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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454037/agricultural-expansion-as-risk-to-endangered-wildlife-pesticide-exposure-in-wild-chimpanzees-and-baboons-displaying-facial-dysplasia
#1
Sabrina Krief, Philippe Berny, Francis Gumisiriza, Régine Gross, Barbara Demeneix, Jean Baptiste Fini, Colin A Chapman, Lauren J Chapman, Andrew Seguya, John Wasswa
Prenatal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors can affect development and induce irreversible abnormalities in both humans and wildlife. The northern part of Kibale National Park, a mid-altitude rainforest in western Uganda, is largely surrounded by industrial tea plantations and wildlife using this area (Sebitoli) must cope with proximity to human populations and their activities. The chimpanzees and baboons in this area raid crops (primarily maize) in neighboring gardens. Sixteen young individuals of the 66 chimpanzees monitored (25%) exhibit abnormalities including reduced nostrils, cleft lip, limb deformities, reproductive problems and hypopigmentation...
April 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453995/synthesis-and-mechanistic-evaluation-of-novel-n-benzylidene-carbohydrazide-1h-pyrazolo-3-4-b-pyridine-derivatives-as-non-anionic-antiplatelet-agents
#2
André L Lourenço, Raquel R S Salvador, Leonardo A Silva, Max S Saito, Juliana F R Mello, Lúcio M Cabral, Carlos R Rodrigues, Maria A F Vera, Estela M F Muri, Alessandra M T de Souza, Charles S Craik, Luiza R S Dias, Helena C Castro, Plínio C Sathler
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) account for over 17 million deaths globally each year, with atherosclerosis as the underlying cause of most CVDs. Herein we describe the synthesis and in vitro mechanistic evaluation of novel N'-benzylidene-carbohydrazide-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines (3-22) designed as non-anionic antiplatelet agents and presenting a 30-fold increase in potency compared to aspirin. The mechanism underlying their antiplatelet activity was elucidated by eliminating potential targets through a series of in vitro assays including light transmission aggregometry, clot retraction, and quantitative ELISA, further identifying the reduction in biosynthesis of thromboxane B2 as their main mechanism of action...
April 14, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453901/quasi-static-acoustic-tweezing-thromboelastometry
#3
R G Holt, D Luo, N Gruver, D B Khismatullin
BACKGROUND: Thromboelastography is widely used as a tool to assess the coagulation status of surgical patients. It allows observation of changes in material properties of whole blood, beginning with early stages of clot formation and ending with clot lysis. However, the contact activation of the coagulation cascade at surfaces of thromboelastographic systems leads to inherent variability and unreliability in predicting bleeding or thrombosis risks. OBJECTIVES: To develop acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry as a noncontact method for perioperative assessment of blood coagulation...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453741/application-of-pheromone-traps-for-managing-hessian-fly-diptera-cecidomyiidae-in-the-southern-great-plains
#4
Allen E Knutson, K L Giles, T A Royer, N C Elliott, N Bradford
The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say, is an important pest of winter wheat in the Southern Great Plains of the United States. As larvae feed behind the leaf sheath, infestations often go undetected until crop damage is evident, and there are no remedial actions that can prevent economic loss once a field is infested. The recent discovery of the sex-attractant pheromone of the Hessian fly provides an opportunity to use pheromone traps to detect and monitor adult activity and potentially better manage this pest...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453561/a-webgis-platform-for-the-monitoring-of-farm-animal-genetic-resources-genmon
#5
Solange Duruz, Christine Flury, Giona Matasci, Florent Joerin, Ivo Widmer, Stéphane Joost
BACKGROUND: In 2007, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) initiated the Global plan of action for Farm Animal Genetic Resources (FAnGR). The main goal of this plan is to reduce further loss of genetic diversity in farm animals, so as to protect and promote the diversity of farm animal resources. An important step to reach this goal is to monitor and prioritize endangered breeds in the context of conservation programs. METHODOLOGY/WEB PORTAL IMPLEMENTATION: The GENMON WebGIS platform is able to monitor FAnGR and to evaluate the degree of endangerment of livestock breeds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449570/low-dose-clozapine-induced-seizure-a-case-report
#6
Abdullah Bolu, Süleyman Akarsu, Erdal Pan, Emre Aydemir, Taner Oznur
Seizures are believed to be a dose-dependent side effect of clozapine. In this case report, we describe a patient who had tonic-clonic seizures after using a low dose clozapine who did not have any seizure risk. The 29-year-old male patient had been followed-up with a diagnosis of schizophrenia for about 5 years. When using clozapine 200 mg/day he had a tonic-clonic seizure with bilateral diffuse epileptic activity in electroencephalography (EEG). In the literature, there are a few case reports about low-dose clozapine-induced seizure...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449188/development-validation-and-testing-of-a-skin-sampling-method-for-assessment-of-metal-exposure
#7
Behnaz Erfani, Klara Midander, Carola Lidén, Anneli Julander
BACKGROUND: Nickel, cobalt and chromium are frequent skin sensitizers. Skin exposure results in eczema in sensitized individuals, the risk being related to the skin dose. OBJECTIVES: To develop a self-sampling method for quantification of skin exposure to metals, to validate the method, and to assess its feasibility. METHODS: Defined metal doses (0.01-5 µg) were applied to the fingers of 5 participants. Skin areas (2 cm(2) ) were sampled with 1% HNO3 , either as 0...
