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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429848/stuck-in-fragments-population-genetics-of-the-endangered-collared-brown-lemur-eulemur-collaris-in-the-malagasy-littoral-forest
#1
Stefania Bertoncini, Jacopo D'Ercole, Francesca Brisighelli, Jean-Baptiste Ramanamanjato, Cristian Capelli, Sergio Tofanelli, Giuseppe Donati
OBJECTIVES: The Endangered collared brown lemur (Eulemur collaris) is the largest primate living in the littoral forest of southeastern Madagascar, a top priority habitat for biodiversity conservation on the island. Because this lemur is a key seed-disperser, an evaluation of the structure and connectivity of the populations surviving in the forest fragments is urgently needed to guide conservation plans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic variability at autosomal microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA was investigated in a total of 49 collared brown lemurs sampled by non-invasive methods in three littoral forest fragments and in the nearby lowland humid forest...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428858/genetic-diversity-and-spatial-structure-of-the-rufous-throated-antbird-gymnopithys-rufigula-an-amazonian-obligate-army-ant-follower
#2
Juliana Menger, Klaus Henle, William E Magnusson, Antonella Soro, Martin Husemann, Martin Schlegel
Amazonian understory antbirds are thought to be relatively sedentary and to have limited dispersal ability; they avoid crossing forest gaps, and even narrow roads through a forest may limit their territories. However, most evidence for sedentariness in antbirds comes from field observations and plot-based recapture of adult individuals, which do not provide evidence for lack of genetic dispersal, as this often occurs through juveniles. In this study, we used microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control-region sequences to investigate contemporary and infer historical patterns of genetic diversity and structure of the Rufous-throated Antbird (Gymnopithys rufigula) within and between two large reserves in central Amazonia...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428733/microrna-338-3p-suppresses-cell-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-by-targeting-sphingosine-kinase-2
#3
Guowei Zhang, Hao Zheng, Guojun Zhang, Ruirui Cheng, Chunya Lu, Yijie Guo, Guoqiang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and 80% patients of lung cancer are non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. MicroRNAs are important gene regulators with critical roles in diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. Studies indicate that sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) promotes tumor progression in NSCLC, but how this occurs is unclear. Thus, we explored the effect of miR-338-3p targeting SphK2 on proliferation and apoptosis of NSCLC cells...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423357/mir-29b-inhibits-the-growth-of-glioma-via-mycn-dependent-way
#4
Guan Sun, Jingmin Lu, Chuang Zhang, Ran You, Lei Shi, Nan Jiang, Dekang Nie, Jian Zhu, Min Li, Jun Guo
MiR-29b is widely involved in diverse cancers. We plan to study its role in glioma. The expression of miR-29b was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and we found the expression of miR-29b was decreased in glioma. Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell counting kit (CCK8) and 5-Ethynyl-2'- deoxyuridine (EdU) and cell apoptosis was assayed with flow cytometry assay (FCA), which indicated miR-29b can inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of glioma cells. The target of miR-29b was predicted using miRanda, TargetScan and PicTar sofeware and we also found MYCN was a direct target of miR-29b in glioma cells and miR-29b inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells via MYCN dependent way...
April 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421550/distribution-genetic-diversity-and-potential-spatiotemporal-scale-of-alien-gene-flow-in-crop-wild-relatives-of-rice-oryza-spp-in-colombia
#5
Evert Thomas, Eduardo Tovar, Carolina Villafañe, José Leonardo Bocanegra, Rodrigo Moreno
BACKGROUND: Crop wild relatives (CWRs) of rice hold important traits that can contribute to enhancing the ability of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima) to produce higher yields, cope with the effects of climate change, and resist attacks of pests and diseases, among others. However, the genetic resources of these species remain dramatically understudied, putting at risk their future availability from in situ and ex situ sources. Here we assess the distribution of genetic diversity of the four rice CWRs known to occur in Colombia (O...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420332/genetic-diversity-of-elaeis-oleifera-hbk-cortes-populations-using-cross-species-ssrs-implication-s-for-germplasm-utilization-and-conservation
#6
Maizura Ithnin, Chee-Keng Teh, Wickneswari Ratnam
BACKGROUND: The Elaeis oleifera genetic materials were assembled from its center of diversity in South and Central America. These materials are currently being preserved in Malaysia as ex situ living collections. Maintaining such collections is expensive and requires sizable land. Information on the genetic diversity of these collections can help achieve efficient conservation via maintenance of core collection. For this purpose, we have applied fourteen unlinked microsatellite markers to evaluate 532 E...
April 19, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419285/genomic-differentiation-and-demographic-histories-of-atlantic-and-indo-pacific-yellowfin-tuna-thunnus-albacares-populations
#7
J M I Barth, M Damerau, M Matschiner, S Jentoft, R Hanel
Recent developments in the field of genomics have provided new and powerful insights into population structure and dynamics that are essential for the conservation of biological diversity. As a commercially highly valuable species, the yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is intensely exploited throughout its distribution in tropical oceans around the world, and is currently classified as near threatened. However, conservation efforts for this species have so far been hampered by limited knowledge of its population structure, due to incongruent results of previous investigations...
