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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230647/validating-a-continental-scale-groundwater-diffuse-pollution-model-using-regional-datasets
#1
Issoufou Ouedraogo, Pierre Defourny, Marnik Vanclooster
In this study, we assess the validity of an African-scale groundwater pollution model for nitrates. In a previous study, we identified a statistical continental-scale groundwater pollution model for nitrate. The model was identified using a pan-African meta-analysis of available nitrate groundwater pollution studies. The model was implemented in both Random Forest (RF) and multiple regression formats. For both approaches, we collected as predictors a comprehensive GIS database of 13 spatial attributes, related to land use, soil type, hydrogeology, topography, climatology, region typology, nitrogen fertiliser application rate, and population density...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224716/the-role-of-constructed-wetlands-in-a-new-circular-economy-resource-oriented-and-ecosystem-services-paradigm
#2
F Masi, A Rizzo, M Regelsberger
Wastewater management is included in one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): SDG 6 is dedicated to water and sanitation and sets out to "ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all". SDG 6 expands the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focus on drinking water and basic sanitation to now cover the entire water cycle, including the management of water, wastewater and ecosystem resources. A UN report in 2017 states that likely over 80% of the wastewater worldwide is still discharged without adequate treatment...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216009/the-first-trimester-aneuploidy-biochemical-markers-in-ivf-icsi-patients-have-no-additional-benefit-compared-to-spontaneous-conceptions-in-the-prediction-of-pregnancy-complications
#3
Iwona Szymusik, Przemyslaw Kosinski, Katarzyna Kosinska-Kaczynska, Damian Warzecha, Anetta Karwacka, Bartosz Kaczynski, Miroslaw Wielgos
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if the levels of biochemical aneuploidy markers in in vitro fertilisation (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) pregnancies differ from those in spontaneous pregnancies and to verify if biochemical markers could predict pregnancy outcome in IVF/ICSI gestations. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study performed in a group of 551 patients who underwent a combined first trimester prenatal screening (ultrasound scan and serum markers)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215052/peroxiredoxin-activity-is-a-major-landmark-of-male-fertility
#4
Do-Yeal Ryu, Ki-Uk Kim, Woo-Sung Kwon, Md Saidur Rahman, Amena Khatun, Myung-Geol Pang
Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are important antioxidant enzymes reported to have a role in sperm function and male fertility. However, how PRDXs affects male fertility remain fundamental unanswered questions. We therefore sought to investigate the role of these enzymes in sperm function and fertilisation. In this in vitro trial, mouse spermatozoa were incubated with different concentrations of conoidin A (1, 10, or 100 µM), a specific inhibitor of PRDXs. Our results demonstrated that inhibition of PRDXs by conoidin A significantly decreased the oxidized form of peroxiredoxins (PRDXs-SO3) in spermatozoa...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210259/preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-the-situation-in-france-and-in-other-european-countries
#5
Anne-Marie Duguet, Bénédicte Boyer-Beviere
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) relates exclusively to in vitro fertilisation techniques (IVF) that aim to prevent transmission of a serious genetic abnormality to the child. The genetic characteristics of the embryo created through IVF are analysed, and only the embryos free of the genetic abnormality are implanted in the womb. Performed worldwide since 1990, this technique has raised many legal and ethical debates due to the very wide variations of lawgiving between countries. This is shown by the report of the UNESCO IBC (2003), which described the techniques and the issues raised by preimplantation genetic diagnosis...
April 2017: European Journal of Health Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210045/surgery-or-in-vitro-fertilization-the-simplicity-of-this-question-belies-its-complexity
#6
Anusch Yazdani
Unlike surgery, assisted reproduction, particularly in vitro fertilisation (IVF), requires a low skill base, is largely practitioner independent, is highly effective, quality controlled, reproducible and consistent in the management of endometriosis-associated infertility. Ultimately, however, the decision to proceed to IVF or surgery is dependent on the woman, her reproductive expectations, her specific disease pattern, her support and family network and the resources available in a given health care setting...
December 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188301/organic-amendments-in-a-long-term-field-trial-consequences-for-the-bulk-soil-bacterial-community-as-revealed-by-network-analysis
#7
Christoph A O Schmid, Peter Schröder, Martin Armbruster, Michael Schloter
This study intended to elucidate the long-term effects of organic soil amendments on bacterial co-occurrence in bulk soil with and without addition of mineral fertiliser. Previous research mostly neglected the bacterial co-occurrence structure and focussed mainly on the parameters species diversity and abundance changes of species. Here we present a systematic comparison of two frequently used soil amendments, manure and straw, with regard to their impact on bacterial co-occurrence in a long-term field trial in Speyer, Germany...
