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Traumatic injuries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782989/nadph-oxidase-2-deletion-enhances-neurogenesis-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Jing Wang, Merry W Ma, Krishnan M Dhandapani, Darrell W Brann
The NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme family is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contributor to the secondary pathology underlying traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how NOX-derived ROS influences the proliferation and cell-fate determination of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) following TBI. In the current study, we found that deletion of NOX2 (NOX2-KO) significantly decreases the population of radial glia-like NSCs and neuroblasts but maintains the population of non-radial Sox2 expressing stem cells under physiological (non-injury) conditions...
May 18, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782814/primary-assessment-of-the-patient-with-orbital-fractures-should-include-pupillary-response-and-visual-acuity-changes-to-detect-occult-major-ocular-injuries
#2
Jeffrey Chow, Krishnan Parthasarathi, Patrick Mehanna, Eline Whist
PURPOSE: Sight-threatening injuries associated with orbital fractures are of major concern to maxillofacial surgeons whom are often the first asked to assess these patients. Eliciting signs and symptoms that are predictive of these injuries would allow expedited ophthalmic consultation and appropriate management. We hypothesized that abnormal pupillary response is predictive of major ocular injuries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients with facial fractures was instituted with review of all associated ophthalmic injuries...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782482/trauma-patients-are-safe-to-fly-72-hours-after-tube-thoracostomy-removal
#3
David Zonies, Joel Elterman, Christopher Burns, Vincent Paul, John Oh, Jeremy Cannon
BACKGROUND: Current recommendations for safe air travel following traumatic pneumothorax are 2-3 weeks after radiographic resolution. These recommendations are based on several small observational studies and expert consensus which cite a theoretical risk of recurrence and hypoxia due to decreased oxygen tension at altitude. We sought to systematically study the timing of chest drain removal after traumatic pneumothorax and risk of recurrence in relation to air travel. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of consecutively admitted patients who sustained a traumatic chest injury treated with tube thoracostomy over a 5-year period was undertaken...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782183/effect-of-cabbage-wraps-on-the-reduction-of-post-traumatic-knee-exudates-in-men
#4
Jacek Dygut, Monika Piwowar, Kinga Fijałkowska, Ibeth Guevara, Robert Jakubas, Gustaw Gonzales, Krzysztof Popławski, Anna Strokowska, Hanna Wikariak, Wiktor Jurkowski
OBJECTIVES: The study investigates measurable effects of cabbage leaf wraps on post-traumatic knee injury exudate absorption in men. DESIGN: Case-control experiment on the same group of patients (before and after treatment). SETTINGS/LOCATION: One academic center and two hospitals. SUBJECTS: The study was carried out on a group of patients with different degrees of injury severity in the acute stage of the knee injury who were divided into three groups based on the width of suprapatellar recess gap (3-5 mm in group 1, 6-10 mm in group 2, and 11 mm or more in group 3) as assessed by ultrasonography...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781783/clinical-and-radiological-outcome-of-non-surgical-management-of-thoracic-and-lumbar-spinal-fracture-dislocations-a-historical-analysis-in-the-era-of-modern-spinal-surgery
#5
Andrei Fernandes Joaquim, Gregory D Schroeder, Alpesh A Patel, Alexander R Vaccaro
CONTEXT: It is well established that traumatic spinal dislocations (AO Type C injuries) should be surgically treated. However, no recent comparative study of surgical versus non-surgical management of type C injuries was found attesting the superiority of surgical treatment. OBJECTIVE: Due to the lack of information about the natural history of non-surgical management of type C injuries, we evaluated the outcome of historical conservative treatment of type C injuries...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781729/positive-psychology-perspective-on-traumatic-brain-injury-recovery-and-rehabilitation
#6
Amanda R Rabinowitz, Peter A Arnett
Recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI) is heterogeneous, with injury characteristics and neuropathological findings accounting for a relatively modest proportion of the variance in clinical outcome. Furthermore, premorbid personality traits and psychological characteristics may moderate psychosocial recovery. Constructs from the field of positive psychology have been examined in multiple illness populations and are increasingly gaining attention as factors that may influence recovery from TBI. Positive affect, hope, optimism, adaptive coping style, and resilience have all been examined in the context of TBI...
July 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781675/axial-sesamoiditis-in-the-horse-a-review
#7
Christelle Le Roux, Ann Carstens
Axial sesamoiditis or osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs) in the horse is described as a rare condition. The cause remains unknown and speculative, with vascular, infectious, and traumatic aetiologies implicated. It is specifically associated with injury of the palmar or plantar ligament (PL), also known as the intersesamoidean ligament. Imaging findings are generally rewarding and radiological changes are typical, if not pathognomonic, for the condition. Lesions consist of bone lysis at the apical to mid-body axial margins of the PSBs, with variable degrees of joint effusion...
