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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779941/the-epigenetic-state-of-prdm16-regulated-enhancers-in-radial-glia-controls-cortical-neuron-position
#1
José-Manuel Baizabal, Meeta Mistry, Miguel Turrero García, Nicolás Gómez, Olubusola Olukoya, Diana Tran, Matthew B Johnson, Christopher A Walsh, Corey C Harwell
The epigenetic landscape is dynamically remodeled during neurogenesis. However, it is not understood how chromatin modifications in neural stem cells instruct the formation of complex structures in the brain. We report that the histone methyltransferase PRDM16 is required in radial glia to regulate lineage-autonomous and stage-specific gene expression programs that control number and position of upper layer cortical projection neurons. PRDM16 regulates the epigenetic state of transcriptional enhancers to activate genes involved in intermediate progenitor cell production and repress genes involved in cell migration...
May 15, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776470/clinical-outcomes-of-anconeus-interposition-arthroplasty-after-radial-head-resection-in-native-and-prosthetic-radial-heads
#2
Hithem Rahmi, Julie A Neumann, Christopher Klein, Carola F van Eck, Brian K Lee, John Itamura
BACKGROUND: Radiocapitellar pathology after traumatic injury to the elbow can be challenging to treat. The anconeus interposition arthroplasty has been proposed to treat radiocapitellar or proximal radioulnar joint dysfunction and pain, or both. This study evaluated whether radial head excision (native or prosthetic), followed by an anconeus interposition arthroplasty, relieves pain and improves subjective and objective elbow function in patients with post-traumatic radiocapitellar pathology...
June 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773754/a-critical-neurodevelopmental-role-for-l-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-neurite-extension-and-radial-migration
#3
Satoshi Kamijo, Yuichiro Ishii, Shin-Ichiro Horigane, Kanzo Suzuki, Masamichi Ohkura, Junichi Nakai, Hajime Fujii, Sayaka Takemoto-Kimura, Haruhiko Bito
In spite of many association studies linking gene polymorphisms and mutations of L-type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels (VGCC) in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, specific L-type VGCC roles during brain development remain unclear. Yet, calcium signaling has been shown to be essential for neurodevelopmental processes such as sculpting of neurites, functional wiring and fine tuning of growing networks. To bridge this gap, we performed submembraneous calcium imaging using a membrane-tethered genetically-encoded calcium indicator (GECI) Lck-G-CaMP7...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733310/ex-utero-electroporation-and-organotypic-slice-cultures-of-embryonic-mouse-brains-for-live-imaging-of-migrating-gabaergic-interneurons
#4
Lara Eid, Mathieu Lachance, Gilles Hickson, Elsa Rossignol
GABAergic interneurons (INs) are critical components of neuronal networks that drive cognition and behavior. INs destined to populate the cortex migrate tangentially from their place of origin in the ventral telencephalon (including from the medial and caudal ganglionic eminences (MGE, CGE)) to the dorsal cortical plate in response to a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Different methodologies have been developed over the years to genetically manipulate specific pathways and investigate how they regulate the dynamic cytoskeletal changes required for proper IN migration...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723656/white-matter-microstructure-alterations-correlate-with-terminally-differentiated-cd8-effector-t-cell-depletion-in-the-peripheral-blood-in-mania-combined-dti-and-immunological-investigation-in-the-different-phases-of-bipolar-disorder
#5
Paola Magioncalda, Matteo Martino, Samuele Tardito, Bruno Sterlini, Benedetta Conio, Valentina Marozzi, Giulia Adavastro, Laura Capobianco, Daniel Russo, Alessia Parodi, Francesca Kalli, Giorgia Nasi, Tiziana Altosole, Niccolò Piaggio, Georg Northoff, Daniela Fenoglio, Matilde Inglese, Gilberto Filaci, Mario Amore
BACKGROUND: White matter (WM) microstructural abnormalities and, independently, signs of immunological activation were consistently demonstrated in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the relationship between WM and immunological alterations as well as their occurrence in the various phases of BD remain unclear. METHOD: In 60 type I BD patients - 20 in manic, 20 in depressive, 20 in euthymic phases - and 20 controls we investigated: (i) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) using a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) approach; (ii) circulating T cell subpopulations frequencies, as well as plasma levels of different cytokines; (iii) potential relationships between WM and immunological data...
