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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092848/the-initial-use-of-arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-and-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-images-in-the-diagnosis-of-nonconvulsive-partial-status-epileptics
#1
Takafumi Shimogawa, Takato Morioka, Tetsuro Sayama, Sei Haga, Yuka Kanazawa, Kei Murao, Shuji Arakawa, Ayumi Sakata, Koji Iihara
BACKGROUND: In the diagnosis of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), capture of ongoing ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) findings is the gold standard; however, this is practically difficult without continuous EEG monitoring facilities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion MRI with arterial spin labeling (ASL), have been applied mainly in emergency situations. Recent reports have described that ictal MRI findings, including ictal hyperperfusion on ASL and cortical hyperintensity of cytotoxic edema on DWI, can be obtained from epileptically activated cortex...
December 21, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092565/a-passive-eeg-bci-for-single-trial-detection-of-changes-in-mental-state
#2
Andrew Myrden, Tom Chau
Traditional brain-computer interfaces often exhibit unstable performance over time. It has recently been proposed that passive brain-computer interfaces may provide a way to complement and stabilize these traditional systems. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a passive brain-computer interface that uses electroencephalography to monitor changes in mental state on a single-trial basis. We recorded cortical activity from 15 locations while 11 able-bodied adults completed a series of challenging mental tasks...
January 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092510/unobtrusive-and-wearable-systems-for-automatic-dietary-monitoring
#3
Temiloluwa Prioleau, Elliot Moore, Maysam Ghovanloo
The threat of obesity, diabetes, anorexia and bulimia in our society today has motivated extensive research on dietary monitoring. Standard self-report methods such as 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaires are expensive, burdensome and unrealiable to handle the growing health crisis. Long-term activity monitoring in daily living is a promising approach to provide individuals with quantitative feedback that can encourage healthier habits. Although several studies have attempted automating dietary monitoring using wearable, hand-held, smartobject, and environmental systems, it remains an open research problem...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092500/a-model-of-a-synthetic-biological-communication-interface-between-mammalian-cells-and-mechatronic-systems
#4
Keith C Heyde, Warren C Ruder
The creation of communication interfaces between abiotic and biotic systems represents a significant research challenge. In this work, we design and model a system linking the biochemical signaling pathways of mammalian cells to the actions of a mobile robotic prosthesis. We envision this system as a robotic platform carrying an optically monitored bioreactor that harbors mammalian cells. The cellular, optical signal is captured by an onboard fluorescent microscope and converted into an electronic signal. We first present a design for the overall cell-robot system, with a specific focus on the design of the synthetic gene networks needed for the system...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092358/recurrent-rna-motifs-as-scaffolds-for-genetically-encodable-small-molecule-biosensors
#5
Ely B Porter, Jacob T Polaski, Makenna M Morck, Robert T Batey
Allosteric RNA devices are increasingly being viewed as important tools capable of monitoring enzyme evolution, optimizing engineered metabolic pathways, facilitating gene discovery and regulators of nucleic acid-based therapeutics. A key bottleneck in the development of these platforms is the availability of small-molecule-binding RNA aptamers that robustly function in the cellular environment. Although aptamers can be raised against nearly any desired target through in vitro selection, many cannot easily be integrated into devices or do not reliably function in a cellular context...
January 16, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092169/national-athletic-trainers-association-position-statement-management-of-acute-skin-trauma
#6
Joel W Beam, Bernadette Buckley, William R Holcomb, Mario Ciocca
OBJECTIVE:   To present recommendations for the cleansing, debridement, dressing, and monitoring of acute skin trauma in patients. BACKGROUND:   Acute skin trauma is common during participation in athletic and recreational activities. Clinical decisions and intervention protocols after injury vary among athletic trainers and are often based on ritualistic practices. An understanding of cleansing, debridement, and dressing techniques; clinical features of infection and adverse reactions; and monitoring of acute skin trauma is critical for certified athletic trainers and other allied health and medical professionals to create a local wound environment that promotes healing and lessens the risk of complications...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092165/recommendations-for-best-disinfectant-practices-to-reduce-the-spread-of-infection-via-wrestling-mats
#7
Linda Mull Young, Vicki Abram Motz, Emily R Markey, Suzanne C Young, Ronald E Beaschler
