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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109181/achievements-of-an-eradication-program-against-caprine-arthritis-encephalitis-virus-in-south-tyrol-italy
#1
Alexander Tavella, Astrid Bettini, Marco Ceol, Paolo Zambotto, Ernst Stifter, Natashia Kusstatscher, Rosalba Lombardi, Stefano Nardeli, Maria Serena Beato, Katia Capello, Giuseppe Bertoni
Small ruminant lentivirus infections in goats affect both production and animal welfare. This represents a threat to the qualitative and quantitative growth of goat farming, recently observed in mountainous regions such as the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy). To monitor and eradicate the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus in this goat population, a compulsory eradication campaign was launched, based on a strict census of small ruminants and yearly serological testing of all animals, followed by the consequent culling of seropositive individuals...
November 6, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973826/projecting-the-future-of-an-alpine-ungulate-under-climate-change-scenarios
#2
Kevin S White, David P Gregovich, Taal Levi
Climate change represents a primary threat to species persistence and biodiversity at a global scale. Cold adapted alpine species are especially sensitive to climate change and can offer key "early warning signs" about deleterious effects of predicted change. Among mountain ungulates, survival, a key determinant of demographic performance, may be influenced by future climate in complex, and possibly opposing ways. Demographic data collected from 447 mountain goats in 10 coastal Alaska, USA, populations over a 37-year time span indicated that survival is highest during low snowfall winters and cool summers...
October 3, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769118/earliest-expansion-of-animal-husbandry-beyond-the-mediterranean-zone-in-the-sixth-millennium-bc
#3
Jonathan Ethier, Eszter Bánffy, Jasna Vuković, Krassimir Leshtakov, Krum Bacvarov, Mélanie Roffet-Salque, Richard P Evershed, Maria Ivanova
Since their domestication in the Mediterranean zone of Southwest Asia in the eighth millennium BC, sheep, goats, pigs and cattle have been remarkably successful in colonizing a broad variety of environments. The initial steps in this process can be traced back to the dispersal of farming groups into the interior of the Balkans in the early sixth millennium BC, who were the first to introduce Mediterranean livestock beyond its natural climatic range. Here, we combine analysis of biomolecular and isotopic compositions of lipids preserved in prehistoric pottery with faunal analyses of taxonomic composition from the earliest farming sites in southeast Europe to reconstruct this pivotal event in the early history of animal husbandry...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720110/molecular-characterisation-of-protist-parasites-in-human-habituated-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-humans-and-livestock-from-bwindi-impenetrable-national-park-uganda
#4
Matthew J Nolan, Melisa Unger, Yuen-Ting Yeap, Emma Rogers, Ilary Millet, Kimberley Harman, Mark Fox, Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, Damer P Blake
BACKGROUND: Over 60 % of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, and there is growing evidence of the zooanthroponotic transmission of diseases from humans to livestock and wildlife species, with major implications for public health, economics, and conservation. Zooanthroponoses are of relevance to critically endangered species; amongst these is the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) of Uganda. Here, we assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Giardia, and Entamoeba infecting mountain gorillas in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda, using molecular methods...
July 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711245/feeding-of-palm-oil-fatty-acids-or-rapeseed-oil-throughout-lactation-effects-on-energy-status-body-composition-and-milk-production-in-norwegian-dairy-goats
#5
M Eknæs, Y Chilliard, K Hove, R A Inglingstad, L Bernard, H Volden
The objective of this experiment was to examine how supplements of rapeseed oil or palm oil fatty acids would affect milk production and composition, body lipid stores, and energy balance in 30 multiparous goats of Norwegian dairy goat breed. The experiment lasted 230 d, with 1 to 120 d in milk (DIM) for indoor feeding (P1), 120 to 200 DIM for mountain grazing (P2), and 200 to 230 DIM for indoor feeding (P3). Grass silage was fed according to appetite during indoor feeding periods. After an adjustment period (1-60 DIM) when the control diet was given to the goats, the animals were subdivided into 3 groups of 10 goats...
September 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514626/influence-of-early-reproductive-success-on-longevity-and-late-reproductive-success-in-an-alpine-ungulate
#6
Andrea Panagakis, Sandra Hamel, Steeve D Côté
The life-history theories of aging predict lifetime trade-offs between early reproductive allocation and late-life survival, reproduction, or both components of fitness. Recent studies in wild populations have found evidence for these early-late life trade-offs, but rarely have they been found across multiple traits while exploring the additional effects of variation in environmental conditions and individual quality. Benefiting from longitudinal data on adult female mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we investigated the influence of age at first reproduction (AFR) and early reproductive success (ERS) on longevity, late reproductive success, and senescence rates while accounting for the influence of natal environmental conditions and individual quality...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248995/the-influence-of-sulfur-and-hair-growth-on-stable-isotope-diet-estimates-for-grizzly-bears
#7
Garth Mowat, P Jeff Curtis, Diana J R Lafferty
Stable isotope ratios of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) guard hair collected from bears on the lower Stikine River, British Columbia (BC) were analyzed to: 1) test whether measuring δ34S values improved the precision of the salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) diet fraction estimate relative to δ15N as is conventionally done, 2) investigate whether measuring δ34S values improves the separation of diet contributions of moose (Alces alces), marmot (Marmota caligata), and mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) and, 3) examine the relationship between collection date and length of hair and stable isotope values...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185210/a-multi-criteria-approach-to-identify-favorable-areas-for-goat-production-systems-in-veracruz-m%C3%A3-xico
#8
Emmanuel de Jesús Ramírez-Rivera, Jose Lopez-Collado, Pablo Díaz-Rivera, Eusebio Ortega-Jiménez, Glafiro Torres-Hernández, Jazmín Jacinto-Padilla, Erasmo Herman-Lara
This research identifies favorable areas for goat production systems in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Through the use of the analytic hierarchy process, layers of biophysical and soil information were combined to generate a model of favorability. Model validation was performed by calculating the area under the curve, the true skill statistic, and a qualitative comparison with census records. The results showed the existence of regions with high (4494.3 km(2)) and moderate (2985.8 km(2)) favorability, and these areas correspond to 6...
