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sleeping sickness

Eija Haukka, Anneli Ojajärvi, Leena Kaila-Kangas, Päivi Leino-Arjas
We identified factors protective of all-cause sickness absence (SA) among subjects with multisite musculoskeletal pain (MSP). The nationally representative source sample comprised 3420 actively working Finns aged 30-55 in year 2000 and alive at follow-up. Pain in 18 body locations was combined into four sites (neck, low back, upper limbs, lower limbs). The baseline prevalence of MSP (pain in ≥ 2 sites) was 32 %. Baseline data on sociodemographic factors, work ability, work, health, and lifestyle were gathered by questionnaire, interview and clinical examination and linked with national registers on all-cause SA (periods lasting ≥10 workdays) for 2002-2008...
October 3, 2016: Pain
Lional Rajappa-Titu, Takuma Suematsu, Paola Munoz-Tello, Marius Long, Özlem Demir, Kevin J Cheng, Jason R Stagno, Hartmut Luecke, Rommie E Amaro, Inna Aphasizheva, Ruslan Aphasizhev, Stéphane Thore
Terminal uridyltransferases (TUTases) execute 3' RNA uridylation across protists, fungi, metazoan and plant species. Uridylation plays a particularly prominent role in RNA processing pathways of kinetoplastid protists typified by the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, Trypanosoma brucei In mitochondria of this pathogen, most mRNAs are internally modified by U-insertion/deletion editing while guide RNAs and rRNAs are U-tailed. The founding member of TUTase family, RNA editing TUTase 1 (RET1), functions as a subunit of the 3' processome in uridylation of gRNA precursors and mature guide RNAs...
October 15, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Aitor Casas-Sánchez, Álvaro Acosta-Serrano
Trypanosome parasites are hiding in human skin, a discovery that may undermine efforts to eliminate sleeping sickness by 2020.
October 14, 2016: ELife
Stefan Mogk, Christian M Boßelmann, Celestin N Mudogo, Jasmin Stein, Hartwig Wolburg, Michael Duszenko
African trypanosomes induce sleeping sickness. The parasites are transmitted during the blood meal of a tsetse fly and appear primarily in blood and lymph vessels, before they enter the central nervous system. During the latter stage, trypanosomes induce a deregulation of sleep-wake cycles and some additional neurological disorders. Historically, it was assumed that trypanosomes cross the blood-brain barrier and settle somewhere between the brain cells. The brain, however, is a strictly controlled and immune-privileged area that is completely surrounded by a dense barrier that covers the blood vessels: this is the blood-brain barrier...
October 14, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Jose A Garcia-Salcedo, Juan D Unciti-Broceta, Javier Valverde-Pozo, Miguel Soriano
Leishmania and Trypanosoma are members of the Trypanosomatidae family that cause severe human infections such as leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and sleeping sickness affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite efforts to eradicate them, migrations are expanding these infections to developing countries. There are no vaccines available and current treatments depend only on chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a major obstacle for the treatment of these diseases given that existing drugs are old and limited, with some having severe side effects...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Lucy Hedley, Douglas Fink, Dominic Sparkes, Peter L Chiodini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Sanofar Abdeen, Nilshad Salim, Najiba Mammadova, Corey M Summers, Karen Goldsmith-Pestana, Diane McMahon-Pratt, Peter G Schultz, Arthur L Horwich, Eli Chapman, Steven M Johnson
Trypanosoma brucei are protozoan parasites that cause African sleeping sickness in humans (also known as Human African Trypanosomiasis-HAT). Without treatment, T. brucei infections are fatal. There is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies as current drugs are toxic, have complex treatment regimens, and are becoming less effective owing to rising antibiotic resistance in parasites. We hypothesize that targeting the HSP60/10 chaperonin systems in T. brucei is a viable anti-trypanosomal strategy as parasites rely on these stress response elements for their development and survival...
