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Flow diversion

Yong Qiu, Jing Zhang, Bing Li, Xianghua Wen, Peng Liang, Xia Huang
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environment have become a growing public concern, due to their potential to be obtained by pathogens and their duplication along cell division. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) was reported to be responsible for ARGs dissemination in microbes, but the HGT feature in environmental biofilm was still unclear due to insufficient assay tools. To address this challenge, we applied a novel microfluidic system to cultivate thin biofilm by continuous supply of nutrients and close contact between cells...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Murillo Cunegatto-Braga, Brian Hogan, Pedro Aguilar-Salinas, Alexandra D Beier, Ricardo A Hanel
BACKGROUND: Intracranial aneurysms(IAs) are rare in the pediatric population and are usually considered difficult to treat with traditional microsurgery due to their complex morphology. Endovascular techniques have become the standard option for treating IAs in adults. More recently, flow diverters such as the Pipeline Embolization Device(PED) are being widely adopted for unruptured IAs with safety and efficacy in adults, yet their use in the pediatric population is not well defined. In this paper we present a pediatric patient with a ruptured PCA aneurysm successfully treated with a PED and a review of the literature of the current status of PED use in this subset of patients...
June 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Yong Cheol Lim, Yong Sam Shin, Joonho Chung
A new Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support device (LVIS Blue) is a braided stent that provides a higher degree of metal coverage. This stent may be beneficial for complete obliteration of an aneurysm due not only to its support of a higher occlusion rate using coils inside of the aneurysm but also to its flow diverting effect. We introduce and describe a new flow diversion technique using an LVIS Blue-within-an-Enterprise for patients with vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysms. A 6-Fr guiding catheter was positioned in the ipsilateral VA...
June 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Lili Chen, Zhengxiang He, Alina Cornelia Iuga, Sebastião N Martins Filho, Jeremiah J Faith, Jose C Clemente, Madhura Deshpande, Anitha Jayaprakash, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Juan J Lafaille, Ravi Sachidanandam, Glaucia C Furtado, Sergio A Lira
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several studies have shown that signaling via the interleukin 23 (IL23) receptor is required for development of colitis. We studied the roles of IL23, dietary factors, alterations to the microbiota, and T cells in development and progression of colitis in mice. METHODS: All mice were maintained on lab diet 5053, unless otherwise noted. We generated mice that express IL23 in CX3CR1-positive myeloid cells (R23FR mice) upon cyclic administration of tamoxifen dissolved in diet 2019...
June 14, 2018: Gastroenterology
Alexander Jueterbock, James A Coyer, Jeanine L Olsen, Galice Hoarau
BACKGROUND: The spatial distribution of genetic diversity and structure has important implications for conservation as it reveals a species' strong and weak points with regard to stability and evolutionary capacity. Temporal genetic stability is rarely tested in marine species other than commercially important fishes, but is crucial for the utility of temporal snapshots in conservation management. High and stable diversity can help to mitigate the predicted northward range shift of seaweeds under the impact of climate change...
June 15, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Aurélie Berland, Jérémie Rosain, Sophie Kaltenbach, Vincent Allain, Nizar Mahlaoui, Isabelle Melki, Alice Fievet, Catherine Dubois d'Enghien, Marie Ouachée-Chardin, Laurence Perrin, Nathalie Auger, Funda Erol Cipe, Andrea Finocchi, Figen Dogu, Felipe Suarez, Despina Moshous, Thierry Leblanc, Alexandre Belot, Claire Fieschi, David Boutboul, Marion Malphettes, Lionel Galicier, Eric Oksenhendler, Stéphane Blanche, Alain Fischer, Patrick Revy, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Capucine Picard, Jean-Pierre de Villartay
- BACKGROUND: V(D)J recombination ensures the diversity of the adaptive immune system. While its complete defect causes Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (T-B-SCID), its suboptimal activity, is associated with a broad spectrum of immune manifestations such as late onset combined immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. The earliest molecular diagnosis of these patients is required to adopt the best therapy strategy, in particular when it involves myelo-ablative conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Nicola Veronese, Jacopo Demurtas, Stefano Celotto, Maria Gabriella Caruso, Stefania Maggi, Francesco Bolzetta, Joseph Firth, Lee Smith, Patricia Schofield, Ai Koyanagi, Lin Yang, Marco Solmi, Brendon Stubbs
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The literature regarding the potential health benefits of chocolate consumption are unclear and the epidemiological credibility has not been systematically scrutinized, while the strength of the evidence is undetermined. We therefore aimed to map and grade the diverse health outcomes associated with chocolate consumption using an umbrella review of systematic reviews. METHODS: Umbrella review of systematic reviews of observational and intervention studies (randomized placebo-controlled trials, RCTs)...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Céline Ledoux, Eva Pilot, Esperanza Diaz, Thomas Krafft
BACKGROUND: The current migration flow into Europe is leading to a growing ethnically diverse population in many European countries. Now more than ever, those populations have different healthcare needs, languages, traditions, and previous level of care. This higher level of diversity is likely to increase health inequalities that might challenge healthcare systems if not addressed. In this context, this study aims at reviewing the policy framework for migrants' access to healthcare in Spain, Portugal and Ireland, countries with a long history of immigration, to identify lessons to be learned for policies on migrants' health...
