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Traumatic injuries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813241/should-potential-risk-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-be-discussed-with-young-athletes
#1
Kimberly Hornbeck, Kevin Walter, Matthew Myrvik
As participation in youth sports has risen over the past two decades, so has the incidence of youth sports injuries. A common topic of concern is concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, in young athletes and whether concussions sustained at a young age could lead to lifelong impairment such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While the pathway from a concussed young athlete to an adult with CTE remains unknown, current research is attempting to provide more clarity. This article discusses how health care professionals can help foster an informed, balanced decision-making process regarding participation in contact sports that involves the parents as well as the children...
July 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812696/skeletal-trauma-reflects-hunting-behaviour-in-extinct-sabre-tooth-cats-and-dire-wolves
#2
Caitlin Brown, Mairin Balisi, Christopher A Shaw, Blaire Van Valkenburgh
Skeletal-injury frequency and distribution are likely to reflect hunting behaviour in predatory vertebrates and might therefore differ between species with distinct hunting modes. Two Pleistocene predators from the Rancho La Brea asphalt seeps, the sabre-tooth cat, Smilodon fatalis, and dire wolf, Canis dirus, represent ambush and pursuit predators, respectively. On the basis of a collection of over 1,900 pathological elements, the frequency of traumatic injury across skeletal elements in these two species was calculated...
April 10, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812542/the-effect-of-molecular-weight-and-concentration-of-hyaluronan-on-the-recovery-of-the-rat-sciatic-nerve-sustaining-acute-traumatic-injury
#3
Sheng-Min Lan, Cheng-Chang Yang, Chia-Lung Lee, Jung-Shun Lee, I-Ming Jou
Acute traumatic peripheral nerve injury remains a significant clinical issue affecting mostly young individuals and their productivity in spite of advances in current medicine. Hyaluronan has been explored in this scenario for its anti-adhesive and high biocompatibility properties for decades. The molecular weight and concentration of the locally applied hyaluronan has been overlooked and not optimized. We used different molecular weights and concentrations of hyaluronan in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model and found better overall outcomes with high molecular weight (3000 kDa) hyaluronan...
August 16, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812366/a-combination-of-experimental-measurement-constitutive-damage-model-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-to-characterize-the-mechanical-properties-of-the-human-brain
#4
Alireza Karimi, Seyed Mohammadali Rahmati, Reza Razaghi
Understanding the mechanical properties of the human brain is deemed important as it may subject to various types of complex loadings during the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Although many studies so far have been conducted to quantify the mechanical properties of the brain, there is a paucity of knowledge on the mechanical properties of the human brain tissue and the damage of its axon fibers under the various types of complex loadings during the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Although many studies so far have been conducted to quantify the mechanical properties of the brain, there is a paucity of knowledge on the mechanical properties of the human brain tissue and the damage of its axon fibers under the frontal lobe of the human brain...
August 16, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812276/arundic-acid-increases-expression-and-function-of-astrocytic-glutamate-transporter-eaat1-via-the-erk-akt-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#5
Pratap Karki, Peter Hong, James Johnson, Edward Pajarillo, Deok-Soo Son, Michael Aschner, Eunsook Y Lee
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, but excessive synaptic glutamate must be removed to prevent excitotoxic injury and death. Two astrocytic glutamate transporters, excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 1 and 2, play a major role in eliminating excess glutamate from the synapse. Dysregulation of EAAT1 contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), ataxia, traumatic brain injuries, and glaucoma. In the present study, we investigated the effect of arundic acid on EAAT1 to determine its efficacy in enhancing the expression and function of EAAT1, and its possible mechanisms of action...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812113/-pathophysiology-of-intracranial-injuries
#6
REVIEW
D Lahner, G Fritsch
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a heterogeneous condition that affects the most complex organ of the human body. It is commonly classified by its location as focal injury (e.g. epidural hematoma) and diffuse injury (e.g. diffuse axonal shearing injury) as well as by primary and secondary tissue injury. Accordingly, direct mechanical force causes the primary insult. The tissue damage occurring afterwards is subsumed under the term secondary brain damage. Some of these processes are overlapping and include in the early phase local cerebral ischemia resulting in excitotoxicity, which together with the triggered neuroinflammatory cascade causes the formation of cerebral edema and ultimately increased intracranial pressure once the intracranial compliance is exhausted...