March 29, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781369/contralateral-extensive-cerebral-hemorrhagic-venous-infarction-caused-by-retrograde-venous-reflux-into-the-opposite-basal-vein-of-rosenthal-in-posttraumatic-carotid-cavernous-fistula-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Prasert Iampreechakul, Adisak Tanpun, Punjama Lertbusayanukul, Somkiet Siriwimonmas
We describe a patient with traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF), subsequently developing contralateral extensive hemorrhagic venous infarction from retrograde venous reflux into the opposite basal vein of Rosenthal. A 54-year-old woman was involved in a motor vehicle accident and sustained severe traumatic brain injury. Two months later, she developed bilateral proptosis and audible bruit. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the brain demonstrated the right direct CCF...
January 1, 2018: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780910/aerial-drone-misadventure-a-novel-case-of-trauma-resulting-in-ocular-globe-rupture
#9
Eliza E Moskowitz, Yonaton M Siegel-Richman, George Hertner, Thomas Schroeppel
Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to present the novel findings of a drone causing such a traumatic ocular injury and provide recommendations for how it might be prevented. Observations: We report on a recent case where a child presented to our Emergency Department after incurring a blow to the face by the propeller of a remote controlled drone. The patient suffered significant trauma including rupture of the right globe. Conclusions: As drone sales continue to rise, it is important that physicians be prepared to treat the potential injuries that may result from using these devices...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779964/childhood-trauma-and-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#10
Rachel L Loewy, Sarah Corey, Felix Amirfathi, Sawsan Dabit, Daniel Fulford, Rahel Pearson, Jessica P Y Hua, Danielle Schlosser, Barbara K Stuart, Daniel H Mathalon, Sophia Vinogradov
As a risk factor for psychosis, childhood trauma rates are elevated in the clinical-high-risk (CHR) syndrome compared to the general population. However, it is unknown whether trauma is typically experienced in childhood or adolescence/young adulthood, whether it occurred prior to CHR syndrome onset, and how severe trauma relates to presenting symptoms. In this study, we examined the relationship of trauma history to symptoms and functioning in individuals diagnosed with the CHR syndrome on the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (N = 103)...
May 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779843/sociodemographic-determinants-of-non-accidental-traumatic-injuries-in-children
#11
Omar Nunez Lopez, Byron D Hughes, Deepak Adhikari, Kari Williams, Ravi S Radhakrishnan, Kanika A Bowen-Jallow
BACKGROUND: Traumatic injuries account for 18% of child abuse cases and 1680 children die from abuse annually. We set out to determine the impact of sociodemographic characteristics on resource utilization and outcomes in nonaccidental trauma (NAT). METHODS: We used the Kid's Inpatient Database to identify children with two main subgroups of child abuse diagnoses: NAT and other forms of child abuse. Income was represented by quartiles. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and regression analyses...
May 12, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779599/traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-pulmonary-physiologic-principles-and-management
#12
REVIEW
Gregory J Schilero, William A Bauman, Miroslav Radulovic
In the United States, approximately 17,500 cases of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) occur each year, with an estimated 245,000 to 345,000 individuals living with chronic SCI. Acute management of respiratory dysfunction has resulted in improvement in early survival, but life expectancy remains less than that of the general population, and pulmonary complications are a leading cause of mortality. The global changes in pulmonary function, underlying pathophysiology, and the management options to improve respiratory muscle weakness and pulmonary clearance in persons with SCI are discussed...
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779445/early-or-late-cranioplasty-following-decompressive-craniotomy-for-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Feng Zheng, Hao Xu, Niklas von Spreckelsen, Pantelis Stavrinou, Marco Timmer, Roland Goldbrunner, Fang Cao, Qishan Ran, Gang Li, Ruiming Fan, Qiang Zhang, Wei Chen, Shengtao Yao, Boris Krischek
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of early (<3 months) cranioplasty (CP) and late CP (>3 months) on post-operative complications in patients receiving decompressive craniotomy (DC) for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods The Cochrane Library, PubMed and EMBASE databases were systematically searched for studies published prior to May 21, 2017. A meta-analysis examined post-operative overall complication rates, infection rates, subdural fluid collection and operating times according to early and late CP...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779405/how-many-patients-in-a-prolonged-disorder-of-consciousness-might-need-a-best-interests-meeting-about-starting-or-continuing-gastrostomy-feeding
#14
Derick T Wade
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of people in a prolonged disorder of consciousness (PDOC) who may need a formal best interests decision-making process to consider starting and/or continuing life-sustaining treatment each year in the population of a developed country. METHOD: Identification of studies on people with a PDOC giving information about incidence, and/or prevalence, and/or cause, and/or location of long-term care. Sources included systematic reviews, a new search of MEDLINE (April 2018), and a personal collection of papers...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779184/limbic-system-structure-volumes-and-associated-neurocognitive-functioning-in-former-nfl-players
#15
Christian Lepage, Marc Muehlmann, Yorghos Tripodis, Jakob Hufschmidt, Julie Stamm, Katie Green, Pawel Wrobel, Vivian Schultz, Isabelle Weir, Michael L Alosco, Christine M Baugh, Nathan G Fritts, Brett M Martin, Christine Chaisson, Michael J Coleman, Alexander P Lin, Ofer Pasternak, Nikos Makris, Robert A Stern, Martha E Shenton, Inga K Koerte
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with exposure to repetitive head impacts. CTE has been linked to disruptions in cognition, mood, and behavior. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of CTE can only be made post-mortem. Neuropathological evidence suggests limbic structures may provide an opportunity to characterize CTE in the living. Using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging, we compared select limbic brain regional volumes - the amygdala, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus - between symptomatic former National Football League (NFL) players (n = 86) and controls (n = 22)...