June 15, 2018: Globalization and Health
Drew R Schield, Richard H Adams, Daren C Card, Andrew B Corbin, Tereza Jezkova, Nicole R Hales, Jesse M Meik, Blair W Perry, Carol L Spencer, Lydia L Smith, Gustavo Campillo García, Nassima M Bouzid, Jason L Strickland, Christopher L Parkinson, Miguel Borja, Gamaliel Castañeda-Gaytán, Robert W Bryson, Oscar A Flores-Villela, Stephen P Mackessy, Todd A Castoe
The Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus) inhabits deserts and arid grasslands of the western United States and Mexico. Despite considerable interest in its highly toxic venom and the recognition of two subspecies, no molecular studies have characterized range-wide genetic diversity and population structure or tested species limits within C. scutulatus. We used mitochondrial DNA and thousands of nuclear loci from double-digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing to infer population genetic structure throughout the range of C...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Madeleine J H van Oppen, Pim Bongaerts, Pedro Frade, Lesa M Peplow, Sarah E Boyd, Hieu T Nim, Line K Bay
Spatially adjacent habitats on coral reefs can represent highly distinct environments, often harbouring different coral communities. Yet, certain coral species thrive across divergent environments. It is unknown whether the forces of selection are sufficiently strong to overcome the counteracting effects of the typically high gene flow over short distances, and for local adaptation to occur. We screened the coral genome (using restriction-site-associated sequencing [RAD-seq]), and characterized both the dinoflagellate photosymbiont and tissue-associated prokaryote microbiomes (using metabarcoding) of a reef flat and slope population of the reef-building coral, Pocillopora damicornis, at two locations on Heron Island in the southern Great Barrier Reef...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Luke Browne, Jordan Karubian
Habitat loss and fragmentation often reduce gene flow and genetic diversity in plants by disrupting the movement of pollen and seed. However, direct comparisons of the contributions of pollen vs. seed dispersal to genetic variation in fragmented landscapes are lacking. To address this knowledge gap, we partitioned the genetic diversity contributed by male gametes from pollen sources and female gametes from seed sources within established seedlings of the palm Oenocarpus bataua in forest fragments and continuous forest in northwest Ecuador...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Gülşah Merve Kılınç, Natalija Kashuba, Reyhan Yaka, Arev Pelin Sümer, Eren Yüncü, Dmitrij Shergin, Grigorij Leonidovich Ivanov, Dmitrii Kichigin, Kjunnej Pestereva, Denis Volkov, Pavel Mandryka, Artur Kharinskii, Alexey Tishkin, Evgenij Ineshin, Evgeniy Kovychev, Aleksandr Stepanov, Aanatolij Alekseev, Svetlana Aleksandrovna Fedoseeva, Mehmet Somel, Mattias Jakobsson, Maja Krzewińska, Jan Storå, Anders Götherström
Archaeogenomic studies have largely elucidated human population history in West Eurasia during the Stone Age. However, despite being a broad geographical region of significant cultural and linguistic diversity, little is known about the population history in North Asia. We present complete mitochondrial genome sequences together with stable isotope data for 41 serially sampled ancient individuals from North Asia, dated between c.13,790 BP and c.1,380 BP extending from the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences and haplogroup data of these individuals revealed the highest genetic affinity to present-day North Asian populations of the same geographical region suggesting a possible long-term maternal genetic continuity in the region...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pavel Slaby, Premysl Bartos, Jakub Karas, Radek Netusil, Kateřina Tomanova, Martin Vacha
Diverse animal species perceive Earth's magnetism and use their magnetic sense to orientate and navigate. Even non-migrating insects such as fruit flies and cockroaches have been shown to exploit the flavoprotein Cryptochrome (Cry) as a likely magnetic direction sensor; however, the transduction mechanism remains unknown. In order to work as a system to steer insect flight or control locomotion, the magnetic sense must transmit the signal from the receptor cells to the brain at a similar speed to other sensory systems, presumably within hundreds of milliseconds or less...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Mohammed H Abdelraheem, Devendra Bansal, Mohammed A Idris, Moawia M Mukhtar, Muzamil M Abdel Hamid, Zainb S Imam, Sisay Getachew, Rakesh Sehgal, Hargobinder Kaur, Amal H Gadalla, Salam Al-Hamidhi, Zainab Al-Hashami, Ali Al-Jabri, Ali A Sultan, Hamza A Babiker
Malaria control program in the Arabian Peninsula, backed by adequate logistical support, has interrupted transmission with exception of limited sites in Saudi Arabia and sporadic outbreaks in Oman. However, sustained influx of imported malaria represents a direct threat to the above success. Here we examined the extent of genetic diversity among imported P. vivax in Qatar, and its ability to produce gametocytes, compared to parasites in main sites of imported cases, the Indian subcontinent (india) and East Africa (Sudan and Ethiopia)...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Robert J Gillies, Joel S Brown, Alexander R A Anderson, Robert A Gatenby
Temporal changes in blood flow are commonly observed in malignant tumours, but the evolutionary causes and consequences are rarely considered. We propose that stochastic temporal variations in blood flow and microenvironmental conditions arise from the eco-evolutionary dynamics of tumour angiogenesis in which cancer cells, as individual units of selection, can influence and respond only to local environmental conditions. This leads to new vessels arising from the closest available vascular structure regardless of the size or capacity of this parental vessel...
