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Lipoxygenase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330355/fatty-acids-and-related-lipid-mediators-in-the-regulation-of-cutaneous-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Magdalena Kiezel-Tsugunova, Alexandra C Kendall, Anna Nicolaou
Human skin has a distinct profile of fatty acids and related bioactive lipid mediators that regulate many aspects of epidermal and dermal homeostasis, including immune and inflammatory reactions. Sebum lipids act as effective antimicrobial agents, shape immune cell communications and contribute to the epidermal lipidome. The essential fatty acid linoleic acid is crucial for the structure of the epidermal barrier, while polyunsaturated fatty acids act as precursors to eicosanoids, octadecanoids and docosanoids through cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated reactions, and endocannabinoids and N-acyl ethanolamines...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329232/novel-6-and-7-substituted-coumarins-with-inhibitory-action-against-lipoxygenase-and-tumor-associated-carbonic-anhydrase-ix
#2
Aikaterini Peperidou, Silvia Bua, Murat Bozdag, Dimitra Hadjipavlou-Litina, Claudiu T Supuran
A series of carboxamide derivatives of 6- and 7-substituted coumarins have been prepared by an original procedure starting from the corresponding 6- or 7-hydroxycoumarins which were alkylated with ethyl iodoacetate, and the obtained ester was converted to the corresponding carboxylic acids which were thereafter reacted with a series of aromatic/aliphatic/heterocyclic amines leading to the desired amides. The new derivatives were investigated as inhibitors of two enzymes, human carbonic anhydrases (hCAs) and soy bean lipoxygenase (LOX)...
January 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327928/one-step-bioconversion-of-fatty-acids-into-c8-c9-volatile-aroma-compounds-by-a-multifunctional-lipoxygenase-cloned-from-pyropia-haitanensis
#3
Zhu-Jun Zhu, Hai-Min Chen, Juanjuan Chen, Rui Yang, Xiao-Jun Yan
The multifunctional lipoxygenase PhLOX cloned from Pyropia haitanensis was expressed in E. coli with 24.4 mg•L-1 yield. PhLOX could catalyze the one-step bioconversion of C18-C22 fatty acids into C8-C9 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), displaying higher catalytic efficiency for eicosenoic and docosenoic acids than for octadecenoic acids. C20:5 was the most suitable substrate among the tested fatty acids. The C8-C9 VOCs were generated in good yields from fatty acids, e.g., 2E-nonenal from C20:4, and 2E,6Z-nonadienal from C20:5...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318449/reduction-oxidation-redox-system-in-radiation-induced-normal-tissue-injury-molecular-mechanisms-and-implications-in-radiation-therapeutics
#4
REVIEW
R Yahyapour, E Motevaseli, A Rezaeyan, H Abdollahi, B Farhood, M Cheki, S Rezapoor, D Shabeeb, A E Musa, M Najafi, V Villa
Every year, millions of cancer patients undergo radiation therapy for treating and destroying abnormal cell growths within normal cell environmental conditions. Thus, ionizing radiation can have positive therapeutic effects on cancer cells as well as post-detrimental effects on surrounding normal tissues. Previous studies in the past years have proposed that the reduction and oxidation metabolism in cells changes in response to ionizing radiation and has a key role in radiation toxicity to normal tissue. Free radicals generated from ionizing radiation result in upregulation of cyclooxygenases (COXs), nitric oxide synthase (NOSs), lipoxygenases (LOXs) as well as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase), and their effected changes in mitochondrial functions are markedly noticeable...
