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Liquid Handling

Dakai Bian, Jason C Tsui, Mikhail Repin, Guy Garty, Helen Turner, Y Lawrence Yao, David J Brenner
Due to the need of high-speed and efficient biodosimetric assays for triage and therapy in the event of radiological or nuclear attack, a robotically based automated biodosimetry tool (RABiT) has been developed over the past few years. Adapting the micronucleus assay from filter plates to V-shaped plates presented challenges in the liquid handling, namely, cell splashing out of the V-shaped well plate during the cell harvesting, poor cell distribution on the bottom of the image plate during the dispensing, and cell loss from the image plate during the aspiration in the liquid handling process...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Devices
Philip M Cummins, Keith D Rochfort, Brendan F O'Connor
Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) allows for the separation of ionizable molecules on the basis of differences in charge properties. Its large sample-handling capacity, broad applicability (particularly to proteins and enzymes), moderate cost, powerful resolving ability, and ease of scale-up and automation have led to it becoming one of the most versatile and widely used of all liquid chromatography (LC) techniques. In this chapter, we review the basic principles of IEC, as well as the broader criteria for selecting IEC conditions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yanshan Lv, Shaoyou Lu, Yanyan Dai, Caiyan Rui, Yongjun Wang, Yuanxiu Zhou, Yanru Li, Qihua Pang, Ruifang Fan
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used chemical in the production of many polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resin linings for food and beverage containers and thermal papers. Oral intakes from the contaminated diets were considered as the predominant source of BPA exposure for humans. However, due to the high levels of BPA on thermal receipts and their wide applications in our daily life, the amount of BPA be transferred to the skin after holding thermal paper should not be underestimated, particularly for cashiers...
October 8, 2016: Environment International
Evelien P J G Neis, S Sabrkhany, I Hundscheid, D Schellekens, K Lenaerts, S W Olde Damink, E E Blaak, C H C Dejong, Sander S Rensen
Plasma levels of several amino acids are correlated with metabolic dysregulation in obesity and type 2 diabetes. To increase our understanding of human amino-acid metabolism, we aimed to determine splanchnic interorgan amino-acid handling. Twenty patients planned to undergo a pylorus preserving pancreatico-duodenectomy were included in this study. Blood was sampled from the portal vein, hepatic vein, superior mesenteric vein, inferior mesenteric vein, splenic vein, renal vein, and the radial artery during surgery...
October 6, 2016: Amino Acids
Manhee Lee, Bongsu Kim, QHwan Kim, JongGeun Hwang, Sangmin An, Wonho Jhe
The viscometry of minute amounts of liquid has been in high demand as a novel tool for medical diagnosis and biological assays. Various microrheological techniques have shown the capability to handle small volumes. However, as the liquid volume decreases down to nanoliter scale, increasingly dominant surface effects complicate the measurement and analysis, which remain a challenge in microrheology. Here, we demonstrate an atomic force microscope-based platform that determines the viscosity of single sessile drops of 1 nanoliter Newtonian fluids...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
H K Patterson, R H Carmichael
RATIONALE: Extraction of lipids from tissues prior to carbon stable isotope analysis (SIA) has become a common practice, despite a lack of species-specific data to indicate when lipid extraction is needed. Marine invertebrates, including bivalves, are known to store carbon as glycogen and less in the form of lipids than other species, potentially reducing the need for lipid extraction even when C:N values are above 3.5, a value that previous studies suggest indicates a need for lipid extraction of animal tissues...
October 5, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
LePing Yu, Cameron Shearer, Joseph Shapter
Transparent conducting films (TCFs) are a critical component in many personal electronic devices. Transparent and conductive doped metal oxides are widely used in industry due to their excellent optoelectronic properties as well as the mature understanding of their production and handling. However, they are not compatible with future flexible electronics developments where large-scale production will likely involve roll-to-roll manufacturing. Recent studies have shown that carbon nanotubes provide unique chemical, physical, and optoelectronic properties, making them an important alternative to doped metal oxides...
October 5, 2016: Chemical Reviews
C M Chan, A E Frimberger, A S Moore
Many chemotherapy drugs used in human patients are discarded after single use or within 24 h of reconstitution, as per the manufacturer's product label recommendations. This can be wasteful and costly to veterinary clients. This report reviews the published stability and storage data for 19 injectable chemotherapy drugs commonly used in veterinary medicine. Based on these data, storage procedures are presented, assuming aseptic technique and a closed system drug transfer device (CSDTD) are used for drug preparation and handling...
October 2, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
M N Cruz Bournazou, T Barz, D Nickel, D Lopez Cárdenas, F Glauche, A Knepper, P Neubauer
We present an integrated framework for the online optimal experimental re-design of parallel nonlinear dynamic processes that aims to precisely estimate the parameter set of macro kinetic growth models with minimal experimental effort. This provides a systematic solution for rapid validation of a specific model to new strains, mutants, or products. In biosciences, this is especially important as model identification is a long and laborious process which is continuing to limit the use of mathematical modeling in this field...
October 3, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Li Zhang, Yang Xia, Baoyun Xia, Keegan J Nicodemus, James McGuffey, Ernest McGahee, Benjamin Blount, Lanqing Wang
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAA) are listed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as harmful or potentially harmful constituents of tobacco smoke. However, quantifying HCAA exposure is challenging. In this study, we developed a sensitive, precise, and accurate isotope dilution, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify urinary HCAAs in smokers and nonsmokers. The high-throughput robotic sample preparation system could handle a throughput of over 300 samples per day, while maintaining intra-day and inter-day imprecision and bias ≤10 %...
