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Lipoxygenase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544187/chemical-composition-and-immuno-modulatory-effects-of-urtica-dioica-l-stinging-nettle-extracts
#1
Marina Francišković, Raquel Gonzalez-Pérez, Dejan Orčić, Fermín Sánchez de Medina, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Emilija Svirčev, Nataša Simin, Neda Mimica-Dukić
The purpose of this work was to determine the chemical profile of stinging nettle and to provide an insight into the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the immune response. Qualitative and quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses indicated that phenolic acids (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid as dominant) and flavonol glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) are present in the aerial parts, while lignans (secoisolariciresinol, 9,9'-bisacetyl-neo-olivil and their glucosides) were detected in the root...
May 24, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536571/lipoxygenase-activity-accelerates-programmed-spore-germination-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#2
Gregory J Fischer, William Bacon, Jun Yang, Jonathan M Palmer, Taylor Dagenais, Bruce D Hammock, Nancy P Keller
The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus initiates invasive growth through a programmed germination process that progresses from dormant spore to swollen spore (SS) to germling (GL) and ultimately invasive hyphal growth. We find a lipoxygenase with considerable homology to human Alox5 and Alox15, LoxB, that impacts the transitions of programmed spore germination. Overexpression of loxB (OE::loxB) increases germination with rapid advance to the GL stage. However, deletion of loxB (ΔloxB) or its signal peptide only delays progression to the SS stage in the presence of arachidonic acid (AA); no delay is observed in minimal media...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530811/multi-targeted-imidazoles-potential-therapeutic-leads-for-alzheimer-s-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
Anne-Sophie Cornec, Ludovica Monti, Jane Kovalevich, Vishruti Makani, Michael J James, Krishna G Vijayendran, Killian Oukoloff, Yuemang Yao, Virginia M-Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski, Amos B Smith Iii, Kurt R Brunden, Carlo Ballatore
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex, multifactorial disease in which different neuropathological mechanisms are likely involved, including those associated with pathological tau and Aβ species, as well as neuroinflammation. In this context, the development of single multi-targeted therapeutics directed against two or more disease mechanisms could be advantageous. Starting from a series of 1,5-diarylimidazoles with microtubule (MT)-stabilizing activity and structural similarities with known NSAIDs, we conducted structure-activity relationship studies that led to the identification of multi-targeted prototypes with activities as MT-stabilizing agents and/or inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathways...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528958/investigation-of-calcium-dependent-activity-and-conformational-dynamics-of-zebra-fish-12-lipoxygenase
#4
Monica Mittal, Mahmudul Hasan, Navisraj Balagunaseelan, Alexander Fauland, Craig Wheelock, Olof Rådmark, Jesper Z Haeggström, Agnes Rinaldo-Matthis
BACKGROUND: A 12-lipoxygenase in zebra fish (zf12-LOX) was found to be required for normal embryonic development and LOXs are of great interest for targeted drug designing. In this study, we investigate the structural-functional aspects of zf12-LOX in response to calcium. METHODS: A soluble version of zf12-LOX was created by mutagenesis. Based on multiple sequence alignment, we mutated the putative calcium-responsive amino acids in N-PLAT domain of soluble zf12-LOX...
May 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528513/the-expansive-role-of-oxylipins-on-platelet-biology
#5
REVIEW
Jennifer Yeung, Megan Hawley, Michael Holinstat
In mammals, three major oxygenases, cyclooxygenases (COXs), lipoxygenases (LOXs), and cytochrome P450 (CYP450), generate an assortment of unique lipid mediators (oxylipins) from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) which exhibit pro- or anti-thrombotic activity. Over the years, novel oxylipins generated from the interplay of theoxygenase activity in various cells, such as the specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), have been identified and investigated in inflammatory disease models. Although platelets have been implicated in inflammation, the role and mechanism of these SPMs produced from immune cells on platelet function are still unclear...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522865/lipoxygenase-2-from-cyanothece-sp-controls-dioxygen-insertion-by-steric-shielding-and-substrate-fixation
#6
Julia Newie, Piotr Neumann, Martin Werner, Ricardo A Mata, Ralf Ficner, Ivo Feussner
The biological function of lipoxygenases depends on the regio and stereo specific formation of fatty acid-derived hydroperoxides and different concepts exist to explain the mechanism that directs dioxygen to a specific carbon atom within the substrate. Here, we report the 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure of a cyanobacterial lipoxygenase that produces bis-allylic hydroperoxides (CspLOX2). Site directed mutagenesis experiments combined with computational approaches reveal that residues around the active site direct dioxygen to a preferred carbon atom and stereo configuration in the substrate fatty acid...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521385/-ziziphus-oxyphylla-ethnobotanical-ethnopharmacological-and-phytochemical-review
#7
REVIEW
Rizwan Ahmad, Niyaz Ahmad, Atta Abbas Naqvi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ziziphus oxyphylla (ZO) is distributed mainly in tropic and warm temperate regions in the world. Pakistan owns six (06) indigenous species of genus Ziziphus out of which ZO is widely used for traditional treatment of different ailments such as diabetes, jaundice and liver diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present review aims to provide in-depth and comprehensive literature overview, regarding botanical, chemical and biological characteristics of the plant alongwith phytochemical isolation and mechanistic studies to support its folklore and traditional uses...