January 9, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317615/biotransformation-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-to-bioactive-hepoxilins-and-trioxilins-by-microbial-enzymes
#5
Jung-Ung An, Yong-Seok Song, Kyoung-Rok Kim, Yoon-Joo Ko, Do-Young Yoon, Deok-Kun Oh
Hepoxilins (HXs) and trioxilins (TrXs) are involved in physiological processes such as inflammation, insulin secretion and pain perception in human. They are metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, formed by 12-lipoxygenase (LOX) and epoxide hydrolase (EH) expressed by mammalian cells. Here, we identify ten types of HXs and TrXs, produced by the prokaryote Myxococcus xanthus, of which six types are new, namely, HXB5, HXD3, HXE3, TrXB5, TrXD3 and TrXE3...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317586/-relationship-between-the-gene-polymorphisms-of-oxidative-metabolism-enzyme-of-exogenous-chemicals-and-the-susceptibility-to-neoplasms
#6
Guanghui Xia, Jian'an Hu
The gene polymorphisms of human being will cause abnormality in the expression of corresponding gene, which is closely related to the physiological function and disease. Cytochrome P450, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase are vital enzymes that mediated the oxidative metabolism process for exogenous chemicals, and play important roles in activating the indirect carcinogens and metabolizing clinical drug; the gene polymorphisms of these enzymes can change the expression and activity of enzymes, affect the metabolic transformation of carcinogens, and then give rise to difference in the susceptibility to neoplasms...
December 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316682/effect-of-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-oxylipins-in-a-routine-clinical-setting
#7
Christoph Schmöcker, Ingrid W Zhang, Stefanie Kiesler, Ursula Kassner, Annika I Ostermann, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Nils H Schebb, Karsten-H Weylandt
Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) is the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), especially in Western diet. A high omega-6/omega-3 ratio in Western diets is implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes. Studies in animal models and in humans have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA (n-3 PUFA) in a variety of diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias and inflammatory diseases, as well as breast and colon cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of n-3 PUFA are still not well understood...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316679/comparison-of-conventional-and-microwave-treatment-on-soymilk-for-inactivation-of-trypsin-inhibitors-and-in-vitro-protein-digestibility
#8
Brinda Harish Vagadia, Sai Kranthi Vanga, Ashutosh Singh, Yvan Gariepy, Vijaya Raghavan
Soymilk is lower in calories compared to cow's milk, since it is derived from a plant source (no cholesterol) and is an excellent source of protein. Despite the beneficial factors, soymilk is considered as one of the most controversial foods in the world. It contains serine protease inhibitors which lower its nutritional value and digestibility. Processing techniques for the elimination of trypsin inhibitors and lipoxygenase, which have shorter processing time and lower production costs are required for the large-scale manufacturing of soymilk...
January 8, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304179/thymus-mastichina-l-essential-oils-from-murcia-spain-composition-and-antioxidant-antienzymatic-and-antimicrobial-bioactivities
#9
Ana-Belen Cutillas, Alejandro Carrasco, Ramiro Martinez-Gutierrez, Virginia Tomas, Jose Tudela
The compositions of essential oils (EOs) from Spanish marjoram (Thymus mastichina L.) grown in several bioclimatic zones of Murcia (SE Spain) were studied to determine their absolute and relative concentrations using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 1,8-Cineole and linalool were the main components, followed by α-pinene, β-pinene and α-terpineol. (-)-Linalool, (+)-α-terpineol and (+)-α-pinene were the most abundant enantiomers. When the antioxidant capacities of T. mastichina EOs and their compounds were measured by five methods, EOs and linalool, linalyl acetate, α-terpinene and γ-terpinene, among others, showed antioxidant activities...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302304/novel-mechanisms-for-organic-acid-mediated-aluminium-tolerance-in-roots-and-leaves-of-two-contrasting-soybean-genotypes
#10
Shou-Cheng Huang, Shu-Juan Chu, Yu-Min Guo, Ya-Jing Ji, Dong-Qing Hu, Jing Cheng, Gui-Hua Lu, Rong-Wu Yang, Cheng-Yi Tang, Jin-Liang Qi, Yong-Hua Yang
Aluminium (Al) toxicity is one of the most important limiting factors for crop yield in acidic soils. However, the mechanisms that confer Al tolerance still remain largely unknown. To understand the molecular mechanism that confers different tolerance to Al, we performed global transcriptome analysis to the roots and leaves of two contrasting soybean genotypes, BX10 (Al-tolerant) and BD2 (Al-sensitive) under 0 and 50 μM Al3+ treatments, respectively. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that the expression levels of the genes involved in lipid/carbohydrate metabolism and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signalling pathway were highly induced in the roots and leaves of both soybean genotypes...
