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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108494/the-rich-club-organization-in-rat-functional-brain-network-to-balance-between-communication-cost-and-efficiency
#1
Xia Liang, Li-Ming Hsu, Hanbing Lu, Akira Sumiyoshi, Yong He, Yihong Yang
Network analyses of structural connectivity in the brain have highlighted a set of highly connected hubs that are densely interconnected, forming a "rich-club" substrate in diverse species. Here, we demonstrate the existence of rich-club organization in functional brain networks of rats. Densely interconnected rich-club regions are found to be distributed in multiple brain modules, with the majority located within the putative default mode network. Rich-club members exhibit high wiring cost (as measured by connection distance) and high metabolic running cost (as surrogated by cerebral blood flow), which may have evolved to achieve high network communications to support efficient brain functions...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108432/living-on-the-edge-conservation-genetics-of-seven-thermophilous-plant-species-in-a-high-arctic-archipelago
#2
Siri Birkeland, Idunn Elisabeth Borgen Skjetne, Anne Krag Brysting, Reidar Elven, Inger Greve Alsos
Small, isolated, and/or peripheral populations are expected to harbour low levels of genetic variation and may therefore have reduced adaptability to environmental change, including climate warming. In the Arctic, global warming has already caused vegetation change across the region and is acting as a significant stressor on Arctic biodiversity. Many of the rare plants in the Arctic are relicts from early Holocene warm periods, but their ability to benefit from the current warming is dependent on the viability of their populations...
January 20, 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107056/selfing-local-mate-competition-and-reinforcement
#3
Mark D Rausher
Reinforcement can contribute to speciation by increasing the strength of prezygotic isolating mechanisms. Theoretical analyses over the past two decades have demonstrated that conditions for reinforcement are not unduly restrictive, and empirical investigations have documented over a dozen likely cases, indicating that it may be a reasonably common phenomenon in nature. Largely uncharacterized, however, is the diversity of biological scenarios that can create the reduced hybrid fitness that drives reinforcement...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106654/ultrasonographic-features-of-female-urethral-diverticula-a-retrospective-study-of-25-patients
#4
Xia Wang, Chaoran Dou, Yulin Yan, Yun Bai, Bing Hu, Tao Ying
OBJECTIVES: This article summarizes the ultrasonographic features of female urethral diverticula on biplane transrectal ultrasound (B-TRUS). METHODS: A retrospective study was performed with 25 consecutive women who were diagnosed and treated as having urethral diverticulum (UD) between January 2012 and March 2016. All the patients were preoperatively evaluated using B-TRUS. The number, location, configuration, size, and type of the UD on B-TRUS were assessed. RESULTS: Twenty-eight diverticula were found on B-TRUS...
January 18, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102497/regulated-partitioning-of-fixed-carbon-14-c-sodium-na-potassium-k-and-glycine-betaine-determined-salinity-stress-tolerance-of-gamma-irradiated-pigeonpea-cajanus-cajan-l-millsp
#5
Pankaj Kumar, Vasundhara Sharma, Chobhe Kapil Atmaram, Bhupinder Singh
Soil salinity is a major constraint that limits legume productivity. Pigeonpea is a salt sensitive crop. Seed gamma irradiation at a very low dose (2.5 Gy) is known to enhance seedling establishment, plant growth and yield of cereals and other crops. The present study conducted using two genetically diverse varieties of pigeonpea viz., Pusa-991 and Pusa-992 aimed at establishing the role of pre-sowing seed gamma irradiation at 0, 0.0025, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1 kGy on plant growth, seed yield and seed quality under salt stress at 0, 80 and 100 mM NaCl (soil solution EC equivalent 1...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102303/panmixia-and-dispersal-from-the-mediterranean-basin-to-macaronesian-islands-of-a-macrolichen-species
