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famine exposure

Cuntong Wang, Yudong Zhang
Analyzing data from a large-scale, nationally representative sample, this study examines the association between prenatal exposure to the Chinese Famine (1959-1961) and schizophrenia risk in mid-adulthood and its urban/rural-specific and gender-specific patterns. The results showed that the cohort conceived and born during the famine had a higher risk of schizophrenia in mid-adulthood than cohorts conceived and born before or after the famine. In addition, schizophrenia risk was higher for urban residents than for rural residents and higher for females than for males...
November 25, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
S Finer, M S Iqbal, R Lowe, B W Ogunkolade, S Pervin, C Mathews, M Smart, D S Alam, G A Hitman
OBJECTIVES: Famine exposure in utero can 'programme' an individual towards type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. We sought to identify, (1) whether Bangladeshis exposed to famine during developmental life are programmed towards diabetes and obesity, (2) whether this programming was specific to gestational or postnatal exposure windows and (3) whether epigenetic differences were associated with famine exposure. DESIGN: A historical cohort study was performed as part of a wider cross-sectional survey...
November 23, 2016: BMJ Open
Ningjian Wang, Jing Cheng, Bing Han, Qin Li, Yi Chen, Fangzhen Xia, Boren Jiang, Michael D Jensen, Yingli Lu
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Limited studies have compared the effect of prenatal or postnatal exposure to different severities of famine on the risk of developing diabetes. We aimed to measure the association between diabetes in adulthood and the exposure to different degrees of famine early in life (during the prenatal or postnatal period) during China's Great Famine (1959-1962). METHODS: Data from 3967 individuals were included (a total of 2115 individuals from areas severely affected by famine, 1858 from moderately affected areas, 6 excluded due to missing data)...
November 2, 2016: Diabetologia
Shao-Hua Xie, Jesper Lagergren
The Chinese famine in 1958-1962 was one of the worst in human history, but its potential influence on cancer risks is uncertain. Using cancer incidence data in Shanghai, China, during 1983-2007, we calculated age-specific incidence rates of gastrointestinal cancers in birth cohorts exposed to the Chinese famine in different periods of life and a non-exposed reference cohort. Age-period-cohort regressions estimated the overall relative risks of gastrointestinal cancers in each birth cohort. A total of 212,098 new cases of gastrointestinal cancer were identified during the study period (129,233 males and 82,865 females), among whom 18,146 had esophageal cancer, 71,011 gastric cancer, 55,864 colorectal cancer, 42,751 liver cancer, 9,382 gallbladder cancer, and 14,944 had pancreatic cancer...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Aliya Alimujiang, Miao Mo, Ying Liu, Nai-Si Huang, Guangyu Liu, Wanghong Xu, Jiong Wu, Zhen-Zhou Shen, Zhimin Shao, Graham A Colditz
PURPOSE: The Great Chinese Famine afflicted almost all Chinese people between 1959 and 1961. No study has explicitly assessed the association between an exposure to Chinese Famine and risk of overall breast cancer and tumor subtype. We evaluated the unique historical environmental influences of famine exposure on breast cancer subtypes. METHODS: 16,469 Chinese women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) from 1999 to 2014 were analyzed...