November 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302056/human-macrophages-differentially-produce-specific-resolvin-or-leukotriene-signals-that-depend-on-bacterial-pathogenicity
#11
Oliver Werz, Jana Gerstmeier, Stephania Libreros, Xavier De la Rosa, Markus Werner, Paul C Norris, Nan Chiang, Charles N Serhan
Proinflammatory eicosanoids (prostaglandins and leukotrienes) and specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) are temporally regulated during infections. Here we show that human macrophage phenotypes biosynthesize unique lipid mediator signatures when exposed to pathogenic bacteria. E. coli and S. aureus each stimulate predominantly proinflammatory 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase pathways (i.e., leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2) in M1 macrophages. These pathogens stimulate M2 macrophages to produce SPMs including resolvin D2 (RvD2), RvD5, and maresin-1...
January 4, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301865/analysis-of-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acids-hetes-in-human-whole-blood-by-chiral-ultrahigh-performance-liquid-chromatgraphy-uhplc-electron-capture-atmospheric-pressure-chemical-ionization-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-ecapci-hrms
#12
Liudmila L Mazaleuskaya, Ashkan Salamatipour, Dimitra Sarantopoulou, Liwei Weng, Garret A FitzGerald, Ian A Blair, Clementina Mesaros
The biosynthesis of eicosanoids occurs enzymatically via lipoxygenases (LOXs), cyclooxygenases (COXs), and cytochrome P450, or through non-enzymatic free radical reactions. The enzymatic routes are highly enantiospecific. Chiral separation and high sensitivity detection methods are required to differentiate and quantify enantioselective HETEs (hydroxy-(5Z,8Z,11Z,13E)-eicosatetraenoic acids) in complex biological fluids. We report here a targeted chiral lipidomics analysis of human blood using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatgraphy (UHPLC)-electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/high resolution mass spectrometry (ECAPCI/HRMS)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301345/eicosanoid-diversity-of-stony-corals
#13
Helike Lõhelaid, Nigulas Samel
Oxylipins are well-established lipid mediators in plants and animals. In mammals, arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids control inflammation, fever, blood coagulation, pain perception and labor, and, accordingly, are used as drugs, while lipoxygenases (LOX), as well as cyclooxygenases (COX) serve as therapeutic targets for drug development. In soft corals, eicosanoids are synthesized on demand from AA by LOX, COX, and catalase-related allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase (cAOS-LOX) and hydroperoxide lyase-lipoxygenase (cHPL-LOX) fusion proteins...
January 3, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301045/ozone-triggered-surface-uptake-and-stress-volatile-emissions-in-nicotiana-tabacum-wisconsin
#14
Arooran Kanagendran, Leila Pazouki, Shuai Li, Bin Liu, Astrid Kännaste, Ülo Niinemets
Ozone is a strong oxidant and a key stress elicitor. The immediate and longer term impacts of ozone are poorly understood in species with emission of both de novo synthesized and stored volatiles, such a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which has terpene-containing glandular trichomes on the leaf surface. In this study, we exposed N. tabacum 'Wisconsin' leaves to acute ozone doses of 0 (control), 400, 600, 800, and 1000 ppb for 30 min and studied the effects of ozone exposure on ozone uptake, gas-exchange characteristics, and emissions of lipoxygenase pathway volatiles, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299942/docking-assisted-design-of-novel-4-adamantanyl-2-thiazolylimino-5-arylidene-4-thiazolidinones-as-potent-nsaids
#15
O Kouatly, Ph Eleftheriou, A Petrou, D Hadjipavlou-Litina, A Geronikaki
Docking analysis was used to predict the effectiveness of adamantanyl insertion in improving cycloxygenase/lipoxygenase (COX/LOX) inhibitory action of previously tested 2-thiazolylimino-5-arylidene-4-thiazolidinones. The crystal structure data of human 5-LOX (3O8Y), ovine COX-1 (1EQH) and mouse COX-2 (3ln1) were used for docking analysis. All docking calculations were carried out using AutoDock 4.2 software. Following prediction results, 11 adamantanyl derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for biological action...
