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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921139/reduced-inattention-and-hyperactivity-and-improved-cognition-after-marine-oil-extract-pcso-524%C3%A2-supplementation-in-children-and-adolescents-with-clinical-and-subclinical-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo
#1
James D Kean, Jerome Sarris, Andrew Scholey, Richard Silberstein, Luke A Downey, Con Stough
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the effects of a marine oil extract (PCSO-524®) on inattention, hyperactivity, mood and cognition in children and adolescents. PCSO-524® is a standardised lipid extract of the New Zealand green-lipped mussel and is an inflammatory modulator that inhibits the 5'-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways and decreases concentrations of the pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid (AA). METHODS: PCSO-524® or a matched placebo was administered for 14 weeks to 144 participants (123 males/21 females; mean age 8...
December 5, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916650/cardiac-oxidative-stress-in-diabetes-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-potential
#2
REVIEW
Alyssa Faria, Shanta J Persaud
Macrovascular complications of diabetes, including diabetic cardiovascular disease (CVD), occur through a number of hyperglycaemia-induced mechanisms that include generation of oxidative stress, accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Cardiac oxidative stress is associated with increased cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy, and reduced cardiac performance and contractility, leading to severe cardiac dysfunction and potentially fatal cardiac events. It occurs under conditions of excessive synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
December 1, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914034/identification-of-oxidized-phosphatidylinositols-present-in-oxldl-and-human-atherosclerotic-plaque
#3
Devin Hasanally, Andrea Edel, Rakesh Chaudhary, Amir Ravandi
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) plays an important role in initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Proatherogenic effects of OxLDL have been attributed to bioactive phospholipids generated during LDL oxidation. It is unknown what effect oxidation has on the phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) molecules in LDL, even though PtdIns is 6% of the total LDL phospholipid pool. We sought to identify and quantitate oxidized phosphatidylinositol (OxPtdIns) species in OxLDL and human atherosclerotic plaque. Bovine liver PtdIns was subjected to non-enzymatic and lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxidation...
December 2, 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913146/effects-of-high-fat-diet-on-plasma-profiles-of-eicosanoid-metabolites-in-mice
#4
Weicang Wang, Jun Yang, Haixia Yang, Katherine Z Sanidad, Bruce D Hammock, Daeyoung Kim, Guodong Zhang
Obesity is a serious health problem in the US and is associated with increased risks of various human diseases. To date, the mechanisms by which obesity increases the risks of a wide range of human diseases are not well understood. Here we used a LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics, which can analyze >100 bioactive lipid mediators produced by cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 enzymes, to analyze plasma profiles of lipid mediators in high-fat diet induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Our results show that the plasma concentrations of epoxyoctadecenoic acids (EpOMEs, also termed as leukotoxins) are significantly increased in plasma of high-fat diet-fed mice, in addition, EpOMEs are among the most abundant lipid mediators detected in mouse plasma...
November 30, 2016: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904990/computer-modeling-in-predicting-the-bioactivity-of-human-5-lipoxygenase-inhibitors
#5
Mengdi Zhang, Zhonghua Xia, Aixia Yan
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is a key enzyme in the inflammatory path. Inhibitors of 5-LOX are useful for the treatment of diseases like arthritis, cancer, and asthma. We have collected a dataset including 220 human 5-LOX inhibitors for classification. A self-organizing map (SOM), a support vector machine (SVM), and a multilayer perceptron (MLP) algorithm were used to build models with selected descriptors for classifying 5-LOX inhibitors into active and weakly active ones. MACCS fingerprints were used in this model building process...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896923/homocysteine-modulates-5-lipoxygenase-expression-level-via-dna-methylation
#6
Jian-Guo Li, Carlos Barrero, Sapna Gupta, Warren D Kruger, Salim Merali, Domenico Praticò
Elevated levels of homocysteinemia (Hcy), a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), have been associated with changes in cell methylation. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by an upregulation of the 5-lipoxygenase (5LO), whose promoter is regulated by methylation. However, whether Hcy activates 5LO enzymatic pathway by influencing the methylation status of its promoter remains unknown. Brains from mice with high Hcy were assessed for the 5LO pathway and neuronal cells exposed to Hcy implemented to study the mechanism(s) regulating 5LO expression levels and the effect on amyloid β formation...