#6
David Alors, Francesco Dal Grande, Paloma Cubas, Ana Crespo, Imke Schmitt, M Carmen Molina, Pradeep K Divakar
The Mediterranean region, comprising the Mediterranean Basin and the Macaronesian Islands, represents a center of diversification for many organisms. The genetic structure and connectivity of mainland and island microbial populations has been poorly explored, in particular in the case of symbiotic fungi. Here we investigated genetic diversity and spatial structure of the obligate outcrossing lichen-forming fungus Parmelina carporrhizans in the Mediterranean region. Using eight microsatellite and mating-type markers we showed that fungal populations are highly diverse but lack spatial structure...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101436/development-and-characterization-of-microsatellite-primers-in-the-endangered-mediterranean-shrub-ziziphus-lotus-rhamnaceae
#7
Ana González-Robles, Antonio J Manzaneda, Jesús M Bastida, Nick Harvey, Rafael Jaime, Teresa Salido, Luisa M Martínez, Ana Fernández-Ocaña, Julio M Alcántara, Pedro J Rey
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Microsatellite primers were developed to characterize and evaluate patterns of genetic diversity and structure in the endangered Mediterranean shrub Ziziphus lotus (Rhamnaceae). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty microsatellite primers were developed for Z. lotus, of which 14 were polymorphic. We evaluated microsatellite polymorphism in 97 specimens from 18 Spanish and seven Moroccan populations. Between two and eight alleles were found per locus, and the average number of alleles was 5...
December 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100780/a-novel-microrna-located-in-trkc-gene-regulates-wnt-signaling-pathway-and-is-differentially-expressed-in-colorectal-cancer-specimens
#8
Sadat Dokanehiifard, Atena Yasari, Hadi Najafi, Meisam Jafarzadeh, Maryam Nikkhah, Seyed Javad Mowla, Bahram M Soltani
Tropomyosin receptor kinase C (TrkC) is involved in cell survival, apoptosis, differentiation and tumorigenesis. TrkC diverse functions might be attributed to the hypothetical non-coding RNAs, embedded within the gene. Using bioinformatics approaches, a novel miRNA named TrkC-miR2 was predicted within TrkC gene, capable of regulating Wnt pathway. For experimental verification of this miRNA, predicted TrkC-premir2 sequence was overexpressed in SW480 cells, which led to the detection of two mature TrkC-miR2 isomiRs, and their endogenous forms were detected in human cell lines as well...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099775/the-population-genomic-signature-of-environmental-association-and-gene-flow-in-an-ecologically-divergent-tree-species-metrosideros-polymorpha-myrtaceae
#9
Ayako Izuno, Kanehiro Kitayama, Yusuke Onoda, Yuki Tsujii, Masaomi Hatakeyama, Atsushi J Nagano, Mie N Honjo, Rie Shimizu-Inatsugi, Hiroshi Kudoh, Kentaro K Shimizu, Yuji Isagi
Genome-wide markers enable us to study genetic differentiation within a species and the factors underlying it at a much higher resolution than before, which advances our understanding of adaptation in organisms. We investigated genomic divergence in Metrosideros polymorpha, a woody species that occupies a wide range of ecological habitats across the Hawaiian Islands and shows remarkable phenotypic variation. Using 1,659 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers annotated with the genome assembly, we examined the population genetic structure and demographic history of nine populations across five elevations and two ages of substrates on Mauna Loa, the island of Hawaii...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099275/characterization-regulation-and-targeting-of-erythroid-progenitors-in-normal-and-disordered-human-erythropoiesis
#10
Brian M Dulmovits, Jimmy Hom, Anupama Narla, Narla Mohandas, Lionel Blanc
