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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324025/clinical-and-genetic-features-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-renal-glycosuria
#1
Siqian Gong, Jiandong Guo, Xueyao Han, Meng Li, Lingli Zhou, Xiaoling Cai, Yu Zhu, Yingying Luo, Simin Zhang, Xianghai Zhou, Yumin Ma, Linong Ji
Context: A sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, which increases urinary glucose excretion, was recently reported to decrease blood glucose levels and deaths among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and established cardiovascular disease. Mutations in SLC5A2 and HNF1A are associated with renal glycosuria, but their contributions to renal glycosuria in patients with T2DM are not well understood. Objective: To assess the clinical features of T2DM patients with renal glycosuria and those with low urinary glucose excretion (LUGE) and identify variants in the coding regions of SLC5A2 and HNF1A in patients with renal glycosuria and T2DM...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323940/thyroid-signaling-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#2
Maxime M Bos, Roelof Aj Smit, Stella Trompet, Diana van Heemst, Raymond Noordam
CONTEXT: Increasing evidence suggests an association between thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and deiodinases with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). OBJECTIVE: We examined whether TSH and fT4 levels and deiodinases are causally associated with insulin resistance and T2D using Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS: We selected twenty genetic variants for TSH level and four for fT4 level (identified in a GWAS meta-analysis of European-ancestry cohorts) as instrumental variables for TSH and fT4 level, respectively...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323911/monogenic-diabetes-accounts-for-6-3-of-cases-referred-to-15-italian-pediatric-diabetes-centers-during-2007-2012
#3
Maurizio Delvecchio, Enza Mozzillo, Giuseppina Salzano, Dario Iafusco, Giulio Frontino, Patrizia I Patera, Ivana Rabbone, Valentino Cherubini, Valeria Grasso, Nadia Tinto, Sabrina Giglio, Giovanna Contreas, Rosa Di Paola, Alessandro Salina, Vittoria Cauvin, Stefano Tumini, Giuseppe d'Annunzio, Lorenzo Iughetti, Vilma Mantovani, Giulio Maltoni, Sonia Toni, Marco Marigliano, Fabrizio Barbetti
Context: Etiologic diagnosis of diabetes may impact on therapeutic strategy, and prognosis of chronic complications. Objective: The aim of the study was to establish the relative percentage of different diabetes subtypes in patients attending Italian pediatric diabetes centers, and the influence of etiologic diagnosis on therapy. Design, Setting and Patients: This was a retrospective study. Clinical records of 3781 consecutive patients (age: 0-18 years) referred to fifteen pediatric diabetes clinics and diagnosed with diabetes or IFG between Jan/1/2007 and Dec/31/2012 were examined...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320091/animal-models-for-assessing-the-impact-of-natural-products-on-the-aetiology-and-metabolic-pathophysiology-of-type-2-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Md Asrafuzzaman, Yingnan Cao, Rizwana Afroz, Danielle Kamato, Susan Gray, Peter J Little
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex and heterogeneous disorder which in its most common manifestation arises from insulin resistance and later insulin insufficiency. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by impaired insulin sensitivity and diagnosed as hyperglycaemia. Because of its cardiovascular consequences, Type 2 diabetes represents one of the world's leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Drug discovery and development are required to produce better ways to prevent, treat and manage diabetes and its complications...
March 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316138/irx3-is-a-genetic-modifier-for-birth-weight-adolescent-obesity-and-transaminase-metabolism
#5
C Liu, C Chu, J Zhang, D Wu, D Xu, P Li, Y Chen, B Liu, L Pei, L Zhang, S Liu, T Qi, X-Y Lou, L Li
OBJECTIVE: IRX3 expression has been functionally associated in obesity-associated long-distance susceptibility loci, but the effect of the IRX3 genetic variants on human obesity and obesity-related metabolism remains uncertain. METHODS: To determine the genetic role of IRX3, we conducted a molecular epidemiological analysis using three haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs8053360, rs3751723 and rs12445085) and one nonsynonymous SNP (rs1126960) at the IRX3 locus in 333 junior and senior high school students from a northeast Chinese population...
March 19, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316001/associations-of-polymorphisms-in-the-candidate-genes-for-alzheimer-s-disease-bin1-clu-cr1-and-picalm-with-gestational-diabetes-and-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#6
Gabriela Vacínová, D Vejražková, P Lukášová, O Lischková, K Dvořáková, R Rusina, I Holmerová, H Vaňková, J Včelák, B Bendlová, M Vaňková
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, with a prevalence that is rising every year. AD is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance, and is therefore sometimes called "type 3 diabetes mellitus". The aim of this study was to examine whether the variants of some candidate genes involved in the development of AD, namely BIN1 (rs744373), CLU (rs11136000), CR1 (rs3818361), and PICALM (rs3851179), are related to several disorders of glucose metabolism-gestational diabetes (GDM), T2DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)...
