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Chilean native fruits

Samanta Thomas-Valdés, Cristina Theoduloz, Felipe Jiménez-Aspee, Alberto Burgos-Edwards, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann
The Chilean white strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis spp. chiloensis f. chiloensis) is a semi-domesticated strawberry with high polyphenol content and antioxidant activity occurring in southern Chile. The aim of this work was to compare the composition and bioactivity of the polyphenol-enriched fruit extract (PEE) before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Results show a decrease by >50% in the total phenolic (TP) content at the end of the GID, compared to the non-digested PEE. A reduction in the antioxidant capacity of the PEEs was observed after GID by means of DPPH, FRAP, TEAC and anion superoxide assays...
March 2018: Food Research International
Carol López de Dicastillo, Fernanda Bustos, Ximena Valenzuela, Gracia López-Carballo, Jose M Vilariño, Maria Jose Galotto
The knowledge of the biological properties of fruits and leaves of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) has been owned by native Chilean culture. The present study investigated the phenolic content, the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase activities of different murta fruit and leaves extracts to approach their uses on future food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Extractions of murta fruit and leaves were carried out under water, ethanol and ethanol 50%. Phenolic content of these extracts was measured through Folin Ciocalteu test and the antioxidant power by four different antioxidant systems (ORAC, FRAP, DPPH and TEAC assays) owing to elucidate the main mechanism of antioxidant...
December 2017: Food Research International
Felipe Jiménez-Aspee, Cristina Theoduloz, Maria Del Pilar C Soriano, Maider Ugalde-Arbizu, Maria Rosa Alberto, Iris Catiana Zampini, Maria Inés Isla, Mario J Simirigiotis, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann
The native tree Geoffroea decorticans (chañar) grows in the arid lands of northern Chile. It has been used as a food plant since prehistoric times. Phenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) of Chilean chañar fruits were assessed for their chemical composition, antioxidant properties and inhibition of pro-inflammatory and metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes. Phenolic profiles were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The PEEs of G. decorticans showed a strong effect towards the enzymes COX-1/COX-2, with inhibition percentages ranging from inactive to 92...
September 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Irene Martín-Forés, Marta Avilés, Belén Acosta-Gallo, Martin F Breed, Alejandro Del Pozo, José M de Miguel, Laura Sánchez-Jardón, Isabel Castro, Carlos Ovalle, Miguel A Casado
Dispersal and reproductive traits of successful plant invaders are expected to undergo strong selection during biological invasions. Numerous Asteraceae are invasive and display dimorphic fruits within a single flower head, resulting in differential dispersal pathways - wind-dispersed fruits vs. non-dispersing fruits. We explored ecotypic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity of seed output and fruit dimorphisms in exotic Chilean and native Spanish populations of Leontodon saxatilis subsp. rothii. We collected flower heads from populations in Spain and Chile along a rainfall gradient...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Carolina Sánchez, Javier Villacreses, Noelle Blanc, Loreto Espinoza, Camila Martinez, Gabriela Pastor, Patricio Manque, Soledad F Undurraga, Victor Polanco
Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield)...
2016: SpringerPlus
Angélica González-González, Rubén Palma-Millanao, Osvaldo Yáñez, Maximiliano Rojas, Ana Mutis, Herbert Venthur, Andrés Quiroz, Claudio C Ramírez
Hylamorpha elegans(Burmeister) is a native Chilean scarab beetle considered to be a relevant agricultural pest to pasture and cereal and small fruit crops. Because of their cryptic habits, control with conventional methods is difficult; therefore, alternative and environmentally friendly control strategies are highly desirable. The study of proteins that participate in the recognition of odorants, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), offers interesting opportunities to identify new compounds with the potential to modify pest behavior and computational screening of compounds, which is commonly used in drug discovery, may help to accelerate the discovery of new semiochemicals...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Mario J Simirgiotis, Cristina Quispe, Jorge Bórquez, Carlos Areche, Beatriz Sepúlveda
A small Chilean variety of pears growing in the town of Toconao, an oasis located at the northeastern edge of the Salar de Atacama, northern Chile, was studied by means of modern PDA and high resolution mass spectral data (UHPLC-PDA-HESI-orbitrap-MS/MS). In addition, the antioxidant features of the fruits were compared with the varieties Packhman's Triumph and Abate Fetel and correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds. The non-pigmented phenolics were fingerprinted and related to the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and total content of phenolics and flavonoids measured by spectroscopic methods...
January 15, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Carol López de Dicastillo, Francisco Rodríguez, Abel Guarda, Maria José Galotto
Development of antioxidant and antimicrobial active food packaging materials based on biodegradable polymer and natural plant extracts has numerous advantages as reduction of synthetic additives into the food, reduction of plastic waste, and food protection against microorganisms and oxidation reactions. In this way, active films based on methylcellulose (MC) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry fruit extract, as a source of antioxidants agents, were studied. On the other hand, due to the high water affinity of MC, this polymer was firstly cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations...
January 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Felipe Jiménez-Aspee, Cristina Theoduloz, Felipe Ávila, Samanta Thomas-Valdés, Claudia Mardones, Dietrich von Baer, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann
The Chilean raspberry Rubus geoides Sm. (Rosaceae) is a native species occurring in the Patagonia. Five R. geoides samples were assessed for phenolic content and composition, antioxidant activity, effect on total reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis and protective effect against H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced stress in epithelial gastric AGS cells. The HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS profiles allowed the tentative identification of 39 phenolics including flavonol glycosides and tannins. R. geoides presented higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than Rubus idaeus...