August 15, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811199/comparison-of-analytical-methods-of-brain-18-f-fdg-pet-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Karine Madsen, Sara Hesby, Ingrid Poulsen, Stefan Fuglsang, Jesper Graff, Karen B Larsen, Lars P Kammersgaard, Ian Law, Hartwig R Siebner
BACKGROUND: Loss of consciousness has been shown to reduce cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRglc) measured by brain [(18)F]FDG-PET. Measurements of regional metabolic patterns by normalization to global cerebral metabolism or cerebellum may underestimate widespread reductions. NEW METHOD: The aim of this study was to compare quantification methods of whole brain glucose metabolism, including whole brain [18F]FDG uptake normalized to uptake in cerebellum, normalized to injected activity, normalized to plasma tracer concentration, and two methods for estimating CMRglc...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811137/influence-of-guidelines-on-management-of-paediatric-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-ct-assessment-and-admission-policy
#8
J J Lenstra, A R A Pikstra, J M Fock, Z Metting, J van der Naalt
BACKGROUND: The annual number of paediatric injury-related emergency visits and application of computed tomography (CT) has substantially increased, with associated higher risk of malignancies. In 2010, a guideline for CT-assessment based on risk factors for patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) became effective in all Emergency Departments (ED) in the Netherlands. This study evaluated the influence of this guideline on the frequency of CT-assessments, hospital admissions and factors that are related to guideline adherence...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810990/gait-and-functional-outcomes-for-young-active-males-with-traumatic-unilateral-transfemoral-limb-loss
#9
Caitlin E Mahon, Alison L Pruziner, Brad D Hendershot, Erik J Wolf, Benjamin J Darter, K Bo Foreman, Joseph B Webster
OBJECTIVE: Altered body structures that occur with the loss of a lower limb can impact mobility and quality of life. Specifically, biomechanical changes that result from wearing a prosthesis have been associated with an increased risk of falls or joint degeneration, as well as increased energy demands. While previous studies describing these outcomes are typically limited by number of outcome measures and/or small, diverse patient groups, recent military conflicts present a unique opportunity to collect outcomes from a relatively homogenous, active patient population with limb loss...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810970/completion-of-a-veteran-focused-civic-service-program-improves-health-and-psychosocial-outcomes-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-veterans-with-a-history-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Karen A Lawrence, Monica M Matthieu, Emma Robertson-Blackmore
INTRODUCTION: Volunteering as a health promotion intervention is positively related to improved health and well-being in civilians and older adults. Yet, the impacts of participating in a community-based volunteering program on returning military veterans have not been studied, nor have the outcomes for veterans who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational, pre-post survey examines health, psychological, and social outcomes from a cohort of post-9/11/01 veterans with (N = 67) and without a reported TBI history (N = 273) who completed a 6-month, 20-hour per week veteran-focused civic service program...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810965/the-benefits-and-risks-of-energy-drinks-in-young-adults-and-military-service-members
#11
Julianne Manchester, Inbal Eshel, Donald W Marion
INTRODUCTION: Energy drinks (EDs) have become an integral part of the young adult, athletic, and military culture. Many athletes are convinced that EDs enhance performance, and service members as well as college students frequently use EDs as stimulants to counter sleep deprivation, or to improve academic performance. However, concerns have been raised by some military leaders about potential adverse effects of EDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A needs assessment survey of a convenience sample of military health care providers was conducted and identified EDs as a top knowledge need for those providers working in the area of traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810962/association-between-alcohol-craving-and-health-related-quality-of-life-among-veterans-with-co-occurring-conditions
#12
Amy A Herrold, Theresa L-B Pape, Xue Li, Neil Jordan
BACKGROUND: Probable alcohol use disorder (AUD), mental health disorders (MHDs), and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are endemic among U.S. Veterans of the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Previous research demonstrates that recent Veterans with AUD and MHD both with and without mTBI (MHD ± mTBI) self-report higher alcohol craving levels relative to Veterans with AUD only. Since it is unknown if alcohol craving negatively impacts health-related quality of life (HRQOL), the purpose of this study is to identify and describe the relationship between alcohol craving and HRQOL for recent Veterans with AUD alone and those with AUD and co-occurring conditions...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810961/resuscitation-of-hypotensive-traumatic-brain-injured-animals-with-spray-dried-plasma-does-not-adversely-alter-physiology-and-improves-blood-brain-barrier-function
#13
Steven McDaniel, Stephanie Golla, Anthony N Moore, Joe DaCorta, Arthur Bode, Shibani Pati, Pramod K Dash, Jing Zhao
INTRODUCTION: According to the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center and the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, the number of soldiers who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has risen dramatically over the past decade. Studies have shown that brain damage can be exacerbated if blood loss occurs (often occurring in polytrauma). As blood supply is critical for brain function and survival, TBI patients must be properly resuscitated to maintain blood volume, blood pressure, and cerebral perfusion...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810939/roadway-aggression-among-drivers-and-passengers-with-or-without-a-history-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Gabriela Ilie, Christine Wickens, Robert Mann, Anca Ialomiteanu, Edward Adlaf, Hayley Hamilton, Mark Asbridge, Jürgen Rehm, Michael Cusimano
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between roadway aggression and traumatic brain injury (TBI) among drivers and passengers who reside in the province of Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Data were based on a 3-year cumulated cross-sectional sample of 6,048 adults aged 18 years and older who were surveyed by telephone. The outcome in this study was road rage in the form of verbal/gestural or physical aggression toward other road users and/or their vehicle. RESULTS: Driving status, history of TBI, age, gender, education, and the interaction between history of TBI and education significantly predicted roadway aggression...
