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miRNA critical illness

Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam, William Winlow, Maryam Farzaneh
Immunity and inflammation are important parameters of the pathophysiology of stroke, a destructive illness that is the second most common cause of death worldwide. Following ischemic stroke, neuroinflammation plays a critical role in neurodegeneration and brain injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenously expressed, noncoding RNA molecules that function to inhibit mRNA translation. Recent studies demonstrate that miRNAs are key regulators of inflammatory processes contributing to ischemic stroke injuries...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Xiao Yu, Zhe Zhe, Binqing Tang, Shaobin Li, Ling Tang, Yingen Wu, Xiaorong Chen, Hong Fang
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a common cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants and young children. α-Asarone presents many pharmacological effects and has been demonstrated to be useful in treating asthma. However, the functional mechanism of α-asarone in RSV-infected asthma has not been investigated. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play critical roles in many biological processes. Although many lncRNAs have been characterized, few were reported in asthma, especially in RSV-induced asthma...
May 16, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Qiang Xiao, Yu Yang, Qing An, Yong Qi
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a prevalent cancer worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the growth, invasion and carcinogenesis of OS, whereas the underlying mechanisms remain ill-defined. Here, we addressed these questions. We detected significantly higher levels of ZNRF2, a ubiquitin ligase of the RING superfamily, and significantly lower levels of miR-100 in the OS specimens, compared to the paired normal bone tissues. The levels of ZNRF2 and miR-100 inversely correlated in the OS specimens. In addition, low miR-100 levels are associated with poor prognosis of the OS patients...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
Gregg W Crabtree, Ziyi Sun, Mirna Kvajo, Jantine A C Broek, Karine Fénelon, Heather McKellar, Lan Xiao, Bin Xu, Sabine Bahn, James M O'Donnell, Joseph A Gogos
Using a genetic mouse model that faithfully recapitulates a DISC1 genetic alteration strongly associated with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, we examined the impact of this mutation within the prefrontal cortex. Although cortical layering, cytoarchitecture, and proteome were found to be largely unaffected, electrophysiological examination of the mPFC revealed both neuronal hyperexcitability and alterations in short-term synaptic plasticity consistent with enhanced neurotransmitter release. Increased excitability of layer II/III pyramidal neurons was accompanied by consistent reductions in voltage-activated potassium currents near the action potential threshold as well as by enhanced recruitment of inputs arising from superficial layers to layer V...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marius Papurica, Alexandru F Rogobete, Carmen A Cradigati, Mirela Sarandan, Raluca Dumache, Lavinia M Bratu, Sonia E Popovici, Dorel Sandesc, Corina Vernic, Ovidiu H Bedreag
BACKGROUND: A high percentage of critically ill polytrauma patients develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), both because of the primary traumatic injuries and because of the secondary post-traumatic injuries. For adequate management of these patients, new complex evaluation and monitoring methods are needed, methods that could answer as many questions as possible regarding the pathophysiological changes associated with ARDS. Currently, a series of clinical and biochemical markers are being used which unfortunately do not respond to the needs of an intensive care clinician...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
Ovidiu H Bedreag, Marius Papurica, Alexandru F Rogobete, Dorel Sandesc, Raluca Dumache, Carmen A Cradigati, Mirela Sarandan, Lavinia M Bratu, Sonia E Popovici, Laurentiu V Sima
BACKGROUND: The multiple-traumatic critical patient presents a variety of pathophysiological, cellular, and molecular dysfunctions. One of the most important is represented by mitochondrial damage which afterwards is responsible for the augmentation and worsening of a series of pathologies that lead to the worsening of the clinical status of the patient. The severe inflammatory response, sepsis, and the redox imbalance are other pathologies that together with the multiple traumas are responsible for the mitochondrial dysfunctions...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
Lavinia M Bratu, Alexandru F Rogobete, Marius Papurica, Dorel Sandesc, Carmen A Cradigati, Mirela Sarandan, Raluca Dumache, Sonia E Popovici, Dan C Crisan, Horia Stanca, Sonia Tanasescu, Ovidiu H Bedreag
BACKGROUND: One of the most severe conditions specific to the critically ill polytrauma patient is traumatic brain injury and traumatic spinal cord injury. The mortality rate is high in the case of these patients, both because of the direct traumatic lesions, and because of the pathophysiological imbalances associated with trauma. Amongst the most common pathologies associated with the critically ill polytrauma patients responsible for a lower survival rate, are redox imbalance, systemic inflammatory response, infections, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
