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vitamin k and atherosclerosis

Amy E Millen, Michelle W Sahli, Jing Nie, Michael J LaMonte, Pamela L Lutsey, Barbara E K Klein, Julie A Mares, Kirstin J Meyers, Christopher A Andrews, Ronald Klein
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D status has been hypothesized to protect against development of diabetic retinopathy via its anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo studies suggest vitamin D favorably influences blood pressure and blood glucose control, strong risk factors for diabetic retinopathy. We examined the association between vitamin D status and prevalent diabetic retinopathy in participants with diabetes from a population-based cohort. METHODS: Among participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study with diabetes at visit 3 (1993-1995), 1339 (906 Caucasians, 433 African Americans) had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (25[OH]D) concentrations assessed at visit 2 (1989-1992) and nonmydriatic retinal photographs taken at visit 3...
2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Melissa A Moser, Ock K Chun
Vitamin C is a powerful dietary antioxidant that has received considerable attention in the literature related to its possible role in heart health. Although classical vitamin C deficiency, marked by scurvy, is rare in most parts of the world, some research has shown variable heart disease risks depending on plasma vitamin C concentration, even within the normal range. Furthermore, other studies have suggested possible heart-related benefits to vitamin C taken in doses beyond the minimal amounts required to prevent classically defined deficiency...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
John Danziger, Rebekah L Young, Kyla M Shea, Daniel A Duprez, David R Jacobs, Russell P Tracy, Joachim H Ix, Nancy S Jenny, Kenneth J Mukamal
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vitamin K-dependent protein (VKDP) activity may have a role in preventing cardiovascular calcification, but has not previously been studied in large, generally healthy populations. METHODS: Using an elevated ankle-brachial index (ABI) as a measure of medial vascular calcification, we performed a case-cohort analysis within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, measuring Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) to estimate VKDP activity. In secondary analyses of the weighted subcohort, we examined the cross-sectional associations between DCP and prevalent vascular calcification of the coronary vessels, aortic and mitral valves, and aortic wall, and with vascular stiffness...
September 2016: Atherosclerosis
James K Pru
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Maria Grandoch, Christina Kohlmorgen, Ariane Melchior-Becker, Kathrin Feldmann, Susanne Homann, Julia Müller, Lena-Sophia Kiene, Jinyang Zeng-Brouwers, Friederike Schmitz, Nadine Nagy, Amin Polzin, Nina S Gowert, Margitta Elvers, Philipp Skroblin, Xiaoke Yin, Manuel Mayr, Liliana Schaefer, Lisa R Tannock, Jens W Fischer
OBJECTIVE: Thrombin signaling promotes atherosclerosis by initiating inflammatory events indirectly through platelet activation and directly via protease-activated receptors. Therefore, endogenous thrombin inhibitors may be relevant modulators of atheroprogression and cardiovascular risk. In addition, endogenous thrombin inhibitors may affect the response to non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants. Here, the question was addressed whether the small leucine-rich proteoglycan biglycan acts as an endogenous thrombin inhibitor in atherosclerosis through activation of heparin cofactor II...
May 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
John Danziger, Rebekah L Young, M Kyla Shea, Russell P Tracy, Joachim H Ix, Nancy S Jenny, Kenneth J Mukamal
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs), which require post-translational modification to achieve biological activity, seem to contribute to thrombus formation, vascular calcification, and vessel stiffness. Whether VKDP activity is prospectively associated with incident cardiovascular disease has not been studied. APPROACH AND RESULTS: VKDP activity was determined by measuring circulating des-γ-carboxy prothrombin concentrations in a random sample of 709 multiethnic adults free of cardiovascular disease drawn from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)...
May 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Guylaine Ferland, Isabelle Doucet, Dominique Mainville
Whether through the vitamin K-dependent proteins or the individual K vitamers, vitamin K (VK) is associated with a number of age-related conditions (e.g., osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, cognitive decline). In light of this, we investigated the influence of lifetime dietary VK exposure on the tissue distribution of phylloquinone (K₁) and menaquinone-4 (MK-4) vitamers in 3-, 12- and 22-month-old male and female rats fed different K₁ diets since weaning or subjected to a 40% calorie restricted diet (CR) since adulthood...