January 4, 2018: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299197/inhibition-of-5-lipoxygenase-inhibitor-zileuton-in-high-fat-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progression-model
#16
Kuifen Ma, Yihe Chen, Xingguang Liang, Jing Miao, Qingwei Zhao
Objectives: Arachidonic Acid/5-lipoxygenase (AA/5-LOX) pathway connects lipid metabolism and proinflammatory cytokine, which are both related to the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of AA/5-LOX pathway in progression of NAFLD, and the effect of zileuton, an inhibitor of 5-LOX, in this model. Materials and Methods: Animal model for progression of NAFLD was established via feeding high saturated fat diet (HFD)...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296755/12-hetre-inhibits-platelet-reactivity-and-thrombosis-in-part-through-the-prostacyclin-receptor
#17
Benjamin E Tourdot, Reheman Adili, Zitha R Isingizwe, Meral Ebrahem, J Cody Freedman, Theodore R Holman, Michael Holinstat
The dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA)-derived metabolite of 12-lipoxygenase, 12-hydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid (12-HETrE), was recently shown to potently inhibit thrombus formation without prolonging bleeding in murine models. Although 12-HETrE was found to inhibit platelet activation via the Gαs signaling pathway, the Gαs-coupled receptor by which 12-HETrE mediates its antiplatelet effects has yet to be identified. Defining the receptor by which 12-HETrE exerts its effects is key to determining its therapeutic potential as an antiplatelet drug...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290980/up-regulation-of-5-lipoxygenase-by-inhibition-of-cathepsin-g-enhances-trail-induced-apoptosis-through-down-regulation-of-survivin
#18
Seon Min Woo, Kyoung-Jin Min, Seung Un Seo, Shin Kim, Jong-Wook Park, Dae Kyu Song, Hyun-Shik Lee, Sang Hyun Kim, Taeg Kyu Kwon
Cathepsin G is a serine protease secreted from activated neutrophils, it has important roles in inflammation and immune response. Moreover, cathepsin G promotes tumor cell-cell adhesion and migration in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether inhibition of cathepsin G could sensitize TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells. An inhibitor of cathepsin G [Cathepsin G inhibitor I (Cat GI); CAS 429676-93-7] markedly induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN, and A498), lung cancer (A549) and cervical cancer (Hela) cells...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289998/molecular-signature-of-nitric-oxide-on-major-cancer-hallmarks-of-colorectal-carcinoma
#19
REVIEW
Paramita Mandal
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the one of the most important diseases throughout the world. Several aetiological risk factors, viz. sedentary life style, smoking, alcohol intake, less physical activity, red meat, and microbiota, are associated with the development of CRC. Molecular pathophysiology of CRC implies inflammation, metastasis, apotosis and angiogenesis. Inflammation involves interaction between various immune cells, inflammatory cells, chemokines, cytokines, and pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways, which may lead to signalling towards, tumour cell proliferation, growth, and invasion whereas nitric oxide (NO) has been associated with metastasis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis...
December 30, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288756/is-comfrey-root-more-than-toxic-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-salvianolic-acids-among-antioxidant-polyphenols-in-comfrey-symphytum-officinale-l-roots
#20
Adriana Trifan, Sebastian E W Opitz, Roland Josuran, Andreas Grubelnik, Nils Esslinger, Samuel Peter, Sarah Bräm, Nadja Meier, Evelyn Wolfram
Comfrey root preparations are used for the external treatment of joint distortions and myalgia, due to its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Up to date, key activity-determining constituents of comfrey root extracts have not been completely elucidated. Therefore, we applied different approaches to further characterize a comfrey root extract (65% ethanol). The phenolic profile of comfrey root sample was characterized by HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS. Rosmarinic acid was identified as main phenolic constituent (7...
December 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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