Read by QxMD icon Read

sleeping sickness

Claudia Laperchia, Yuan-Zhong Xu, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Tiziana Cotrufo, Marina Bentivoglio
Neuron populations of the lateral hypothalamus which synthesize the orexin (OX)/hypocretin or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) peptides play crucial, reciprocal roles in regulating wake stability and sleep. The disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called sleeping sickness, caused by extracellular Trypanosoma brucei ( T. b .) parasites, leads to characteristic sleep-wake cycle disruption and narcoleptic-like alterations of the sleep structure. Previous studies have revealed damage of OX and MCH neurons during systemic infection of laboratory rodents with the non-human pathogenic T...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
I Matetovici, J Van Den Abbeele
Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are conserved proteins with a role in innate immune immunity. In the current study, we characterized the TEP family in the genome of six tsetse fly species (Glossina spp.). Tsetse flies are the biological vectors of several African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness in humans or nagana in livestock. The analysis of the tsetse TEP sequences revealed information about their structure, evolutionary relationships and expression profiles under both normal and trypanosome infection conditions...
March 12, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Natalia Tiberti, Jean-Charles Sanchez
Sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei parasites, affecting the poorest communities in sub-Saharan Africa. The great efforts done by the scientific community, local governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) via active patients' screening, vector control and introduction of improved treatment regimens have significantly contributed to the reduction of HAT incidence during the last 15 years. Consequently, the WHO has announced the objective of HAT elimination as a public health problem by 2020...
March 8, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Astrid Grensman, Bikash Dev Acharya, Per Wändell, Gunnar H Nilsson, Torkel Falkenberg, Örjan Sundin, Sigbritt Werner
BACKGROUND: To explore if health related quality of life(HRQoL) increased after traditional yoga(TY), mindfulness based cognitive therapy(MBCT), or cognitive behavioral therapy(CBT), in patients on sick leave because of burnout. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial, blinded, in ninety-four primary health care patients, block randomized to TY, MBCT or CBT (active control) between September 2007 and November 2009. Patients were living in the Stockholm metropolitan area, Sweden, were aged 18-65 years and were on 50%-100% sick leave...
March 6, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Noel-Marie Plonski, Bianca Bissoni, Madara Hetti Arachchilage, Karl Romstedt, Edgar E Kooijman, Helen Piontkivska
Unicellular flagellates that make up the class Kinetoplastida include multiple parasites responsible for public health concerns, including Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi (agents of African sleeping sickness and Chagas disease, respectively), and various Leishmania species, which cause leishmaniasis. These diseases are generally difficult to eradicate, with treatments often having lethal side effects and/or being effective only during the acute phase of the diseases, when most patients are still asymptomatic...
February 28, 2018: Gene
Chiara Tesoriero, Yuan-Zhong Xu, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Marina Bentivoglio
Trypanosoma brucei ( T. b. ) gambiense is the parasite subspecies responsible for most reported cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness. This severe infection leads to characteristic disruption of the sleep-wake cycle, recalling attention on the circadian timing system. Most animal models of the disease have been hitherto based on infection of laboratory rodents with the T. b. brucei subspecies, which is not infectious to humans. In these animal models, functional, rather than structural, alterations of the master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), have been reported...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Julius Mulindwa, Kevin Leiss, David Ibberson, Kevin Kamanyi Marucha, Claudia Helbig, Larissa Melo do Nascimento, Eleanor Silvester, Keith Matthews, Enock Matovu, John Enyaru, Christine Clayton
All of our current knowledge of African trypanosome metabolism is based on results from trypanosomes grown in culture or in rodents. Drugs against sleeping sickness must however treat trypanosomes in humans. We here compare the transcriptomes of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of human patients with those of trypanosomes from culture and rodents. The data were aligned and analysed using new user-friendly applications designed for Kinetoplastid RNA-Seq data. The transcriptomes of trypanosomes from human blood and cerebrospinal fluid did not predict major metabolic differences that might affect drug susceptibility...