March 2016: Nutrients
Sayaka Namba, Minako Yamaoka-Tojo, Takehiro Hashikata, Yuki Ikeda, Lisa Kitasato, Takuya Hashimoto, Takao Shimohama, Taiki Tojo, Naonobu Takahira, Takashi Masuda, Junya Ako
BACKGROUND: Stroke prevention by warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, has been an integral part in the management of atrial fibrillation. Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein (MGP) has been known as a potent inhibitor of arterial calcification and osteoporosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that warfarin therapy affects bone mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, and vascular endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: We studied 42 atrial fibrillation patients at high-risk for atherosclerosis having one or more coronary risk factors...
December 2015: BBA Clinical
Rick H van Gorp, Leon J Schurgers
Vitamin K-antagonists (VKA) are the most widely used anticoagulant drugs to treat patients at risk of arterial and venous thrombosis for the past 50 years. Due to unfavorable pharmacokinetics VKA have a small therapeutic window, require frequent monitoring, and are susceptible to drug and nutritional interactions. Additionally, the effect of VKA is not limited to coagulation, but affects all vitamin K-dependent proteins. As a consequence, VKA have detrimental side effects by enhancing medial and intimal calcification...
November 2015: Nutrients
Yi-Fan Zhao, Da-Chun Xu, Guo-Fu Zhu, Meng-Yun Zhu, Kai Tang, Wei-Ming Li, Ya-Wei Xu
Growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) is a member of the vitamin K-dependent protein family that is involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, including vascular remodeling, homeostasis, and atherosclerosis. However, there is still no study that systemically elucidates the role of GAS6 in cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we found that GAS6 was upregulated in human dilated cardiomyopathic hearts, hypertrophic murine hearts, and angiotensin II-treated cardiomyocytes. Next, we examined the influence of GAS6 expression in response to a cardiac stress by inducing chronic pressure overload with aortic banding in wild-type and GAS6-knockout mice or cardiac-specific GAS6 overexpressing mice...
January 2016: Hypertension
Liv M Vossen, Leon J Schurgers, Bernard J van Varik, Bas L J H Kietselaer, Cees Vermeer, Johannes G Meeder, Braim M Rahel, Yvonne J M van Cauteren, Ge A Hoffland, Roger J M W Rennenberg, Koen D Reesink, Peter W de Leeuw, Abraham A Kroon
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) develops early in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Arterial calcification is caused by an imbalance in calcification regulatory mechanisms. An important inhibitor of calcification is vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein (MGP). Both preclinical and clinical studies have shown that inhibition of the vitamin K-cycle by vitamin K antagonists (VKA) results in elevated uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) and subsequently in extensive arterial calcification...
November 2015: Nutrients
Samit S Jain, Dharmesh K Shah, Pravir A Gambhire, Ravi U Varma, Qais Q Contractor, Pravin M Rathi
OBJECTIVE: To study the extent of early atherosclerosis in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients by measuring carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and the correlation between CIMT, serum homocysteine level and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in UC. METHODS: We studied 60 UC patients and 60 healthy controls. Individuals with risk factors for atherosclerosis were excluded from the study. Fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, HOMA-IR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels were measured in all participants...
November 2015: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Kai Yin, Yong You, Vicki Swier, Lin Tang, Mohamed M Radwan, Amit N Pandya, Devendra K Agrawal
OBJECTIVE: Prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency and its association with the risk of cardiovascular disease prompted us to evaluate the effect of VD status on lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic microswine. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Yucatan microswine were fed with VD-deficient (0 IU/d), VD-sufficient (1000 IU/d), or VD-supplemented (3000 IU/d) high-cholesterol diet for 48 weeks. Serum lipids and 25(OH)-cholecalciferol levels were measured biweekly...