November 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Jing Wang, Yaru Li, Xu Han, Bing Liu, Hua Hu, Fei Wang, Xiulou Li, Kun Yang, Jing Yuan, Ping Yao, Xiaoping Miao, Sheng Wei, Youjie Wang, Yuan Liang, Xiaomin Zhang, Huan Guo, Handong Yang, Frank B Hu, Tangchun Wu, Meian He
BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that exposure to poor conditions in early life is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases in adults. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether exposure to the Chinese famine (1959-1961) in the fetal stage or in childhood (0-9 y) was associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hyperglycemia in adulthood. METHODS: We included 7801 subjects aged 56.4 ± 3.3 y from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort. Subjects were classified into late-, middle-, and early-childhood-exposed, fetal-exposed, and unexposed groups...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Caizheng Yu, Jing Wang, Yaru Li, Xu Han, Hua Hu, Fei Wang, Jing Yuan, Ping Yao, Xiaoping Miao, Sheng Wei, Youjie Wang, Weihong Chen, Yuan Liang, Xiaomin Zhang, Huan Guo, Handong Yang, Tangchun Wu, Meian He
OBJECTIVES: Famine exposure in early life has been reported to be associated with higher risk of hypertension prevalence in adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of exposure to the Chinese famine during early life with the risk of hypertension prevalence in adults. METHODS: There were 8742 participants born between 1952 and 1964 derived from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort included in the present study. Participants were classified as nonexposed group, fetal exposed group, early-childhood exposed group, mid-childhood exposed group, and late-childhood exposed group, respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Hypertension
Susanne R de Rooij, Alexander Jones, David I Phillips, Clive Osmond, John M Karemaker, Tessa J Roseboom, Rebecca C Painter
OBJECTIVES: Early-life adversity has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in later life, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this association. Prenatal undernutrition, a severe early-life stressor, is associated with double the risk of coronary heart disease and increased blood pressure responses to psychological stress. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal undernutrition induces alterations in the autonomic nervous system, which may increase the risk of developing heart disease...
November 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Morris P Brand, Petra H M Peeters, Carla H van Gils, Sjoerd G Elias
BACKGROUND: Nutritional deprivation during growth and development may contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in later life. METHODS: We studied 7906 women who were aged 0-21 years during the 1944-45 Dutch famine, who enrolled in the Prospect-EPIC study between 1993 and 1997. We used Cox proportional hazard analyses to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal (proximal, distal and rectal) cancer risk across self-reported famine exposure and exposure-age categories, while adjusting for potential confounders...
August 31, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Seonghoon Kim, Belton Fleisher, Jessica Ya Sun
We report evidence of long-term adverse health impacts of fetal malnutrition exposure of middle-aged survivors of the 1959-1961 China Famine using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. We find that fetal exposure to malnutrition has large and long-lasting impacts on both physical health and cognitive abilities, including the risks of suffering a stroke, physical disabilities in speech, walking and vision, and measures of mental acuity even half a century after the tragic event. Our findings imply that policies and programs that improve the nutritional status of pregnant women yield benefits on the health of a fetus that extend through the life cycle in the form of reduced physical and mental impairment...
August 19, 2016: Health Economics
Chao Wang, Yu An, Huanling Yu, Lingli Feng, Quanri Liu, Yanhui Lu, Hui Wang, Rong Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether exposure to the Chinese Famine in different life stages of early life is associated with cognitive functioning decline in adulthood. METHODS: We recruited 1366 adults born between 1950 and 1964 and divided them into fetal-exposed, early childhood-exposed (1-3 years old during the famine), mid childhood-exposed (4-6 years old during the famine), late childhood-exposed (7-9 years old during the famine), and non-exposed groups. A selection of cognitive tests was administered to assess their cognitive performance...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Rachel M Freathy
Lower birthweight is consistently associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in observational studies, but the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. Animal models and studies of famine-exposed populations have provided support for the developmental origins hypothesis, under which exposure to poor intrauterine nutrition results in reduced fetal growth and also contributes to the developmental programming of later type 2 diabetes risk. However, testing this hypothesis is difficult in human studies and studies aiming to do so are mostly observational and have limited scope for causal inference due to the presence of confounding factors...
September 2016: Diabetologia
Susanne R de Rooij, Matthan W A Caan, Dick F Swaab, Aart J Nederveen, Charles B Majoie, Matthias Schwab, Rebecca C Painter, Tessa J Roseboom
Early nutritional deprivation might cause irreversible damage to the brain. Prenatal exposure to undernutrition has been shown to be associated with increased central nervous system anomalies at birth and decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Little is known about the potential effect on the brain in older age. We investigated brain size and structure at age 68 years after prenatal famine exposure. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images of the brain were made in 118 Dutch famine birth cohort members...
