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vitamin k and atherosclerosis

Fabian Plank, Christoph Beyer, Guy Friedrich, Markus Stühlinger, Florian Hintringer, Wolfgang Dichtl, Matthias Wildauer, Gudrun Feuchtner
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are associated with increased vascular calcification which may lead to an elevated cardiovascular risk. If the direct anticoagulants (DOACs) have similar negative vascular effects is unknown. We evaluated the influence of different anticoagulation strategies on coronary artery disease (CAD) using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: Overall 702 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent CTA for AF ablation planning were enrolled and stratified according to their anticoagulation into VKA, DOAC (all agents) and a control group without oral anticoagulation...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Cecilia Becattini, Francesco Dentali, Giuseppe Camporese, Agnese Sembolini, Elena Rancan, Chiara Tonello, Giorgia Manina, Seena Padayattil, Giancarlo Agnelli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Whether carotid atherosclerosis is associated with an increased risk for ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) on anticoagulant treatment is undefined. To explore this association, patients with AF on treatment with vitamin K antagonists were included in a multicenter, prospective study. METHODS: At inclusion in the study, patients underwent Doppler-ultrasonography for the assessment of carotid atherosclerosis and then were prospectively followed...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Camilla U Gjødesen, Marit E Jørgensen, Peter Bjerregaard, Inger K Dahl-Petersen, Christina V L Larsen, Martin Noël, Mads Melbye, Arieh S Cohen, Marika Lundqvist, David M Hougaard, Jørn W Helge, Nina O Nielsen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low levels of vitamin D are suspected to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis among Inuit in Greenland, and to evaluate the association with vitamin D status. We hypothesized that low vitamin D status could be associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) as a marker of atherosclerosis. METHODS: 756 adults from the Inuit Health in Transition (IHIT) study carried out in Greenland in the period 2005-2010 were included...
January 2018: Atherosclerosis
Vikrant Rai, Devendra K Agrawal
Vitamin D is critical in mineral homeostasis and skeletal health and plays a regulatory role in nonskeletal tissues. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, including diabetes and obesity, both strong risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs, including coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, cardiac fibrosis, heart failure, aneurysm, peripheral arterial disease, hypertension, and atherosclerosis, are major causes of morbidity and mortality...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Tarun K Sharma, S K Vardey, S Sitaraman
BACKGROUND: Long-term antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy has been associated with metabolic consequences that lead to an increase in risk of atherosclerosis in patients with epilepsy. Earlier published studies showed conflicting results about the levels of hematological parameters, serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12, in epileptics treated with phenytoin monotherapy. Therefore, we evaluated homocysteine metabolism and hematological parameters in early stage of phenytoin treated epileptic children...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
Thomas Olsen, Kathrine J Vinknes, Gard F T Svingen, Eva R Pedersen, Grethe S Tell, Rune Blomhoff, Christian A Drevon, Per M Ueland, Øivind Midttun, Helga Refsum, Ottar K Nygård
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Apolipoproteins B (apoB) and A1 (apoA1) are major protein constituents of low-density and high-density lipoproteins, respectively, and serum concentrations of these apolipoproteins are associated with risk of atherosclerosis. Vitamin A (VA) has been implicated in lipoprotein metabolism. We evaluated the associations of serum apoB, apoA1 and their ratio (apoBAR) with risk of incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the possible modification by serum VA. METHODS: Risk associations were assessed by Cox regression, and presented as hazard ratios (HRs) per standard deviation (SD) increment in log-transformed values of the lipid parameters, among 4117 patients with suspected stable angina pectoris, located in Western Norway...
July 21, 2017: Atherosclerosis
S Jung, M K Kim, B Y Choi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low-grade inflammation, represented by minor C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation, has a critical role in the early stages of atherosclerosis, and pantothenic acid (PA) may have an antioxidant effect in inflammatory process. However, the long-term relationship between PA intake and CRP has not yet been studied. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long-term relationship of PA intake to CRP concentration in healthy adults aged 40 years or older living in a rural area of South Korea...
September 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
A E Millen, J Nie, M W Sahli, J A Mares, K J Meyers, B E K Klein, M J LaMonte, P L Lutsey, C A Andrews, R Klein
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D status has been hypothesized to protect against development of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) via its anti-inflammatory properties and its possible beneficial influence on blood pressure control. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and prevalent early AMD in a community-based cohort. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. SETTING: This was a secondary data analysis of already existing data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) cohort collected from 1990 to 1995...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Hans-Christoph Diener, Richard Bernstein, Robert Hart
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The purpose of the study was to review the literature on cryptogenic stroke and embolic stroke of undetermined stroke (ESUS). Cryptogenic stroke according to TOAST criteria is a stroke which is not due to cardiogenic embolism, small vessel disease with lacunes or large vessel disease of brain supplying arteries. In the context of secondary stroke prevention studies, cryptogenic stroke is not operationally defined. RECENT FINDINGS: The new concept of "embolic stroke of undetermined source" (ESUS) provides an operational definition...
September 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Kazuhiro Osawa, Rine Nakanishi, Theingi Tiffany Win, Dong Li, Sina Rahmani, Negin Nezarat, Nasim Sheidaee, Matthew J Budoff
Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are known to increase vascular calcification, suggesting increased cardiovascular disease events. Apixaban is an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor superior to warfarin at preventing stroke or systemic embolism and may stabilize coronary atherosclerosis. The potential benefits of avoiding VKA therapy and the favorable effects of factor Xa inhibitors could contribute to cardiovascular disease event reduction. We hypothesized that apixaban inhibits vascular calcification and coronary atherosclerosis progression compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF)...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
Aino Siltari, Heikki Vapaatalo
Atherosclerosis is a pathological process underpinning many cardiovascular diseases; it is the main cause of global mortality. Atherosclerosis is characterized by an invasion of inflammatory cells, accumulation of lipids and the formation of fatty streaks (plaques) which subsequently allow accumulation of calcium and other minerals leading to a disturbance in the vascular endothelium and its regulatory role in arterial function. Vascular calcification is a different process, stringently regulated mainly by local factors, in which osteoblast-like cells accumulate in the muscular layer of arteries ultimately taking on the physiological appearance of bone...
