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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343049/stabilisation-of-spent-mushroom-substrate-for-application-as-a-plant-growth-promoting-organic-amendment
#1
Fabiana S Paula, Enrico Tatti, Florence Abram, Jude Wilson, Vincent O'Flaherty
Over three million tonnes of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) are produced in Europe every year as a by-product of the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. The management of SMS has become an increasing challenge for the mushroom production industry, and finding environmentally and economically sustainable solutions for this organic residue is, therefore, highly desirable. Due to its physical properties and nutrient content, SMS has great potential to be employed in agricultural and horticultural sectors, and further contribute to reduce the use of non-renewable resources, such as peat...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341127/effects-of-coal-contamination-on-early-life-history-processes-of-a-reef-building-coral-acropora-tenuis
#2
Kathryn L E Berry, Mia O Hoogenboom, Diane L Brinkman, Kathryn A Burns, Andrew P Negri
Successful reproduction and larval dispersal are important for the persistence of marine invertebrate populations, and these early life history processes can be sensitive to marine pollution. Coal is emerging as a contaminant of interest due to the proximity of ports and shipping lanes to coral reefs. To assess the potential hazard of this contaminant, gametes, newly developed embryos, larvae and juveniles of the coral Acropora tenuis were exposed to a range of coal leachate, suspended coal, and coal smothering treatments...
January 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340599/dna-methylation-changes-at-infertility-genes-in-newborn-twins-conceived-by-in-vitro-fertilisation
#3
Juan E Castillo-Fernandez, Yuk Jing Loke, Sebastian Bass-Stringer, Fei Gao, Yudong Xia, Honglong Wu, Hanlin Lu, Yuan Liu, Jun Wang, Tim D Spector, Richard Saffery, Jeffrey M Craig, Jordana T Bell
BACKGROUND: The association of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and DNA methylation has been studied predominantly at regulatory regions of imprinted genes and at just thousands of the ~28 million CpG sites in the human genome. METHODS: We investigated the links between IVF and DNA methylation patterns in whole cord blood cells (n = 98) and cord blood mononuclear cells (n = 82) from newborn twins using genome-wide methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing...
March 24, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340453/long-term-nitrogen-deposition-increases-heathland-carbon-sequestration
#4
Chris D Field, Chris D Evans, Nancy B Dise, Jane R Hall, Simon J M Caporn
The large increases in reactive nitrogen (N) deposition in developed countries since the Industrial Revolution have had a marked impact on ecosystem functioning, including declining species richness, shifts in species composition, and increased N leaching. A potential mitigation of these harmful effects is the action of N as a fertiliser, which, through increasing primary productivity (and subsequently, organic matter production), has the potential to increase ecosystem carbon (C) storage. Here we report the response of an upland heath to 10years of experimental N addition...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338049/breeding-system-and-spatial-isolation-from-congeners-strongly-constrain-seed-set-in-an-insect-pollinated-apomictic-tree-sorbus-subcuneata-rosaceae
#5
Tracey J Hamston, Robert J Wilson, Natasha de Vere, Tim C G Rich, Jamie R Stevens, James E Cresswell
In plants, apomixis results in the production of clonal offspring via seed and can provide reproductive assurance for isolated individuals. However, many apomicts require pollination to develop functional endosperm for successful seed set (pseudogamy) and therefore risk pollination-limitation, particularly in self-incompatible species that require heterospecific pollen. We used microsatellite paternity analysis and hand pollinations to investigate pollen-limitation in Sorbus subcuneata, a threatened endemic tree that co-occurs with its congener, S...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333045/the-manureecomine-pilot-installation-advanced-integration-of-technologies-for-the-management-of-organics-and-nutrients-in-livestock-waste
#6
Cristina Pintucci, Marta Carballa, Sam Varga, Jimena Sarli, Lai Peng, Johannes Bousek, Chiara Pedizzi, Maël Ruscalleda, Elena Tarragó, Delphine Prat, Giovanni Colica, Merijn Picavet, Joop Colsen, Oscar Benito, Marilos Balaguer, Sebastià Puig, Juan M Lema, Jesús Colprim, Werner Fuchs, Siegfried E Vlaeminck
Manure represents an exquisite mining opportunity for nutrient recovery (nitrogen and phosphorus), and for their reuse as renewable fertilisers. The ManureEcoMine proposes an integrated approach of technologies, operated in a pilot-scale installation treating swine manure (83.7%) and Ecofrit(®) (16.3%), a mix of vegetable residues. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion was performed for 150 days, the final organic loading rate was 4.6 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), with a biogas production rate of 1.4 Nm(3) m(-3) d(-1). The digester was coupled to an ammonia side-stream stripping column and a scrubbing unit for free ammonia inhibition reduction in the digester, and nitrogen recovery as ammonium sulphate...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325704/the-efficiency-of-home-composting-programmes-and-compost-quality
#7
M A Vázquez, M Soto
The efficiency of home composting programmes and the quality of the produced compost was evaluated in eight rural areas carrying out home composting programmes (up to 880 composting bins) for all household biowaste including meat and fish leftovers. Efficiency was analysed in terms of reduction of organic waste collected by the municipal services. An efficiency of 77% on average was obtained, corresponding to a composting rate of 126kg/person·year of biowaste (or 380kg/composter·year). Compost quality was determined for a total of 90 composting bins...
