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Drug and alcohol rehabilitation

L Rayner, A Simpson, F Matcham, S Shetty, O Lahoti, G Groom, M Hotopf
OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional survey aimed to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and drug and alcohol dependence in a limb reconstruction population and examine associations with demographic and functional variables. METHODS: As part of routine clinical care, data were collected from 566 patients attending a tertiary referral centre for limb reconstruction between April 2012 and February 2016. Depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and alcohol and drug dependence were measured using standardised self-report screening tools...
October 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Angela Garcia, Brian Anderson
Informal, coercive residential centers for the treatment of addiction are widespread and growing throughout Latin America. In Mexico these centers are called "anexos" and they are run and utilized by low-income individuals and families with problems related to drugs and alcohol. This article draws on findings from a 3-year anthropological study of anexos in Mexico City. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were used to describe and analyze anexos, their therapeutic practices, and residents' own accounts of addiction and recovery...
August 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Sarah P Haughwout, Thomas C Harford, I-Jen P Castle, Bridget F Grant
BACKGROUND: Adolescent substance users face serious health and social consequences and benefit from early diagnosis and treatment. The objectives of this study were to observe trends in treatment utilization; examine correlates of treatment utilization and treatment types/settings among adolescent substance users with and without substance use disorder (SUD); and assess gender differences. METHODS: National Survey on Drug Use and Health data were pooled across 2002 to 2013, with a combined sample of 79,885 past-year substance users ages 12 to 17 (17,510 with SUD and 62,375 without SUD)...
August 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Guy Vanderstraeten, Thierry M Lejeune, Hubert Piessevaux, Dirk De Bacquer, Chris Walker, Birgit De Beleyr
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gastrointestinal risk profiles in patients with osteoarthritis who are currently being treated, or who are candidates for treatment, with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. METHODS: Patients with osteoarthritis treated by primary care physicians or physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) specialists in Belgium and Luxembourg were scored for gastrointestinal risk profile, low, moderate or high, based on the presence of gastrointestinal risk factors...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Gabriel Loewinger, Bishnu Sharma, Deepak Kumar Karki, Prasana Khatiwoda, Sher Kainee, Krishna C Poudel
BACKGROUND: In Nepal, prevalence of Hepatitis C (HCV) among injecting drug users (IDUs) has been measured at 50% and knowledge of the virus is low. Rehabilitation and harm reduction attendees constitute populations to whom health care providers can deliver services. As such, characterizing their drug use and risk profiles is important for developing targeted service delivery. We measured drug use and risk patterns of IDUs participating in residential rehabilitation as well as those contacted through needle exchanges to identify correlates of drug use frequency, risky injection practices as well as HCV testing, knowledge and perceived risk...
July 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Billie Bonevski, Ashleigh Guillaumier, Anthony Shakeshaft, Michael Farrell, Flora Tzelepis, Scott Walsberger, Catherine D'Este, Chris Paul, Adrian Dunlop, Andrew Searles, Peter Kelly, Rae Fry, Robert Stirling, Carrie Fowlie, Eliza Skelton
BACKGROUND: The provision of smoking cessation support in Australian drug and alcohol treatment services is sub-optimal. This study examines the cost-effectiveness of an organisational change intervention to reduce smoking amongst clients attending drug and alcohol treatment services. METHODS/DESIGN: A cluster-randomised controlled trial will be conducted with drug and alcohol treatment centres as the unit of randomisation. Biochemically verified (carbon monoxide by breath analysis) client 7-day-point prevalence of smoking cessation at 6 weeks will be the primary outcome measure...
2016: Trials
Hélène Simoneau, Jean-Marc Ménard, Nadine Blanchette-Martin
The aim of this study was three-fold: to compare the rates for suicidal behaviors based on the problem substance, to look at the association between addiction severity and suicidal behaviors, and to identify the components of addiction severity associated with suicidal behaviors. Addiction Severity Index databases from three public rehabilitation centers were merged for analyses, yielding 6,551 evaluations. The rates for suicidal behaviors among those who have a problem with both alcohol and a drug are higher than for those who have a problem with any single substance...
May 2, 2016: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
Takuya Shimane, Akifumi Imamura, Kazuko Ikeda, Masahiro Yamamoto, Mariko Tsuji, Yukiko Nagayo, Takeshi Ohkubo, Minoru Ohta, Hiroyuki Kanda, Shigeto Okazaki, Masao Ohe, Toshihiko Matsumoto
OBJECTIVE: Assessing the degree of problems related to drug abuse is important in each treatment setting. The Drug Abuse Screening Test-20 (DAST-20) is a brief, simple 20-item instrument to measure the degree of problems related to drug use. The objective of the present study is to examine the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the DAST-20. METHODS: We translated the DAST-20 into Japanese using back translation. The anonymous self-administered questionnaire was completed by 310 drug users at the Drug Addiction Rehabilitation Centers (DARC group, n = 113) and at HIV/AIDS regional hospitals (HIV group, n = 197) in Japan...
December 2015: Nihon Arukōru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi, Japanese Journal of Alcohol Studies & Drug Dependence
Archana Krishnan, Shan-Estelle Brown, Mansur Ghani, Farrah Khan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: Drug use in Malaysia remains a significant public health and social problem despite implementation of harsh punitive drug policies such as forcibly placing suspected drug users into compulsory drug detention centers (CDDCs). Following criticism over human right violations in CDDCs, Malaysia has begun to transition towards voluntary drug treatment centers known as Cure & Care (C&C) Centers. To best serve the needs of regional C&Cs, data on drug use are essential among patients accessing treatment...
