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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675731/usefulness-of-mehlich-3-test-in-the-monitoring-of-phosphorus-dispersion-from-polish-arable-soils
#1
Ewa Szara, Tomasz Sosulski, Magdalena Szymańska, Katarzyna Szyszkowska
A considerable area of soils with low abundance of plant-available phosphorus and relatively low consumption of phosphorus fertilisers recorded in Poland over the last 20-25 years suggests that the dispersion of phosphates from arable soils in Poland can be low. The literature, however, provides reports on a considerable share of Polish agriculture in phosphorus pollution of Baltic Sea waters. The literature provides no data concerning phosphorus sorption parameters of arable soils in Poland. Due to this, the study involved the analysis of sorption properties: 1-point phosphorus sorption index (PSI) and degree of phosphorus saturation, based on molar ratio P, Al, and Fe determined by the Mehlich-3 method (DPS-1M3  = P / (Al + Fe) and DPS-2M3  = P / Al), 59 soils representing the main types of texture of soils in Poland, characterised by variable content of plant-available phosphorus by Egner-Riehm DL, organic carbon, and soil pH...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674487/metals-in-urine-in-relation-to-the-prevalence-of-pre-diabetes-diabetes-and-atherosclerosis-in-rural-india
#2
Ganesan Velmurugan, Krishnan Swaminathan, Ganesh Veerasekar, Jonathan Q Purnell, Sundaresan Mohanraj, Mani Dhivakar, Anil Kumar Avula, Mathew Cherian, Nalla G Palaniswami, Thomas Alexander, Thalappil Pradeep
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are growing burdens in rural communities worldwide. We have observed a high prevalence of diabetes among rural farming communities in India and sought to evaluate the association of non-traditional risk factors, such as metals, with diabetes and other cardiometabolic risk factors in this community. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements, chemistries and carotid intima-media thickness were determined in 865 participants of the Kovai Medical Center and Hospital-Nallampatti Non-Communicable Disease Study-I (KMCH-NNCD-I, 2015), a cross-sectional study conducted in a farming village in South India...
April 19, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657701/early-prenatal-diagnosis-of-parapagus-conjoined-twins
#3
Ângela Melo, Rita Dinis, António Portugal, Ana Isabel Sousa, Isabel Cerveira
Conjoined twinning occurs in 1/100 of monozygotic twins, 1/50,000 gestations and 1/250,000 live births. It is the consequence of a division event at the primitive streak stage of the human embryonic development, about 13-14 days after fertilisation, in monochorionic monoamniotic gestations. A healthy pregnant woman, Gravida 2 Para 1, was admitted into our Fetal Medicine Unit to perform the first trimester ultrasound. A diagnosis of conjoined parapagus twinning based on ultrasound features was made at 11 weeks of gestation, and the couple decided to terminate the pregnancy...
March 28, 2018: Clinics and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650061/comparison-of-sperm-motility-subpopulation-structure-among-wild-anadromous-and-farmed-male-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-parr-using-a-casa-system
#4
Carina Caldeira, Almudena García-Molina, Anthony Valverde, Daznia Bompart, Megan Hassane, Patrick Martin, Carles Soler
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is an endangered freshwater species that needs help to recover its wild stocks. However, the priority in aquaculture is to obtain successful fertilisation and genetic variability to secure the revival of the species. The aims of the present work were to study sperm subpopulation structure and motility patterns in wild anadromous males and farmed male Atlantic salmon parr. Salmon sperm samples were collected from wild anadromous salmon (WS) and two generations of farmed parr males...
April 13, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642968/review-historical-and-futuristic-developments-in-bovine-semen-technology
#5
P Lonergan
Up to the 18th century, the prevailing view of reproduction, or 'generation' as it was referred to, was that organisms develop from miniatures of themselves, termed preformation. The alternative theory, epigenesis, proposed that the structure of an animal emerges gradually from a relatively formless egg. The teachings of the Ancient Greeks who argued either that both sexes each contributed 'semen' to form the embryo, or held a more male-centred view that the female merely provided fertile ground for the male seed to grow, dominated thinking until the 17th century, when the combined work of numerous scholars led to the theory that all female organisms, including humans, produced eggs...