April 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030928/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-and-neospora-caninum-in-goats-from-north-western-spain
#9
Pablo Díaz, Eva Cabanelas, José Manuel Díaz-Cao, Miguel Viña, Juan Pablo Béjar, Ana Pérez-Creo, Alberto Prieto, Ceferino Manuel López, Rosario Panadero, Gonzalo Fernández, Pablo Díez-Baños, Patrocinio Morrondo
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are protozoans involved in reproductive failure especially in ruminant livestock. The objective was to estimate the seroprevalence of both parasites in goats from north-western Spain and to study the influence of some factors on seropositivity. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Blood samples from 638 goats were collected in 50 farms. Presence of T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies were detected by direct agglutination and competitiveELISA techniques, respectively...
December 23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898896/environmental-morphological-and-productive-characterization-of-sardinian-goats-and-use-of-latent-explanatory-factors-for-population-analysis
#10
G M Vacca, P Paschino, M L Dettori, M Bergamaschi, C Cipolat-Gotet, G Bittante, M Pazzola
Dairy goat farming is practiced worldwide, within a range of different farming systems. Here we investigated the effects of environmental factors and morphology on milk traits of the Sardinian goat population. Sardinian goats are currently reared in Sardinia (Italy) in a low-input context, similar to many goat farming systems, especially in developing countries. Milk and morphological traits from 1,050 Sardinian goats from 42 farms were recorded. We observed a high variability regarding morphological traits, such as coat color, ear length and direction, horn presence, and udder shape...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723042/detection-of-antibodies-against-bluetongue-virus-among-domestic-ruminants-in-the-highlands-of-nepal
#11
Doj Raj Khanal, Meera Prajapati, Prazila Shrestha, Madhav Prasad Acharya, Narayan Paudyal, Richard Bowen, Upendra Man Singh, Bhoj Raj Joshi
Bluetongue (BT) is one of the most economically important transboundary animal diseases. In recent years, it has been considered a disease related to climate change. A study was undertaken in 2013 in Nepal to measure the prevalence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection among domestic ruminants inhabiting the 3 agro-climatic zones with altitudes ranging from 150 to 2,400 metres above sea level. Twelve clusters representing the 3 altitudes were selected. The presence of antibodies against BTV was demonstrated in serum samples of sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, yaks/chauries, and chyangra goats (Himalayan goat) of Nepal...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669011/comparison-of-two-bacterial-transport-media-for-culture-of-tonsilar-swabs-from-bighorn-sheep-ovis-canadensis-and-mountain-goats-oreamnos-americanus
#12
Annette Roug, Dubraska Diaz-Campos, Charlene Teitzel, Thomas E Besser
Duplicate tonsilar swabs were collected from 77 bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) and 19 mountain goats ( Oreamnos americanus ) in Utah. Swabs were refrigerated in bacterial transport medium or frozen in cryopreservation medium prior to bacteriologic culture. The cryopreservation medium yielded comparable or superior bacterial growth while permitting more flexibility in specimen shipment to the laboratory.
January 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628591/establishment-of-an-on-site-diagnostic-procedure-for-detection-of-orf-virus-from-oral-lesions-of-japanese-serows-capricornis-crispus-by-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#13
Yasuo Inoshima, Masaki Takasu, Naotaka Ishiguro
Orf virus infection has been prevalent continuously in the population of wild Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus), goat-like grazing cloven-hoofed mammal species that live mainly in mountainous areas of Japan. Currently, definitive diagnosis of infection requires time-consuming laboratory work. To diagnose rapidly on-site, we developed a field-friendly procedure for the detection of orf virus from oral cavity lesions. DNA was extracted from goat saliva spiked with orf virus as a proxy for Japanese serows by a commercial kit without the use of electricity, and the quality of the extracted DNA was evaluated by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543453/feasibility-and-efficacy-of-oral-rabies-vaccine-sag2-in-endangered-ethiopian-wolves
#14
Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Jorgelina Marino, Christopher H Gordon, Eric Bedin, Alo Hussein, Fekede Regassa, Ashley Banyard, Anthony R Fooks
Diseases are a major cause of population declines in endangered populations of several canid species. Parenteral vaccination efforts to protect Ethiopian wolves (Canis simensis) from rabies have targeted the domestic dog reservoir, or the wolves themselves in response to confirmed outbreaks. Oral vaccination offers a more cost-efficient, safe and proactive approach to protect Ethiopian wolves and other threatened canids from rabies. Field trials of the oral vaccine Rabigen® SAG2Dog were undertaken in the Bale Mountains of southeastern Ethiopia...