Marius Papurica, Alexandru F Rogobete, Dorel Sandesc, Carmen A Cradigati, Mirela Sarandan, Raluca Dumache, Florin G Horhat, Lavinia M Bratu, Razvan Nitu, Dan C Crisan, Delia I Horhat, Elena S Popovici, Sonia Tanasescu, Vlad Daliborca, Ovidiu Boruga, Ovidiu H Bedreag
BACKGROUND: The critically ill polytrauma patient continues to be one of the most complex cases in the intensive care unit (ICU). The molecular damage is closely connected with the severe, specific pathophysiological imbalances, such as severe inflammation, infections, hypermetabolism, oxidative stress, and ultimately multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). METHODS: The literature available on PubMed and Scopus was analysed for this study. The key words used in the search were "biomarkers in critically ill patients", "molecular damage", "sepsis biomarkers", "miRNAs biomarkers", and "oxidative stress"...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
Chloë Goossens, Mirna Bastos Marques, Sarah Derde, Sarah Vander Perre, Thomas Dufour, Steven E Thiessen, Fabian Güiza, Thomas Janssens, Greet Hermans, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Katrien De Bock, Greet Van den Berghe, Lies Langouche
BACKGROUND: The 'obesity paradox' of critical illness refers to better survival with a higher body mass index. We hypothesized that fat mobilized from excess adipose tissue during critical illness provides energy more efficiently than exogenous macronutrients and could prevent lean tissue wasting. METHODS: In lean and premorbidly obese mice, the effect of 5 days of sepsis-induced critical illness on body weight and composition, muscle wasting, and weakness was assessed, each with fasting and parenteral feeding...
February 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Li Chen, Xiang Cui, Peng Li, Cong Feng, Lili Wang, Hao Wang, Xuan Zhou, Bo Yang, Faqin Lv, Tanshi Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) plays a critical role in prevention of cirrhosis and enhancement of liver regeneration. However, the molecular regulation of KGF in liver is unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control the pathogenesis of cirrhosis, whereas the exact involved miRNAs and molecular signaling pathways remain ill-defined. Here we addressed these questions. METHODS: We examined the correlation of the levels of miR-219-5p and KGF in the liver biopsies from patients with liver diseases...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
E Mahmoudi, M J Cairns
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent an important class of small regulatory RNAs that control gene expression posttranscriptionally by targeting mRNAs for degradation or translation inhibition. Early studies have revealed a complex role for miRNAs in major biological processes such as development, differentiation, growth and metabolism. MiR-137 in particular, has been of great interest due to its critical role in brain function and putative involvement in the etiology of both neuropsychiatric disorders and cancer. Several lines of evidence suggest that development, differentiation and maturation of the nervous system is strongly linked to the expression of miR-137 and its regulation of a large number of downstream target genes in various pathways...
January 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
Marian Ticlea, Lavinia Melania Bratu, Florian Bodog, Ovidiu Horea Bedreag, Alexandru Florin Rogobete, Zorin Petrisor Crainiceanu
Regarding genetic biomarkers for early assessment and monitoring the clinical course in polytrauma patients with sepsis, in recent years a remarkable evolution has been highlighted. One of the main representatives is the exosome miRNAs. In this paper, we would like to present in more details the various methods of using exosome miRNAs as a biomarker for monitoring polytrauma patients with sepsis, as well as establishing a belated outcome by aggregating the entire clinical aspects. The use of exosome miRNAs for late evaluating and monitoring the clinical evolution of polytrauma patients can bring significant improvements in current clinical practice through the optimization and modulation of intensive care according to the needs of each patient individually...
February 2017: Biochemical Genetics
James L Weemhoff, Benjamin L Woolbright, Rosalind E Jenkins, Mitchell R McGill, Matthew R Sharpe, Jody C Olson, Daniel J Antoine, Steven C Curry, Hartmut Jaeschke
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hypoxic hepatitis is a clinical condition precipitated by prolonged periods of oxygen deprivation to the liver. It can have several underlying causes. Despite its prevalence in critically ill patients, which can reach upwards of 10%, very little is known about the mechanisms of injury. Thus, we set out to measure previously identified circulating biomarkers in an attempt to describe mechanisms of injury following hypoxic hepatitis. METHODS: Plasma from patients diagnosed with hypoxic hepatitis was collected for this study...