March 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Javier Villacreses, Marcelo Rojas-Herrera, Carolina Sánchez, Nicole Hewstone, Soledad F Undurraga, Juan F Alzate, Patricio Manque, Vinicius Maracaja-Coutinho, Victor Polanco
Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%-73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus...
April 2015: Viruses
Felipe Jiménez-Aspee, Maria Rosa Alberto, Cristina Quispe, Maria del Pilar Caramantin Soriano, Cristina Theoduloz, Iris Catiana Zampini, Maria Ines Isla, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann
Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) is an endemic species occurring in northern Chile. The edible fruits of this plant are valued for its acidic and refreshing taste. Phenolic-enriched extracts from copao fruit pulp and epicarp, collected in the Elqui and Limari river valleys, were assessed by its in vitro ability to inhibit the pro-inflammatory enzymes lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). At 100 μg/mL, pulp extracts showed better effect towards LOX than epicarp extract, while COX-2 inhibition was observed for both epicarp and pulp samples...
June 2015: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Amadeo Gironés-Vilaplana, Angel Calín-Sánchez, Diego A Moreno, Angel A Carbonell-Barrachina, Cristina García-Viguera
Pacharán is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.), that has been historically produced in Navarra (Northern Spain). On the other hand, Chilean native maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) now under increasing study because of its potential health benefits, is not widely known. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry (MBL), characterising its bioactive and volatile composition, antioxidant capacity, sensory quality, and compare it to traditional pacharán (SBP)...
April 15, 2015: Food Chemistry
Marjorie Reyes-Farias, Karla Vasquez, Angelica Ovalle-Marin, Francisco Fuentes, Claudia Parra, Vilma Quitral, Paula Jimenez, Diego F Garcia-Diaz
Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties...
May 2015: Journal of Medicinal Food
Benjamín Varas, María H Castro, Roberto Rodriguez, Dietrich von Baer, Claudia Mardones, Patricio Hinrichsen
UNLABELLED:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Southern barberry or calafate (Berberis microphylla) is a shrub species endemic to the Patagonian region of South America that is used for human consumption. The fruit is very rich in vitamin C and anthocyanins and has a very high antioxidant capacity. There have been only a few genetic studies of this and other closely related species. • METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we present the first 18 microsatellite markers of B...
July 2013: Applications in Plant Sciences
Evelyn Villagra, Carola Campos-Hernandez, Pablo Cáceres, Gustavo Cabrera, Yamilé Bernardo, Ariel Arencibia, Basilio Carrasco, Peter D S Caligari, José Pico, Rolando García-Gonzales
BACKGROUND: For the first time, a morphometric characterization of chaura (Gaultheria pumila) fruits has been conducted between natural populations growing in the Villarrica National Park, Araucania Region, Chile. Chaura is a native Ericaceae from Chile that produces aromatic and tasty fruits which could be of agricultural interest. RESULTS: To influence the decision for a further domestication of G. pumila, both the fruit sizes (indicator of productivity) and the nutritional properties of the fruits have been determined from different subpopulations...
2014: Biological Research
M C G Correa, J-F Germain, T Malausa, T Zaviezo
Mealybugs are major pests of grapevines worldwide. They cause economic losses by lowering the cosmetic value of fruits, reducing yields, transmitting viruses and resulting in the quarantine or rejection of produce in international trade. Knowledge of the species present in a vineyard is important for the adjustment of management strategies. We surveyed and accurately characterized the mealybugs infesting vineyards in one of the main production areas of Chile; 164 mealybugs were sampled from 26 vineyards in four regions of Chile and identified by DNA sequencing for two markers (cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) and morphological examination...
October 2012: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Ariel Salvatierra, Paula Pimentel, Maria Alejandra Moya-Leon, Peter D S Caligari, Raul Herrera
Difference in fruit pigmentation observed between two botanical forms of Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis (form chiloensis and form patagonica) was studied through transcriptional and chemical approaches. The proportion of different anthocyanins was demonstrated to be characteristic of each botanical form, with pelargonidin 3-glucoside being the most abundant in f. patagonica fruit and cyaniding 3-glucoside as the major one in f. chiloensis fruit. Partial gene sequences of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were isolated from the native Chilean strawberry fruits, and used to design gene-specific primers in order to perform transcriptional analyses by qRT-PCR...
November 2010: Phytochemistry
Paula Pimentel, Ariel Salvatierra, María Alejandra Moya-León, Raúl Herrera
Fragaria chiloensis, the native Chilean strawberry, is noted for its good fruit quality characters. However, it is a highly perishable fruit due to its rapid softening. With the aim to screen for genes differentially expressed during development and ripening of strawberry fruit, the subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH) methodology was employed. Six libraries were generated contrasting transcripts from four different developmental stages. A set of 1807 genes was isolated and characterized. In our EST collection, approximately 90% of partial cDNAs showed significant similarity to proteins with known or unknown function registered in databases...
September 15, 2010: Journal of Plant Physiology
Juan González, Francisca Reyes, Carlos Salas, Margarita Santiag, Yael Codriansky, Nelson Coliheuque, Herman Silva
One of the fungal pathogens that causes more agriculture damage is Botrytis cinerea. Botrytis is a constant threat to crops because the fungus infects a wide range of host species, both native and cultivated. Furthermore, Botrytis persists on plant debris in and on the soil. Some of the most serious diseases caused by Botrytis include gray mold on vegetables and fruits, such as grapes and strawberries. Botrytis also causes secondary soft rot of fruits and vegetables during storage, transit and at the market...
2006: Biological Research
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