September 14, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502179/the-genetics-of-an-early-neolithic-pastoralist-from-the-zagros-iran
#15
M Gallego-Llorente, S Connell, E R Jones, D C Merrett, Y Jeon, A Eriksson, V Siska, C Gamba, C Meiklejohn, R Beyer, S Jeon, Y S Cho, M Hofreiter, J Bhak, A Manica, R Pinhasi
The agricultural transition profoundly changed human societies. We sequenced and analysed the first genome (1.39x) of an early Neolithic woman from Ganj Dareh, in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, a site with early evidence for an economy based on goat herding, ca. 10,000 BP. We show that Western Iran was inhabited by a population genetically most similar to hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus, but distinct from the Neolithic Anatolian people who later brought food production into Europe. The inhabitants of Ganj Dareh made little direct genetic contribution to modern European populations, suggesting those of the Central Zagros were somewhat isolated from other populations of the Fertile Crescent...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416020/dna-metabarcoding-reveals-diet-overlap-between-the-endangered-walia-ibex-and-domestic-goats-implications-for-conservation
#16
Berihun Gebremedhin, Øystein Flagstad, Afework Bekele, Desalegn Chala, Vegar Bakkestuen, Sanne Boessenkool, Magnus Popp, Galina Gussarova, Audun Schrøder-Nielsen, Sileshi Nemomissa, Christian Brochmann, Nils Chr Stenseth, Laura S Epp
Human population expansion and associated degradation of the habitat of many wildlife species cause loss of biodiversity and species extinctions. The small Simen Mountains National Park in Ethiopia is one of the last strongholds for the preservation of a number of afro-alpine mammals, plants and birds, and it is home to the rare endemic Walia ibex, Capra walie. The narrow distribution range of this species as well as potential competition for resources with livestock, especially with domestic goat, Capra hircus, may compromise its future survival...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402383/a-descriptive-analysis-of-the-climbing-mechanics-of-a-mountain-goat-oreamnos-americanus
#17
Ryan T Lewinson, Darren J Stefanyshyn
The mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) is one of the most extraordinary mountaineers in the animal kingdom. While observational descriptions exist to indicate factors that may influence their climbing ability, these have never been assessed biomechanically. Here, we describe whole-body motion of a mountain goat during ascent of a 45° incline based on a video recording in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, and discuss the results in a mechanical context. During the push-off phase, the hindlimb extended and the forelimb was tucked close to the torso...
December 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338229/bone-formation-and-degradation-behavior-of-nanocrystalline-hydroxyapatite-with-or-without-collagen-type-1-in-osteoporotic-bone-defects-an-experimental-study-in-osteoporotic-goats
#18
Volker Alt, Wing Hoi Cheung, Simon K H Chow, Ulrich Thormann, Edmond N M Cheung, Katrin S Lips, Reinhard Schnettler, Kwok-Sui Leung
The intention of the current work is to assess new bone formation and degradation behavior of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with (HA/col-1) or without collagen-type I (HA) in osteoporotic metaphyseal bone defects in goats. After ovariectomy and special low-calcium diet for three months, 3 drill hole defects in the vertebrae of L3, L4, L5, 4 drill hole defects in the right and left iliac crest and 1 drill hole defect at the distal femur were created in three Chinese mountain goats with a total of 24 defects...
June 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240258/cadmium-and-other-elements-in-tissues-from-four-ungulate-species-from-the-mackenzie-mountain-region-of-the-northwest-territories-canada
#19
N C Larter, C R Macdonald, B T Elkin, X Wang, N J Harms, M Gamberg, D C G Muir
Tissue samples from four ungulate species from the south Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories (NT), Canada, were analysed for stable and radioactive elements and (15)N and (13)C stable isotopes. Elevated Cd concentrations in moose (Alces americanus) kidney have been observed in the region and are a health care concern for consumers of traditional foods. This study examined the factors associated with, and potential renal effects from, the accumulation of cadmium, and interactions with other elements in four sympatric ungulate species...
October 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27171181/influence-of-agropastoral-system-components-on-mountain-grassland-vulnerability-estimated-by-connectivity-loss
#20
Maite Gartzia, Federico Fillat, Fernando Pérez-Cabello, Concepción L Alados
Over the last decades, global changes have altered the structure and properties of natural and semi-natural mountain grasslands. Those changes have contributed to grassland loss mainly through colonization by woody species at low elevations, and increases in biomass and greenness at high elevations. Nevertheless, the interactions between agropastoral components; i.e., ecological (grassland, environmental, and geolocation properties), social, and economic components, and their effects on the grasslands are still poorly understood...
2016: PloS One
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