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C Wilson, R Bell, S Hinsley, H Marshall, J Brown, D Cameron, D Dodwell, R Coleman
The fracture impact of adjuvant bisphosphonates in breast cancer is not defined with most trials reporting changes in bone mineral density as a surrogate. The AZURE trial (ISRCTN79831382) evaluated the impact of adjuvant zoledronic acid (ZOL) on fractures. The AZURE trial is an academic, multi-centre, randomised phase III study evaluating the addition of ZOL 4 mg to standard therapy (neo/adjuvant chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy) for 5 years (administered by intravenous (iv) infusion every 3-4 weeks for 6 doses, then 3 monthly × 8 and 6 monthly × 5) in patients with stage II/III early breast cancer...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Brenda Si Elias, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Betty Head, Geoffrey G Hicks
Translating to the Community (T2C) is a social bio-repository designed to advance new diagnostic tools and realign community-clinical processes, with the aim to mitigate the short-and-long term impacts of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), prenatal alcohol exposure, and its co-morbidities and behaviors. In this paper, we describe the evolution of this repository as a new translational partnership to advance a precision medicine approach to FASD. Key to its evolution was a partnership between academic researchers, Indigenous communities, families and a regional diagnostic clinic...
March 15, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Marina V Mavromatis, Mauricio Solano, Michael Y Thelen
There are clear differences in the normal radiographic appearance of the abdominal organs between a left lateral vs. a right lateral view. While a few veterinary academic institutions have transitioned to a three-view abdominal radiographic study protocol, obtaining only two views of the canine abdomen remains the current standard in veterinary medicine. In this combined retrospective and prospective, case-controlled study, 48 canine patients presenting with signs of acute abdomen were recruited. Four board-certified veterinary radiologists and four general practice veterinarians with greater than 3 years of experience in small animal practice were asked to determine if 10 predetermined findings were present within the set of images and if surgery was recommended based on those findings...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Claire M Lawlor, Charles A Riley, John M Carter, Kimsey H Rodriguez
Importance: The 1996 Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy Inpatient Guidelines of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) Pediatric Otolaryngology Committee recommended that children younger than 3 years be admitted following tonsillectomy. Recommendations for hospital observation were not included as a key action statement in the 2011 AAO-HNS Clinical Practice Guidelines for Tonsillectomy in Children. Objective: To examine the association between posttonsillectomy complication rate and the age and weight of the child at the time of surgery...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Sang Min Yoon, Baek-Yeol Ryoo, So Jung Lee, Jong Hoon Kim, Ji Hoon Shin, Ji Hyun An, Han Chu Lee, Young-Suk Lim
Importance: Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma showing macroscopic vascular invasion have a poor prognosis. Sorafenib is the sole treatment option for these patients, with unsatisfactory response and survival benefit. Combined treatment with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus external beam radiotherapy (RT) has shown promising results for these patients in observational studies. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of TACE plus RT compared with sorafenib for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and macroscopic vascular invasion...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Oncology
(no author information available yet)
PLOS and the PLOS Medicine team would like to express our appreciation to the academic editors, guest editors, and reviewers who contributed to the peer-review process in 2017.
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Erica Reynolds, Christine Johnson, Jennifer A Jamieson, Hannah Mawhinney
PURPOSE: University students may be at risk for food insecurity (FI) due to low income coupled with rising tuition, housing, and food costs. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of FI and potential correlates among students at a small, rural Canadian university. METHODS: Health Canada's 10-item household food security survey module (HFSSM) was adapted to assess food security status within the postsecondary student population. An additional 11 items measured food access and demographics...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
D Martin Kivlighan, Maleeha Abbas, Alberta M Gloria, Arellys Aguinaga, Christina Frank, Nick D Frost
Despite evidence of the effectiveness of postsecondary academic enhancement interventions, presently there is a paucity of research examining the effective processes of such programs. Informed by the psychosociocultural model, this study tested the relationship between the growth in hope and belongingness, as well as academic achievement for undergraduates on academic probation participating in academic enhancement groups. Longitudinal ratings of hope and belongingness from 167 undergraduates enrolled in 22 academic enhancement groups were modeled as predictors of changes in their grade-point average (GPA)...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Tine K Jensen, Tonje Holt, Silje Mørup Ormhaug, Krister W Fjermestad, Tore Wentzel-Larsen
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with serious impairments in psychological, social, and academic functioning in youth. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in posttraumatic cognitions mediate treatment effects. Participants were multitraumatized youth (N = 156, mean age = 15.1 years, range = 10-18; 79.5% girls) randomly assigned to receive trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) or treatment-as-usual (TAU). Mixed-effects models were applied to investigate the impact of treatment conditions on posttraumatic cognitions...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Alex S Holdaway, Stephen P Becker
Although sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is associated with poorer peer functioning, no study has examined SCT in relation to student-teacher relationship quality. The current study examined whether SCT, as rated by both teachers and children, was uniquely associated with poorer student-teacher relationship quality above and beyond child demographics and other mental health symptoms (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder [ODD/CD], anxiety/depression)...