September 22, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Harriet Auty, Sarah Cleaveland, Imna Malele, Joseph Masoy, Tiziana Lembo, Paul Bessell, Stephen Torr, Kim Picozzi, Susan C Welburn
BACKGROUND: Identifying hosts of blood-feeding insect vectors is crucial in understanding their role in disease transmission. Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT), also known as acute sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and transmitted by tsetse flies. The disease is commonly associated with wilderness areas of east and southern Africa. Such areas hold a diverse range of species which form communities of hosts for disease maintenance. The relative importance of different wildlife hosts remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
L N Nsiangani, D Kaimbo Wa Kaimbo, M L Kazumba
We report the case of a 13-year-old girl who consulted for blurred vision, pain, and redness in her left eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed chronic, hypertensive, and non-granulomatous anterior uveitis. The disease course was marked by a reversal of diurnal rhythm, with daytime sleepiness and behavioral disorders. A neuropsychiatric examination suggested human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness. The diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of Trypanosoma in the cerebrospinal fluid. The NECT regimen (nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy) was administered as medical treatment and resulted in the disappearance of all clinical signs...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Yeonsu Song, Donna L Washington, Elizabeth M Yano, Susan M McCurry, Constance H Fung, Joseph M Dzierzewski, Juan Carlos Rodriguez, Stella Jouldjian, Michael N Mitchell, Cathy A Alessi, Jennifer L Martin
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To identify caregiving-related sleep problems and their relationship to mental health and daytime function in female Veterans. PARTICIPANTS: Female Veterans (N = 1,477) from cross-sectional, nationwide, postal survey data. METHODS: The survey respondent characteristics included demographics, comorbidity, physical activity, health, use of sleep medications, and history of sleep apnea. They self-identified caregiving- related sleep problems (i...
October 3, 2016: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
Marcus Tullius Scotti, Luciana Scotti, Hamilton Ishiki, Frederico Fávaro Ribeiro, Rayssa Marques Duarte da Cruz, Michelle Pedrosa de Oliveira, Francisco Jaime Bezerra Mendonça
Natural products are compounds extracted from plants, marine organisms, fungi or bacteria. Many researches for new drugs are based on these natural molecules, mainly by beneficial effects on health, health, efficacy, and therapeutic safety. Leishmaniosis, Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness are neglected diseases caused by the Leishmania and Trypanosoma ssp. parasites. These infections mainly affect population of developing countries; they have different symptoms, and may often lead to death. The therapeutic drugs available to treat these diseases are either obsolete, toxic, or have questionable efficacy, possibly through encountering resistance...
2016: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Jelle Caers, Matthias B Van Hiel, Katleen Peymen, Sven Zels, Liesbeth Van Rompay, Jan Van Den Abbeele, Liliane Schoofs, Isabel Beets
Neuropeptides related to mammalian neuropeptide Y (NPY) and insect neuropeptide F (NPF) are conserved throughout Metazoa and intimately involved in a wide range of biological processes. In insects NPF is involved in regulating feeding, learning, stress and reproductive behavior. Here we identified and characterized an NPF receptor of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, the sole transmitter of Trypanosoma parasites causing sleeping sickness. We isolated cDNA sequences encoding tsetse NPF (Glomo-NPF) and its receptor (Glomo-NPFR), and examined their spatial and temporal expression patterns using quantitative PCR...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Kokui Elikplim Pomevor, Augustine Adomah-Afari
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess available human resources for neonatal care and their skills, in order to explore health providers' perceptions of quality of neonatal care in health facilities in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered using qualitative interviews with health providers working in the maternity and paediatric wards and midwives; direct observation; and documentary review at a regional hospital, a municipal hospital and four health centres in a municipality in a region in Southern Ghana...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
Víctor M Castillo-Acosta, Luis M Ruiz-Pérez, Juan Etxebarria, Niels C Reichardt, Miguel Navarro, Yasuhiro Igarashi, Sandra Liekens, Jan Balzarini, Dolores González-Pacanowska
Current treatments available for African sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are limited, with poor efficacy and unacceptable safety profiles. Here, we report a new approach to address treatment of this disease based on the use of compounds that bind to parasite surface glycans leading to rapid killing of trypanosomes. Pradimicin and its derivatives are non-peptidic carbohydrate-binding agents that adhere to the carbohydrate moiety of the parasite surface glycoproteins inducing parasite lysis in vitro...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Christian Brix Folsted Andersen, Kristian Stødkilde, Kirstine Lindhart Sæderup, Anne Kuhlee, Stefan Raunser, Jonas Heilskov Graversen, Søren Kragh Moestrup
SIGNIFICANCE: Haptoglobin (Hp) is an abundant human plasma protein that tightly captures hemoglobin (Hb) during hemolysis. The Hb-Hp complex formation reduces the oxidative properties of heme/Hb and promotes recognition by the macrophage receptor CD163. This leads to Hb-Hp breakdown and heme catabolism by heme oxygenase. Gene duplications of a part of or the entire Hp gene in the primate evolution has led to variant Hp gene products that collectively may be designated 'the haptoglobins' as they all bind Hb...