April 27, 2017: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449038/real-time-imaging-of-single-neuronal-cell-apoptosis-in-patients-with-glaucoma
#8
Maria F Cordeiro, Eduardo M Normando, M Jorge Cardoso, Serge Miodragovic, Seham Jeylani, Benjamin M Davis, Li Guo, Sebastien Ourselin, Roger A'Hern, Philip A Bloom
Retinal cell apoptosis occurs in many ocular neurodegenerative conditions including glaucoma-the major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Using a new imaging technique that we have called DARC (detection of apoptosing retinal cells), which until now has only been demonstrated in animal models, we assessed if annexin 5 labelled with fluorescent dye DY-776 (ANX776) could be used safely in humans to identify retinal cell apoptosis. Eight patients with glaucomatous neurodegeneration and evidence of progressive disease, and eight healthy subjects were randomly assigned to intravenous ANX776 doses of 0...
April 26, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448929/microbial-use-of-low-molecular-weight-dom-in-filtered-and-unfiltered-freshwater-role-of-ultra-small-microorganisms-and-implications-for-water-quality-monitoring
#9
F L Brailsford, H C Glanville, M R Marshall, P N Golyshin, P J Johnes, C A Yates, A T Owen, D L Jones
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a central role in regulating productivity and nutrient cycling in freshwaters. It is therefore vital that we can representatively sample and preserve DOM in freshwaters for subsequent analysis. Here we investigated the effect of filtration, temperature (5 and 25°C) and acidification (HCl) on the persistence of low molecular weight (MW) dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen (DON) and orthophosphate in oligotrophic and eutrophic freshwater environments. Our results showed the rapid loss of isotopically-labelled glucose and amino acids from both filtered (0...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448853/a-cluster-of-aspartic-residues-in-the-extracellular-loop-ii-of-par-4-is-important-for-thrombin-interaction-and-activation-of-platelets
#10
Daniel Sánchez Centellas, Sushanth Gudlur, Alejandro Vicente-Carrillo, Sofia Ramström, Tomas L Lindahl
Thrombin activates platelets via proteolytic cleavage of protease-activated receptors (PARs) 1 and 4. The two PARs have distinct but complementary roles. The mechanisms responsible for PAR1 activation by thrombin have been extensively studied. However, much less is known regarding thrombin activation of PAR4, especially the potential involvement of regions of PAR4 other than the N-terminal, which is bound to the catalytic site of thrombin. We have studied PAR4 in S. cerevisiae strain MMY12, an expression system in which the GPCR receptors are connected to a Lac Z reporter gene resulting in increased β-galactosidase activity...
April 13, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448604/non-invasive-imaging-assessment-of-the-biodistribution-of-gsk2849330-an-adcc-and-cdc-optimized-anti-her3-mab-and-its-role-in-tumor-macrophage-recruitment-in-human-tumor-bearing-mice
#11
Hasan Alsaid, Tinamarie Skedzielewski, Mary V Rambo, Kristen Hunsinger, Bao Hoang, William Fieles, Edward R Long, James Tunstead, Danielle J Vugts, Matthew Cleveland, Neil Clarke, Christopher Matheny, Beat M Jucker
The purpose of this work was to use various molecular imaging techniques to non-invasively assess GSK2849330 (anti HER3 ADCC and CDC enhanced 'AccretaMab' monoclonal antibody) pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in human xenograft tumor-bearing mice. Immuno-PET biodistribution imaging of radiolabeled 89Zr-GSK2849330 was assessed in mice with HER3 negative (MIA-PaCa-2) and positive (CHL-1) human xenograft tumors. Dose dependency of GSK2849330 disposition was assessed using varying doses of unlabeled GSK2849330 co-injected with 89Zr-GSK2849330...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448483/trends-in-repeat-births-and-use-of-postpartum-contraception-among-teens-united-states-2004-2015
#12
Deborah L Dee, Karen Pazol, Shanna Cox, Ruben A Smith, Katherine Bower, Martha Kapaya, Amy Fasula, Ayanna Harrison, Charlan D Kroelinger, Denise D'Angelo, Leslie Harrison, Emilia H Koumans, Nikki Mayes, Wanda D Barfield, Lee Warner
Teen* childbearing (one or more live births before age 20 years) can have negative health, social, and economic consequences for mothers and their children (1). Repeat teen births (two or more live births before age 20 years) can constrain the mother's ability to take advantage of educational and workforce opportunities (2), and are more likely to be preterm or of low birthweight than first teen births (3). Despite the historic decline in the U.S. teen birth rate during 1991-2015, from 61.8 to 22.3 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years (4), many teens continue to have repeat births (3)...