June 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Benedikt Strunz, Julia Hengst, Katja Deterding, Michael P Manns, Markus Cornberg, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren, Heiner Wedemeyer, Niklas K Björkström
Diversity is a central requirement for the immune system's capacity to adequately clear a variety of different infections. As such, natural killer (NK) cells represent a highly diverse population of innate lymphocytes important in the early response against viruses. Yet, the extent to which a chronic pathogen affects NK cell diversity is largely unknown. Here we study NK cell functional diversification in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. High-dimensional flow cytometer assays combined with stochastic neighbor embedding analysis reveal that chronic HCV infection induces functional imprinting on human NK cells that is largely irreversible and persists long after successful interventional clearance of the virus...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
Jun Wu, Yingtao Wang, Jiabao Xu, Schuyler S Korban, Zhangjun Fei, Shutian Tao, Ray Ming, Shuaishuai Tai, Awais M Khan, Joseph D Postman, Chao Gu, Hao Yin, Danman Zheng, Kaijie Qi, Yong Li, Runze Wang, Cecilia H Deng, Satish Kumar, David Chagné, Xiaolong Li, Juyou Wu, Xiaosan Huang, Huping Zhang, Zhihua Xie, Xiao Li, Mingyue Zhang, Yanhong Li, Zhen Yue, Xiaodong Fang, Jiaming Li, Leiting Li, Cong Jin, Mengfan Qin, Jiaying Zhang, Xiao Wu, Yaqi Ke, Jian Wang, Huanmimg Yang, Shaoling Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pear (Pyrus) is a globally grown fruit, with thousands of cultivars in five domesticated species and dozens of wild species. However, little is known about the evolutionary history of these pear species and what has contributed to the distinct phenotypic traits between Asian pears and European pears. RESULTS: We report the genome resequencing of 113 pear accessions from worldwide collections, representing both cultivated and wild pear species. Based on 18,302,883 identified SNPs, we conduct phylogenetics, population structure, gene flow, and selective sweep analyses...
June 11, 2018: Genome Biology
M R Sousa, C J S Oliveira, J M Carneiro, A C Lopes, E Rodríguez, E A F Vasconcelos, G B M Holanda, P G C Landim, M E R Silva, P I M Firmino, A B Dos Santos
This study aimed to evaluate different air dosing strategies such as microaeration flow rates and air dosing points to enhance H2 S removal in microaerobic systems treating low-strength wastewaters. Efficiency and stability of the reactors as well as biogas quality were assessed, and microbial community changes were evaluated using PCR-DGGE technique. The results showed that the air dosing point affected the H2 S concentration and that air dosing at the headspace promoted the highest H2 S removal efficiency...
June 11, 2018: Environmental Technology
R Y Cheng, J R Yao, Q Wan, J W Guo, F F Pu, L Shi, W Hu, Y H Yang, L Li, M Li, F He
This study aimed to demonstrate whether exposure to bifidobacteria during early life influences immunity and alleviates the risk of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergies in adulthood. BALB/c neonatal mice (n=54) were administered with a lyophilised cell preparation of Bifidobacterium bifidum TMC3115 (TMC3115) for 3 weeks. Following the intervention, the mice were immunised with intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA). The morphology and function of the intestinal epithelium were determined using histopathological examinations...
June 11, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Brooke Aggarwal, Nour Makarem, Riddhi Shah, Memet Emin, Ying Wei, Marie-Pierre St-Onge, Sanja Jelic
BACKGROUND: Insufficient sleep increases blood pressure. However, the effects of milder, highly prevalent but frequently neglected sleep disturbances, including poor sleep quality and insomnia, on vascular health in women are unclear. We investigated whether poor sleep patterns are associated with blood pressure and endothelial inflammation in a diverse sample of women. METHODS AND RESULTS: Women who participated in the ongoing American Heart Association Go Red for Women Strategically Focused Research Network were studied (n=323, 57% minority, mean age=39±17 years, range=20-79 years)...
June 9, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
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