April 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628020/casa-in-invertebrates
#6
Gerhard van der Horst, Monique Bennett, John D D Bishop
Sperm movement has been described in several phyla of invertebrates. Yet, sperm motility has only been quantified using computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA-Mot) in externally fertilising species (broadcast spawners) of two phyla, molluscs and echinoderms. In the present study we quantified in detail the nature of the sperm tracks, percentage motility groupings and detailed kinematics of rapid-, medium- and slow-swimming spermatozoa in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and four species never previously studied by CASA-Mot, namely the molluscs Choromytilus meridionalis, Donax serra and Haliotis midae and the echinoderm Parechinus angulosus...
April 9, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627535/environmental-and-sustainability-evaluation-of-livestock-waste-management-practices-in-cyprus
#7
Lucía Lijó, Nicola Frison, Francesco Fatone, Sara González-García, Gumersindo Feijoo, Maria Teresa Moreira
The aim of this study was to compare the environmental performance and sustainability of different management options for livestock waste in Cyprus. The two most common practices in the country, i.e. the use of anaerobic lagoons and conventional biogas plants, were compared with the innovative scheme developed in the LiveWaste project (LIFE12 ENV/CY/000544), which aims not only to produce bioenergy, but also to treat the digestate for nutrient recovery and water reuse. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was combined with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the performance of these alternatives...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615555/imaging-neuronal-activity-in-the-optic-tectum-of-late-stage-larval-zebrafish
#8
Katharina Bergmann, Paola Meza Santoscoy, Konstantinos Lygdas, Yulia Nikolaeva, Ryan B MacDonald, Vincent T Cunliffe, Anton Nikolaev
The zebrafish is an established model to study the development and function of visual neuronal circuits in vivo, largely due to their optical accessibility at embryonic and larval stages. In the past decade multiple experimental paradigms have been developed to study visually-driven behaviours, particularly those regulated by the optic tectum, the main visual centre in lower vertebrates. With few exceptions these techniques are limited to young larvae (7-9 days post-fertilisation, dpf). However, many forms of visually-driven behaviour, such as shoaling, emerge at later developmental stages...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610613/microperforated-hymen-presenting-spontaneous-pregnancy-with-cesarean-delivery-and-hymenotomy-surgery-a-case-report
#9
Brikene Elshani, Heroid Arifi, Armond Daci
BACKGROUND: Female genital tract anomalies including imperforate hymen affect sexual life and fertility. CASE PRESENTATION: In the present case, we describe a pregnant woman diagnosed with imperforate hymen which never had penetrative vaginal sex. A 27-year-old married patient with 2 months of amenorrhea presented in a clinic without any other complications. Her history of difficult intercourse and prolonged menstrual flow were reported, and subsequent vaginal examination confirmed the diagnosis of imperforate hymen even though she claims to made pinhole surgery in hymen during puberty...
March 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603474/a-novel-transgenic-zebrafish-line-for-red-opsin-expression-in-outer-segments-of-photoreceptor-cells
#10
Cátia Crespo, Daniele Soroldoni, Elisabeth Knust
BACKGROUND: Opsins are a group of light sensitive proteins present in photoreceptor cells, which convert the energy of photons into electrochemical signals, thus allowing vision. Given their relevance, we aimed to visualise the two red opsins at subcellular scale in photoreceptor cells. RESULTS: We generated novel zebrafish BAC transgenic lines, which express fluorescently-tagged, full-length Opsin 1 long-wave-sensitive 1 and full-length Opsin 1 long-wave-sensitive 2 under the control of their endogenous promotors...
March 30, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600000/service-user-reflections-on-the-impact-of-involvement-in-research
#11
Jim Gordon, Sue Franklin, Sabrina A Eltringham
Plain English summary: Public involvement can impact on research, on the public who give advice, on the researchers and the research participants. Evaluating impact is an important part of the research process. Two members of a hospital-based patient research panel and our coordinator have written this paper. Our panel covers a range of rehabilitation and palliative services. These services form the "Therapeutics and Palliative Care Directorate". We describe how we worked collaboratively with hospital staff and co-produced questionnaires to evaluate the impact of our involvement...