CONTEXT:  At the request of the National Wrestling Coaches Association and the head wrestling coach at our university, we conducted a study of infection transmission in collegiate wrestlers. OBJECTIVE:  To examine disinfectant effectiveness and develop best-practice guidelines for minimizing the spread of skin infections via wrestling mats. DESIGN:  Controlled laboratory study and crossover study. SETTING:  Laboratory and two 15-college wrestling invitational meets...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092053/sh2-domain-based-fret-biosensor-for-measuring-bcr-abl-activity-in-living-cml-cells
#8
Mari Fujioka, Yumi Asano, Shigeyuki Nakada, Yusuke Ohba
Fluorescent proteins (FPs) displaying distinct spectra have shed their light on a wide range of biological functions. Moreover, sophisticated biosensors engineered to contain single or multiple FPs, including Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, spatiotemporally reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying a variety of pathophysiological processes. However, their usefulness for applied life sciences has yet to be fully explored. Recently, our research group has begun to expand the potential of FPs from basic biological research to the clinic...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091886/levels-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-breast-milk-of-maya-women-in-yucatan-mexico
#9
Ángel G Polanco Rodríguez, M Inmaculada Riba López, T Angel DelValls Casillas, Jesús Alfredo Araujo León, B Anjan Kumar Prusty, Fernando J Álvarez Cervera
In this study, 24 breast milk samples, obtained from rural Maya women, from municipalities of Yucatan, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues by gas chromatography. Recent studies have shown that Maya communities have a poor perception about the proper usage and handling of OCP. The karstic soil in this area has a high vulnerability to groundwater pollution by the use of OCP in agriculture and livestock activities. The impact of the ecosystem on human health is much more critical due to the prevailing poverty and a very low educational level of these communities...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091589/platelet-monocyte-and-neutrophil-activation-and-glucose-tolerance-in-south-african-mixed-ancestry-individuals
#10
Glenda M Davison, Bongani B Nkambule, Zibusiso Mkandla, Gloudina M Hon, Andre P Kengne, Rajiv T Erasmus, Tandi E Matsha
Platelet activation has been described in patients with chronic inflammation, however in type 2 diabetes mellitus it remains controversial. We compared levels of platelet leucocyte aggregates, monocyte and granulocyte activation across glucose tolerance statuses in mixed ancestry South Africans. Individuals (206) were recruited from Bellville-South, Cape Town, and included 66% with normal glucose tolerance, 18.7% pre-diabetes, 8.7% screen-detected diabetes and 6.3% known diabetes. Monocyte and neutrophil activation were measured by calculating the percentage of cells expressing CD142 and CD69 while platelet monocyte aggregates were defined as CD14(++) CD42b(+) events and platelet neutrophil aggregates as CD16(++) CD42b(+) events...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090809/degradation-kinetics-of-passion-fruit-pectin-in-subcritical-water
#11
Khwanjai Klinchongkon, Pramote Khuwijitjaru, Shuji Adachi
The degradation of passion fruit pectin by subcritical water treatment in a continuous flow-type reactor was investigated in the temperature range of 80-160 °C at a constant pressure of 5 MPa. Changes in the degree of polymerization and reducing end formation were monitored and modeled by applying the Emsley equation and zeroth-order kinetics, respectively. The results showed that both the pectin degradation rate constant and the change in the amount of reducing end were enhanced by temperature, and that the temperature dependence of these parameters obeyed the Arrhenius relationship...
January 16, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090641/in-vivo-quantitative-assessment-of-the-therapeutic-response-in-a-mouse-model-of-collagen-induced-arthritis-using-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography
#12
Anupam Mitra, Smriti Kundu-Raychaudhuri, Christine Abria, Angelica Rona, Abhijit J Chaudhari, Siba P Raychaudhuri
BACKGROUND: Mouse collagen induced arthritis (CIA) is the most commonly used animal model to investigate underlying pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis and to demonstrate therapeutic efficacy of novel drugs in autoimmune arthritis. The conventional read out of CIA are clinical score and histopathology, which have several limitations including (i) subjected to observer bias; (ii) longitudinal therapeutic efficacy of a new drug cannot be determined. Thus a robust, non-invasive, in vivo drug screening tool is currently an unmet need...
January 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090277/anti-quorum-sensing-activity-of-substances-isolated-from-wild-berry-associated-bacteria
#13
Suha M Abudoleh, Adel M Mahasneh
BACKGROUND: Quorum Sensing (QS) is a mechanism used by bacteria to determine their physiological activities and coordinate gene expression based on cell to cell signaling. Many bacterial physiological functions are under the regulation of quorum sensing such as virulence, luminescence, motility, sporulation and biofilm formation. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize Quorum Sensing Inhibitory (QSI) substances from epiphytic bacteria residing on wild berries surfaces...