September 29, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Iain C Macaulay, Mabel J Teng, Wilfried Haerty, Parveen Kumar, Chris P Ponting, Thierry Voet
Parallel sequencing of a single cell's genome and transcriptome provides a powerful tool for dissecting genetic variation and its relationship with gene expression. Here we present a detailed protocol for G&T-seq, a method for separation and parallel sequencing of genomic DNA and full-length polyA(+) mRNA from single cells. We provide step-by-step instructions for the isolation and lysis of single cells; the physical separation of polyA(+) mRNA from genomic DNA using a modified oligo-dT bead capture and the respective whole-transcriptome and whole-genome amplifications; and library preparation and sequence analyses of these amplification products...
November 2016: Nature Protocols
Adam E Jakus, Alexandra L Rutz, Sumanas W Jordan, Abhishek Kannan, Sean M Mitchell, Chawon Yun, Katie D Koube, Sung C Yoo, Herbert E Whiteley, Claus-Peter Richter, Robert D Galiano, Wellington K Hsu, Stuart R Stock, Erin L Hsu, Ramille N Shah
Despite substantial attention given to the development of osteoregenerative biomaterials, severe deficiencies remain in current products. These limitations include an inability to adequately, rapidly, and reproducibly regenerate new bone; high costs and limited manufacturing capacity; and lack of surgical ease of handling. To address these shortcomings, we generated a new, synthetic osteoregenerative biomaterial, hyperelastic "bone" (HB). HB, which is composed of 90 weight % (wt %) hydroxyapatite and 10 wt % polycaprolactone or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), could be rapidly three-dimensionally (3D) printed (up to 275 cm(3)/hour) from room temperature extruded liquid inks...
September 28, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
Khaoula Toumi, Christiane Vleminckx, Joris van Loco, Bruno Schiffers
In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists' exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums) were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur) and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Søren Heintz, Tim Börner, Rolf H Ringborg, Gustav Rehn, Carl Grey, Mathias Nordblad, Ulrich Krühne, Krist V Gernaey, Patrick Adlercreutz, John M Woodley
An experimental platform based on scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner enables easy and highly flexible testing of advanced biocatalytic process options such as in situ product removal (ISPR) process strategies. In such a platform, it is possible to compartmentalize different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit operations are highlighted through a case study investigating the asymmetric synthesis of 1-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine (MPPA) using ω-transaminase, an enzyme in the sub-family of amino transferases (ATAs)...
September 26, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Hilwati Hashim, A Sobri Muda, Aida Abdul Aziz, Zuhanis Abdul Hamid
INTRODUCTION: Embolisation has long been used as an adjunct to surgical resection in the treatment of brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM). The most commonly used embolic material, n-butylcyanoacrylate glue, requires experience and skill to handle its quick and unpredictable flow and polymerisation. A new liquid embolic agent, ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx), is less adhesive and polymerises slowly, which provides better control for radiologists performing embolisation. OBJECTIVE: To report our experience in embolisation using Onyx alone or in combination with histoacryl for bAVM embolisation in our tertiary referral centre...
July 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
P Cagnardi, R Villa, G Ravasio, L Lucatello, F Di Cesare, F Capolongo, A Boccardo, D Pravettoni
AIMS: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine (DEX) administered I/V at a dose of 5 µg/kg bodyweight in dairy calves and to compare the sedative effects of anaesthetic protocols involving DEX and xylazine. METHODS: Nine dairy calves, aged 17-20 days, were treated with 5 µg/kg I/V dexmedetomidine. For pharmacokinetic evaluation, blood samples were collected over 12 hours and serum samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
October 12, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Xin Y Guo, Li S Sun, Meng Y Huang, Wei L Xu, Ying Wang, Na Wang
A simultaneous method for quantifying eight metabolites of organophosphate pesticides and pyrethroid pesticides in urine samples has been established. The analytes were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction coupled with WCX solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Eight metabolites were chemically derivatized before analysis using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). The separation was performed on a HP-5MS capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 µm) with temperature programming...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
J H Peters, R Klein, L Delle Site
We extend the application of the adaptive resolution technique (AdResS) to liquid systems composed of alkane chains of different lengths. The aim of the study is to develop and test the modifications of AdResS required in order to handle the change of representation of large molecules. The robustness of the approach is shown by calculating several relevant structural properties and comparing them with the results of full atomistic simulations. The extended scheme represents a robust prototype for the simulation of macromolecular systems of interest in several fields, from material science to biophysics...
August 2016: Physical Review. E
Hong Kai Lee, Chun Kiat Lee, Julian Wei-Tze Tang, Tze Ping Loh, Evelyn Siew-Chuan Koay
Accurate full-length genomic sequences are important for viral phylogenetic studies. We developed a targeted high-throughput whole genome sequencing (HT-WGS) method for influenza A viruses, which utilized an enzymatic cleavage-based approach, the Nextera XT DNA library preparation kit, for library preparation. The entire library preparation workflow was adapted for the Sentosa SX101, a liquid handling platform, to automate this labor-intensive step. As the enzymatic cleavage-based approach generates low coverage reads at both ends of the cleaved products, we corrected this loss of sequencing coverage at the termini by introducing modified primers during the targeted amplification step to generate full-length influenza A sequences with even coverage across the whole genome...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tim J Causon, Stephan Hann
Fermentation and cell culture biotechnology in the form of so-called "cell factories" now play an increasingly significant role in production of both large (e.g. proteins, biopharmaceuticals) and small organic molecules for a wide variety of applications. However, associated metabolic engineering optimisation processes relying on genetic modification of organisms used in cell factories, or alteration of production conditions remain a challenging undertaking for improving the final yield and quality of cell factory products...
September 28, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
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