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EGFR Resistance Colon Cancer

Valerio Gelfo, Maria Teresa Rodia, Michela Pucci, Massimiliano Dall'Ora, Spartaco Santi, Rossella Solmi, Lee Roth, Moshit Lindzen, Massimiliano Bonafè, Andrea Bertotti, Elisabetta Caramelli, Pier-Luigi Lollini, Livio Trusolino, Yosef Yarden, Gabriele D'Uva, Mattia Lauriola
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) activates a robust signalling network to which colon cancer tumours often become addicted. Cetuximab, one of the monoclonal antibodies targeting this pathway, is employed to treat patients with colorectal cancer. However, many patients are intrinsically refractory to this treatment, and those who respond develop secondary resistance along time. Mechanisms of cancer cell resistance include either acquisition of new mutations or non genomic activation of alternative signalling routes...
September 30, 2016: Oncotarget
Xiaoqing Guo, Yue Meng, Xiaotong Sheng, Yuan Guan, Fenglei Zhang, Zhen Han, Yuying Kang, Guihua Tai, Yifa Zhou, Hairong Cheng
Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a cytokine that selectively induces apoptosis in many tumor cells while leaving normal cells intact and is thus an attractive candidate for antitumor therapies. This paper reports that the combination of tunicamycin plus TRAIL produced a strong synergistic effect in TRAIL-sensitive human colon cancer HCT116 cells and TRAIL-resistant HT-29 cells. On a cellular mechanistic level, tunicamycin-enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis by death receptor (DR) 5 upregulation and DR4 deglycosylation...
September 3, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Giulia Bon, Rossella Loria, Carla Azzurra Amoreo, Alessandra Verdina, Isabella Sperduti, Arianna Mastrofrancesco, Silvia Soddu, Maria Grazia Diodoro, Marcella Mottolese, Matilde Todaro, Giorgio Stassi, Michele Milella, Ruggero De Maria, Rita Falcioni
Although the medical treatment of colorectal cancer has evolved greatly in the last years, a significant portion of early-stage patients develops recurrence after therapies. The current clinical trials are directed to evaluate new drug combinations and treatment schedules. By the use of patient-derived or established colon cancer cell lines, we found that the tyrosine kinase receptor HER3 is involved in the mechanisms of resistance to therapies. In agreement, the immunohistochemical analysis of total and phospho-HER3 expression in 185 colorectal cancer specimens revealed a significant correlation with lower disease-free survival...
August 19, 2016: Oncotarget
T Kondo, S Ozawa, T Ikoma, X-Y Yang, K Kanamori, K Suzuki, H Iwabuchi, Y Maehata, C Miyamoto, T Taguchi, T Kiyono, E Kubota, R-I Hata
Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), has been successfully used to treat some patients with colorectal cancer and those with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). For the effective treatment, it is essential to first identify cetuximab-responsive patients. The level of EGFR expression and/or the presence of mutations in signalling molecules downstream of the EGFR pathway have been reported to be determining factors for cetuximab responsiveness in colorectal cancer patients; however, limited data have been reported for HNSCC patients...
2016: Oncogenesis
Michael Pohl, Wolff Schmiegel
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer type in Western countries. Significant progress has been made in the last decade in the therapy of metastatic CRC (mCRC) with a median overall survival (OS) of patients exceeding 30 months. The integration of biologic targeted therapies and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (MABs) in the treatment of patients with genomically selected all-RAS wild-type mCRC leads to a significant progress in advanced incurable disease state...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Piero Pileri, Susanna Campagnoli, Alberto Grandi, Matteo Parri, Elisa De Camilli, Chaojun Song, Luisa Ganfini, Aurelien Lacombe, Ilaria Naldi, Paolo Sarmientos, Caterina Cinti, Boquan Jin, Guido Grandi, Giuseppe Viale, Luigi Terracciano, Renata Grifantini
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major causes of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. The currently approved therapeutic agents have limited efficacy. METHODS: The atypical cadherin FAT1 was discovered as a novel CRC-associated protein by using a monoclonal antibody (mAb198.3). FAT1 expression was assessed in CRC cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunoblots, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. In addition, in vitro and in vivo tumour models were done to assess FAT1 potential value for therapeutic applications...
