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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913206/hyperemesis-gravidarum-is-it-a-cause-of-abnormal-fetal-brain-development
#1
REVIEW
Gideon Koren, Asher Ornoy, Matitiyahu Berkovich
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is characterized by severe gestational nausea and vomiting, leading to dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and nutritional deficits. HG adversely affects the health and wellbeing of the woman. However, the detrimental impact of HG on fetal brain development has not been addressed. We evaluate herein the emerging evidence suggesting that HG interferes with human brain development, and discuss putative mechanisms. Evidence emerges from prospective developmental studies in offspring exposed in utero to HG, from studies of pregnancy outcome after in utero exposure to famine, as well as evidence on specific nutritional deficiencies affecting fetal brain development...
June 15, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857478/risk-of-hyperglycemia-and-diabetes-after-early-life-famine-exposure-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-northeastern-china
#2
Yangyu Zhang, Xinyu Liu, Mohan Wang, Yan Song, Lili Zhang, Yueyue You, Yingying Su, Yingyu Liu, Changgui Kou
Previous studies suggested that malnutrition during early life may play an essential role in later outcomes and disease risk in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the risks of hyperglycemia and diabetes 50 years after early-life famine exposure in a Northeastern Chinese population. We used the data from 5690 adults born between 1956 and 1965 in selected communities from a 2012 cross-sectional study. The early-childhood exposure cohort showed an increased risk of hyperglycemia compared with the unexposed cohort in the female population (odds ratio (OR) 1...
May 31, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844493/chinese-famine-exposure-in-infancy-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-adulthood-results-from-the-china-health-and-retirement-longitudinal-study
#3
Zhenghe Wang, Zhiyong Zou, Shuo Wang, Zhongping Yang, Jun Ma
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between famine exposure in early life and the risk of metabolic syndrome in the Chinese adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 2148 participants aged 50s were selected from a large national epidemiological survey in the China. The logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between famine exposure in early life and risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among individuals in the preschool exposed group, infant exposed group, fetal exposed group, and the non-exposed group was 37...
May 29, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752538/famine-exposure-in-early-life-is-associated-with-visceral-adipose-dysfunction-in-adult-females
#4
Chi Chen, Li Zhao, Zhiyuan Ning, Qin Li, Bing Han, Jing Cheng, Yi Chen, Xiaomin Nie, Fangzhen Xia, Ningjian Wang, Yingli Lu
PURPOSE: Epidemiologic studies have revealed that early life malnutrition increases later risk of metabolic diseases. The visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a novel sex-specific index that shows promise as a marker of visceral adipose dysfunction. We aimed to explore whether exposure to the Chinese famine between 1959 and 1962 during fetal and childhood periods was related to VAI in adulthood. METHODS: Our data source was SPECT-China, a population-based cross-sectional study in East China...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720288/prenatal-malnutrition-and-adult-cognitive-impairment-a-natural-experiment-from-the-1959-1961-chinese-famine
#5
Ping He, Li Liu, J M Ian Salas, Chao Guo, Yunfei Cheng, Gong Chen, Xiaoying Zheng
The current measures of cognitive functioning in adulthood do not indicate a long-term association with prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. However, whether such association emerges in China is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the potential effect of prenatal exposure to the 1959-1961 Chinese famine on adult cognitive impairment. We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in thirty-one provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387 093 individuals born in 1956-1965...
May 3, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693637/paltem-what-parameters-should-be-collected-in-disaster-settings-to-assess-the-long-term-outcomes-of-famine
#6
REVIEW
Alexandra Moraru, Maria Moitinho de Almeida, Jean-Marie Degryse
Evidence suggests that nutritional status during fetal development and early life leaves an imprint on the genome, which leads to health outcomes not only on a person as an adult but also on his offspring. The purpose of this study is to bring forth an overview of the relevant parameters that need to be collected to assess the long-term and transgenerational health outcomes of famine. A literature search was conducted for the most pertinent articles on the epigenetic effects of famine. The results were compiled, synthesized and discussed with an expert in genetics for critical input and validation...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680802/association-between-the-great-china-famine-exposure-in-early-life-and-risk-of-arthritis-in-adulthood
#7
Zhenghe Wang, Zhiyong Zou, Bin Dong, Jun Ma, Luke Arnold
BACKGROUND: The association between famine exposure in early life and risk of arthritis (combination of osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis) in adulthood is unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the association. METHODS: A total of 4124 subjects were selected from the national data of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011-2012. Doctor-diagnosed arthritis was self-reported in participants' questionnaire. Birthdates were used to categorise participants into famine-exposed and non-exposed groups...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626661/patterns-of-frailty-in-non-adults-from-medieval-london
#8
Samantha L Yaussy, Sharon N DeWitte
Famine has the potential to target frail individuals who are at greater risk of mortality than their peers. Although children have been at elevated risk of mortality during recent famines, little is known about the risks posed to children during the medieval period. This study uses burials from the St. Mary Spital cemetery (SRP98), London (c. 1120-1540) to examine the relationships among non-adult age at death, burial type (attritional or famine), and four skeletal lesions (porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia, linear enamel hypoplasia [LEH], and periosteal new bone formation)...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625350/victims-of-chinese-famine-in-early-life-have-increased-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-adulthood
#9
Caizheng Yu, Jing Wang, Fei Wang, Xu Han, Hua Hu, Jing Yuan, Xiaoping Miao, Ping Yao, Sheng Wei, Youjie Wang, Yuan Liang, Xiaomin Zhang, Huan Guo, An Pan, Dan Zheng, Yuhan Tang, Handong Yang, Tangchun Wu, Meian He
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of exposure to the Chinese famine during early life with metabolic syndrome risk in adults. METHODS: There were 7,915 participants from Dongfeng-Tongji cohort were included in the present study. Participants were classified as non-exposed group, fetal exposed group, early childhood-, mid childhood-, and late childhood-exposed groups, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Foundation criteria (2005)...