April 28, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448482/diabetes-self-management-education-programs-in-nonmetropolitan-counties-united-states-2016
#13
Stephanie A Rutledge, Svetlana Masalovich, Rachel J Blacher, Magon M Saunders
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is a clinical practice intended to improve preventive practices and behaviors with a focus on decision-making, problem-solving, and self-care. The distribution and correlates of established DSME programs in nonmetropolitan counties across the United States have not been previously described, nor have the characteristics of the nonmetropolitan counties with DSME programs. REPORTING PERIOD: July 2016. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS: DSME programs recognized by the American Diabetes Association or accredited by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (i...
April 28, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448453/working-memory-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#14
REVIEW
Shintaro Funahashi
The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley's working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand...
April 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448428/therapeutic-ultrasound-in-navicular-stress-injuries-in-elite-track-and-field-athletes
#15
Nikolaos Malliaropoulos, Dimosthenis Alaseirlis, George Konstantinidis, Agapi Papalada, Ioannis Tsifountoudis, Kosmas Petras, Nicola Maffulli
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) can be used to assess the progression of conservative management in navicular stress injuries. DESIGN: This is a prospective, clinical case series. Level of evidence IV. SETTING: All participants were examined and followed up in a private Sports Injury Clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Ten elite track and field athletes with severe dorsal midfoot pain over the navicular bone participated in this study...
May 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448326/design-of-an-online-medication-safety-module-for-clinicians
#16
Hanan Khalil, Kirsten Schliephake
BACKGROUND: In Australia, there are very few online courses addressing medication safety issues. Educating clinicians about medication safety is paramount given the increased responsibility of clinicians in advanced practice roles including nurses at several key points throughout the medication process that encompass prescribing, dispensing, administering and monitoring medications. METHOD: The model used for the course design is based on adult teaching principles...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Evidence-based Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448049/controlled-release-of-chlorine-dioxide-in-a-perforated-packaging-system-to-extend-the-storage-life-and-improve-the-safety-of-grape-tomatoes
#17
Xiuxiu Sun, Elizabeth Baldwin, Anne Plotto, Jan Narciso, Christopher Ference, Mark Ritenour, Ken Harrison, Joseph Gangemi, Jinhe Bai
A controlled-release chlorine dioxide (ClO2) pouch was developed by sealing a slurry form of ClO2 into semipermeable polymer film; the release properties of the pouch were monitored in containers with or without fruit. The pouch was affixed to the inside of a perforated clamshell containing grape tomatoes, and the effect on microbial population, firmness, and weight loss was evaluated during a 14 day storage period at 20 °C. Within 3 days, the ClO2 concentration in the clamshells reached 3.5 ppm and remained constant until day 10...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448045/fluorescence-based-neuraminidase-inhibition-assay-to-assess-the-susceptibility-of-influenza-viruses-to-the-neuraminidase-inhibitor-class-of-antivirals
#18
Sook-Kwan Leang, Aeron C Hurt
The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors are the only class of antivirals approved for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza that are effective against currently circulating strains. In addition to their use in treating seasonal influenza, the NA inhibitors have been stockpiled by a number of countries for use in the event of a pandemic. It is therefore important to monitor the susceptibility of circulating influenza viruses to this class of antivirals. There are different types of assays that can be used to assess the susceptibility of influenza viruses to the NA inhibitors, but the enzyme inhibition assays using either a fluorescent substrate or a chemiluminescent substrate are the most widely used and recommended...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448042/imaging-the-neutrophil-phagosome-and-cytoplasm-using-a-ratiometric-ph-indicator
#19
Juliet R Foote, Adam P Levine, Philippe Behe, Michael R Duchen, Anthony W Segal
Neutrophils are crucial to host innate defense and, consequently, constitute an important area of medical research. The phagosome, the intracellular compartment where the killing and digestion of engulfed particles take place, is the main arena for neutrophil pathogen killing that requires tight regulation. Phagosomal pH is one aspect that is carefully controlled, in turn regulating antimicrobial protease activity. Many fluorescent pH-sensitive dyes have been used to visualize the phagosomal environment. S-1 has several advantages over other pH-sensitive dyes, including its dual emission spectra, its resistance to photo-bleaching, and its high pKa...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447985/methods-for-the-self-integration-of-megamolecular-biopolymers-on-the-drying-air-lc-interface
#20
Kosuke Okeyoshi, Kensuke Osada, Maiko K Okajima, Tatsuo Kaneko
Living organisms that use water are always prone to drying in the environment. Their activities are driven by biopolymer-based micro- and macro-structures, as seen in the cases of moving water in vascular bundles and moisturizing water in skin layers. In this study, we developed a method for assessing the effect of aqueous liquid crystalline (LC) solutions composed of biopolymers on drying. As LC biopolymers have megamolecular weight, we chose to study polysaccharides, cytoskeletal proteins, and DNA. The observation of biopolymer solutions during drying under polarized light reveals milliscale self-integration starting from the unstable air-LC interface...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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