March 15, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
Roaa S Jamjoom, Yoon S Park
OBJECTIVES: To study burnout among pediatric residents at King  Abdulazaiz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey that was administered to all pediatric residents enrolled in the Saudi Paediatric Board program (PGY1-PGY4) in a large tertiary academic hospital in the Western region of Saudi Arabia (King Abdulaziz University Hospital). The survey were sent via E-mail to 50 registered general pediatric residents.  Results: Seventy percent of the pediatric residents completed the survey...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Liana J Petruzzi, Samuel J Pullen, Brittany C L Lange, Lindsey Parnarouskis, Silvia Dominguez, Benjamin Harris, Nicole Quiterio, Gondah Lekpeh, Burgess Manobah, David C Henderson, Christina P C Borba
Substance use is prevalent among youth in postconflict African countries and is associated with a number of public health problems such as poverty, child homelessness, and school truancy. This qualitative study explores the risk factors associated with substance use among Liberian youth from the perspective of public-school students. Nine focus groups were conducted with 72 Liberian public-school students (35 female, 37 male). Multiple risk factors for substance use among Liberian youth were identified through qualitative analysis, including emotional instability, gender, fear of academic failure, accessibility to substances within the school and community, poverty, and unintentional drug use...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Michael J Annear
OBJECTIVES: Best-evidence dementia knowledge has the potential to improve care practices in aged care settings, although limited research has explored understanding among the Japanese workforce. This study examines the knowledge of dementia and educational needs among aged care professionals across Japan. METHODS: An online survey methodology was used to assess the dementia experiences and knowledge among a national, random sample of 117 Japanese aged care professionals...
March 14, 2018: Australasian Journal on Ageing
Kei Ouchi, Guruprasad D Jambaulikar, Samuel Hohmann, Naomi R George, Emily L Aaronson, Rebecca Sudore, Mara A Schonberg, James A Tulsky, Jeremiah D Schuur, Daniel J Pallin
OBJECTIVES: To inform the shared decision-making process between clinicians and older adults and their surrogates regarding emergency intubation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Multicenter, emergency department (ED)-based cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 65 and older intubated in the ED from 2008 to 2015 from 262 hospitals across the United States (>95% of U.S. nonprofit academic medical centers). MEASUREMENTS: Our primary outcome was age-specific in-hospital mortality...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Folakemi T Odedina, R R Reams, E Kaninjing, J Nguyen, B Mochona, D E Lyon, N Askins, L S Behar-Horenstein
With the growing burden of cancer in minority populations and limited progress in eliminating cancer disparities, it has become important to develop a diverse oncology workforce in basic, clinical, and behavioral research who will address cancer disparities and increase the participation of minority populations in clinical trials. To address the lack of well-trained underrepresented minority cancer scientists in Florida, the University of Florida collaborated with Florida A&M University in 2012 to establish the Florida Prostate Cancer Research Training Opportunities for Outstanding Leaders (ReTOOL) Program...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
A Zarzavadjian Le Bian, C Denet, N Tabchouri, H Levard, R Besson, T Perniceni, R Costi, P Wind, D Fuks, B Gayet
BACKGROUND: Among the criteria used to diagnose metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with poor postoperative outcomes following colectomy. MS is also associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and diverticulosis, both of which may be treated with colectomy. However, the effect of MS on postoperative outcomes following laparoscopic colectomy has yet to be clarified. METHODS: In an academic tertiary hospital, data from all consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy from 2005 to 2014 were prospectively recorded and analysed...
March 14, 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
Jonathan W Waks, Christopher Hamilton, Saumya Das, Ashkan Ehdaie, Jessica Minnier, Sanjiv Narayan, Mark Niebauer, Merritt Raitt, Christine Tompkins, Niraj Varma, Sumeet Chugh, Larisa G Tereshchenko
PURPOSE: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) improve survival of systolic heart failure (HF) patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). We recently showed that electrocardiographic (ECG) global electrical heterogeneity (GEH) is independently associated with SCD in the community-dwelling cohort and developed GEH SCD risk score. The Global Electrical Heterogeneity and Clinical Outcomes (GEHCO) study is a retrospective multicenter cohort designed with two goals: (1) validate an independent association of ECG GEH with sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias and appropriate ICD therapies and (2) validate GEH ECG risk score for prediction of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias and appropriate ICD therapies in systolic HF patients with primary prevention ICD...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Michael Thomas LeCompte, Connor Goldman, John L Tarpley, Margaret Tarpley, Erik N Hansen, Peter M Nthumba, Kyla P Terhune, Rondi M Kauffmann
INTRODUCTION: Global surgery is increasingly recognized as a vital component of international public health. Access to basic surgical care is limited in much of the world, resulting in a global burden of treatable disease. To address the lack of surgical workforce in underserved environments and to foster ongoing interest in global health among US-trained surgeons, our institution established a residency rotation through partnership with an academic hospital in Kijabe, Kenya. This study evaluates the perceptions of residents involved in the rotation, as well as its impact on their future involvement in global health...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Katrine N Aadland, Eivind Aadland, John R Andersen, Arne Lervåg, Vegard F Moe, Geir K Resaland, Yngvar Ommundsen
Inconsistent findings exist for the effect of school-based physical activity interventions on academic performance. The Active Smarter Kids (ASK) study revealed a favorable intervention effect of school-based physical activity on academic performance in numeracy in a subsample of 10-year-old elementary schoolchildren performing poorer at baseline in numeracy. Aiming to explain this finding, we investigated the mediating effects of executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and school related well-being in the relation between the physical activity intervention and child's performance in numeracy...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Artur C Jaschke, Henkjan Honing, Erik J A Scherder
Background: Research on the effects of music education on cognitive abilities has generated increasing interest across the scientific community. Nonetheless, longitudinal studies investigating the effects of structured music education on cognitive sub-functions are still rare. Prime candidates for investigating a relationship between academic achievement and music education appear to be executive functions such as planning, working memory, and inhibition. Methods: One hundred and forty-seven primary school children, Mage = 6...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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