May 19, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778829/a-qualitative-investigation-of-the-attitudes-and-beliefs-about-physical-activity-and-post-traumatic-osteoarthritis-in-young-adults-3-10-years-after-an-intra-articular-knee-injury
#16
Allison M Ezzat, Mariana Brussoni, Jackie L Whittaker, Carolyn A Emery
OBJECTIVE: To understand the influence of the injury experience on current attitudes and beliefs about physical activity (PA) and the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) in youth and young adults 3-10 years after a sport-related knee injury. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SETTING: University Sports Medical/Research Center. PARTICIPANTS: 20 young adults 3-10 years subsequent to intra-articular knee injury...
May 4, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778611/traumatic-aorto-cisterna-chlyi-fistula-with-treatment-of-aortic-pseudoaneurysm-with-ct-guided-thrombin-injection
#17
Brian M Freeman, Benjamin C Powell, A Michael Devane, Allyson L Hale, Sagar S Gandhi
INTRODUCTION: Only 3 cases of aorto-cisterna chyli fistula have been described in the literature but none with a resulting pseudoaneurysm (PSA). CASE REPORT: A 68-year-old man presented following a motor vehicle collision. Imaging revealed a retroperitoneal hematoma with enhancement of the cisterna chyli, representing aortic to cisterna chyli fistula. Three days later CTA showed resolution of the fistula, but revealed a PSA. The patient underwent arteriography that confirmed the PSA, and then a CT-guided thrombin injection was performed...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778418/correlation-between-translational-and-rotational-kinematic-abnormalities-and-osteoarthritis-like-damage-in-two-in-vivo-sheep-injury-models
#18
Mehdi Shekarforoush, Jillian E Beveridge, David A Hart, Cyril B Frank, Nigel G Shrive
The relations between kinematic abnormalities and post traumatic osteoarthritis have not yet been clearly elucidated. This study was conducted to determine the finite helical axes parameters and the tibiofemoral translation vector in the knee joints of two surgically induced injury sheep models: anterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament transection (ACL/MCL Tx) (n = 5) and lateral meniscectomy (n = 5). We hypothesized that morphological damage in the experimental joints would be correlated to alterations in these kinematic variables...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778303/the-physiopathologic-interplay-between-stem-cells-and-tissue-niche-in-muscle-regeneration-and-the-role-of-il-6-on-muscle-homeostasis-and-diseases
#19
Laura Forcina, Carmen Miano, Antonio Musarò
Skeletal muscle is a complex, dynamic tissue characterized by an elevated plasticity. Although the adult muscle is mainly composed of multinucleated fibers with post mitotic nuclei, it retains a remarkable ability to regenerate in response to traumatic events. The regenerative potential of the adult skeletal muscle relies in the activity of satellite cells, mononucleated cells residing within the muscle in intimate association with myofibers. Satellite cells normally remain quiescent in their sublaminar position, sporadically entering the cell cycle to guarantee an efficient cellular turnover, by fusing with pre-existing myofibers, and to maintain the stem cell pool...
May 16, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778092/magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-detecting-root-avulsions-in-traumatic-adult-brachial-plexus-injuries-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-of-diagnostic-accuracy
#20
Ryckie G Wade, Yemisi Takwoingi, Justin C R Wormald, John P Ridgway, Steven Tanner, James J Rankine, Grainne Bourke
BACKGROUND: Adult brachial plexus injuries (BPI) are becoming more common. The reconstruction and prognosis of pre-ganglionic injuries (root avulsions) are different to other types of BPI injury. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being used to identify root avulsions, but the evidence from studies of its diagnostic accuracy are conflicting. Therefore, a systematic review is needed to address uncertainty about the accuracy of MRI and to guide future research. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic search of electronic databases alongside reference tracking...
May 19, 2018: Systematic Reviews
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