August 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Heidi P Fransen, Petra H M Peeters, Joline W J Beulens, Jolanda M A Boer, G Ardine de Wit, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Yvonne T van der Schouw, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jeljer Hoekstra, Sjoerd G Elias, Anne M May
BACKGROUND: A healthy diet is important for normal growth and development. Exposure to undernutrition during important developmental periods such as childhood and adolescence can have effects later in life. Inhabitants of the west of the Netherlands were exposed to severe undernutrition during the famine in the last winter of the second World War (1944-1945). OBJECTIVE: We investigated if exposure of women to the Dutch famine during childhood and adolescence was associated with an unhealthy lifestyle later in life...
2016: PloS One
Zhenghe Wang, Changwei Li, Zhongping Yang, Zhiyong Zou, Jun Ma
BACKGROUND: Early-life developmental adaptations in response to severe malnutrition may play a crucial role in susceptibility to hypertension. This study aimed to explore the associations between exposure to the Chinese famine (1959-1961) at fetal, infant and preschool stages during fetal life or childhood and the risk of hypertension in adulthood. METHODS: We used the data of 1,966 adults born between 1956 and 1964 in selected families from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) national survey...
2016: BMC Public Health
Laura S Bleker, Susanne R de Rooij, Rebecca C Painter, Nathalie van der Velde, Tessa J Roseboom
BACKGROUND: There is evidence suggesting that the aging process has its origins in utero. We have previously shown that prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine is associated with chronic noncommunicable diseases and poorer cognitive function in men and women and increased mortality in women. We investigated whether prenatal undernutrition during early gestation is associated with decreased physical function in later life. METHODS: Between November 2012 and September 2013, we have studied a random subsample of 150 members of the Dutch famine birth cohort at the age of 68 years, of which 49 were exposed to prenatal undernutrition...
October 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Luka Kristanc, Samo Kreft
A tremendous surge of public interest in natural therapies has been reported in the past several decades in both developing and developed countries. Furthermore, edible wild-growing plants whose use had long been associated with poverty and famine have also gained in popularity among people in developed countries. An important fraction of herbal products evade all control measures and are generally perceived as safe. However, this may not always be true. It is important to recognize that some plants are not associated with acute toxicity but rather produce more insidious problems, which develop only with long-term exposure...
June 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ningjian Wang, Yi Chen, Zhiyuan Ning, Qin Li, Bing Han, Chunfang Zhu, Yingchao Chen, Fangzhen Xia, Boren Jiang, Bingshun Wang, Xiaojin Wang, Michael D Jensen, Yingli Lu
CONTEXT: Epidemiologic studies have indicated that early life nutrition influences later risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is also considered a metabolic disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore the association between adult NAFLD and fetal or childhood exposure to Great Chinese Famine between 1959 and 1962 during fetal and childhood period. DESIGN AND SETTING: In total, 5306 subjects from the Survey on Prevalence in East China for Metabolic Diseases and Risk Factors study were divided into a fetal-exposed (1959-1962), childhood-exposed (1949-1958), adolescence/young adult-exposed (1921-1948), and nonexposed (1963-1974, reference) group...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Samantha L Yaussy, Sharon N DeWitte, Rebecca C Redfern
OBJECTIVES: Famine can be defined as a shortage of foodstuffs that instigates widespread excess mortality due to starvation, infectious disease, and social disruption. Like other causes of catastrophic mortality, famine has the potential to be selective. This study examines how famines in medieval London were selective with respect to previous stress, age, and sex. METHODS: This study compares famine burials to nonfamine (attritional) burials from the St Mary Spital cemetery, London (c...
June 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Hideoki Fukuoka
Worldwide, lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are presently the leading causes of death and disability, and their incidences tend to increase. A lifestyle-related disease has been considered mainly to be induced by specific disease susceptibility genes and lifestyle after birth. However, the steep increase in the incidences of lifestyle-related diseases is difficult to be explained only by specific genes. Presently, a new theory has been proposed. Epidemiological and animal studies have disclosed the intimate links between malnutrition in the developmental stage and lifestyle-related chronic diseases...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
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