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Annette Roug, Dubraska Diaz-Campos, Charlene Teitzel, Thomas E Besser
Duplicate tonsilar swabs were collected from 77 bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) and 19 mountain goats ( Oreamnos americanus ) in Utah. Swabs were refrigerated in bacterial transport medium or frozen in cryopreservation medium prior to bacteriologic culture. The cryopreservation medium yielded comparable or superior bacterial growth while permitting more flexibility in specimen shipment to the laboratory.
September 26, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Ryan T Lewinson, Darren J Stefanyshyn
The mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) is one of the most extraordinary mountaineers in the animal kingdom. While observational descriptions exist to indicate factors that may influence their climbing ability, these have never been assessed biomechanically. Here, we describe whole-body motion of a mountain goat during ascent of a 45° incline based on a video recording in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, and discuss the results in a mechanical context. During the push-off phase, the hindlimb extended and the forelimb was tucked close to the torso...
June 2, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
N C Larter, C R Macdonald, B T Elkin, X Wang, N J Harms, M Gamberg, D C G Muir
Tissue samples from four ungulate species from the south Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories (NT), Canada, were analysed for stable and radioactive elements and (15)N and (13)C stable isotopes. Elevated Cd concentrations in moose (Alces americanus) kidney have been observed in the region and are a health care concern for consumers of traditional foods. This study examined the factors associated with, and potential renal effects from, the accumulation of cadmium, and interactions with other elements in four sympatric ungulate species...
October 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Peregrine L Wolff, Cody Schroeder, Caleb McAdoo, Mike Cox, Danielle D Nelson, James F Evermann, Julia F Ridpath
Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was detected in 2009-2010 while investigating a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, canadensis), and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 was 81% (N = 32) in the bighorns and 100% (N = 3) in the mountain goats. Serosurveillance from 2011 to 2015 of surviving bighorns and mountain goats as well as sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), indicated a prevalence of 72% (N = 45), 45% (N = 51), and 51% (N = 342) respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Danielle D Nelson, Jennifer L Duprau, Peregrine L Wolff, James F Evermann
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rafael Calero-Bernal, Erna Van Wilpe, Kevin White, Shiv K Verma, Camila K Cerqueira-Cézar, Jitender P Dubey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Parasitology Research
Rafael Calero-Bernal, Erna Van Wilpe, Kevin White, Shiv K Verma, Camila K Cerqueira-Cézar, Jitender P Dubey
Numerous species of Sarcocystis have been reported from wild ruminants, but none has been named from the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Mature sarcocysts were found in frozen muscle samples of three of seven mountain goats from Alaska, USA. Two morphological types of sarcocysts were found; one had Sarcocystis cornagliai-like sarcocysts, previously named from the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) from Europe. Two other goats were infected with a new species, Sarcocystis oreamni. Sarcocystis oreamni sarcocysts were microscopic with 2 μm-thick sarcocyst wall...
November 2015: Parasitology Research
Rachel Théoret-Gosselin, Sandra Hamel, Steeve D Côté
Studies on juvenile survival have mainly focused on the effects of environmental conditions and maternal traits. However, growing evidence indicates that the ability of parents to care for their young and the offspring developmental behaviors could be key determinants of their survival. We examined the relative influence of (1) environmental conditions, (2) offspring traits, (3) maternal traits, (4) maternal care behaviors, and (5) offspring developmental behaviors on kid survival to weaning and to 1 year old in mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus)...
May 2015: Oecologia
S D Côté, M Festa-Bianchet
In temperate environments, early-born ungulates may enjoy a longer growth period before winter, and so attain a higher body mass and an increased probability of survival compared to late-born ones. We assessed the effects of maternal characteristics, forage quality and population density on kid birthdate, mass and survival in a population of marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Alberta. The duration and timing of the birth season were similar in all years. Births were highly synchronised: 80% of kids were born within 2 weeks of the first birth...
April 2001: Oecologia
Dmitry A Apanaskevich
Reexamination of Dermacentor albipictus (Packard, 1869) holdings stored in the United States National Tick Collection revealed several collections of a morphologically distinct Dermacentor species. Comparison of these specimens with other Dermacentor taxa showed that they are identical to an old taxon originally described as Dermacentor variegatus kamshadalus Neumann, 1908. For more than a century, this taxon was known only from the male holotype specimen collected in Russia, and the name was considered a junior synonym of D...