2018: Research Involvement and Engagement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589799/lesbians-experiences-and-attitudes-towards-parenthood-in-greece
#12
Polychronis Voultsos, Christina-Erato Zymvragou, Nikolaos Raikos, Chaido Chara Spiliopoulou
Same-sex parenthood is controversial subject. In this paper, we provide insights into the attitudes and experiences of self-reported lesbians regarding parenthood or the prospect of becoming a parent in the current Greek social and cultural context. In Greece, lesbians are not allowed access to in vitro fertilisation (IVF), while a solitary ('single') woman is allowed access for medical reasons. Fifty-nine (59) semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with women. What emerged from our data was a clear trend for participants to wish to have their own biological children based mostly on the belief that pregnancy would lead to a sense of self-completeness and/or fulfilment...
March 28, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579897/quantitative-risk-assessment-of-antimicrobials-in-biosolids-applied-on-agricultural-land-and-potential-translocation-into-food
#13
Rachel Clarke, Mark G Healy, Owen Fenton, Enda Cummins
The use of biosolids as a fertiliser may be an indirect route for contaminants into the food chain. One of the main concerns regarding the spreading of biosolids on agricultural land is the potential uptake of contaminants into plants which may bio-transfer into grazing animals that supply the food chain directly (e.g. meat and milk) and hence are subsequently consumed. The aim of this project was to create a quantitative risk assessment model to estimate the fate and translocation of triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) into the feed (grass) and food chain with subsequent human exposure...
April 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576045/current-perspectives-of-casa-applications-in-diverse-mammalian-spermatozoa
#14
Gerhard van der Horst, Liana Maree, Stefan S du Plessis
Since the advent of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) some four decades ago, advances in computer technology and software algorithms have helped establish it as a research and diagnostic instrument for the analysis of spermatozoa. Despite mammalian spermatozoa being the most diverse cell type known, CASA is a great tool that has the capacity to provide rapid, reliable and objective quantitative assessment of sperm quality. This paper provides contemporary research findings illustrating the scientific and commercial applications of CASA and its ability to evaluate diverse mammalian spermatozoa (human, primates, rodents, domestic mammals, wildlife species) at both structural and functional levels...
March 26, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547861/ketamine-induction-of-p53-dependent-apoptosis-and-oxidative-stress-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryos
#15
Luís M Félix, Ana M Vidal, Cindy Serafim, Ana M Valentim, Luís M Antunes, Sandra M Monteiro, Manuela Matos, Ana M Coimbra
Ketamine is a widely used pharmaceutical that has been detected in water sources worldwide. Zebrafish embryos were used in this study to investigate the oxidative stress and apoptotic signals following a 24h exposure to different ketamine concentrations (0, 50, 70 and 90 mg L-1 ). Early blastula embryos (∼2 h post fertilisation-hpf) were exposed for 24 h and analysed at 8 and 26 hpf. Reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cells were identified in vivo, at 26 hpf. Enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)), glutathione levels (oxidised (GSSG) and reduced (GSH)), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyls (CO)) as well as oxidative stress (gclc, gstp1, sod1 and cat), apoptosis (casp3a, casp6, casp8, casp9, aifm1 and tp53) and cell proliferation (pcna) related-genes were evaluated at 8 and 26 hpf...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546367/the-molecular-characterisation-of-mitochondrial-dna-deficient-oocytes-using-a-pig-model
#16
Te-Sha Tsai, Sonika Tyagi, Justin C St John
STUDY QUESTION: What are the molecular differences between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-deficient and mtDNA-normal oocytes and how does mitochondrial supplementation alter these? SUMMARY ANSWER: Changes to DNA methylation in a 5' cytosine-phosphate-guanine 3' (CpG) island in the mtDNA-specific replication factor (DNA polymerase gamma (POLG)) of mtDNA-deficient oocytes mediates an increase in mtDNA copy number by the 2-cell stage that positively modulates the expression of nuclear genes, which affect cellular and metabolic processes, following autologous mitochondrial supplementation...