August 15, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810618/sivelestat-sodium-hydrate-improves-post-traumatic-knee-osteoarthritis-through-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-a-rat-model
#15
Xiaofeng Yu, Lijun Zhao, Zhiping Yu, Changzheng Yu, Jianfei Bi, Binglong Sun, Haibo Cong
As a specific inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, sivelestat sodium hydrate has primarily been used in the treatment of acute lung injury caused by various factors since its approval in 2002. Sivelestat sodium hydrate also improves post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis (KOA), although its underlying mechanisms of action have yet to be elucidated. The aim of the current study was to determine if sivelestat sodium hydrate improves post-traumatic KOA through nuclear factor (NF)-κB in a rat model. Treatment with sivelestat sodium hydrate significantly inhibited the induction of structural changes and significantly increased the vertical episode count and ipsilateral static weight bearing of the joint in KOA rats (all P<0...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810268/swallowing-mechanics-associated-with-artificial-airways-bolus-properties-and-penetration-aspiration-status-in-trauma-patients
#16
Angela M Dietsch, Christopher B Rowley, Nancy Pearl Solomon, William G Pearson
Purpose: Artificial airway procedures such as intubation and tracheotomy are common in the treatment of traumatic injuries, and bolus modifications may be implemented to help manage swallowing disorders. This study assessed artificial airway status, bolus properties (volume and viscosity), and the occurrence of laryngeal penetration and/or aspiration in relation to mechanical features of swallowing. Method: Coordinates of anatomical landmarks were extracted at minimum and maximum hyolaryngeal excursion from 228 videofluoroscopic swallowing studies representing 69 traumatically injured U...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809643/-rare-dorsal-traumatic-sternoclavicular-joint-dislocation-in-a-14-year-old-patient-a-case-report
#17
A Stančák, J Němec, V Havlas
We report a case of a 14-year-old patient with rare dorsal sternoclavicular dislocation caused by a sports injury. The patient was admitted to our department for further investigation and treatment. After a series of examinations, an open reduction and fixation using K-wires was used as a treatment modality. A satisfactory outcome was achieved, the patient returned to full sports activity 3 months after the surgery, with no limitations of movement. The necessity of early diagnosis and treatment options of this rare injury has been discussed...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809629/-talar-neck-fractures-treated-using-percutaneous-screw-fixation
#18
R Veselý, M Kelbl, J Kacián, V Hulka, J Kočiš, R Kunovský
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation of nondisplaced talar neck fractures have been applied by some authors. The aim of this paper is to assess the results and complications of this minimally invasive technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period from 2009 to 2014, twenty-one patients with a talar neck fracture were observed after closed reduction and percutaneous screw fixation in the Traumatological Hospital in Brno. The mean age of the patients was 38 years (range 18-56 years)...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808951/what-is-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-duck-walk-test-in-detecting-meniscal-tears
#19
A Van der Post, J C A Noorduyn, V A B Scholtes, E L A R Mutsaerts
BACKGROUND: Clinical weightbearing provocation tests, like the duck walk test, may be of value in diagnosing or screening for medial meniscal tears. However, evidence of the diagnostic accuracy of the duck walk test is lacking. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the duck walk test in diagnosing medial meniscal tears. (2) To determine whether tear location, tear cause (traumatic versus degenerative), and ACL insufficiency were associated with differences in the sensitivity and specificity of the test...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808845/targeted-treatment-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-age-of-precision-medicine
#20
Anthony A Figaji, A Graham Fieggen, Ncedile Mankahla, Nico Enslin, Ursula K Rohlwink
In recent years, much progress has been made in our understanding of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Clinical outcomes have progressively improved, but evidence-based guidelines for how we manage patients remain surprisingly weak. The problem is that the many interventions and strategies that have been investigated in randomized controlled trials have all disappointed. These include many concepts that had become standard care in TBI. And that is just for adult TBI; in children, the situation is even worse. Not only is pediatric care more difficult than adult care because physiological norms change with age, but also there is less evidence for clinical practice...
August 14, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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