June 28, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Sun Min Lim, Hye Ryun Kim, Eun Kyung Cho, Young Joo Min, Jin Seok Ahn, Myung-Ju Ahn, Keunchil Park, Byoung Chul Cho, Ji-Hyun Lee, Hye Cheol Jeong, Eun Kyung Kim, Joo-Hang Kim
BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations may exhibit primary resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). We aimed to examine genomic alterations associated with de novo resistance to gefitinib in a prospective study of NSCLC patients. METHODS: One-hundred and fifty two patients with activating EGFR mutations were included in this study and 136 patients' tumor sample were available for targeted sequencing of genomic alterations in 22 genes using the Colon and Lung Cancer panel (Ampliseq, Life Technologies)...
April 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Benjamin Y Owusu, Namita Bansal, Phanindra K M Venukadasula, Larry J Ross, Troy E Messick, Sanjay Goel, Robert A Galemmo, Lidija Klampfer
The binding of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) to its receptor MET activates a signaling cascade that promotes cell survival, proliferation, cell scattering, migration and invasion of malignant cells. HGF is secreted by cancer cells or by tumor-associated fibroblasts as pro-HGF, an inactive precursor. A key step in the regulation of HGF/MET signaling is proteolytic processing of pro-HGF to its active form by one of the three serine proteases, matriptase, hepsin or HGF activator (HGFA).We developed SRI 31215, a small molecule that acts as a triplex inhibitor of matriptase, hepsin and HGFA and mimics the activity of HAI-1/2, endogenous inhibitors of HGF activation...
May 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Ming-Cheng Chen, Nien-Hung Lee, Hsi-Hsien Hsu, Tsung-Jung Ho, Chuan-Chou Tu, Ray-Jade Chen, Yueh-Min Lin, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
Clinically used chemotherapeutics can effectively eliminate most tumor cells. However, they cause unwanted side effects and result in chemoresistance. To overcome such problems, phytochemicals are now used to treat cancers by means of targeted therapy. Thymoquinone (TQ) is used to treat different cancers (including colon cancer) and is an NF-κB inhibitor. Irinotecan resistant (CPT-11-R) LoVo colon cancer cell line was previous constructed by step-wise CPT-11 challenges to un-treated parental LoVo cells and expresses EGFR/IKKα/β/NF-κB pathway...
April 5, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Orhan Gorukmez, Tahsin Yakut, Ozlem Gorukmez, Sebnem Ozemri Sag, Mutlu Karkucak, Ozkan Kanat
The results of this study demonstrate the potential prognostic and predictive values of KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). It has been proven that KRAS and BRAF mutations are predictive biomarkers for resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody treatment in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). We demonstrated the distribution of KRAS (codons 12, 13 and 61) and BRAF (codon 600) gene mutations in 50 mCRCs using direct sequencing and compared the results with clinicopathological data...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Fernando Galanternik, Gonzalo Recondo, Matías E Valsecchi, Martín Greco, Gonzalo Recondo, Máximo de la Vega, E Diaz Cantón
Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer related mortality. Until very recently the only existing options that medical oncologists had to treat metastatic colon cancer were a combination of chemotherapy, anti-EGFR and anti-angiogenic agents. We currently have the first proof that immune therapies could be an effective approach to battle colorectal cancers that carry a mismatch repair machinery deficient phenotype. It is expected that as our knowledge of the different mechanisms of immune-resistance grows, this therapeutic modality might soon be applicable to all patients...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Jung Ran Choi, Seong Yong Park, O Kyu Noh, Young Wha Koh, Dae Ryong Kang
Although the incidence and mortality for most cancers such as lung and colon are decreasing in several countries, they are increasing in several developed countries because of an unhealthy western lifestyles including smoking, physical inactivity and consumption of calorie-dense food. The incidences for lung and colon cancers in a few of these countries have already exceeded those in the United States and other western countries. Among them, lung cancer is the main cause of cancer death in worldwide. The cumulative survival rate at five years differs between 13 and 21 % in several countries...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Mitch Leslie
The drug MM-1151 may overcome resistance to cetuximab and panitumumab caused by some mutations in the extracellular domain of EGFR. The drug slowed disease progression in a colorectal cancer cell line that carried some of the mutations and curbed growth of cells derived from a cetuximab-resistant patient tumor. In a phase I trial, tumors shrank or stabilized in patients who carried the mutations and received the drug.
