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Clinical pathway

David R Howell, Peter Kriz, Rebekah C Mannix, Tyler Kirchberg, Christina L Master, William P Meehan
OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine how age influences initial symptom presentation following concussion; and (2) to determine whether specific symptom profiles are associated with duration of postconcussion symptoms, and whether they vary by age group. DESIGN: A total of 689 patients (20% children 7-12 years of age, 69% adolescents 13-18 years of age, and 11% young adults 19-30 years of age) were seen and diagnosed with a concussion within 21 days after injury. Patients completed the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) and were followed until they no longer required care...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
N Biglia, V E Bounous, M Gallo, L Fuso, L G Sgro, F Maggiorotto, R Ponzone
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role and feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients with a local recurrence and no clinically positive axillary lymph nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 71 patients underwent SLNB for breast cancer recurrence. At first surgery, they had received SLNB (46.5%), axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) (36.6%) or no axillary surgery (16.9%). RESULTS: Lymphatic migration was successful in 53 out of 71 patients (74...
June 7, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Sameer A Greenall, Jacqueline Donoghue, Terrance G Johns, Timothy E Adams
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly refractory to current therapeutics used in the clinic. DX-2647, a recombinant human antibody, potently neutralizes the action of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), a ligand for three cell-surface receptors (IGF-IR, insulin receptor A and B isoforms, and the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor) which is overexpressed in primary human HCC. DX-2647 impaired the growth of tumor xenografts of the HCC cell line, Hep3B; however, xenografts of the HCC cell line, HepG2, were largely unresponsive to DX-2647 treatment...
June 18, 2018: Translational Oncology
Milos D Ikonomovic, Eric E Abrahamson, Shaun W Carlson, Steven H Graham, C Edward Dixon
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for development of chronic neurodegenerative disorders later in life. This review summarizes the current knowledge and concepts regarding the connection between long-term consequences of TBI and aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), and Parkinsonism, with implications for novel therapy targets. Several aggregation-prone proteins such as the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, tau proteins, and α-synuclein protein are involved in secondary pathogenic cascades initiated by a TBI and are also major building blocks of the hallmark pathological lesions in chronic human neurodegenerative diseases with dementia...
June 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Yong-Ku Kim, Meysam Amidfar, Eunsoo Won
The heterogeneity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms indicates that multiple neurobiological mechanisms underlie the pathophysiology of the condition. However, no generally accepted PTSD biomarkers in clinical practice currently exist. The sequential responses to recurrent and chronic stress by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) system are considered to play a significant role in the onset and progression of PTSD. Decreased activity of the HPA axis and parasympathetic nervous system, along with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system, have been observed in PTSD, which may lead to increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines...
June 19, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Jiangli Shen, Zhaohui Yu, Na Li
The E3 ubiquitin ligase ring finger protein 146 (RNF146) has been implicated in tumor development. However, the role and clinical significance of RNF146 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unknown. In this study, we reported for the first time that RNF146 was upregulated in CRC tissues as well as in cell lines. Further, RNF146 expression was independent prognostic factor for poor outcome of CRC patients. RNF146 knockdown in cell lines inhibited cell growth, promoted cell apoptosis in vitro and suppressed colorectal tumor growth in vivo...
June 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Joe Pelt, Sara Busatto, Mauro Ferrari, E Aubrey Thompson, Kabir Mody, Joy Wolfram
Clinically approved cancer therapies include small molecules, antibodies, and nanoparticles. There has been major progress in the treatment of several cancer types over recent decades. However, many challenges remain for optimal use of conventional and nanoparticle-based therapies in oncology including poor drug delivery, rapid clearance, and drug resistance. The antimalarial agent chloroquine has been found to mitigate some of these challenges by modulating cancer cells and the tissue microenvironment. Particularly, chloroquine was recently found to reduce immunological clearance of nanoparticles by resident macrophages in the liver, leading to increased tumor accumulation of nanodrugs...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ludmila Pawlikowska, Jeffrey Nelson, Diana E Guo, Charles E McCulloch, Michael T Lawton, Helen Kim, Marie E Faughnan
BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is caused by mutations in TGFβ/BMP9 pathway genes and characterized by vascular malformations (VM) including arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in lung, liver, and brain, which lead to severe complications including intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) from brain VM. The clinical heterogeneity of HHT suggests a role for genetic modifier effects. Common variants in loci that modify phenotype severity in Tgfb knockout mice were previously reported as associated with lung AVM in HHT...
May 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Ahmed A Moustafa, Hogyoung Kim, Rasha S Albeltagy, Ola H El-Habit, Asim B Abdel-Mageed
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a small functional non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression through mRNA degradation or translational repression. miRNAs are key regulatory components of various cellular networks. Current evidence support that multiple mammalian genome-encoded miRNAs impact the cellular biology, including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and tumorigenesis, by targeting specific subsets of mRNAs. This minireview is focused on the current themes underlying the interactions between miRNAs and their mRNA targets and pathways in prostate tumorigenesis and progression, and their potential clinical utility as biomarkers for prostate cancer...
June 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Maria I Patrício, Alun R Barnard, Kanmin Xue, Robert E MacLaren
INTRODUCTION: Choroideremia is an X-linked inherited retinal degeneration that causes blindness in afflicted males by middle age. The causative gene, CHM, plays a key role in intracellular trafficking pathways, and its disruption impairs cell homeostasis. Areas covered: The mechanism by which mutations in CHM cause choroideremia is still under debate. Here we describe the molecular defects in choroideremia cells regarding both the deficiency of prenylation and the involvement of Rab GTPases...