November 29, 2016: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895169/critical-role-of-ltb4-blt1-in-il-23-induced-synovial-inflammation-and-osteoclastogenesis-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#7
Laura Bouchareychas, Eva M Grössinger, Mincheol Kang, Hong Qiu, Iannis E Adamopoulos
IL-23 activates the synthesis and production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in myeloid cells, which modulate inflammatory arthritis. In this study we investigated the role of LTB4 and its receptor LTB4R1 (BLT1) in synovial inflammation and osteoclast differentiation. Specifically, we used IL-23 in vivo gene transfer to induce arthritis in mice and showed that elevated serum LTB4 and synovial expression of 5-lipoxygenase correlated with increased disease severity by histological evaluation and paw swelling compared with GFP gene transfer controls...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893808/common-polymorphisms-in-the-5-lipoxygenase-pathway-and-risk-of-incident-myocardial-infarction-a-danish-case-cohort-study
#8
Anders Gammelmark, Michael S Nielsen, Søren Lundbye-Christensen, Anne Tjønneland, Erik B Schmidt, Kim Overvad
BACKGROUND: The 5-lipoxygenase pathway (5-LOX) has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease and studies have suggested that genetic polymorphisms related to key enzymes in this pathway may confer risk of myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigated the association of pre-selected genetic polymorphisms in four candidate genes of 5-LOX (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase and its activating protein (ALOX-5 and FLAP), leukotriene A4 hydroxylase (LTA4-H) and leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4-S)) with incident MI...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893755/quantification-of-arachidonic-acid-and-its-metabolites-in-rat-tissues-by-uhplc-ms-ms-application-for-the-identification-of-potential-biomarkers-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#9
Qiaoxia Bian, Weihui Wang, Nannan Wang, Yan Peng, Wen Ma, Ronghua Dai
To evaluate the potential relationship between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolome, a UHPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of AA and its cyclooxygenase(COX) and lipoxygenase(LOX) pathway metabolites (15-HETE, 12-HETE, TXA2, 5-HETE, AA, PGI2, PGF2α, 8-HETE, PGD2, PGE2 and LTB4) in rat tissues. The analytes were extracted from tissue samples with a protein precipitation procedure and then separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODSC18 column with 0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891824/lipidomic-profiling-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-importance-of-cytochrome-p450-derived-fatty-acid-epoxides
#10
Weicang Wang, Jun Yang, Weipeng Qi, Haixia Yang, Chang Wang, Bowen Tan, Bruce D Hammock, Yeonhwa Park, Daeyoung Kim, Guodong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Enzymatic metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids leads to formation of bioactive lipid metabolites (LMs). Previous studies have shown that obesity leads to deregulation of LMs in adipose tissues. However, most previous studies have focused on a single or limited number of LMs, and few systematical analyses have been carried out. METHODS: A LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics approach was used, which can analyze >100 LMs produced by cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, to analyze the profile of LMs in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice...
November 28, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891143/comparative-physiological-and-proteomic-analysis-reveal-distinct-regulation-of-peach-skin-quality-traits-by-altitude
#11
Evangelos Karagiannis, Georgia Tanou, Martina Samiotaki, Michail Michailidis, Grigorios Diamantidis, Ioannis S Minas, Athanassios Molassiotis
The role of environment in fruit physiology has been established; however, knowledge regarding the effect of altitude in fruit quality traits is still lacking. Here, skin tissue quality characters were analyzed in peach fruit (cv. June Gold), harvested in 16 orchards located in low (71.5 m mean), or high (495 m mean) altitutes sites. Data indicated that soluble solids concentration and fruit firmness at commercial harvest stage were unaffected by alitute. Peach grown at high-altitude environment displayed higher levels of pigmentation and specific antioxidant-related activity in their skin at the commercial harvest stage...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888917/aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease
#12
REVIEW
Evan S Walgama, Peter H Hwang
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by the triad of asthma, sinonasal polyposis, and aspirin intolerance. The hallmark of the disease is baseline overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway, exacerbated by ingestion of aspirin. Patients with AERD have high rates of recidivistic polyposis following sinus surgery, although the improvement in quality of life following surgery is similar to aspirin-tolerant patients. The diagnosis is secured by a positive aspirin provocation test, usually administered by a medical allergist...
February 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887739/differences-in-the-modulation-of-reactive-species-lipid-bodies-cyclooxygenase-2-5-lipoxygenase-and-ppar-%C3%AE-in-cerebral-malaria-susceptible-and-resistant-mice
#13
Tatiana K S Borges, Érica A R Alves, Henda A R Vasconcelos, Fabiana P Carneiro, André M Nicola, Kelly G Magalhães, Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira
Proinflammatory responses are associated with the severity of cerebral malaria. NO, H2O2, eicosanoid and PPAR-γ are involved in proinflammatory responses, but regulation of these factors is unclear in malaria. This work aimed to compare the expression of eicosanoid-forming-enzymes in cerebral malaria-susceptible CBA and C57BL/6 and -resistant BALB/c mice. Mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, and the survival rates and parasitemia curves were assessed. On the sixth day post-infection, cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase in brain sections were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and, NO, H2O2, lipid bodies, and PPAR-γ expression were assessed in peritoneal macrophages...