January 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090002/easy-detection-of-hormone-secretion-from-l%C3%AE-t2-cells-by-using-gaussia-luciferase
#14
Kazuhiro Satou, Yuta Mochimaru, Takashi Nakakura, Tomoyuki Kusada, Jun Negishi, Shiori Musha, Nanaka Yoshimura, Yukio Kato, Hideaki Tomura
Reproduction is regulated by gonadotropins secreted from gonadotrophs. The production and secretion of gonadotropins are mainly regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Agonists or antagonists that influence GnRH action on gonadotrophs are important to regulate reproduction; however, these factors have not been fully characterized due to the lack of simple and easy-to-use techniques to detect gonadotropin secretion from gonadotropin-producing cells. In the present study, we found that Gaussia luciferase (Gluc), which was expressed in LβT2 cells, can be secreted like a luteinizing-hormone (LH) upon stimulation with GnRH...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089759/using-pupil-size-and-heart-rate-to-infer-affective-states-during-behavioral-neurophysiology-and-neuropsychology-experiments
#15
Andrew R Mitz, Ravi V Chacko, Philip T Putnam, Peter H Rudebeck, Elisabeth A Murray
BACKGROUND: Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are a valuable research model because of their behavioral, physiological and neuroanatomical similarities to humans. In the absence of language, autonomic activity can provide crucial information about cognitive and affective states during single-unit recording, inactivation and lesion studies. Methods standardized for use in humans are not easily adapted to NHPs and detailed guidance has been lacking. NEW METHOD: We provide guidance for monitoring heart rate and pupil size in the behavioral neurophysiology setting by addressing the methodological issues, pitfalls and solutions for NHP studies...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089716/a-characterization-of-the-antimalarial-activity-of-the-bark-of-cylicodiscus-gabunensis-harms
#16
Omar Aldulaimi, Fidelia I Uche, Hamza Hameed, Haddijatou Mbye, Imran Ullah, Falko Drijfhout, Timothy D W Claridge, Paul Horrocks, Wen-Wu Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE AND AIM: A decoction of the bark of Cylicodiscus gabunensis Harms is used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of malaria in Nigeria. This study aims to validate the antimalarial potency of this decoction in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum and define potential bioactive constituents within the C. gabunensis bark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bioassay-guided separation and fractionation protocol was applied to C. gabunensis extracts, exploiting the use of a Malaria Sybr Green I Fluorescence assay method to monitor antiproliferative effects on parasites as well as define 50% inhibition concentrations...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089547/antibody-profiles-to-wheat-germ-cell-free-system-synthesized-plasmodium-falciparum-proteins-correlate-with-protection-from-symptomatic-malaria-in-uganda
#17
Bernard N Kanoi, Eizo Takashima, Masayuki Morita, Michael T White, Nirianne M Q Palacpac, Edward H Ntege, Betty Balikagala, Adoke Yeka, Thomas G Egwang, Toshihiro Horii, Takafumi Tsuboi
The key targets of protective antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum remain largely unknown. In this study, we determined immunoreactivity to 1827 recombinant proteins derived from 1565 genes representing ∼30% of the entire P. falciparum genome, for identification of novel malaria vaccine candidates. The recombinant proteins were expressed by wheat germ cell-free system, a platform that can synthesize quality plasmodial proteins that elicit biologically active antibodies in animals. Sera were obtained from indigenous residents of a malaria endemic region in Northern Uganda who were enrolled at the start of a rainy season and prospectively monitored for symptomatic malaria episodes for a year...
January 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089290/assessing-circumstances-and-causes-of-dairy-cow-death-in-italian-dairy-farms-through-a-veterinary-practice-survey-2013-2014
#18
Francesca Fusi, Alessandra Angelucci, Valentina Lorenzi, Luca Bolzoni, Luigi Bertocchi
A questionnaire survey about on farm dairy cow mortality was carried out among veterinary practitioners in Italy between January 2013 and May 2014. The study aimed at investigating the main circumstances of death in dairy cows (euthanasia, emergency slaughter or unassisted death), the primary causes and the risk factors of death. Out of 251 dead cows involved (across 137 farms), 54.6% died assisted and 45.4% were found dead. The main causes of death were metabolic/digestive disorders (22.3%) and mastitis/udder problems (17...
January 6, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089267/probes-for-monitoring-regulated-exocytosis
#19
REVIEW
Wen-Hong Li
Regulated secretion is a fundamental cellular process that serves diverse functions in neurobiology, endocrinology, immunology, and numerous other aspects of animal physiology. In response to environmental or biological cues, cells release contents of secretory granules into an extracellular medium to communicate with or impact neighboring or distant cells through paracrine or endocrine signaling. To investigate mechanisms governing stimulus-secretion coupling, to better understand how cells maintain or regulate their secretory activity, and to characterize secretion defects in human diseases, probes for tracking various exocytotic events at the cellular or sub-cellular level have been developed over the years...
January 9, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089167/diabetic-self-care-practices-in-rural-mysuru-southern-karnataka-india-a-need-for-diabetes-self-management-educational-dsme-program
#20
K M Srinath, Madhu Basavegowda, Nandarula Sai Tharuni
CONTEXT: Diabetes and its complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Self care has emerged as a crucial element in the management of diabetes and a key factor associated with the quality of diabetic care. AIMS: The purpose of the study was to assess the self care activities of patients with Type II diabetes mellitus in a rural area of Mysuru district. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A community based cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among 400 diabetic patients in rural Mysore...
December 15, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
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