June 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Cyriac Abby Philips, Nikhil Phadke, Karthik Ganesan, Shatakshi Ranade, Philip Augustine
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol-induced intestinal dysbiosis is central to the development of the severe alcoholic liver disease. We present the first study to compare outcomes in patients of severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) on nutritional therapy, corticosteroids, pentoxifylline, and healthy donor fecal transplantation (FMT) and discuss distinct microbial community and microbiome metabolic functional changes after FMT. METHODS: Out of 1271 liver disease patients, 809 (63...
June 21, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Karissa N Arca, Rashmi B Halker Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the clinical features, diagnosis, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment of the rare primary headache disorders short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with autonomic symptoms (SUNA). Together these entities are known as short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks (SUNHA). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent case reports of secondary SUNCT and SUNA due to medullary infarcts support the theory that the trigeminohypothalamic pathway is involved in the pathophysiology of SUNHA...
June 21, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Megha Agarwal, Nidhi Thareja, Melody Benjamin, Andre Akhondi, George D Mitchell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to identify commonly used tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that are associated with hypertension, primarily, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway (VSP) inhibitors. We review the incidence, mechanism, and strategies for management of TKI-induced HTN. We hope to provide clinicians with guidance on how to manage similar clinical scenarios. RECENT FINDINGS: Many of the newer VSP inhibitors are reviewed here, including cediranib, axitinib, pazopanib, and ponatinib...
June 21, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Wenguang Chang, Junfang Teng
Demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are known to result from acute or chronic injury to the myelin sheath and inadequate remyelination. Its underlying molecular mechanisms, however, remain unclear. The transcription factor prospero homeobox 1 (Prox1) plays an essential role during embryonic development of the central nervous system and cell differentiation. Thus, we aimed to investigate the role of Prox1 in the survival and differentiation of oligodendrocytes. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay...
June 20, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Jingya Sun, Xin Wang, Boyun Tang, Hongchun Liu, Minmin Zhang, Yueqin Wang, Fangfang Ping, Jian Ding, Aijun Shen, Meiyu Geng
Over the past decade, therapies targeting the VEGF/VEGFR and mTOR pathways have served as the standard of care for the clinical management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. Albeit promising, these targeted drugs have attained only modest clinical benefits with limited prolonged progression-free survival. Therefore, alternative reasonable and applicable therapeutic approaches should be introduced to improve the clinical outcome of RCC patients. Methods: FDA approved kinase inhibitors were screened to evaluate their abilities to suppress the proliferation of RCC cells...
2018: Theranostics
Chao Yu, Shiyu Chen, Yuntao Guo, Chengyi Sun
Background: Drug resistance is well known as a major obstacle for cancer recurrence and treatment failure, leading to poor survival in pancreatic cancer, which is a highly aggressive tumor. Identifying effective strategies to overcome drug resistance would have a significant clinical impact for patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods: The protein and mRNA expression of TRIM31 in pancreatic cancer cell lines and patient tissues were determined using Real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. 89 human pancreatic cancer tissue samples were analyzed by IHC to investigate the association between TRIM31 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of pancreatic cancer patients...
2018: Theranostics
Jin Wang, Qian Ran, Hai-Rong Zeng, Lin Wang, Chang-Jiang Hu, Qin-Wan Huang
Rhizoma coptidis has been used in China for thousands of years with the functions of heating dampness and purging fire detoxification. But the underlying molecular mechanisms of Rhizoma coptidis are still far from being fully elucidated. Alkaloids, especially berberine, coptisine and palmatine, are responsible for multiple pharmacological effects of Rhizoma coptidis. In this review, we studied on the effects and molecular mechanisms of Rhizoma coptidis on NF-κB/MAPK/PI3K-Akt/AMPK/ERS and oxidative stress pathways...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Li Li, Xiaoxia Dong, Feng Peng, Li Shen
Background: Increased expression of integrin β1 has been reported to correlate with progression and therapy resistance in many types of cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of integrin β1 on the invasion and radioresistance of laryngeal cancer cells. Methods: The expression of integrin β1 in the tumor specimens of laryngeal cancer patients was assessed by immunohistochemical assays. The invasion ability of laryngeal cancer cells was detected by transwell and wound healing assays...
2018: Cancer Cell International
Maria Lia Scribano
The biologic antitumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα) agents have revolutionised the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, some patients experience primary nonresponse, loss of response, or intolerance. Therefore, introducing a newer class of therapy with a mechanism of action that acts on different inflammatory pathways involved in IBD pathogenesis is appealing. Vedolizumab is a fully humanised monoclonal antibody that selectively targets α4β7 integrin. Based on the results of the pivotal clinical GEMINI trials, vedolizumab was approved for the treatment of adult patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) refractory or intolerant to either conventional therapy or TNFα inhibitors...
June 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jun He, Hao-Xue Gao, Na Yang, Xiao-Dong Zhu, Run-Bin Sun, Yuan Xie, Cai-Hong Zeng, Jing-Wei Zhang, Jian-Kun Wang, Fei Ding, Ji-Ye Aa, Guang-Ji Wang
Epalrestat is an inhibitor of aldose reductase in the polyol pathway and is used for the management of diabetic neuropathy clinically. Our pilot experiments and accumulated evidences showed that epalrestat inhibited polyol pathway and reduced sorbitol production, and suggested the potential renal protection effects of epalrestat on diabetic nephropathy (DN). To evaluate the protective effect of epalrestat, the db/db mice were used and exposed to epalrestat for 8 weeks, both the physiopathological condition and function of kidney were examined...
June 21, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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