November 2015: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
K Cosker, S Samson, A Fagot-Campagna, F Woimant, P Tuppin
INTRODUCTION: Characteristics of patients hospitalized for transient ischemic attack (TIA) management before and during this hospitalization and follow-up are not well documented on very large populations. METHODS: Among the 51 million beneficiaries of the French national health insurance general scheme (77% of French population), those subjects hospitalized for a first TIA in 2010 were included using the national health insurance information system (SNIIRAM). The frequencies of comorbidities during the previous five years and drug treatments received during the previous year and the first month after discharge were estimated from the SNIIRAM and then compared to data derived from the permanent randomized sample of all health insurance beneficiaries based on standardized morbidity ratios (SMR)...
February 2016: Revue Neurologique
Amit K Jain, Neelesh K Mehra, Nitin K Swarnakar
Cardiovascular disorders or cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major illness associated with heart and blood vessels. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated during excessive oxidative stress, are responsible for the pathophysiology of various cardiovascular disorders including atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, ventricular remodeling, ischemia/reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction. Cellular "redox homeostasis" generally maintains the healthy physiology in cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells...
2015: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Shadi Yaghi, Hooman Kamel, Mitchell S V Elkind
BACKGROUND: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) drugs are at least equivalent to warfarin for ischemic stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation and have a lower risk of intracranial hemorrhage. The role of these agents in the prevention and treatment of other types of cerebrovascular disease remains unclear. METHODS: We reviewed the literature (randomized trials, exploratory comparative studies, and case series) on the use of NOACs in patients with atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, and cerebrovascular disease independent of atrial fibrillation...
September 22, 2015: Neurology
Ilona Kurnatowska, Piotr Grzelak, Anna Masajtis-Zagajewska, Magdalena Kaczmarska, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Cees Vermeer, Katarzyna Maresz, Michał Nowicki
INTRODUCTION: Observational studies have shown that high dietary intake of vitamin K2 is associated with reduced risk of coronary vascular disease and vascular calcification. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effect of vitamin K2 substitution on the progression of atherosclerosis and calcification in nondialyzed patients with CKD stages 3-5. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 42 nondialyzed patients with CKD. The following measurements were taken at baseline and after 270 ±12 days of supplementation with vitamin K2 at a dose of 90 μg (menaquinone, MK-7) together with 10 μg of cholecalciferol (K+D group) or 10 μg of cholecalciferol (group D): common carotid intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), coronary artery calcification score (CACS), basic biochemical parameters, lipids, and calcification modulators: matrix Gla protein (MGP), desphosphorylated-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), osteoprotegerin (OPG), fetuin A, osteocalcin (OC), and fibroblast growth factor 23...
2015: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
Dimitris Tousoulis, Marios K Georgakis, Evangelos Oikonomou, Nikolaos Papageorgiou, Marina Zaromitidou, George Latsios, Spyridon Papaioannou, Gerasimos Siasos
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase with a key role in the pathophysiology of endothelial dysfunction, in the progression of atherosclerosis and in cardiovascular diseases. Statins, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, blood glucose lowering agents, insulin sensitizers, beta-blockers, estrogen replacement therapy, antioxidants, complex B vitamins, L-arginine and acetylsalicylic acid have been evaluated for their ability to reduce ADMA levels or inhibit its actions...
2015: Current Medicinal Chemistry
A L C Schneider, P L Lutsey, E Selvin, T H Mosley, A R Sharrett, K A Carson, W S Post, J S Pankow, A R Folsom, R F Gottesman, E D Michos
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Low vitamin D levels, measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], are associated with increased stroke risk. Less is known about whether this association differs by race or D binding protein (DBP) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) status. Our objective was to characterize the associations of and interactions between 25(OH)D levels and DBP SNPs with incident stroke. It was hypothesized that associations of low 25(OH)D with stroke risk would be stronger amongst persons with genotypes associated with higher DBP levels...
August 2015: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Rachel Nicoll, John McLaren Howard, Michael Y Henein
Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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