July 2013: Journal of Medical Entomology
Aaron B A Shafer, Joseph M Northrup, Kevin S White, Mark S Boyce, Steeve D Côté, David W Coltman
Landscape heterogeneity plays an integral role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. Despite links between the two disciplines, ecologists and population geneticists have taken different approaches to evaluating habitat selection, animal movement, and gene flow across the landscape. Ecologists commonly use statistical models such as resource selection functions (RSFs) to identify habitat features disproportionately selected by animals, whereas population genetic approaches model genetic differentiation according to the distribution of habitat variables...
June 2012: Ecology
Kristin M Patton, Robert J Bildfell, Mark L Anderson, Christopher K Cebra, Beth A Valentine
Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats...
March 2012: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Eric P Hoberg, Arthur Abrams, Patricia A Pilitt, Emily J Jenkins
Marshallagia lichtenfelsi sp. n. is a dimorphic ostertagiine nematode occurring in the abomasum of mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, from the Western Cordillera of North America. Major and minor morphotype males and females are characterized and distinguished relative to the morphologically similar Marshallagia marshalli / Marshallagia occidentalis from North America and Marshallagia dentispicularis, along with other congeners, from the Palearctic region. The configuration of the convoluted and irregular synlophe in the cervical region of males and females of M...
August 2012: Journal of Parasitology
Aaron B A Shafer, Chia Wei Fan, Steeve D Côté, David W Coltman
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in an organism's ability to respond to pathogens. Immunogenetic diversity is advantageous as it permits the recognition of more external antigens. For this reason, MHC and immune gene variation are considered a barometer for the genetic health of wild populations. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were previously shown to have little variation at the MHC Class II Oram-DRB locus, which was attributed to population bottlenecks during the last glacial maximum (LGM)...
May 2012: Journal of Heredity
J Poissant, A B A Shafer, C S Davis, J Mainguy, J T Hogg, S D Côté, D W Coltman
We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (≥ 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (≥ 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats...
July 2009: Molecular Ecology Resources
Joaquín Ortego, Glenn Yannic, Aaron B A Shafer, Julien Mainguy, Marco Festa-Bianchet, David W Coltman, Steeve D Côté
The association between population dynamics and genetic variability is of fundamental importance for both evolutionary and conservation biology. We combined long-term population monitoring and molecular genetic data from 123 offspring and their parents at 28 microsatellite loci to investigate changes in genetic diversity over 14 cohorts in a small and relatively isolated population of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) during a period of demographic increase. Offspring heterozygosity decreased while parental genetic similarity and inbreeding coefficients (F(IS) ) increased over the study period (1995-2008)...
April 2011: Molecular Ecology
Aaron B A Shafer, Jocelyn Poissant, Steeve D Côté, David W Coltman
Despite having a profound effect on population dynamics, the reasons that animals disperse are poorly understood. Evolutionary explanations have focused on inbreeding and competition, where the potential cost of philopatry is negated through dispersal. Such scenarios lead to the prediction that less successful individuals preferentially disperse, termed 'fitness-associated dispersal'. Since heterozygosity is associated with fitness, we assessed whether dispersed animals had less observed heterozygosity (H(O)) than residents...
June 23, 2011: Biology Letters
Aaron B A Shafer, Steeve D Côté, David W Coltman
Species that inhabit naturally fragmented environments are expected to be spatially structured and exhibit reduced genetic diversity at the periphery of their range. Patterns of differentiation may also reflect historical processes such as recolonization from glacial refugia. We examined the relative importance of these factors in shaping the spatial patterns of genetic differentiation across the range of an alpine specialist, the North American mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Contrary to fossil evidence that suggests a single southern refugium, we detected evidence for additional refugia in northern British Columbia and the Alaskan coast using both mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA...
January 2011: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Sandra Hamel, Steeve D Côté, Marco Festa-Bianchet
Reproduction should reduce resources available for somatic investment and result in fundamental trade-offs among life-history traits. Using 18 years of longitudinal data from marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we assessed whether reproductive status affected female survival and future reproduction when accounting for parity, age, individual quality, population density, and environmental conditions. Reproduction reduced the probability of parturition and offspring survival in the following year. Female survival, however, was independent of previous reproduction, suggesting that females favored their own survival over that of their offspring...
July 2010: Ecology
Aaron B A Shafer, Jocelyn C Hall
The interpretation of a group's evolutionary history can be altered based on the phylogenetic placement of problematic taxa. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) epitomize a 'rogue taxon' as many placements within the Caprini tribe have been suggested. Using a total evidence approach, we reconstructed the Caprini phylogeny using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Bayesian and likelihood methods placed mountain goats as an independent lineage sister to all Caprini except muskox and goral. Maximum parsimony placed mountain goats in a derived Caprini clade...
April 2010: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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