extract could prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis and slow down/reverse osteoporosis or not, and further explore the influence on BMMSCs extracted by Scutellaria baicalensis extract. Scutellaria baicalensis extracts on the prevention and treatment of oestrogen shortage and osteoporosis. After the screening of appropriate concentration, in the model of castrated female rats with osteoporosis, rats in prevent group were given intraperitoneal injection of Scutellaria baicalensis extract within 1 week after the castration, and the rats in treatment group were injected Scutellaria baicalensis extract at the abdominal cavity in two months of castration...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Naeem Bhojani, Jessica E Paonessa, Marawan M El Tayeb, James C Williams, Tariq A Hameed, James E Lingeman
OBJECTIVES: To compare the sensitivity of non-contrast CT to endoscopy for detection of renal calculi. Imaging modalities for detection of nephrolithiasis have centered on abdominal x-ray (KUB), ultrasound (US), and non-contrast computed tomography (CT). Sensitivities of 58-62% (KUB), 45% (US), and 95-100% (CT) have been previously reported. However, these results have never been correlated with endoscopic findings. METHODS: Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers with symptomatic calculi requiring ureteroscopy (URS) were studied...
April 3, 2018: Urology
Yan-Hsiung Wang, Jyun-Yi Wu, Su Chii Kong, Min-Hsuan Chiang, Mei-Ling Ho, Ming-Long Yeh, Chia-Hsin Chen
Both stem cell therapy and physical treatments have been shown to be beneficial in accelerating bone healing. However, the efficacy of combined treatment with stem cells and physical stimuli for large bone defects remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) and human adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) treatments during fracture repair using a comparative rat calvarial defect model. We evaluated the viability of human ADSCs, which were cultured on a porous PLGA scaffold using an MTS assay...
2018: PloS One
Sheng-Yao Liu, Zhe Li, Shao-Yong Xu, Lei Xu, Mo Yang, Guo-Xin Ni
The effect of running on bone mass depends on its intensity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism that associates running intensity with bone mass is unclear. The current study examined the effects of treadmill running at different intensities on bone mass and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in a rat model. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups and subjected to no running (Con group), low‑intensity running (LIR group), moderate‑intensity running (MIR group), and high‑intensity running (HIR group)...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Shu-Chi A Yeh, Katarzyna Wilk, Charles P Lin, Giuseppe Intini
Histomorphometry and Micro-CT are commonly used to assess bone remodeling and bone microarchitecture. These approaches typically require separate cohorts of animals to analyze 3D morphological changes and involve time-consuming immunohistochemistry preparation. Intravital Microscopy (IVM) in combination with mouse genetics may represent an attractive option to obtain bone architectural measurements while performing longitudinal monitoring of dynamic cellular processes in vivo. In this study we utilized two-photon, multicolor fluorescence IVM together with a lineage tracing reporter mouse model to image skeletal stem cells (SSCs) in their calvarial suture niche and analyze their differentiation fate after stimulation with an agonist of the canonical Wnt pathway (recombinant Wnt3a)...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kai Steinfeld, Daniela Beyer, Christian Mühlfeld, Andrea Mietens, Gerrit Eichner, Bora Altinkilic, Marian Kampschulte, Qingkui Jiang, Gabriele A Krombach, Thomas Linn, Wolfgang Weidner, Ralf Middendorff
The testis as a site for atherosclerotic changes has so far attracted little attention. We used the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)/low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor deficient mouse model (KO) for atherosclerosis (20, 40, 60 and 87-week-old) to investigate whether Leydig cells or the capillary network are responsible for reduced serum testosterone levels previously observed in extreme ages of this model. In KO mice, overall testosterone levels were reduced whereas the adrenal gland-specific corticosterone was increased excluding a general defect of steroid hormone production...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria Wetzel, Thomas Kempka, Michael Kühn
The quantification of changes in geomechanical properties due to chemical reactions is of paramount importance for geological subsurface utilisation, since mineral dissolution generally reduces rock stiffness. In the present study, the effective elastic moduli of two digital rock samples, the Fontainebleau and Bentheim sandstones, are numerically determined based on micro-CT images. Reduction in rock stiffness due to the dissolution of 10% calcite cement by volume out of the pore network is quantified for three synthetic spatial calcite distributions (coating, partial filling and random) using representative sub-cubes derived from the digital rock samples...