June 21, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Zhaojun Wang, Zhongqun Wang, Jie Zhu, Xinguang Long, Jinchuan Yan
Background and objectives Vascular calcification is a common complication in atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence showed that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate pro-inflammatory and atherosclerosis. Recent studies demonstrated that vascular calcification is one of the detrimental effects of vitamin K (Vit K) antagonists. However, the effects of Vit K on the expression of TLR2 and 4 and intimal calcification in artery remained unidentified. Methods and results Eighteen ApoE-/- mice were randomly divided into model group, Vit K-treated group, and control group...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
Tarun K Sharma, S K Vardey, S Sitaraman
BACKGROUND: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been associated with metabolic consequences that lead to an increase in risk of atherosclerosis in patients with epilepsy. Therefore, we evaluated whether differences exist in homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels in children receiving carbamazepine (CBZ) monotherapy. METHODS: A total of 58 newly diagnosed epileptic children with ages ranging from 2 to 15 years were enrolled at the start of study. However, after 3 months follow up, the final total sample size was only 50 epileptic children...
July 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
Di Zhao, Pamela Ouyang, Ian H de Boer, Pamela L Lutsey, Youssef M K Farag, Eliseo Guallar, David S Siscovick, Wendy S Post, Rita R Kalyani, Kevin L Billups, Erin D Michos
INTRODUCTION: 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency has been associated with low testosterone levels in men, but there are conflicting reports of its associations with sex hormones in women. Less is known about whether these associations are independent of adiposity and lifestyle factors, and whether they differ by race/ethnicity. AIM: To examine associations of 25(OH)D concentrations with sex hormone levels. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 3017 men and 2929 women in a multi-ethnic cohort...
February 2017: Maturitas
Indah K Murni, Dian C Sulistyoningrum, Vicka Oktaria
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency significantly affects cardiovascular disease risk. Cardiovascular disease is epidemic in nature. Because the prevalence of cardiovascular disease has been increasing in children, it has been changing from an adulthood disease to a childhood disease. Therefore, formulating an effective prevention strategy against cardiovascular disease development in children is crucial. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: From PubMed, we identified and reviewed studies evaluating the association of vitamin D deficiency with cardiovascular disease risk in children...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Amy E Millen, Michelle W Sahli, Jing Nie, Michael J LaMonte, Pamela L Lutsey, Barbara E K Klein, Julie A Mares, Kirstin J Meyers, Christopher A Andrews, Ronald Klein
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D status has been hypothesized to protect against development of diabetic retinopathy via its anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo studies suggest vitamin D favorably influences blood pressure and blood glucose control, strong risk factors for diabetic retinopathy. We examined the association between vitamin D status and prevalent diabetic retinopathy in participants with diabetes from a population-based cohort. METHODS: Among participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study with diabetes at visit 3 (1993-1995), 1339 (906 Caucasians, 433 African Americans) had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (25[OH]D) concentrations assessed at visit 2 (1989-1992) and nonmydriatic retinal photographs taken at visit 3...
September 1, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Melissa A Moser, Ock K Chun
Vitamin C is a powerful dietary antioxidant that has received considerable attention in the literature related to its possible role in heart health. Although classical vitamin C deficiency, marked by scurvy, is rare in most parts of the world, some research has shown variable heart disease risks depending on plasma vitamin C concentration, even within the normal range. Furthermore, other studies have suggested possible heart-related benefits to vitamin C taken in doses beyond the minimal amounts required to prevent classically defined deficiency...
August 12, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
John Danziger, Rebekah L Young, Kyla M Shea, Daniel A Duprez, David R Jacobs, Russell P Tracy, Joachim H Ix, Nancy S Jenny, Kenneth J Mukamal
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vitamin K-dependent protein (VKDP) activity may have a role in preventing cardiovascular calcification, but has not previously been studied in large, generally healthy populations. METHODS: Using an elevated ankle-brachial index (ABI) as a measure of medial vascular calcification, we performed a case-cohort analysis within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, measuring Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) to estimate VKDP activity. In secondary analyses of the weighted subcohort, we examined the cross-sectional associations between DCP and prevalent vascular calcification of the coronary vessels, aortic and mitral valves, and aortic wall, and with vascular stiffness...
September 2016: Atherosclerosis
James K Pru
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Maria Grandoch, Christina Kohlmorgen, Ariane Melchior-Becker, Kathrin Feldmann, Susanne Homann, Julia Müller, Lena-Sophia Kiene, Jinyang Zeng-Brouwers, Friederike Schmitz, Nadine Nagy, Amin Polzin, Nina S Gowert, Margitta Elvers, Philipp Skroblin, Xiaoke Yin, Manuel Mayr, Liliana Schaefer, Lisa R Tannock, Jens W Fischer
OBJECTIVE: Thrombin signaling promotes atherosclerosis by initiating inflammatory events indirectly through platelet activation and directly via protease-activated receptors. Therefore, endogenous thrombin inhibitors may be relevant modulators of atheroprogression and cardiovascular risk. In addition, endogenous thrombin inhibitors may affect the response to non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants. Here, the question was addressed whether the small leucine-rich proteoglycan biglycan acts as an endogenous thrombin inhibitor in atherosclerosis through activation of heparin cofactor II...
May 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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