February 23, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Simon Alderton, Ewan T Macleod, Neil E Anderson, Gwen Palmer, Noreen Machila, Martin Simuunza, Susan C Welburn, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: This paper presents the development of an agent-based model (ABM) to incorporate climatic drivers which affect tsetse fly (G. m. morsitans) population dynamics, and ultimately disease transmission. The model was used to gain a greater understanding of how tsetse populations fluctuate seasonally, and investigate any response observed in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT) disease transmission, with a view to gaining a greater understanding of disease dynamics...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nicole LoGiudice, Linh Le, Irene Abuan, Yvette Leizorek, Sigrid C Roberts
The fluorinated ornithine analog α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, eflornithine, ornidyl) is an irreversible suicide inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. The ubiquitous and essential polyamines have many functions, but are primarily important for rapidly proliferating cells. Thus, ODC is potentially a drug target for any disease state where rapid growth is a key process leading to pathology. The compound was originally discovered as an anticancer drug, but its effectiveness was disappointing...
February 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Philippe Büscher, Jean-Mathieu Bart, Marleen Boelaert, Bruno Bucheton, Giuliano Cecchi, Nakul Chitnis, David Courtin, Luisa M Figueiredo, José-Ramon Franco, Pascal Grébaut, Epco Hasker, Hamidou Ilboudo, Vincent Jamonneau, Mathurin Koffi, Veerle Lejon, Annette MacLeod, Justin Masumu, Enock Matovu, Raffaele Mattioli, Harry Noyes, Albert Picado, Kat S Rock, Brice Rotureau, Gustave Simo, Sophie Thévenon, Sandra Trindade, Philippe Truc, Nick Van Reet
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense causes human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Between 1990 and 2015, almost 440000 cases were reported. Large-scale screening of populations at risk, drug donations, and efforts by national and international stakeholders have brought the epidemic under control with <2200 cases in 2016. The World Health Organization (WHO) has set the goals of gambiense-HAT elimination as a public health problem for 2020, and of interruption of transmission to humans for 2030. Latent human infections and possible animal reservoirs may challenge these goals...
January 19, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Amanda Aparecida Felizardo, Débora Vasconcelos Bastos Marques, Ivo Santana Caldas, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves, Rômulo Dias Novaes
The impact of age and aging in the evolution of systemic parasitic infections remains poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review from preclinical models of Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria, sleeping sickness and toxoplasmosis. From a structured and comprehensive search in electronic databases, 29 studies were recovered and included in the review. Beyond the characteristics of the experimental models, parasitological and immunological outcomes, we also discussed the quality of current evidence...
January 21, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Jaakko Airaksinen, Markus Jokela, Marianna Virtanen, Tuula Oksanen, Markku Koskenvuo, Jaana Pentti, Jussi Vahtera, Mika Kivimäki
Objectives This study aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model for long-term sickness absence. Methods Survey responses on work- and lifestyle-related questions from 65 775 public-sector employees were linked to sickness absence records to develop a prediction score for medically-certified sickness absence lasting >9 days and ≥90 days. The score was externally validated using data from an independent population-based cohort of 13 527 employees. For both sickness absence outcomes, a full model including 46 candidate predictors was reduced to a parsimonious model using least-absolute-shrinkage-and-selection-operator (LASSO) regression...
January 24, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Jason Carnes, Suzanne M McDermott, Kenneth Stuart
Editosomes are the multiprotein complexes that catalyze the insertion and deletion of uridines to create translatable mRNAs in the mitochondria of kinetoplastids. Recognition and cleavage of a broad diversity of RNA substrates in vivo require three functionally distinct RNase III-type endonucleases, as well as five additional editosome proteins that contain noncatalytic RNase III domains. RNase III domains have recently been identified in the editosome accessory proteins KREPB9 and KREPB10, suggesting a role related to editing endonuclease function...