February 25, 2016: Substance Abuse
Christophe Huynh, Francine Ferland, Nadine Blanchette-Martin, Jean-Marc Ménard, Marie-Josée Fleury
This study assessed the characteristics of individuals with substance use disorders (ISUDs) according to their frequency of emergency department (ED) utilization, and examined which variables were associated with an increase in ED visits using Andersen's model. Data linkage of administrative databanks from three sources [addiction rehabilitation centre registry, physician billing systems, and hospital discharge databank] for 4526 ISUDs was performed. Predisposing, enabling and need factors associated with number of ED visits were determined using a negative binomial regression model and generalised estimating equations...
February 13, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
Salvatore Campanella
Currently, relapse prevention remains the main challenge in addiction medicine, indicating that the established treatment methods combining psychotherapy with neuropharmacological interventions are not entirely effective. Therefore, there is a push to develop alternatives to psychotherapy- and medication-based approaches to addiction treatment. Two major cognitive factors have been identified that trigger relapse in addicted patients: attentional biases directed toward drug-related cues, which increase the urge to consume, and impaired response inhibition toward these cues, which makes it more difficult for addicted people to resist temptation...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
Zachary M Weil, John D Corrigan, Kate Karelina
Brain injury survivors, particularly those injured early in life are very likely to abuse drugs and alcohol later in life. Alcohol abuse following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with poorer rehabilitation outcomes and a greatly increased chance of suffering future head trauma. Thus, substance abuse among persons with brain injury reduces the chances for positive long-term outcomes and greatly increases the societal costs. In this review, we discuss the evidence for modulation of drinking behavior after TBI and the costs of problem drinking after TBI from both a biomedical and economic perspective...
March 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Alicia Yolanda Harvey-Vera, Patricia González-Zúñiga, Adriana Carolina Vargas-Ojeda, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Carlos Leonardo Magis-Rodríguez, Karla Wagner, Steffanie Anne Strathdee, Daniel Werb
BACKGROUND: In 2009, Mexico reformed its health law to partially decriminalize drug possession considered for personal use and to increase mandatory referrals to certified drug rehabilitation centers in lieu of incarceration. Concurrently, news media reported violent attacks perpetrated by drug cartels against Mexican drug rehabilitation centers and instances of human rights violations by staff against people who inject drugs (PWID) in treatment. In many cases, these violent situations took place at "Peer Support" (Ayuda Mutua) drug rehabilitation centers that house a large number of drug-dependent PWID...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
A Cancel, F Naudet, P F Rousseau, B Millet, D Drapier
INTRODUCTION: Impulsivity is a transnosographical dimension with major consequences on medical care with which psychiatrists are frequently confronted. Furthermore, compliance is a major variable that can affect the efficiency of therapeutics and hospitalizations in psychiatry. A study was carried out in three drug and alcohol rehabilitation hospitalization units to find out if impulsivity can have consequences on compliance. METHOD: The studied population was composed of 85 patients aged from 18 to 70, hospitalized for one or more addiction disorders in a psychometric hospital in Vannes (France)...
August 2016: L'Encéphale
Kyeong-Bong Lee, Min-Kyu Kim, Ju-Ri Jeong, Wan-Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the inter- and intra-rater reliability of an electronic inspiratory loading device for the assessment of pulmonary functions: maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity. MATERIAL/METHODS: Subjects were 50 patient volunteers in a rehabilitation hospital who had experienced their first episode of unilateral stroke with hemiparesis during the previous 6 months (26 men, 24 women; mean age [±SD], 55...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Adrian Webber, Jane Clark, David Kelly
Addressing the psychological distress of individuals experiencing substance use disorders has too often been relegated to the 'too hard basket', leaving those affected with little choice but to receive treatments aimed solely at addressing their drug and alcohol issues. Conversely, individuals receiving support for psychological issues are often underdiagnosed with regards to any comorbid substance misuse problems. In fact, to date, no definitive treatment model exists that gives equal focus to the treatment of both psychological well-being and substance-related addictions...
February 2016: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Ingunn Fride Tvete, Trine Bjørner, Tor Skomedal
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for becoming an excessive user over time. SETTING: Prescription database study over five years. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Norwegians between 30 and 60 years with a first dispensation of a benzodiazepine during 2006, encompassing 23 227 individuals. A Cox hazard regression model was defined, initially stratifying on gender, age, county, previous relevant drug dispensations, household income, education level, and vocational rehabilitation support...
2015: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
Ines Giorgi, Marcella Ottonello, Giovanni Vittadini, Giorgio Bertolotti
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-dependent patients usually experience negative affects under the influence of alcohol, and these affective symptoms have been shown to decrease as a result of alcohol-withdrawal treatment. A recent cognitive-affective model suggests an interaction between drug motivation and affective symptoms. The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the psychological changes in subjects undergoing a residential rehabilitation program specifically designed for alcohol addiction, and to identify at discharge patients with greater affective symptoms and therefore more at risk of relapse...
2015: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
S Byra
STUDY DESIGN: Participants with spinal cord injury (SCI) sustained at least 15 years before the study completed questionnaires measuring posttraumatic growth (PTG), basic hope and coping strategies. OBJECTIVES: To determine contribution of basic hope and coping strategies to accounting for PTG variability in participants with traumatic long-term SCI. SETTING: Polish rehabilitation centres, foundations and associations implementing social inclusion and professional activation programmes...
June 2016: Spinal Cord
Braden K Linn, Thomas Nochajski, William Wieczorek
BACKGROUND: Driving under the influence remains a pervasive problem. Approximately 30% of those arrested for impaired driving offenses each year are repeat offenders, suggesting that current rehabilitative efforts are not sufficiently effective for reducing driving while intoxicated (DWI) recidivism. Aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency have been noted in the population of impaired drivers, but study of these variables on recidivism has been limited...
2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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