March 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544820/cause-of-cambrian-explosion-terrestrial-or-cosmic
#17
REVIEW
Edward J Steele, Shirwan Al-Mufti, Kenneth A Augustyn, Rohana Chandrajith, John P Coghlan, S G Coulson, Sudipto Ghosh, Mark Gillman, Reginald M Gorczynski, Brig Klyce, Godfrey Louis, Kithsiri Mahanama, Keith R Oliver, Julio Padron, Jiangwen Qu, John A Schuster, W E Smith, Duane P Snyder, Julian A Steele, Brent J Stewart, Robert Temple, Gensuke Tokoro, Christopher A Tout, Alexander Unzicker, Milton Wainwright, Jamie Wallis, Daryl H Wallis, Max K Wallis, John Wetherall, D T Wickramasinghe, J T Wickramasinghe, N Chandra Wickramasinghe, Yongsheng Liu
We review the salient evidence consistent with or predicted by the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe (H- W) thesis of Cometary (Cosmic) Biology. Much of this physical and biological evidence is multifactorial. One particular focus are the recent studies which date the emergence of the complex retroviruses of vertebrate lines at or just before the Cambrian Explosion of ∼500 Ma. Such viruses are known to be plausibly associated with major evolutionary genomic processes. We believe this coincidence is not fortuitous but is consistent with a key prediction of H-W theory whereby major extinction-diversification evolutionary boundaries coincide with virus-bearing cometary-bolide bombardment events...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540935/weed-suppression-greatly-increased-by-plant-diversity-in-intensively-managed-grasslands-a-continental-scale-experiment
#18
John Connolly, Maria-Teresa Sebastià, Laura Kirwan, John Anthony Finn, Rosa Llurba, Matthias Suter, Rosemary P Collins, Claudio Porqueddu, Áslaug Helgadóttir, Ole H Baadshaug, Gilles Bélanger, Alistair Black, Caroline Brophy, Jure Čop, Sigridur Dalmannsdóttir, Ignacio Delgado, Anjo Elgersma, Michael Fothergill, Bodil E Frankow-Lindberg, An Ghesquiere, Piotr Golinski, Philippe Grieu, Anne-Maj Gustavsson, Mats Höglind, Olivier Huguenin-Elie, Marit Jørgensen, Zydre Kadziuliene, Tor Lunnan, Paivi Nykanen-Kurki, Angela Ribas, Friedhelm Taube, Ulrich Thumm, Alex De Vliegher, Andreas Lüscher
Grassland diversity can support sustainable intensification of grassland production through increased yields, reduced inputs and limited weed invasion. We report the effects of diversity on weed suppression from 3 years of a 31-site continental-scale field experiment.At each site, 15 grassland communities comprising four monocultures and 11 four-species mixtures based on a wide range of species' proportions were sown at two densities and managed by cutting. Forage species were selected according to two crossed functional traits, "method of nitrogen acquisition" and "pattern of temporal development"...
March 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536549/nutrient-content-in-wheat-grain-and-straw-using-sludge-and-compost-from-a-wastewater-treatment-plant-as-a-fertiliser
#19
Pilar Mañas, Jorge de Las Heras
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to: firstly evaluate the response of nutrient uptake after applying 15 t ha-1 of sewage sludge, compost and a commercial fertiliser to soil in grain and straw of winter wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Vitron); secondly investigate the composition of the same parameters in the original soil and compare them with soil after applying fertiliser treatments. A field-scale experiment established the agronomic performance of air-dried sewage sludge and composted sludge for winter wheat...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530216/corrigendum-to-paternal-priming-of-maternal-tissues-to-optimise-pregnancy-success
#20
John J Bromfield, Jason A Rizo, Laila A Ibrahim
The question of 'how does the allogeneic fetus survive gestation in the face of the maternal immune system?' has yet to be definitively answered. Several acceptable mechanisms exist to facilitate survival of the semi-allogeneic fetus in various species; paramount is the immunological separation of maternal and fetal tissues during gestation. However, keen observation of the maternal immune system during pregnancy has noted maternal immune tolerance to paternal-specific antigens. A mechanism by which the maternal immune system tolerates specific paternal antigens expressed on the fetus would be far more beneficial than the previously proposed immune indolence that would leave the mother susceptible to infection...
January 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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