March 18, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315864/vitamin-d-status-gender-differences-and-cardiometabolic-health-disparities
#7
Dharambir K Sanghera, Bishwa R Sapkota, Christopher E Aston, Piers R Blackett
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is an unrecognized epidemic found in India and also worldwide. Despite the high prevalence of diabetes among Indians, there is a paucity of data showing the relationship between vitamin D status and cardiometabolic disparities. In this study, we have examined the relationship between vitamin D and cardiometabolic traits in a population from India. METHODS: Circulating 25(OH)D levels were measured in 3,879 participants from the Asian Indian Diabetic Heart Study using ELISA kits...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314945/precision-diabetes-learning-from-monogenic-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Andrew T Hattersley, Kashyap A Patel
The precision medicine approach of tailoring treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient or subgroup has been a great success in monogenic diabetes subtypes, MODY and neonatal diabetes. This review examines what has led to the success of a precision medicine approach in monogenic diabetes (precision diabetes) and outlines possible implications for type 2 diabetes. For monogenic diabetes, the molecular genetics can define discrete aetiological subtypes that have profound implications on diabetes treatment and can predict future development of associated clinical features, allowing early preventative or supportive treatment...
March 17, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314735/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-its-relationship-with-cardiovascular-disease-and-other-extrahepatic-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Leon A Adams, Quentin M Anstee, Herbert Tilg, Giovanni Targher
Key physiological functions of the liver, including glucose and lipid metabolism, become disturbed in the setting of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may be associated with a systemic inflammatory 'milieu' initiated in part by liver-secreted cytokines and molecules. Consequently, the pathophysiological effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver with a large body of clinical evidence demonstrating NAFLD to be independently associated with both prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
March 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303994/association-of-il-6-c-174g-rs-1800795-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-pakistani-population
#10
Amina Nadeem, Sadaf Mumtaz, Abdul Khaliq Naveed, Qaiser Mansoor, Muhammad Aslam, Arif Siddiqui, Muhammad Ismail
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of interleukin-6 C-174G single nucleotide polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic parameters. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted from June 2012 to December 2013 at the Military Hospital Rawalpindi, the Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, and the Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering, Islamabad, Pakistan. Two cohorts of subjects were genotyped for the single nucleotide polymorphism...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303724/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-pathogenesis-classification-and-effect-on-drug-metabolizing-enzymes-and-transporters
#11
Enoch Cobbina, Fatemeh Akhlaghi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of liver disorders. It is defined by the presence of steatosis in more than 5% of hepatocytes with little or no alcohol consumption. Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes and genetic variants of PNPLA3 or TM6SF2 seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The pathological progression of NAFLD follows tentatively a "three-hit" process namely steatosis, lipotoxicity and inflammation. The presence of steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators like TNF-α and IL-6 has been implicated in the alterations of nuclear factors such as CAR, PXR, PPAR-α in NAFLD...
March 17, 2017: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303303/melatonin-signalling-and-type-2-diabetes-risk-too-little-too-much-or-just-right
#12
EDITORIAL
Hindrik Mulder
Of the associations of genetic variants with type 2 diabetes, the one of an SNP in an intron of the gene encoding the melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) has been remarkably robust. Work from our group and others has provided support for a model where carriers of this risk G allele exhibit increased MTNR1B expression in islets of Langerhans. Most published studies to date favour that melatonin's action on the beta cell is inhibition of insulin secretion. Hence, our model proposes that this inhibitory effect of melatonin is exaggerated in carriers of the MTNR1B risk G allele...
March 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302047/neuroinflammation-as-a-common-mechanism-associated-with-the-modifiable-risk-factors-for-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#13
Jordan Alexander McKenzie, Lindsay J Spielman, Caitlin B Pointer, Jessica R Lowry, Ekta Bajwa, Carolyn W Lee, Andis Klegeris
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are among the most common causes of dementia, which increasingly contribute to morbidity and mortality worldwide. A common hallmark in the pathogenesis of these two diseases is neuroinflammation, which is initially triggered by the presence of pathological structures associated with these disorders. Chronic neuroinflammation is sustained by persistent and aberrant microglial activation in the brain, which results in damage and death of neighboring cells, including neurons and glial cells...
March 15, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300617/sex-and-gender-related-prevalence-cardiovascular-risk-and-therapeutic-approach-in-metabolic-syndrome-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Giacomo Pucci, Riccardo Alcidi, Lisanne Tap, Francesca Battista, Francesco Mattace-Raso, Giuseppe Schillaci
Metabolic syndrome (MS), a cluster of metabolic abnormalities linked to insulin-resistance and abdominal obesity, is associated with an increased risk of Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular (CV) disease. Its prevalence is high, affecting 20% to 30% of the general population, and increases with age in a sex-specific manner: in fact, while below 50 years it is slightly higher in men, it reverses after 50 years. The pronounced age-related increase in the prevalence of MS in women occurs as the result of several factors, which may be classified into sex- and gender-related factors...