February 5, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544441/correction-to-increase-in-the-prevalence-of-hypertension-among-adults-exposed-to-the-great-chinese-famine-during-early-life
#10
Lingli Liu, Xianglong Xu, Huan Zeng, Yong Zhang, Zumin Shi, Fan Zhang, Xianqing Cao, Yao Jie Xie, Cesar Reis, Yong Zhao
The 'Conclusion' section in the Abstract was published incorrectly in the original publication of the article [1] and is corrected with this erratum as below: "Fetal exposure to the Chinese famine may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension in adulthood in women."
March 15, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514887/the-evolution-of-body-fatness-trading-off-disease-and-predation-risk
#11
REVIEW
John R Speakman
Human obesity has a large genetic component, yet has many serious negative consequences. How this state of affairs has evolved has generated wide debate. The thrifty gene hypothesis was the first attempt to explain obesity as a consequence of adaptive responses to an ancient environment that in modern society become disadvantageous. The idea is that genes (or more precisely, alleles) predisposing to obesity may have been selected for by repeated exposure to famines. However, this idea has many flaws: for instance, selection of the supposed magnitude over the duration of human evolution would fix any thrifty alleles (famines kill the old and young, not the obese) and there is no evidence that hunter-gatherer populations become obese between famines...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514118/long-term-effect-of-prenatal-exposure-to-malnutrition-on-risk-of-schizophrenia-in-adulthood-evidence-from-the-chinese-famine-of-1959-1961
#12
Ping He, Gong Chen, Chao Guo, Xu Wen, Xinming Song, Xiaoying Zheng
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a common major mental disorder and prenatal nutritional deficiency may increase its risk. We aimed to investigate long-term impact of prenatal exposure to malnutrition on risk of schizophrenia in adulthood using the Chinese famine of 1959-1961 as a natural experiment. METHODS: We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in 31 provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387,093 individuals born from 1956 to 1965...
March 4, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451367/association-between-famine-exposure-in-early-life-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-hyperglycemia-in-adulthood-results-from-the-china-health-and-retirement-longitudinal-study-charls
#13
Yanxin Sun, Longfei Zhang, Wenhou Duan, Xin Meng, Chongqi Jia
BACKGROUND: Studies have revealed the association between famine in early life and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adulthood. However, studies on the Great Chinese Famine were not conducted nationwide. Because of regional variations in the severity of this famine, the results of regional studies are limited. This study explored associations between famine and T2DM in adulthood in a nationwide study. METHODS: The present study was performed on 7262 participants who were born between 1 October 1949 and 1 July 1966 using baseline data collected for the China Health And Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) in 2011...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408921/the-relationship-between-famine-exposure-during-early-life-and-body-mass-index-in-adulthood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Jielin Zhou, Liangjian Zhang, Peng Xuan, Yong Fan, Linsheng Yang, Chunqiu Hu, Qingli Bo, Guoxiu Wang, Jie Sheng, Sufang Wang
BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiologic studies have reported famine exposure during early life association with overweight or obesity in adulthood, but a consistent perspective has not been established to date. PURPOSE: To determine, by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis, whether exposure to famine could increase body mass index (BMI) in adult or not, and assess the association between famine exposure and the risk of overweight or obesity. METHODS: Published articles were systematically searched (until August, 2017) from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400076/exposure-to-the-chinese-famine-in-early-life-and-depression-in-adulthood
#15
Yaru Li, Liyun Zhao, Dongmei Yu, Gangqiang Ding
We aimed to investigate whether exposure to the Chinese famine (1959-1961) in early life was associated with depression in adulthood. We included 17,505 participants from the China health and retirement longitudinal study (CHARLS). Participants were classified into indirect and direct exposure groups. And the directly exposure groups including prenatal, childhood, adolescence/adult exposure groups. Depression was diagnosed by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-10 (CES-D) score. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to calculate the odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of depression...