April 13, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418314/population-genomics-of-legionella-longbeachae-and-hidden-complexities-of-infection-source-attribution
#8
Rodrigo Bacigalupe, Diane Lindsay, Giles Edwards, J Ross Fitzgerald
Legionella longbeachae is the primary cause of legionellosis in Australasia and Southeast Asia and an emerging pathogen in Europe and the United States; however, our understanding of the population diversity of L. longbeachae from patient and environmental sources is limited. We analyzed the genomes of 64 L. longbeachae isolates, of which 29 were from a cluster of legionellosis cases linked to commercial growing media in Scotland in 2013 and 35 were non-outbreak-associated isolates from Scotland and other countries...
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415043/environmental-stressors-as-a-driver-of-the-trait-composition-of-benthic-macroinvertebrate-assemblages-in-polluted-iberian-rivers
#9
Maja Kuzmanovic, Sylvain Dolédec, Nuria de Castro-Catala, Antoni Ginebreda, Sergi Sabater, Isabel Muñoz, Damià Barceló
We used the trait composition of macroinvertebrate communities to identify the effects of pesticides and multiple stressors associated with urban land use at different sites of four rivers in Spain. Several physical and chemical stressors (high metal pollution, nutrients, elevated temperature and flow alterations) affected the urban sites. The occurrence of multiple stressors influenced aquatic assemblages at 50% of the sites. We hypothesized that the trait composition of macroinvertebrate assemblages would reflect the strategies that the assemblages used to cope with the respective environmental stressors...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414787/water-abstraction-affects-abundance-size-structure-and-growth-of-two-threatened-cyprinid-fishes
#10
Roberto Merciai, Carlota Molons-Sierra, Sergi Sabater, Emili García-Berthou
Hydrologic alteration is a major threat to freshwater biota, and particularly fish, in many river courses around the world. We analyzed and compared the effects of water abstraction on two threatened cyprinid fishes of contrasting ecology (the Mediterranean barbel Barbus meridionalis and the Catalan chub Squalius laietanus) in a Mediterranean stream. We compared abundance, size-structure, growth, and condition of both species across perennial and artificially intermittent reaches affected by water abstraction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414747/hierarchical-and-coupling-model-of-factors-influencing-vessel-traffic-flow
#11
Zhao Liu, Jingxian Liu, Huanhuan Li, Zongzhi Li, Zhirong Tan, Ryan Wen Liu, Yi Liu
Understanding the characteristics of vessel traffic flow is crucial in maintaining navigation safety, efficiency, and overall waterway transportation management. Factors influencing vessel traffic flow possess diverse features such as hierarchy, uncertainty, nonlinearity, complexity, and interdependency. To reveal the impact mechanism of the factors influencing vessel traffic flow, a hierarchical model and a coupling model are proposed in this study based on the interpretative structural modeling method. The hierarchical model explains the hierarchies and relationships of the factors using a graph...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413230/the-relative-effects-of-upwelling-and-river-flow-on-the-phytoplankton-diversity-patterns-in-the-ria-of-a-coru%C3%A3-a-nw-spain
#12
Antonio Bode, Manuel Varela, Ricardo Prego, Fernando Rozada, Martin D Santos
Phytoplankton species assemblages in estuaries are connected to those in rivers and marine environments by local hydrodynamics leading to a continuous flow of taxa. This study revealed differential effects of upwelling and river flow on phytoplankton communities observed in 2011 along a salinity gradient from a river reservoir connected to the sea through a ria-marine bay system in A Coruña (NW Spain, 43° 16-21' N, 8° 16-22' W). With 130 phytoplankton taxa identified, the assemblages were dominated in general by diatoms, particularly abundant in the bay and in the estuary, but also by chlorophycea and cyanobacteria in the reservoir...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412903/phage-life-cycles-behind-bacterial-biodiversity
#13
Tomasz Olszak, Agnieszka Latka, Bartosz Roszniowski, Miguel Angel Valvano, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
Bacteriophages (phages or bacterial viruses) are the most abundant biological entities in our planet; their influence reaches far beyond the microorganisms they parasitize. Phages are present in every environment and shape up every bacterial population in both active and passive ways. They participate in the circulation of organic matter and drive the evolution of microorganisms by horizontal gene transfer at unprecedented scales. The mass flow of genetic information in the microbial world influences the biosphere and poses challenges for science and medicine...