March 11, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299342/relationship-between-immunological-abnormalities-in-rat-models-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-the-amplification-circuits-for-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Yuji Takeda, Tomoko Shimomura, Hironobu Asao, Ichiro Wakabayashi
A better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms is required in order to treat diseases. However, the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications are extremely complex. Immune reactions are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications, while diabetes influences immune reactions. Furthermore, both diabetes and immune reactions are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To address these issues, animal models are useful tools. So far, various animal models of diabetes have been developed in rats, which have advantages over mice models in terms of the larger volume of tissue samples and the variety of type 2 diabetes models...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298568/comparison-of-disease-characteristics-organ-damage-and-survival-in-patients-with-juvenile-onset-and-adult-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-a-combined-cohort-from-2-tertiary-centers-in-turkey
#16
Bahar Artim-Esen, Sezgin Şahin, Erhan Çene, Yasemin Şahinkaya, Kenan Barut, Amra Adrovic, Yasemin Özlük, Işın Kılıçaslan, Ahmet Omma, Ahmet Gül, Lale Öcal, Özgür Kasapçopur, Murat İnanç
OBJECTIVE: Age at onset has been shown to affect the clinical course and outcome of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we aimed to define the differences in clinical characteristics, organ damage, and survival between patients with juvenile-onset (jSLE) and adult-onset SLE (aSLE). METHODS: For the study, 719 patients (76.9%) with aSLE and 216 (23.1%) with jSLE were examined. Comparisons between the groups were made for demographic characteristics, clinical features, autoantibody profiles, damage, and survival rates...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298470/genetically-driven-hyperglycemia-increases-risk-of-coronary-artery-disease-separately-from-type-2-diabetes
#17
Jordi Merino, Aaron Leong, Daniel C Posner, Bianca Porneala, Lluís Masana, Josée Dupuis, Jose C Florez
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that genetically raised hyperglycemia increases coronary artery disease (CAD) risk separately from the risk conferred by type 2 diabetes as a whole. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using summary-level statistics from the largest published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) (n = 133,010 participants free of diabetes) and CAD (n = 63,746 case subjects and 130,681 control subjects) of predominantly European ancestry...
March 15, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298293/discovery-and-fine-mapping-of-loci-associated-with-monounsaturated-fatty-acids-through-trans-ethnic-meta-analysis-in-chinese-and-european-populations
#18
Yao Hu, Toshiko Tanaka, Jingwen Zhu, Weihua Guan, Jason H Y Wu, Bruce M Psaty, Barbara McKnight, Irena B King, Qi Sun, Melissa Richard, Ani Manichaikul, Alexis C Frazier-Wood, Edmond K Kabagambe, Paul N Hopkins, Jose M Ordovas, Luigi Ferrucci, Stefania Bandinelli, Donna K Arnett, Yii-Der I Chen, Shuang Liang, David S Siscovick, Michael Y Tsai, Stephen S Rich, Myriam Fornage, Frank B Hu, Eric B Rimm, Majken K Jensen, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Dariush Mozaffarian, Lyn M Steffen, Andrew P Morris, Huaixing Li, Xu Lin
Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are unsaturated fatty acids with one double bond and are derived from endogenous synthesis and dietary intake. Accumulating evidence has suggested that plasma and erythrocyte MUFA levels were associated with cardiometabolic disorders including cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified seven loci for plasma and erythrocyte palmitoleic acid and oleic acid levels in populations of European origin...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296883/soluble-insulin-analogs-combining-rapid-and-long-acting-hypoglycemic-properties-from-an-efficient-e-coli-expression-system-to-a-pharmaceutical-formulation
#19
Diana Mikiewicz, Anna Bierczyńska-Krzysik, Agnieszka Sobolewska, Dorota Stadnik, Monika Bogiel, Monika Pawłowska, Anna Wójtowicz-Krawiec, Piotr A Baran, Natalia Łukasiewicz, Agnieszka Romanik-Chruścielewska, Iwona Sokołowska, Jacek Stadnik, Piotr Borowicz, Grażyna Płucienniczak, Andrzej Płucienniczak
The discovery of insulin led to a revolution in diabetes management. Since then, many improvements have been introduced to insulin preparations. The availability of molecular genetic techniques has enabled the creation of insulin analogs by changing the structure of the native protein in order to improve the therapeutic properties. A new expression vector pIBAINS for production of four recombinant human insulin (INS) analogs (GKR, GEKR, AKR, SR) was constructed and overexpressed in the new E. coli 20 strain as a fusion protein with modified human superoxide dismutase (SOD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295777/can-ldl-cholesterol-be-too-low-possible-risks-of-extremely-low-levels
#20
Anders G Olsson, Bo Angelin, Gerd Assmann, Christoph J Binder, Ingemar Björkhem, Angel Cedazo-Minguez, Jonathan Cohen, Arnold von Eckardstein, Eduardo Farinaro, Dirk Müller-Wieland, Klaus G Parhofer, Paolo Parini, Robert S Rosenson, Jakob Starup-Linde, Matti J Tikkanen, Laurent Yvan-Charvet
Following the continuous accumulation of evidence supporting the beneficial role of reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its complications, therapeutic possibilities now exist to lower LDL-C to very low levels, similar to or even lower than those seen in newborns and nonhuman species. In addition to the important task of evaluating potential side-effects of such treatments, the question arises whether extremely low LDL-C levels per se may provoke adverse effects in humans...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
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