April 2016: Cancer Discovery
Paolo Bossi, Cristiana Bergamini, Marco Siano, Maria Cossu Rocca, Andrea P Sponghini, Federica Favales, Marco Giannoccaro, Edoardo Marchesi, Barbara Cortelazzi, Federica Perrone, Silvana Pilotti, Laura D Locati, Lisa Licitra, Silvana Canevari, Loris De Cecco
PURPOSE: To identify the tumor portrait of the minority of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients with recurrent-metastatic (RM) disease who upon treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy plus cetuximab present a long-lasting response. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The gene expression of pretreatment samples from 40 HNSCC-RM patients, divided in two groups [14 long-progression-free survival (PFS) and 26 short-PFS (median = 19 and 3 months, respectively)], was associated with PFS and was challenged against a dataset from metastatic colon cancer patients treated with cetuximab...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Valentin Derangère, Jean David Fumet, Romain Boidot, Leila Bengrine, Emeric Limagne, Angélique Chevriaux, Julie Vincent, Sylvain Ladoire, Lionel Apetoh, Cédric Rébé, François Ghiringhelli
Anti-EGFR therapy and antiangiogenic therapies are used alone or in combination with chemotherapies to improve survival in metastatic colorectal cancer. However, it is unknown whether pretreatment with antiangiogenic therapy could impact on the efficacy of anti-EGFR therapy. We selected one hundred and twenty eight patients diagnosed with advanced colorectal cancer with a KRAS and NRAS unmutated tumor. These patients were treated with cetuximab or panitumumab alone or with chemotherapy as second or third-line...
February 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Vivek Mittal
The progression of a cancer cell into a metastatic entity contributes to more than 90 % of cancer related deaths. Therefore, the prevention and treatment of metastasis is an unmet clinical need. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an evolutionary conserved developmental program, which is induced during cancer progression and contributes to metastatic colonization. EMT endows metastatic properties upon cancer cells by enhancing mobility, invasion, and resistance to apoptotic stimuli. Furthermore, EMT-derived tumor cells acquire stem cell properties and exhibit therapeutic resistance...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Charny Park, Sang Yun Ha, Seung Tae Kim, Hee Cheol Kim, Jin Seok Heo, Young Suk Park, Gregory Lauwers, Jeeyun Lee, Kyoung-Mee Kim
Genomic profiles of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are still insufficiently understood, and the genetic alterations associated with drug responses have not been studied. Here, we performed whole exome sequencing of 12 GEP-NETs from patients enrolled in a nonrandomized, open-labeled, single-center phase II study for pazopanib, and integrated our results with previously published results on pancreas (n = 12) and small intestine NETs (n = 50). The mean numbers of somatic mutations in each case varied widely from 20 to 4682...
January 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Hsin-Wei Liao, Jung-Mao Hsu, Weiya Xia, Hung-Ling Wang, Ying-Nai Wang, Wei-Chao Chang, Stefan T Arold, Chao-Kai Chou, Pei-Hsiang Tsou, Hirohito Yamaguchi, Yueh-Fu Fang, Hong-Jen Lee, Heng-Huan Lee, Shyh-Kuan Tai, Mhu-Hwa Yang, Maria P Morelli, Malabika Sen, John E Ladbury, Chung-Hsuan Chen, Jennifer R Grandis, Scott Kopetz, Mien-Chie Hung
Posttranslational modifications to the intracellular domain of the EGFR are known to regulate EGFR functions; however, modifications to the extracellular domain and their effects remain relatively unexplored. Here, we determined that methylation at R198 and R200 of the EGFR extracellular domain by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) enhances binding to EGF and subsequent receptor dimerization and signaling activation. In a mouse orthotopic colorectal cancer xenograft model, expression of a methylation-defective EGFR reduced tumor growth...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
David M Epstein, Elizabeth Buck
Conventional wisdom holds that methylation of RTKs should be restricted to intracellular sites. Alterations--such as deletion, mutation, and proteolytic cleavage events--to the extracellular ligand binding and dimer interface domains of the EGFR can induce EGFR dimer formation, leading to aberrant receptor activation and oncogenic activity. Recently, the extracellular domain of EGFR was also shown to be methylated, suggesting that posttranslational protein methylation events directed to the extracellular dimer interface provide another mechanism to regulate the EGFR activation state by modulating receptor dimerization...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yiwang Hu, Chi Pan, Jiyi Hu, Suzhan Zhang
Regenerating islet-derived family, member 4 (Reg IV), a member of the Reg gene family, has been reported to be overexpressed in gastrointestinal tract cancers. Reg IV overexpression in tumor cells has been associated with carcinogenesis, tissue regeneration, proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. Reg IV activates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in colon cancer and increases expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl), which are associated with the inhibition of apoptosis, results in mitogenic signaling in colon cancer cells, increase cell proliferation, metastasis and decreased apoptosis...
2015: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
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