September 21, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Janna Kaplan, Joel Ventura, Avijit Bakshi, Alberto Pieobon, James R Lackner, Paul DiZio
Our goal was to determine how sleep deprivation, nauseogenic motion, and a combination of motion and sleep deprivation affect cognitive vigilance, visual-spatial perception, motor learning and retention, and balance. We exposed four groups of subjects to different combinations of normal 8h sleep or 4h sleep for two nights combined with testing under stationary conditions or during 0.28Hz horizontal linear oscillation. On the two days following controlled sleep, all subjects underwent four test sessions per day that included evaluations of fatigue, motion sickness, vigilance, perceptual discrimination, perceptual learning, motor performance and learning, and balance...
August 31, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Francis E G Cox
The period 1875-1925 was remarkable in the history of parasitology partly because of the number of significant discoveries made, especially the elucidation of important life cycles, and partly because of the achievements of the clinicians and scientists who made these discoveries. What is remarkable is that so many of these individuals were Scots. Preeminent in this pantheon was Patrick Manson, who not only discovered the mosquito transmission of filarial worms but was instrumental in directly encouraging others to make significant discoveries in the fields of malaria, Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis), onchocerciasis, loiasis and schistosomiasis and, indirectly, sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis...
September 15, 2016: Parasitology
Shingisai Chando, Christian Young, Jonathan C Craig, Hasantha Gunasekera, Allison Tong
UNLABELLED: This study aims to describe parental experiences and perspectives of caring for a child with otitis media. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies on parental perspectives on caring for a child with otitis media. We searched electronic databases to July 2015. Seventeen studies involving 284 participants from six countries were included. We identified seven themes: diminishing competency (guilt over failure to identify symptoms, helpless and despairing, fear of complications, disempowered and dismissed); disrupting life schedules (disturbing sleep, interfering with work, burden on family); social isolation (stigma and judgement, sick consciousness); threatening normal development (delaying growth milestones, impairing interpersonal skills, impeding education); taking ownership (recognising symptoms, diagnostic closure, working the system, protecting against physical trauma, contingency planning); valuing support (needing respite, depending on community, clinician validation); and cherishing health (relief with treatment success, inspiring resilience)...
October 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Aziz Filali-Ansary, Cécile Augé, Audrey Abgrall, Marie Souchaud, Franck Pellissier, Olaf Valverde Mordt, Séverine Blesson, Ger-Jan Sanderink
AIM: Fexinidazole (FEX) is a nitroimidazole being developed as a new trypanocide treatment for human African trypanosomiasis/sleeping sickness. Its main metabolites, fexinidazole sulfoxide (M1) and fexinidazole sulfone (M2), show the same in vitro pharmacological activity as FEX. METHODS & RESULTS: An LC-MS/MS assay was developed for quantitation of FEX in DBS, collected via finger-prick from healthy subjects. The DBS assay was specific, accurate and reproducible for FEX, M1 and M2 when validated against the current plasma assay...
October 2016: Bioanalysis
K K Misra, S Roy, A Choudhury
Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi is a causative agent of the dreadful mammalian disease trypanosomiasis or 'Surra' and carried as a latent parasite in domestic cattle but occasionally proves fatal when transmitted to horses and camel. Sporadic outbreak of 'Surra' to different animals (beside their natural hosts) reminds that T. evansi may be zoonotic, as their close relative cause sleeping sickness to human being. This haemoflagellate is mechanically transmitted by horse fly and its effect on different host varies depending on certain factors including the effectiveness of transmission by mechanical vector, the suitability and susceptibility of the host as well as most importantly the ability of the disease establishment of parasite to adapt itself to the host's resistance, etc...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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