May 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515378/direct-involvement-of-arachidonic-acid-in-the-development-of-ear-edema-via-trpv3
#8
Takao Sanaki, Erika Kasai-Yamamoto, Takeshi Yoshioka, Shota Sakai, Kohei Yuyama, Takuji Fujiwara, Yoshito Numata, Yasuyuki Igarashi
Arachidonic acid (AA) plays a pivotal role in the development of edema via its oxidized metabolites derived from cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX), and is recently recognized as an activator of TRPV3. However, it is not clear whether AA plays some TRPV3-mediated pathological roles in the development of edema. Pharmacological and histological studies using ICR(TRPV3+/+) and ICR(TRPV3-/-) mice indicated that higher ear edema responses to topical application of AA were observed in ICR(TRPV3+/+) mice compared with ICR(TRPV3-/-) mice...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515072/%C3%AF-3-and-%C3%AF-6-long-chain-pufas-and-their-enzymatic-metabolites-in-neovascular-eye-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Yan Gong, Zhongjie Fu, Raffael Liegl, Jing Chen, Ann Hellström, Lois Eh Smith
Neovascular eye diseases, including retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, threaten the visual health of children and adults. Current treatment options, including anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy and laser retinal photocoagulation, have limitations and are associated with adverse effects; therefore, the identification of additional therapies is highly desirable. Both clinical and experimental studies show that dietary ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) reduce retinal and choroidal angiogenesis...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512667/involvement-of-leukotriene-b4-released-from-keratinocytes-in-itch-associated-response-to-intradermal-interleukin-31-in-mice
#10
Tsugunobu Andoh, Ayako Harada, Yasushi Kuraishi
A recent study suggests that interleukin-31 (IL-31) exerts its effect via indirect mechanisms rather than through direct stimulation of cutaneous nerves. However, the underlying peripheral mechanisms of IL-31-induced itch in the skin remain unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the peripheral mechanisms underlying IL-31-induced itch in mice. IL-31-induced itch-related response was inhibited by anti-allergic drugs (tranilast and azelastine), but not by an H1 histamine receptor antagonist (terfenadine)...
May 17, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507800/formyl-peptide-receptor-1-suppresses-gastric-cancer-angiogenesis-and-growth-by-exploiting-inflammation-resolution-pathways
#11
Nella Prevete, Federica Liotti, Anna Illiano, Angela Amoresano, Piero Pucci, Amato de Paulis, Rosa Marina Melillo
Chronic inflammation can result from inadequate engagement of resolution mechanisms, mainly accomplished by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) arising from the metabolic activity of lipoxygenases (ALOX5/15) on ω-6 or ω-3 essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We previously demonstrated that formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) suppresses gastric cancer (GC) by inhibiting its inflammatory/angiogenic potential. In this study, we asked whether FPR1 exploits inflammation resolution pathways to suppress GC angiogenesis and growth...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506902/ski3301-a-purified-herbal-extract-from-sophora-tonkinensis-inhibited-airway-inflammation-and-bronchospasm-in-allergic-asthma-animal-models-in-vivo
#12
Hunseung Yoo, Minseok Kang, Sungsoo Pyo, Hee-Sung Chae, Keun Ho Ryu, Jinwoong Kim, Young-Won Chin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sophora tonkinensis (Leguminosae, ST) is a traditional herbal plant in Korea and China. Its roots and rhizomes have been used to dissipate heat, to clear toxic material and to treat acute pharyngolaryngeal infections and sore throats. AIM OF STUDY: In this study, we tried to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic effects of a purified extract (SKI3301) from Sophora tonkinensis using in vitro enzyme assay models and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma animal models...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506553/inhibition-of-12-15-lo-ameliorates-cvb3-induced-myocarditis-by-activating-nrf2
#13
Feng Ai, Jiayong Zheng, Yanwei Zhang, Taibing Fan
Cardiac 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) was reported to be markedly up-regulated and involved in the development of heart failure. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidation roles in response to oxidative stress. However, the role of 12/15-LO in viral myocarditis (VMC) and its underlying molecular mechanism have not yet been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that 12/15-LO was up-regulated and Nrf2 was down-regulated in coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-infected mice and cardiac myocytes...
May 12, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504669/nitric-oxide-prevents-a-pathogen-permissive-granulocytic-inflammation-during-tuberculosis
#14
Bibhuti B Mishra, Rustin R Lovewell, Andrew J Olive, Guoliang Zhang, Wenfei Wang, Eliseo Eugenin, Clare M Smith, Jia Yao Phuah, Jarukit E Long, Michelle L Dubuke, Samantha G Palace, Jon D Goguen, Richard E Baker, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Rabinarayan Mishra, Matthew G Booty, Christina E Baer, Scott A Shaffer, Veronique Dartois, Beth A McCormick, Xinchun Chen, Christopher M Sassetti
Nitric oxide contributes to protection from tuberculosis. It is generally assumed that this protection is due to direct inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth, which prevents subsequent pathological inflammation. In contrast, we report that nitric oxide primarily protects mice by repressing an interleukin-1- and 12/15-lipoxygenase-dependent neutrophil recruitment cascade that promotes bacterial replication. Using M. tuberculosis mutants as indicators of the pathogen's environment, we inferred that granulocytic inflammation generates a nutrient-replete niche that supports M...