April 30, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716947/embryonic-bone-morphogenetic-protein-and-nodal-induce-invasion-in-melanocytes-and-melanoma-cells
#6
Tobias Sinnberg, Heike Niessner, Mitch P Levesque, Christoph Dettweiler, Claus Garbe, Christian Busch
Despite recent progress in melanoma therapy via inhibition of activated oncogenes or immune stimulation, most stage IV melanoma patients still have limited survival times. Both therapeutic approaches eventually fail to prevent further invasion and metastasis, which is driven by a morphological process termed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We previously demonstrated that inhibition of EMT in melanoma cells via antagonizing the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-pathway abrogated EMT and neural crest migration of melanoma cells in the chick embryo...
May 1, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713746/the-treatment-of-chronic-radial-head-dislocation-in-monteggia-fracture-without-annular-ligament-reconstruction
#7
Hsuan-Yu Chen, Kuan-Wen Wu, Zheng-Ren Dong, Shier-Chieg Huang, Ken N Kuo, Ting-Ming Wang
INTRODUCTION: The treatment of neglected radial head dislocation after missed Monteggia fracture dislocation in children is a controversial issue. The purpose of this study is to report our clinical experience in the treatment of the condition without annular ligament reconstruction. METHOD: This is a retrospective review of 20 patients between 2008 and 2014. Procedures included open reduction of the radial head and ulnar lengthening angulation osteotomy. In cases of unstable radial head reduction, a trans-capitellar K wire was applied...
May 1, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712998/a-novel-role-for-camkii%C3%AE-in-the-regulation-of-cortical-neuron-migration-implications-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#8
Olivier Nicole, Donald M Bell, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Hélène Doat, François Guillemot, Emilie Pacary
Perturbation of CaMKIIβ expression has been associated with multiple neuropsychiatric diseases, highlighting CaMKIIβ as a gene of interest. Yet, in contrast to CaMKIIα, the specific functions of CaMKIIβ in the brain remain poorly explored. Here, we reveal a novel function for this CaMKII isoform in vivo during neuronal development. By using in utero electroporation, we show that CaMKIIβ is an important regulator of radial migration of projection neurons during cerebral cortex development. Knockdown of CaMKIIβ causes accelerated migration of nascent pyramidal neurons, whereas overexpression of CaMKIIβ inhibits migration, demonstrating that precise regulation of CaMKIIβ expression is required for correct neuronal migration...
April 30, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709856/morphological-and-anatomical-changes-of-phragmites-australis-cav-due-to-the-uptake-and-accumulation-of-heavy-metals-from-polluted-soils
#9
Tatiana Minkina, Grigoriy Fedorenko, Dina Nevidomskaya, Aleksei Fedorenko, Victor Chaplygin, Saglara Mandzhieva
The effect of strong chemical contamination of soils on the growth and structure of reed (Phragmites australis Cav.) roots and stems has been investigated. Soils and plants on monitoring plots in the zone of industrial sewage tanks and sludge reservoirs in the city of Kamensk-Shakhtinskii (southern Russia) were studied. Polyelement pollution of soils on the studied monitoring plots was revealed, with exceedances of Clarkes in hundreds of times for Zn and Cd, in tens of times for Pb, and in several times for Cu, Ni, Cr, and Mn...
April 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709413/the-radiocapitellar-synovial-fold-a-lateral-anatomic-landmark-for-sizing-radial-head-arthroplasty
#10
Alexander J Lampley, Jacob W Brubacher, Travis J Dekker, Marc J Richard, Grant E Garrigues
BACKGROUND: Successful radial head arthroplasty relies on reproduction of anatomy. We hypothesized that the radiocapitellar synovial fold could serve as a reference point in radial head prosthesis sizing. Our study aimed to define the relationship between the synovial fold and the radial head in elbows with and without lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL) injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of 34 elbows to determine the normal relationship between the radiocapitellar synovial fold and the radial head...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688328/ethanol-exposure-in-utero-disrupts-radial-migration-and-pyramidal-cell-development-in-the-somatosensory-cortex
#11
Laurie C Delatour, Pamela W Yeh, Hermes H Yeh
Deficits in sensory processing in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) implicate dysfunction in the somatosensory cortex. However, the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on the development of this region await elucidation. Here, we used an established mouse model of FASD with binge-type ethanol exposure from embryonic day 13.5-16.5 to investigate the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal neurons in the somatosensory cortex. Specifically, we focused on the radial migration of primordial pyramidal neurons during embryonic corticogenesis and their morphology and function during active synaptogenesis in early postnatal development...