February 4, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399631/dna-methylation-as-a-mediator-of-the-association-between-prenatal-adversity-and-risk-factors-for-metabolic-disease-in-adulthood
#16
Elmar W Tobi, Roderick C Slieker, René Luijk, Koen F Dekkers, Aryeh D Stein, Kate M Xu, P Eline Slagboom, Erik W van Zwet, L H Lumey, Bastiaan T Heijmans
Although it is assumed that epigenetic mechanisms, such as changes in DNA methylation (DNAm), underlie the relationship between adverse intrauterine conditions and adult metabolic health, evidence from human studies remains scarce. Therefore, we evaluated whether DNAm in whole blood mediated the association between prenatal famine exposure and metabolic health in 422 individuals exposed to famine in utero and 463 (sibling) controls. We implemented a two-step analysis, namely, a genome-wide exploration across 342,596 cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) for potential mediators of the association between prenatal famine exposure and adult body mass index (BMI), serum triglycerides (TG), or glucose concentrations, which was followed by formal mediation analysis...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335447/exposure-to-famine-in-early-life-and-chronic-kidney-diseases-in-adulthood
#17
Ningjian Wang, Zhiyuan Ning, Fangzhen Xia, Chi Chen, Jing Cheng, Yi Chen, Yingli Lu
OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing contributor to the global disease burden. Previous findings indicated that exposure to famine in early life was associated with various metabolic diseases and urinary protein levels. We aimed to assess whether the exposure to China's Great Famine 1959-1962 during fetal or childhood period was associated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and risk of CKD (eGFR<60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 ) in adulthood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SPECT-China was a population-based observational study in 2014-2015...
January 15, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333753/comparative-performance-of-different-scale-down-simulators-of-substrate-gradients-in-penicillium-chrysogenum-cultures-the-need-of-a-biological-systems-response-analysis
#18
Guan Wang, Junfei Zhao, Cees Haringa, Wenjun Tang, Jianye Xia, Ju Chu, Yingping Zhuang, Siliang Zhang, Amit T Deshmukh, Walter van Gulik, Joseph J Heijnen, Henk J Noorman
In a 54 m3 large-scale penicillin fermentor, the cells experience substrate gradient cycles at the timescales of global mixing time about 20-40 s. Here, we used an intermittent feeding regime (IFR) and a two-compartment reactor (TCR) to mimic these substrate gradients at laboratory-scale continuous cultures. The IFR was applied to simulate substrate dynamics experienced by the cells at full scale at timescales of tens of seconds to minutes (30 s, 3 min and 6 min), while the TCR was designed to simulate substrate gradients at an applied mean residence time (τc) of 6 min...
May 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299735/exposure-to-chinese-famine-in-early-life-and-the-risk-of-dyslipidemia-in-adulthood
#19
Xueling Xin, Weijing Wang, Hui Xu, Zongyao Li, Dongfeng Zhang
PURPOSE: Early life exposure to famine may affect the susceptibility to metabolic disorders including dyslipidemia. However, few studies explored the association between them in Chinese population. We aimed to evaluate the association between Chinese famine (1959-1961) exposure during early life and the risk of dyslipidemia in adulthood. METHODS: The study performed a historic cohort study and data were from China Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 2009. A total of 4843 subjects born between 1941 and 1966 were categorized into fetal-infant exposed group (N = 433), childhood exposed group (N = 2132), adolescence exposed group (N = 1140), and unexposed group (N = 1138), respectively...
January 3, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221761/enrichment-of-pha-producing-bacteria-under-continuous-substrate-supply
#20
Leonie Marang, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Robbert Kleerebezem
To enrich polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producing microbial communities, generally, a feast-famine regime is applied. Here we investigated the impact of continuous substrate feeding on the enrichment of PHA-producing bacteria in two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). In the first reactor, the substrate (acetate) was dosed continuously and Zoogloea sp. was enriched. The culture accumulated PHA upon exposure to excess carbon, but the PHA production rate and storage capacity (53 wt.%) were one-fifth of that observed for enrichment cultures in a standard, pulse-fed SBR dominated by the PHA producer Plasticicumulans acidivorans...
March 25, 2018: New Biotechnology
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