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The erythroid progenitors burst-forming unit-erythroid and colony-forming unit-erythroid have a critical role in erythropoiesis. These cells represent a heterogeneous and poorly characterized population with modifiable self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation capabilities. This review focuses on the current state of erythroid progenitor biology with regard to immunophenotypic identification and regulatory programs. In addition, we will discuss the therapeutic implications of using these erythroid progenitors as pharmacologic targets...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096624/genetic-variability-and-discrimination-of-low-doses-of-toxocara-spp-from-public-areas-soil-inferred-by-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-as-a-field-friendly-molecular-tool
#11
Maryam Ozlati, Adel Spotin, Abbas Shahbazi, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Teimour Hazratian, Mohammad Adibpor, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Afsaneh Dolatkhah, Paria Khoshakhlagh
ABSTRACT: Aim: One of the main diagnostic problems of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is indiscrimination of low parasitic loads in soil samples. The aim of this study is to determine the genetic diversity and identification of Toxocara spp. from public areas soil inferred by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 180 soil samples were collected from various streets and public parks of northwest Iran. The DNA of recovered Toxocara eggs were extracted and amplified by PCR and LAMP following ZnSO4 flotation technique...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095914/vascular-mapping-of-the-retroauricular-skin-proposal-for-a-posterior-superior-surgical-incision-for-transcutaneous-bone-conduction-hearing-implants
#12
Adam Perenyi, Zsofia Bere, Janos Jarabin, Balazs Sztano, Edit Kukla, Ziad Bikhazi, Laszlo Tiszlavicz, Ferenc Toth, Jozsef Geza Kiss, Laszlo Rovo
BACKGROUND: Passive transcutaneous osseointegrated hearing implant systems have become increasingly popular more recently. The area over the implant is vulnerable due to vibration and pressure from the externally worn sound processor. Good perfusion and neural integrity has the potential to reduce complications. The authors' objective was to determine the ideal surgical exposure to maintain perfusion and neural integrity and decrease surgical time as a result of reduced bleeding. METHODS: The vascular anatomy of the temporal-parietal soft tissue was examined in a total of 50 subjects...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095078/diagnosis-classification-and-therapeutic-interventions-for-sinopulmonary-aspergillosis
#13
Matthew William McCarthy, Daniel Aguilar-Zapata, Vidmantas Petraitis, Thomas J Walsh
Sinopulmonary aspergillosis represents a diverse collection of allergic, invasive, and chronic sinus and respiratory conditions. These diseases can affect patients with and without immune impairment and in some cases may be life-threatening. Areas Covered: We review the diagnosis, classification, and therapeutic options available to treat sinopulmonary aspergillosis and look ahead to emerging diagnostic and therapeutic options that may soon play an important role in clinical practice. Expert Commentary: Histopathology and tissue culture remain the gold standard for the diagnosis of invasive sinopulmonary aspergillosis, but several new molecular detection methods have recently emerged, including various PCR-based platforms, MALDI-TOF, and lateral flow assays...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094922/nano-photoelectrochemical-cell-arrays-with-spatially-isolated-oxidation-and-reduction-channels
#14
Hang-Ah Park, Siyuan Liu, Youngseok Oh, Paul A Salvador, Gregory S Rohrer, Mohammad F Islam
Photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy is explored for many diverse applications but suffers from poor efficiencies due to limited solar absorption, inadequate charge carrier separation, redox half-reactions occurring in close proximity, and/or long ion diffusion lengths. We have taken a drastically different approach to the design of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) to spatially isolate reaction sites at the nanoscale to different materials and flow channels, suppressing carrier recombination and back-reaction of intermediates while shortening ion diffusion paths and, importantly, avoiding mixed product generation...