March 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325596/the-influence-of-fertiliser-and-pesticide-emissions-model-on-life-cycle-assessment-of-agricultural-products-the-case-of-danish-and-italian-barley
#8
Ximena C Schmidt Rivera, Jacopo Bacenetti, Alessandra Fusi, Monia Niero
Barley is an ancient crop and a great source of nutrients. It is the third largest agricultural commodity produced in Denmark and represents a relevant crop in Italy too. Due to the increasing customers awareness of sustainability issues, it has become essential to evaluate the environmental impact and the use of resources in food production and distribution systems. However, especially in agriculture, difficulties are encountered when emissions from fertilisers and pesticides need to be modelled, due to a variety of modelling options and their dependency on the availability of site-specific information...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325120/hydrosalpinx-tubal-surgery-or-in-vitro-fertilisation-an-everlasting-dilemma-nowadays-a-narrative-review
#9
A Daniilidis, D Balaouras, D Chitzios, T Theodoridis, E Assimakopoulos
The decision on how to treat tubal diseases, specifically hydrosalpinx, is a difficult one. Ιt involves surgical, medical, social, emotional and economic factors. This narrative review aims to increase awareness of tubal disease diagnosis and treatment, to compare between tubal surgery and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) for tubal factor infertility, and to investigate the effect of the combination of both. This way, we can be more effective, safe and provide our patients with better treatment results. The review analysed randomised studies, trials and meta-analysis, which give new aspects on the treatment methods for tubal pathology before IVF...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323936/the-steroid-metabolome-in-the-isolated-ovarian-follicle-and-its-response-to-androgen-exposure-and-antagonism
#10
Marie Lebbe, Angela E Taylor, Jenny A Visser, Jackson Kirkman-Brown, Teresa K Woodruff, Wiebke Arlt
The ovarian follicle is a major site of steroidogenesis, crucially required for normal ovarian function and female reproduction. Our understanding of androgen synthesis and metabolism in the developing follicle has been limited by sensitivity and specificity issues of previously used assays. Here we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to map the stage-dependent endogenous steroid metabolome in an encapsulated in vitro follicle growth system, from murine secondary through antral follicles. Furthermore, follicles were cultured in the presence of androgen precursors, non-aromatizable active androgen and androgen receptor (AR) antagonist to assess effects on steroidogenesis and follicle development...
February 23, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319716/multiple-stressors-in-sediments-impact-adjacent-hard-substrate-habitats-and-across-biological-domains
#11
Jasmin C Lawes, Katherine A Dafforn, Graeme F Clark, Mark V Brown, Emma L Johnston
Coastal systems are increasingly impacted by human activities. While the direct effects of individual contaminants have been investigated, the potential for multiple contaminants to impact adjacent hard substrate habitats is poorly understood. Sediment-bound contaminants pose a risk to water column organisms through resuspension and the fluxing of dissolved nutrients and metals. This study experimentally manipulated contaminated coastal sediments in mesocosms with additions of a common fertiliser to investigate the impact on both bacterial biofilms and macrofouling communities on nearby hard substrates...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317860/gene-delivery-to-nile-tilapia-cells-for-transgenesis-and-the-role-of-pi3k-c2%C3%AE-in-angiogenesis
#12
Fernanda Maria Policarpo Tonelli, Samyra Maria Dos Santos Nassif Lacerda, Marcela Santos Procópio, Breno Luiz Sales Lemos, Luiz Renato de França, Rodrigo Ribeiro Resende
Microinjection is commonly performed to achieve fish transgenesis; however, due to difficulties associated with this technique, new strategies are being developed. Here we evaluate the potential of lentiviral particles to genetically modify Nile tilapia cells to achieve transgenesis using three different approaches: spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) genetic modification and transplantation (SC), in vivo transduction of gametes (GT), and fertilised egg transduction (ET). The SC protocol using larvae generates animals with sustained production of modified sperm (80% of animals with 77% maximum sperm fluorescence [MSF]), but is a time-consuming protocol (sexual maturity in Nile tilapia is achieved at 6 months of age)...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299785/should-obese-women-s-access-to-assisted-fertility-treatment-be-limited-a-scientific-and-ethical-analysis
#13
Kelton Tremellen, Dominic Wilkinson, Julian Savulescu
Obesity is associated with a reduction in fertility treatment success and increased risks to mother and child. Therefore guidelines of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) suggest that a body mass index exceeding 35 kg/m(2) should be an absolute contraindication to assisted fertility treatment such as in vitro fertilisation IVF. In this paper we challenge the ethical and scientific basis for such a ban. Livebirth rates for severely obese women are reduced by up to 30%, but this result is still far better than that observed for many older women who are allowed access to IVF...