April 13, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412635/particle-manipulations-in-non-newtonian-microfluidics-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Xinyu Lu, Chao Liu, Guoqing Hu, Xiangchun Xuan
Microfluidic devices have been widely used since 1990s for diverse manipulations of particles (a general term of beads, cells, vesicles, drops, etc.) in a variety of applications. Compared to the active manipulation via an externally imposed force field, the passive manipulation of particles exploits the flow-induced intrinsic lift and/or drag to control particle motion with several advantages. Along this direction, inertial microfluidics has received tremendous interest in the past decade due to its capability to handle a large volume of samples at a high throughput...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412490/serpentine-soils-affect-heavy-metal-tolerance-but-not-genetic-diversity-in-a-common-mediterranean-ant
#15
Filippo Frizzi, Alberto Masoni, Mine Çelikkol, Enrico Palchetti, Claudio Ciofi, Guido Chelazzi, Giacomo Santini
Natural habitats with serpentine soils are rich in heavy metal ions, which may significantly affect ecological communities. Exposure to metal pollutants results, for instance, in a reduction of population genetic diversity and a diffused higher tolerance towards heavy metals. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to metals in serpentine soils affect accumulation patterns, tolerance towards metal pollutants, and genetic diversity in ants. In particular, we studied colonies of the common Mediterranean ant, Crematogaster scutellaris, along a contamination gradient consisting of two differently contaminated forests and a reference soil with no geogenic contamination...
April 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411263/use-of-platelet-function-testing-before-pipeline-embolization-device-placement-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#16
Nimer Adeeb, Christoph J Griessenauer, Paul M Foreman, Justin M Moore, Hussain Shallwani, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi, Abdulrahman Alturki, Adnan H Siddiqui, Elad I Levy, Mark R Harrigan, Christopher S Ogilvy, Ajith J Thomas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thromboembolic complications constitute a significant source of morbidity after neurointerventional procedures. Flow diversion using the pipeline embolization device for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms necessitates the use of dual antiplatelet therapy to reduce this risk. The use of platelet function testing before pipeline embolization device placement remains controversial. METHODS: A retrospective review of prospectively maintained databases at 3 academic institutions was performed from the years 2009 to 2016 to identify patients with intracranial aneurysms treated with pipeline embolization device placement...
April 14, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411160/life-on-the-rocks-multilocus-phylogeography-of-rock-hyrax-procavia-capensis-from-southern-africa
#17
K Amanda Maswanganye, Michael J Cunningham, Nigel C Bennett, Christian T Chimimba, Paulette Bloomer
Understanding the role of geography and climatic cycles in determining patterns of biodiversity is important in comparative and evolutionary biology and conservation. We studied the phylogeographic pattern and historical demography of a rock-dwelling small mammal species from southern Africa, the rock hyrax Procavia capensis. Using a multilocus coalescent approach, we assessed the influence of strong habitat dependence and fluctuating regional climates on genetic diversity. We sequenced a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) and two nuclear introns (AP5, PRKC1) supplemented with microsatellite genotyping, in order to assess evolutionary processes over multiple temporal scales...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410897/efficient-production-of-antibody-fab-fragment-by-transient-gene-expression-in-insect-cells
#18
Keita Mori, Hirotsugu Hamada, Takafumi Ogawa, Yuki Ohmuro-Matsuyama, Tomohisa Katsuda, Hideki Yamaji
Transient gene expression allows a rapid production of diverse recombinant proteins in early-stage preclinical and clinical developments of biologics. Insect cells have proven to be an excellent platform for the production of functional recombinant proteins. In the present study, the production of an antibody Fab fragment by transient gene expression in lepidopteran insect cells was investigated. The DNA fragments encoding heavy-chain (Hc; Fd fragment) and light-chain (Lc) genes of an Fab fragment were individually cloned into the plasmid vector pIHAneo, which contained the Bombyx mori actin promoter downstream of the B...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409533/control-of-oxygen-tension-recapitulates-zone-specific-functions-in-human-liver-microphysiology-systems
#19
Felipe T Lee-Montiel, Subin M George, Albert H Gough, Anup D Sharma, Juanfang Wu, Richard DeBiasio, Lawrence A Vernetti, D Lansing Taylor
This article describes our next generation human Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System (LAMPS). The key demonstration of this study was that Zone 1 and Zone 3 microenvironments can be established by controlling the oxygen tension in individual devices over the range of ca. 3 to 13%. The oxygen tension was computationally modeled using input on the microfluidic device dimensions, numbers of cells, oxygen consumption rates of hepatocytes, the diffusion coefficients of oxygen in different materials and the flow rate of media in the MicroPhysiology System (MPS)...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408098/population-genetics-of-the-schistosoma-snail-host-bulinus-truncatus-in-egypt
#20
Rima Zein-Eddine, Félicité F Djuikwo-Teukeng, Yasser Dar, Gilles Dreyfuss, Frederik Van den Broeck
The tropical freshwater snail Bulinus truncatus serves as an important intermediate host of several human and cattle Schistosoma species in many African regions. Despite some ecological and malacological studies, there is no information on the genetic diversity of B. truncatus in Egypt. Here, we sampled 70-100 snails in ten localities in Upper Egypt and the Nile Delta. Per locality, we sequenced 10 snails at a partial fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) and we genotyped 25-30 snails at six microsatellite markers...
April 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
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