March 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Stefano Caserta, Florian Kern, Jonathan Cohen, Stephen Drage, Sarah F Newbury, Martin J Llewelyn
Systemic inflammation in humans may be triggered by infection, termed sepsis, or non-infective processes, termed non-infective systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). MicroRNAs regulate cellular processes including inflammation and may be detected in blood. We aimed to establish definitive proof-of-principle that circulating microRNAs are differentially affected during sepsis and non-infective SIRS. Critically ill patients with severe (n = 21) or non-severe (n = 8) intra-abdominal sepsis; severe (n = 23) or non-severe (n = 21) non-infective SIRS; or no SIRS (n = 16) were studied...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ovidiu Horea Bedreag, Dorel Sandesc, Sorin Dan Chiriac, Alexandru Florin Rogobete, Alina Carmen Cradigati, Mirela Sarandan, Raluca Dumache, Radu Nartita, Marius Papurica
BACKGROUND: The diversity of primary and secondary traumatic injuries specific for the critically ill polytrauma patient is complicating the therapeutic management in the absence of a strict assessment of the biological changes. Inflammation, redox imbalance, and immunosuppression can be quantified by various biochemical parameters; however, they do not fully respond to the current requirements. Another phenomenon responsible for worsening the clinical status and for the development of complications in such patients is oxidative stress...
2016: Clinical Laboratory
Sanchari Roy, Fabian Benz, Jan Alder, Heike Bantel, Joern Janssen, Mihael Vucur, Jeremie Gautheron, Anne Schneider, Florian Schüller, Sven Loosen, Mark Luedde, Alexander Koch, Frank Tacke, Tom Luedde, Christian Trautwein, Christoph Roderburg
miR-192-5p has gained increasing relevance in various diseases, however, its function in acute liver injury is currently unknown. We analysed miR-192-5p serum levels and hepatic miR-192-5p expression in mice after hepatic ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) as well as in toxic liver injury. On a functional level, miRNA levels were analysed in the different hepatic cell-compartments and in the context of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-dependent liver cell death. We detected increased serum levels of miR-192-5p after hepatic I/R- and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury...
July 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Andrea Rivera, Tasha Barr, Maham Rais, Flora Engelmann, Ilhem Messaoudi
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that are key regulators of biological processes, including the immune response to viral infections. Differential expression levels of cellular miRNAs and their predicted targets have been described in the lungs of H1N1-infected BALB/c mice, the lungs of H5N1 influenza-infected cynomolgus macaques, and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of critically ill patients infected with 2009 pandemic H1N1. However, a longitudinal analysis of changes in the expression of miRNAs and their targets during influenza infection and how they relate to viral replication and host response has yet to be carried out...
May 2016: Viral Immunology
Justin J-L Wong, Amy Y M Au, Dadi Gao, Natalia Pinello, Chau-To Kwok, Annora Thoeng, Katherine A Lau, Jane E A Gordon, Ulf Schmitz, Yue Feng, Trung V Nguyen, Robert Middleton, Charles G Bailey, Jeff Holst, John E J Rasko, William Ritchie
Fever is commonly used to diagnose disease and is consistently associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients. However, the molecular controls of elevated body temperature are poorly understood. We discovered that the expression of RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3), known to respond to cold stress and to modulate microRNA (miRNA) expression, was reduced in 30 patients with fever, and in THP-1-derived macrophages maintained at a fever-like temperature (40 °C). Notably, RBM3 expression is reduced during fever whether or not infection is demonstrable...
April 7, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Subbiah Rajasekaran, Dhamotharan Pattarayan, P Rajaguru, P S Sudhakar Gandhi, Rajesh K Thimmulappa
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a severe form of acute lung injury (ALI), is a very common condition associated with critically ill patients, which causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite decades of research, effective therapeutic strategies for clinical ALI/ARDS are not available. In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding molecules have emerged as a major area of biomedical research as they post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in diverse biological and pathological processes, including ALI/ARDS...
October 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Zichao Zhou, Zhijian You
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Damages of pulmonary endothelial cells (PECs) represent a critical pathological process during acute lung injury (ALI), and precede pulmonary epithelial cell injury, and long-term lung dysfunction. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has proven therapeutic effects on ALI, whereas the underlying mechanisms remain ill-defined. METHOD: We transplanted MSCs in mice and then induced ALI using Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We analyzed the changes in permeability index and lung histology...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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