March 16, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288358/life-cycle-ghg-evaluation-of-organic-rice-production-in-northern-thailand
#14
Sanwasan Yodkhum, Shabbir H Gheewala, Sate Sampattagul
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is one of the serious international environmental issues that can lead to severe damages such as climate change, sea level rise, emerging disease and many other impacts. Rice cultivation is associated with emissions of potent GHGs such as methane and nitrous oxide. Thai rice has been massively exported worldwide however the markets are becoming more competitive than ever since the green market has been hugely promoted. In order to maintain the same level or enhance of competitiveness, Thai rice needs to be considered for environmentally conscious products to meet the international environmental standards...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284653/framework-for-estimating-toxic-releases-from-the-application-of-manure-on-agricultural-soil-national-release-inventories-for-heavy-metals-in-2000-2014
#15
Alexandra Leclerc, Alexis Laurent
Livestock manure is commonly applied on agricultural land for its fertilising properties. However, the presence of toxic substances in animal manure such as pathogens, antibiotics and heavy metals, can result in damages to ecosystems and human health. To date, although relevant for policy-making, e.g. regulation framing, their releases to agricultural land have been incompletely and inconsistently quantified at global and national scales. Here, we thus developed a generic framework for estimating such releases based on the quantities of manure applied and concentrations of toxic substances...
March 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283293/linking-energy-sanitation-agriculture-intersectional-resource-management-in-smallholder-households-in-tanzania
#16
Ariane Krause, Vera Susanne Rotter
In order to create sustainable systems for resource management, residues from cooking and ecological sanitation (EcoSan) can be employed in recycling-driven soil fertility management. However, the link between energy, sanitation, and agricultural productivity is often neglected. Hence, the potential self-sufficient nature of many smallholdings in sub-Saharan Africa is underexploited. OBJECTIVE: To compare those cooking and sanitation technologies most commonly used in north-western Tanzania with locally developed alternatives, with respect to (i) resource consumption, (ii) potential to recover resources, and (iii) environmental emissions...
March 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281637/direct-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-tropical-and-sub-tropical-agricultural-systems-a-review-and-modelling-of-emission-factors
#17
Fabrizio Albanito, Ulrike Lebender, Thomas Cornulier, Tek B Sapkota, Frank Brentrup, Clare Stirling, Jon Hillier
There has been much debate about the uncertainties associated with the estimation of direct and indirect agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in developing countries and in particular from tropical regions. In this study, we report an up-to-date review of the information published in peer-review journals on direct N2O emissions from agricultural systems in tropical and sub-tropical regions. We statistically analyze net-N2O-N emissions to estimate tropic-specific annual N2O emission factors (N2O-EFs) using a Generalized Additive Mixed Model (GAMM) which allowed the effects of multiple covariates to be modelled as linear or smooth non-linear continuous functions...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279626/maternal-foetal-outcomes-in-pregnant-women-with-glomerulonephritides-are-all-glomerulonephritides-alike-in-pregnancy
#18
Giorgina Barbara Piccoli, Rossella Attini, Gianfranca Cabiddu, Isabelle Kooij, Federica Fassio, Martina Gerbino, Stefania Maxia, Marilisa Biolcati, Elisabetta Versino, Tullia Todros
In spite of the interest for chronic renal diseases (CKD) in pregnancy data on specific diseases is fragmentary; while recent studies analysed the most common glomerulonephritides (GN), none was addressed at GN as a group. The aim of our study was to analyse the main pregnancy-related outcomes in GN patients in a large multicentre cohort. Patients with a diagnosis of GN were selected from the TOCOS cohort (TOCOS: TOrino Cagliari Observational Study): out of 714 singleton deliveries GN was the diagnosis in 126; lupus GN and IgA nephropathy accounted for 37 and 33 cases; 1418 low-risk singleton deliveries followed-up in the same Centers served as controls (non diabetic, non nephropathic, non obese women, without any other known chronic illness; pregnancies after ovodonation or in vitro fertilisation were excluded, if declared)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272048/experimental-investigation-of-a-new-process-for-treatment-and-valorisation-of-pot-ale-wastewaters
#19
Chukwuemeka Chinaka Uzukwu, Malcolm John Barraclough, Davide Dionisi
This study investigated an innovative process for the treatment and valorisation of pot ale wastewater. The first phase was to balance the pH to precipitate nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium, recovering them as fertiliser; the second phase investigated the evaporation of water, reducing the volume of liquid to be transported to an anaerobic digester. In the pH balancing phase we investigated the effect of the final pH, in the range 8-11, on the removal of calcium, magnesium, ammonia, phosphorus and copper...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272033/sewage-sludge-as-fertiliser-environmental-assessment-of-storage-and-land-application-options
#20
A Willén, C Junestedt, L Rodhe, M Pell, H Jönsson
Sewage sludge (SS) contains beneficial plant nutrients and organic matter, and therefore application of SS on agricultural land helps close nutrient loops. However, spreading operations are restricted to certain seasons and hence the SS needs to be stored. Storage and land application of SS are both potential sources of greenhouse gases and ammonia, leading to global warming, acidification and eutrophication. Covering the stored SS, treating it with urea and choosing the correct time for land application all have the potential to reduce emissions from the system...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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