January 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094800/relationship-of-hyposalivation-and-xerostomia-in-mexican-elderly-with-socioeconomic-sociodemographic-and-dental-factors
#15
Horacio Islas-Granillo, Aida Borges-Yáñez, Miguel Ángel Fernández-Barrera, Leticia Ávila-Burgos, Nuria Patiño-Marín, María de Lourdes Márquez-Corona, Martha Mendoza-Rodríguez, Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís
We determined the prevalence of hyposalivation and xerostomia in older Mexicans (≥60 years), and its relationship with diverse factors. A cross-sectional study was realized in elderly subjects from Pachuca, Mexico. Chewing-stimulated saliva was collected under standardized conditions and salivary flow was measured; subjects were considered to have hyposalivation if their stimulated salivary flow was less than 0.7 mL per minute. Xerostomia was evaluated by asking subjects 'Does your mouth feel dry?'. Hyposalivation was present in 59...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094072/survey-on-graduate-education-in-the-confederaci%C3%A3-n-americana-de-urolog%C3%A3-a-opinions-and-reality
#16
J C Angulo, H Dávila, R Vela
OBJECTIVE: Quality graduate medical training is a concern of Confederación Americana de Urología (CAU), the third largest urological society worldwide. It is important to analyse the diversity in the state training programmes and the feasibility and implications of conducting a common CAU programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 20-item questionnaire was distributed to the directors of national societies who are members of the CAU concerning the graduate urological training in their institutions...
January 13, 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093855/typical-and-atypical-appearance-of-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-a-clinical-neuroimaging-and-neuropathological-study-symposium-fundamentals-learned-from-diversity-among-typical-and-atypical-appearances
#17
Shinobu Kawakatsu 川勝 忍, Ryota Kobayashi, Hiroshi Hayashi
The International Working Group (IWG) has classified Alzheimer's disease (AD) as two different types, the typical form and the atypical form, but clinicopathological studies of atypical AD are limited. Because atypical AD cases usually present with early-onset dementia, we investigated 12 patients with early-onset AD, including two patients with typical AD and 10 patients with atypical AD. Of these patients, six had the posterior variant, three had the frontal variant and one had the logopenic variant mixed with semantic dementia...
January 17, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093854/reduced-representation-genome-sequencing-reveals-patterns-of-genetic-diversity-and-selection-in-apple
#18
Baiquan Ma, Liao Liao, Qian Peng, Ting Fang, Hui Zhou, Schuyler S Korban, Yuepeng Han
Identifying DNA sequence variations is a fundamental step towards deciphering the genetic basis of traits of interest. Here, a total of 20 cultivated and 10 wild apples were genotyped using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing, and 39,635 single nucleotide polymorphism with no missing genotypes and evenly distributed along the genome were selected to investigate patterns of genome-wide genetic variations between cultivated and wild apples. Overall, wild apples displayed higher levels of genetic diversity than cultivated apples...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093446/tumor-infiltrating-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-specific-t-cells-are-diverse-and-associated-with-improved-patient-survival
#19
Natalie J Miller, Candice D Church, Lichun Dong, David Crispin, Matthew P Fitzgibbon, Kristina Lachance, Lichen Jing, Michi Shinohara, Ioannis Gavvovidis, Gerald Willimsky, Martin McIntosh, Thomas Blankenstein, David M Koelle, Paul Nghiem
Tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells are associated with improved survival of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), an aggressive skin cancer causally linked to Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). However, CD8(+) T-cell infiltration is robust in only 4% to 18% of MCC tumors. We characterized the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire restricted to one prominent epitope of MCPyV (KLLEIAPNC, "KLL") and assessed whether TCR diversity, tumor infiltration, or T-cell avidity correlated with clinical outcome. HLA-A*02:01/KLL tetramer(+) CD8(+) T cells from MCC patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) were isolated via flow cytometry...
January 16, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081278/population-structure-of-annona-crassiflora-an-endemic-plant-species-of-the-brazilian-cerrado
#20
R Gwinner, T A Setotaw, F A Rodrigues, D V C França, F A da Silveira, L A S Pio, M Pasqual
Habitat fragmentation has numerous consequences, particularly to endemic species, and has a negative impact on the genetic diversity of neglected species, leading to genetic drift. Annona crassiflora Mart. is a species that is endemic to Brazil, and its incidence in the Cerrado biome has decreased. The identification and characterization of its remaining diversity is necessary for its conservation. Our aim was to study the population structure of A. crassiflora populations from different Cerrado regions in Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Corinto, Curvelo, Carmo da Mata, Boa Esperança, and Paraguaçu) using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and DNA content...
December 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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