May 15, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503046/reflections-about-osteoarthritis-and-curcuma-longa
#15
REVIEW
Marina Cristina Akuri, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Raíssa Meira Val, Elen Landgraf Guiguer
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic inflammatory degenerative process that affects joints such as the hands, hips, shoulders, feet, spine, and especially knees in millions of people worldwide. Some authors have shown that Curcuma longa components may exhibit benefic effects in the treatment of degenerative diseases as OA. This plant belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and it is popularly known as turmeric or saffron. This review intended to perform a retrospective search to identify studies involving humans and animal models...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502466/purification-and-site-directed-mutagenesis-of-linoleate-9s-dioxygenase-allene-oxide-synthase-of-fusarium-oxysporum-confirms-the-oxygenation-mechanism
#16
Yang Chen, Fredrik Jernerén, Ernst H Oliw
Plants and fungi form jasmonic acid from α-linolenic acid. The first two steps of biosynthesis in plants occur by sequential transformation by 13S-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase (AOS). The biosynthesis in fungi may follow this classical scheme, but the only fungal AOS discovered so far are cytochromes P450 (CYP) fused to 8- and 9-dioxygenases (DOX). In the present report, we purified recombinant 9S-DOX-AOS of Fusarium oxysporum from cell lysate by cobalt affinity chromatography to near homogeneity and studied key residues by site-directed mutagenesis...
May 11, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502039/possible-involvement-of-the-lipoxygenase-and-leukotriene-signaling-pathways-in-cisplatin-mediated-renal-toxicity
#17
Osama A Alkhamees, Abdulaziz S Alroujayee, Hatem M Abuohashish, Fatima S Alrojayee, Mohammed M Ahmed
PURPOSE: The present study examined the possible involvement of the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway in cisplatin (CPT)-induced nephrotoxicity. METHODS: Wistar albino rats were challenged with CPT IP injection (7.5 mg/kg) and were sacrificed after one week. Signs of renal dysfunction, including urea and creatinine clearance levels and renal histological structure, were investigated. Gene and protein expression levels of different LOX pathway enzymes and products, including 5-LOX, 12-LOX, 15-LOX, 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP), leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4 hydrolase), leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4 synthase), LTB4 receptor, and cysteinyl (cys) LT receptor types 1 and 2, were also determined in the kidneys using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively...
May 13, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501682/the-role-of-arachidonic-acid-cyclooxygenase-cascade-phosphodiesterase-iv-and-rho-kinase-in-h2s-induced-relaxation-in-the-mouse-corpus-cavernosum
#18
Fatma Aydinoglu, Nuran Ogulener
BACKGROUND: Penile corpus cavernosum is an extremely vascularized tissue and cavernosal smooth muscle tone is regulated by the balance between contractile and relaxant factor. We investigated the possible role of arachidonic acid/cyclooxygenase cascade, phosphodiesterase IV (PDEIV) and Rho-kinase in exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-induced relaxation in mouse corpus cavernosum. METHODS: The relaxant response to H2S (NaHS as exogenous H2S; 1-1000μM) were obtained in isolated mouse corpus cavernosum tissues which pre-contracted by phenylephrine (5μM)...
February 24, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500894/mercury-induced-oxidative-stress-dna-damage-and-activation-of-antioxidative-system-and-hsp70-induction-in-duckweed-lemna-minor
#19
Tingting Zhang, Qianqian Lu, Chunlei Su, Yaru Yang, Dan Hu, Qinsong Xu
Mercury uptake and its effects on physiology, biochemistry and genomic stability were investigated in Lemna minor after 2 and 6d of exposure to 0-30μM Hg. The accumulation of Hg increased in a concentration- and duration-dependent manner, and was positively correlated with the leaf damage. Oxidative stress after Hg exposure was evidenced in L. minor by a significant decrease in photosynthetic pigments, an increase in malondialdehyde and lipoxygenase activities (total enzyme activity and isoenzymes activity)...
May 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496472/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-n-5-pyridin-2-yl-1-3-4-thiadiazol-2-yl-benzamide-derivatives-as-lipoxygenase-inhibitor-with-potential-anticancer-activity
#20
Alireza Aliabadi, Ahmad Mohammadi-Farani, Sahar Roodabeh, Farahnaz Ahmadi
In the recent years, the role of LOX enzymes in the origin of neoplastic diseases such as colorectal, skin, pancreatic and renal cancers has been confirmed. A new series of 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives bearing 2-pyridyl moiety was synthesized and the cytotoxicity of the members of this series was assessed using MTT protocol. Enzyme inhibitory activity of the prepared compounds was also tested against 15-lipoxygenase-1 as a novel target for the discovery of anticancer drugs. PC3, HT29 and SKNMC cell lines were utilized and the obtained results were compared with doxorubicin...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
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