April 1, 2018: Materials
Muhammad Jawad Munawar, Chengyan Lin, Veerle Cnudde, Tom Bultreys, Chunmei Dong, Xianguo Zhang, Wesley De Boever, Muhammad Aleem Zahid, Yuqi Wu
Pore scale flow simulations heavily depend on petrographic characterizing and modeling of reservoir rocks. Mineral phase segmentation and pore network modeling are crucial stages in micro-CT based rock modeling. The success of the pore network model (PNM) to predict petrophysical properties relies on image segmentation, image resolution and most importantly nature of rock (homogenous, complex or microporous). The pore network modeling has experienced extensive research and development during last decade, however the application of these models to a variety of naturally heterogenous reservoir rock is still a challenge...
March 26, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Jian-Ping Jiang, Jia Jia, Meihua Zhang, Ke-Qin Gao
The Longdong Stream Salamander Batrachuperus londongensis , living in a mountain stream environment at Mt. Emei in Sichuan Province, China, represents a rare species that is facultatively neotenic in the family Hynobiidae. Although the species has been known to science for some 40 years since its initial discovery in the late 1970s, anatomical details of its osteology remain poorly understood and developmental information is still lacking for the species. This study (1) provides a detailed osteological account of B...
2018: PeerJ
Kun Lv, Song Gao
Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is routinely used to assess bone quantity and trabecular microstructural properties in small animals under different bone loss conditions. However, the standard approach for trabecular analysis of micro-CT images is slice-by-slice semi-automatic hand-contouring, which is labor intensive and error prone. Described here is an efficient method for automatic segmentation of trabecular bones according to the bone's outer boundaries, where trabecular bones can be identified and segmented automatically with accuracy with less operator bias when appropriate segmentation parameters are set...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Izabela C M Moris, Silas Borges Monteiro, Raíssa Martins, Ricardo Faria Ribeiro, Erica A Gomes
Aim: To evaluate the influence of different manufacturing methods of single implant-supported metallic crowns on the internal and external marginal fit through computed microtomography. Methods: Forty external hexagon implants were divided into 4 groups ( n = 8), according to the manufacturing method: GC, conventional casting; GI, induction casting; GP, plasma casting; and GCAD, CAD/CAM machining. The crowns were attached to the implants with insertion torque of 30 N·cm...
2018: BioMed Research International
Guoying Deng, Chenyun Dai, Jinyuan Chen, Anqi Ji, Jingpeng Zhao, Yue Zhai, Yingjie Kang, Xijian Liu, Yin Wang, Qiugen Wang
Background: Methylprednisolone (MPS) is an important drug used in therapy of many diseases. However, osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a serious damage in the MPS treatment. Thus, it is imperative to develop new drugs to prevent the serious side effect of MPS. Methods: The potential interferences Se@SiO2 nanocomposites may have to the therapeutic effect of methylprednisolone (MPS) were evaluated by classical therapeutic effect index of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), such as wet-to-dry weight ratio, inflammatory factors IL-1β and TNF-α...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Behzad Javaheri, Hajar Razi, Miriam Piles, Roberto de Souza, Yu-Mei Chang, Iris Maric-Mur, Mark Hopkinson, Peter D Lee, Andrew A Pitsillides
OBJECTIVES: Human osteoarthritis (OA) is detected only at late stages. Male STR/Ort mice develop knee OA spontaneously with known longitudinal trajectory, offering scope to identify OA predisposing factors. We exploit the lack of overt OA in female STR/Ort and in both sexes of parental, control CBA mice to explore whether early divergence in tibial bone mass or shape are linked to emergent OA. METHOD: We undertook detailed micro-CT comparisons of trabecular and cortical bone, multiple structural/architectural parameters and finite element modelling (FEM) of the tibia from male and female STR/Ort and CBA mice at 8-10 (pre-OA), 18-20 (OA onset) and 40+ weeks (advanced OA) of age...
March 28, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Sarah-Kim Bisson, Roth-Visal Ung, Sylvain Picard, Danika Valade, Mohsen Agharazii, Richard Larivière, Fabrice Mac-Way
A link between vascular calcification and bone anomalies has been suggested in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with low bone turnover disease. We investigated the vascular expression of osteocyte markers in relation to bone microarchitecture and mineralization defects in a model of low bone turnover CKD rats with vascular calcification. CKD with vascular calcification was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy followed by high calcium and phosphate diet, and vitamin D supplementation (Ca/P/VitD). CKD + Ca/P/VitD group (n = 12) was compared to CKD + normal diet (n = 12), control + normal diet (n = 8) and control + Ca/P/VitD supplementation (n = 8)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
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