January 2018: MSphere
Sebastian Zoll, Harriet Lane-Serff, Shahid Mehmood, Jonathan Schneider, Carol V Robinson, Mark Carrington, Matthew K Higgins
Only two trypanosome subspecies are able to cause human African trypanosomiasis. To establish an infection in human blood, they must overcome the innate immune system by resisting the toxic effects of trypanolytic factor 1 and trypanolytic factor 2 (refs. 1,2). These lipoprotein complexes contain an active, pore-forming component, apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1), that causes trypanosome cell death 3 . One of the two human-infective subspecies, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, differs from non-infective trypanosomes solely by the presence of the serum resistance-associated protein, which binds directly to ApoL1 and blocks its pore-forming capacity3-5...
January 22, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Sungsu Lee, Melanie Cheung-See-Kit, Tyler A Williams, Nader Yamout, Rachel Zufferey
Glycerophospholipids are the main constituents of the biological membranes in Trypanosoma brucei, which causes sleeping sickness in humans. The present work reports the characterization of the alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase TbADS that catalyzes the committed step in ether glycerophospholipid biosynthesis. TbADS localizes to the glycosomal lumen. TbADS complemented a null mutant of Leishmania major lacking alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase activity and restored the formation of normal form of the ether lipid based virulence factor lipophosphoglycan...
January 17, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Andrea Gloria-Soria, W Augustine Dunn, Xiaoqing Yu, Aurélien Vigneron, Kuang-Yao Lee, Mo Li, Brian L Weiss, Hongyu Zhao, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
Vector-borne diseases are responsible for more than one million deaths every year but genomic resources for most species responsible for their transmission are limited. This is true for neglected diseases such as sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis), a disease caused by Trypanosoma parasites vectored by several species of tseste flies within the genus Glossina We describe an integrative approach that identifies statistical associations between trypanosome infection status of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff) flies from Uganda, for which functional studies are complicated because the species cannot be easily maintained in laboratory colonies, and ~73,000 polymorphic sites distributed across the genome...
January 17, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Ouldouz Ghashghaei, Nicola Kielland, Marc Revés, Martin C Taylor, John M Kelly, Ornella Di Pietro, Diego Muñoz-Torrero, Belén Pérez, Rodolfo Lavilla
Imidazolium salts are privileged compounds in organic chemistry, and have valuable biological properties. Recent studies show that symmetric imidazolium salts with bulky moieties can display antiparasitic activity against T. cruzi. After developing a facile methodology for the synthesis of tetrasubstituted imidazolium salts from propargylamines and isocyanides, we screened a small library of these adducts against the causative agents of African and American trypanosomiases. These compounds display nanomolar activity against T...
January 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Filipa Rijo-Ferreira, Tânia Carvalho, Cristina Afonso, Margarida Sanches-Vaz, Rui M Costa, Luísa M Figueiredo, Joseph S Takahashi
Sleeping sickness is a fatal disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei, a unicellular parasite that lives in the bloodstream and interstitial spaces of peripheral tissues and the brain. Patients have altered sleep/wake cycles, body temperature, and endocrine profiles, but the underlying causes are unknown. Here, we show that the robust circadian rhythms of mice become phase advanced upon infection, with abnormal activity occurring during the rest phase. This advanced phase is caused by shortening of the circadian period both at the behavioral level as well as at the tissue and cell level...
January 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Masahiro Horiuchi, Junko Endo, Yoko Handa, Hiroshi Nose
We investigated effects of change in barometric pressure (P B) with climate change on heart rate (HR) during sleep at 3000 m altitude. Nineteen healthy adults (15 males and four females; mean age 32 years) participated in this study. We measured P B (barometry) and HR (electrocardiography) every minute during their overnight stay in a mountain lodge at ~ 3000 m. We also measured resting arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and evaluated symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) by using the Lake Louise Questionnaire at 2305 and 3000 m, respectively...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
Michael P Pollastri
Decades after the last new chemical entity was added to the pharmacopeia for human African trypanosomiasis (or sleeping sickness), orally dosed fexinidazole stands poised to replace the current treatment regimen for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections, following a positive Phase 2/3 clinical trial.
December 20, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"