November 17, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886056/varietal-dependence-of-glvs-accumulation-and-lox-hpl-pathway-gene-expression-in-four-vitis-vinifera-wine-grapes
#14
Xu Qian, Xiao-Qing Xu, Ke-Ji Yu, Bao-Qing Zhu, Yi-Bin Lan, Chang-Qing Duan, Qiu-Hong Pan
Variety is one of the major factors influencing grape and wine aromatic characteristics. Green leaf volatiles (GLVs), derived from lipoxygenase-hydroperoxides lyase (LOX-HPL) pathway, are important components for the aromatic quality of grapes and wines. However, the varietal difference regarding GLVs accumulation and related gene expression are poorly studied. This work exhibited that the accumulation of various GLVs and the expression of LOX-HPL pathway genes in four Vitis vinifera wine grape cultivars: Syrah, Muscat Tchervine, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885502/fading-of-wound-induced-volatile-release-during-populus-tremula-leaf-expansion
#15
Miguel Portillo-Estrada, Taras Kazantsev, Ülo Niinemets
The release of stress-driven volatiles throughout leaf development has been little studied. Therefore, we subjected poplar leaves during their developmental stage (from 2 days to 2 weeks old) to wounding by a single punch hole, and measured online the wound-induced volatile organic compound emissions. Our study shows that the emission of certain volatile compounds fades with increasing leaf age. Among these compounds we found lipoxygenase products (LOX products), acetaldehyde, methyl benzoate, methyl salicylate, and mono- and sesquiterpenes...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884155/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-lcpufas-and-nordihydroguaiaretic-acid-ndga-modulate-metabolic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-a-spontaneous-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-model-stillman-salgado-rats
#16
Alejandro Dain, Gaston Repossi, Gustavo T Diaz-Gerevini, Jairam Vanamala, Undurti N Das, Aldo R Eynard
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease with alterations in metabolic and inflammatory markers. Stillman Salgado rats (eSS) spontaneously develop type 2 DM by middle age showing progressive impairment of glucose tolerance with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia. We analyzed the effects of supplementation of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with or without nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) added, an antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitor, on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in eSS rats to evaluate whether they can delay development and/or prevent progression of DM...
November 25, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883201/effect-of-treatment-with-5-lipoxygenase-inhibitor-via-2291-atreleuton-on-coronary-plaque-progression-a-serial-ct-angiography-study
#17
Suguru Matsumoto, Reda Ibrahim, Jean C Grégoire, Philippe L L'Allier, Josephine Pressacco, Jean-Claude Tardif, Matthew J Budoff
BACKGROUND: Inflammation has a key role in the process of atherosclerosis. Production of leukotrienes by 5-lipoxygenase has been linked to atherosclerotic plaques and cardiovascular events. HYPOTHESIS: In this study, a selective 5-LO inhibitor will slow plaque progression using serial cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). METHODS: Patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were prospectively assigned to one of 3 VIA-2291 doses (25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg) or placebo by oral administration...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880719/inhibition-of-5-lipoxygenase-downregulates-stemness-and-kills-prostate-cancer-stem-cells-by-triggering-apoptosis-via-activation-of-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase
#18
Sivalokanathan Sarveswaran, Nadimpalli Varma, Shravan Morisetty, Jagadananda Ghosh
The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept suggests that neoplastic clones are maintained exclusively by a rare group of cells possessed with stem cell properties. CSCs are characterized by features that include self-renewal, pluripotency and tumorigenicity, and are thought to be solely responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. A hierarchically organized CSC model is becoming increasingly evident for various types of cancer, including prostate cancer. The CD44 (+), CD133 (+) cell subpopulations were isolated from human prostate tumors which exhibit stem-like properties showing therapeutic-resistance, capacity of self-renewal, and exact recapitulation of the original tumor in vivo...
November 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875023/myxochelin-inspired-5-lipoxygenase-inhibitors-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation
#19
Sebastian Schieferdecker, Stefanie König, Simona Pace, Oliver Werz, Markus Nett
A total of 48 analogues of the natural product myxochelin A were prepared and evaluated for their inhibitory effects on human 5-lipoxygenase in both cell-free and cell-based assays. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that the secondary alcohol function and only chiral center of myxochelin A is not required for the biological activity. By expanding the diaminoalkane linker of the two aromatic residues it was possible to generate a myxochelin derivative with superior activity against 5-lipoxygenase in intact cells...
November 22, 2016: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862450/arachidonic-acid-and-lipoxin-a4-attenuate-alloxan-induced-cytotoxicity-to-rin5f-cells-in-vitro-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-in-vivo
#20
Naveen K V Gundala, Vegi G M Naidu, Undurti N Das
OBJECTIVE: We studied whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can protect rat insulinoma (RIN5F) cells against alloxan-induced apoptosis in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM) in vivo and if so, mechanism of this beneficial action. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In vitro study was conducted using RIN5F cells while in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats. The effect of PUFAs, cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors, various eicosanoids and PUFAs metabolites: lipoxin A4 (LXA4), resolvin D2 and protectin against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5F cells and type 1 DM was studied...
November 15, 2016: BioFactors
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