November 29, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179810/de-novo-transcription-of-thyroid-hormone-receptors-is-essential-for-early-bovine-embryo-development-in-vitro
#8
N-Y Rho, F A Ashkar, T Revay, P Madan, G-J Rho, W A King, L A Favetta
Thyroid hormone receptor (THR) α and THRβ mediate the genomic action of thyroid hormones (THs) that affect bovine embryo development. However, little is known about THRs in the preimplantation embryo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the importance of THRs in in vitro preimplantation bovine embryos. THR transcripts and protein levels were detected in developing preimplantation embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Embryonic transcription of THRs was inhibited by α-amanitin supplementation, and both maternal and embryonic transcription were knocked down by short interference (si) RNA microinjection...
November 28, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179075/manure-management-and-public-health-sanitary-and-socio-economic-aspects-among-urban-livestock-keepers-in-cambodia
#9
Gunilla Ström, Ann Albihn, Tomas Jinnerot, Sofia Boqvist, Agnes Andersson-Djurfeldt, Seng Sokerya, Kristina Osbjer, Sorn San, Holl Davun, Ulf Magnusson
Livestock manure is a valuable source of nutrients for crop production, but can also pose a public health hazard and have negative environmental impacts. This study investigated manure management practices among urban and peri-urban livestock keepers in Cambodia, to identify risk behaviours and socio-economic aspects associated with the handling of manure. A survey including 204 households was conducted, using a structured questionnaire with questions on demographics, socio-economic characteristics and household practices related to manure management...
November 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174128/intrauterine-insemination-with-ovarian-stimulation-versus-expectant-management-for-unexplained-infertility-tui-a-pragmatic-open-label-randomised-controlled-two-centre-trial
#10
Cynthia M Farquhar, Emily Liu, Sarah Armstrong, Nicola Arroll, Sarah Lensen, Julie Brown
BACKGROUND: Women with unexplained infertility are often offered intrauterine insemination (IUI) with ovarian stimulation as an alternative to in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). However, little evidence exists that IUI is an effective treatment. In 2013, the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommended that IUI should not be routinely offered for couples with unexplained infertility. METHODS: For this pragmatic, open-label, randomised, controlled, two-centre study, we enrolled women attending two fertility clinics in New Zealand with unexplained infertility and an unfavourable prognosis of natural conception...
November 23, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171890/reproductive-autonomy-and-regulation-coexistence-in-action
#11
Ruth Deech
On occasion, British in vitro fertilization practitioners look over the ocean to the practice of IVF and embryo research in the United States, wonder why these areas are subject to less regulation than in the United Kingdom, and ask how much less risky and more progressive IVF and embryo research might be if subject to additional federal, or at least state, regulation. To an American audience, imbued with the centuries-old spirit of independence, regulation and autonomy can seem in tension. From a British perspective, there is no necessary conflict...
December 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168121/paradigm-changes-in-freshwater-aquaculture-practices-in-china-moving-towards-achieving-environmental-integrity-and-sustainability
#12
REVIEW
Qidong Wang, Zhongjie Li, Jian-Fang Gui, Jiashou Liu, Shaowen Ye, Jing Yuan, Sena S De Silva
Contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to global food security is linked to increased fish consumption. Projections indicate that an additional 30-40 million tonnes of fish will be required by 2030. China leads global aquaculture production accounting for 60% in volume and 45% in value. Many changes in the Chinese aquaculture sector are occurring to strive towards attaining environmental integrity and prudent use of resources. We focus on changes introduced in freshwater aquaculture developments in China, the main source of food fish supplies...
November 22, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164653/gradient-sperm-selection-for-reproductive-techniques-in-cattle-is-isolate-a-suitable-replacement-for-percoll
#13
B Sepúlveda, M E Arias, L Aguila, F Zambrano, R Sánchez, R Felmer
In assisted reproductive techniques, it is essential to perform a sperm selection to obtain spermatozoa with high motility and membrane integrity for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and high-DNA integrity for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In this study, we evaluated whether Isolate(®) was a suitable substitute for Percoll(®) for assisted reproductive techniques. Commercial cryopreserved bovine semen was used after selection in both gradients, and plasma and acrosome membrane integrity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, DNA integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were assessed by flow cytometry...
November 21, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159454/phosphorus-transformations-in-plant-based-and-bio-waste-materials-induced-by-pyrolysis
#14
James Stephen Robinson, Karen Baumann, Yongfeng Hu, Philipp Hagemann, Lutz Kebelmann, Peter Leinweber
Strategies are needed to increase the sustainability of phosphorus (P) fertiliser management in agriculture. This paper reports on the potential of pyrolysis treatment to recycle P from renewable materials previously regarded as wastes. The study used K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to examine chemical forms of P in the waste feedstock materials and corresponding biochars (pyrolysis at 480-500 °C) of four ligno-cellulosic, plant-based residues and five relatively P-rich livestock and water-treatment by-products, to acquire information on changes in potential P fertiliser value...
November 20, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156331/may-humic-acids-or-mineral-fertilisation-mitigate-arsenic-mobility-and-availability-to-carrot-plants-daucus-carota-l-in-a-volcanic-soil-polluted-by-as-from-irrigation-water
#15
Antonio G Caporale, Paola Adamo, Shah M G G Azam, Maria A Rao, Massimo Pigna
Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a widely consumed root vegetable, whose growth and safety might be threatened by growing-medium arsenic (As) contamination. By this work, we evaluated the effects of humic acids from Leonardite and NPK mineral fertilisation on As mobility and availability to carrot plants grown for 60 days in a volcanic soil irrigated with As-contaminated water - representing the most common scenario occurring in As-affected Italian areas. As expected, the irrigation with As-contaminated water caused a serious toxic effect on plant growth and photosynthetic rate; the highest rate of As also inhibited soil enzymatic activity...
November 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156279/the-stocks-and-flows-of-nitrogen-phosphorus-and-potassium-across-a-30-year-time-series-for-agriculture-in-huantai-county-china
#16
Jessica Bellarby, Ben W J Surridge, Philip M Haygarth, Kun Liu, Giuseppina Siciliano, Laurence Smith, Clive Rahn, Fanqiao Meng
In order to improve the efficiency of nutrient use whilst also meeting projected changes in the demand for food within China, new nutrient management frameworks comprised of policy, practice and the means of delivering change are required. These frameworks should be underpinned by systemic analyses of the stocks and flows of nutrients within agricultural production. In this paper, a 30-year time series of the stocks and flows of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are reported for Huantai county, an exemplar area of intensive agricultural production in the North China Plain...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155965/is-frozen-embryo-transfer-better-for-mothers-and-babies-can-cumulative-meta-analysis-provide-a-definitive-answer
#17
Abha Maheshwari, Shilpi Pandey, Edwin Amalraj Raja, Ashalatha Shetty, Mark Hamilton, Siladitya Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Initial observational studies and a systematic review published 5 years ago have suggested that obstetric and perinatal outcomes are better in offspring conceived following frozen rather than fresh embryo transfers, with reduced risks of preterm birth, small for gestational age, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia. More recent primary studies are beginning to challenge some of these findings. We therefore conducted an updated systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis to examine if these results have remained consistent over time...
November 13, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150322/sex-ratios-of-the-tick-ixodes-arboricola-are-strongly-female-biased-but-there-are-no-indications-of-sex-distorting-bacteria
#18
A Raoul Van Oosten, Olivier Duron, Dieter J A Heylen
Studies on sex ratio are of fundamental importance for understanding the biology of populations and biological control of pests and pathogens. In most Ixodes tick species, only females feed in the adult stage and, hence, contribute to pathogen transmission. The tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola infests cavity-nesting birds and has limited dispersal possibilities. It plays an important role in the maintenance of zoonotic disease cycles. Here, we quantified the sex ratio of 718 adult I. arboricola ticks obtained from a laboratory stock at nine distinct periods (cohorts) from 2008 to 2015...
November 11, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149480/the-characterisation-of-iron-iii-in-seawater-and-related-toxicity-to-early-life-stages-of-scleractinian-corals
#19
Justin Leigh-Smith, Amanda Reichelt-Brushett, Andrew L Rose
Currently toxicity data for iron (Fe) in seawater is limited; furthermore these data are of poor quality due to the importance of Fe solubility in test solutions being overlooked. This study characterised the solubility and lability of Fe(III) in seawater and then examined the effects of Fe(III) on the fertilisation success and larval survival of the tropical marine scleractinian corals Acropora spathulata and Platygyra daedalea. Here we present the first assessment of the effects of Fe on the early life stages of scleractinian corals...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146625/cyanotic-congenital-heart-disease-following-fertility-treatments-in-the-united-states-from-2011-to-2014
#20
Alireza A Shamshirsaz, Zhoobin H Bateni, Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar, Sara E Arian, Hadi Erfani, Amir A Shamshirsaz, Alfred Abuhamad, Karin A Fox, Susan M Ramin, Amirhossein Moaddab, Shiraz A Maskatia, Bahram Salmanian, Keila N Lopez, Pardis Hosseinzadeh, Amy K Schutt, Ahmed A Nassr, Jimmy Espinoza, Gary A Dildy, Michael A Belfort, Steven L Clark
OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk for cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CCHDs) among live births in the USA, resulting from various forms of infertility treatments. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional analysis of live births in the USA from 2011 to 2014. Infertility treatments are categorised into two of the following groups on birth certificates: assisted reproductive technology (ART) fertility treatment (surgical egg removal; eg, in vitro fertilisation and gamete intrafallopian transfer) and non-ART fertility treatment (eg, medical treatment and intrauterine insemination)...
November 16, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
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