April 24, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680832/differential-fatty-acid-binding-protein-expression-in-persistent-radial-glia-in-the-human-and-sheep-subventricular-zone
#12
Birger Victor Dieriks, Justin M Dean, Eleonora Aronica, Henry J Waldvogel, Richard L M Faull, Maurice A Curtis
Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a family of transport proteins that facilitate intracellular transport of fatty acids. Despite abundant expression in the brain, the role that FABPs play in the process of cell proliferation and migration in the subventricular zone (SVZ) remains unclear. Our results provide a detailed characterisation of FABP3, 5, and 7 expression in adult and fetal human and sheep SVZ. High FABP5 expression was specifically observed in the adult human SVZ and co-labelled with polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), GFAPδ, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), indicating a role for FABP5 throughout the full maturation process of astrocytes and neuroblasts...
April 20, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674592/synaptic-transmission-from-subplate-neurons-controls-radial-migration-of-neocortical-neurons
#13
Chiaki Ohtaka-Maruyama, Mayumi Okamoto, Kentaro Endo, Minori Oshima, Noe Kaneko, Kei Yura, Haruo Okado, Takaki Miyata, Nobuaki Maeda
The neocortex exhibits a six-layered structure that is formed by radial migration of excitatory neurons, for which the multipolar-to-bipolar transition of immature migrating multipolar neurons is required. Here, we report that subplate neurons, one of the first neuron types born in the neocortex, manage the multipolar-to-bipolar transition of migrating neurons. By histochemical, imaging, and microarray analyses on the mouse embryonic cortex, we found that subplate neurons extend neurites toward the ventricular side of the subplate and form transient glutamatergic synapses on the multipolar neurons just below the subplate...
April 20, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663708/the-postmigratory-alar-topography-of-visceral-cranial-nerve-efferents-challenges-the-classical-model-of-hindbrain-columns
#14
Luis Puelles, Petr Tvrdik, Margaret Martínez-de-la-Torre
The classic columnar model of cranial nerve central representation assumes that all motor and sensory hindbrain neurons develop within four radial migration domains, held to be separated by a sulcal alar-basal boundary (sulcus limitans). This essay reviews a number of developmental data that challenge these concepts. These results are interpreted within the framework of present day neuromeric conception of the brainstem (the prosomeric model). Advances in dorsoventral patterning of the spinal cord and hindbrain now show that there exist up to eight alar microzones and five basal microzones (molecularly and histogenetically distinct longitudinal progenitor domains)...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661967/detachment-of-chain-forming-neuroblasts-by-fyn-mediated-control-of-cell-cell-adhesion-in-the-postnatal-brain
#15
Kazuma Fujikake, Masato Sawada, Takao Hikita, Yayoi Seto, Naoko Kaneko, Vicente Herranz-Pérez, Natsuki Dohi, Natsumi Homma, Satoshi Osaga, Yuchio Yanagawa, Toshihiro Akaike, Jose Manuel García-Verdugo, Mitsuharu Hattori, Kazuya Sobue, Kazunobu Sawamoto
In the rodent olfactory system, neuroblasts produced in the ventricular-subventricular zone of the postnatal brain migrate tangentially in chain-like cell aggregates toward the olfactory bulb (OB) through the rostral migratory stream (RMS). After reaching the OB, the chains are dissociated and the neuroblasts migrate individually and radially toward their final destination. The cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling cell-cell adhesion during this detachment remain unclear. Here we report that Fyn, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, regulates the detachment of neuroblasts from chains in the male and female mouse OB...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657444/radial-axial-interosseous-load-rail-test-for-essex-lopresti-type-injuries
#16
REVIEW
Zachary C Lum, Eric G Huish, Marc A Trzeciak
Background: When approaching radial head and neck fractures, the decision for ORIF, resection, or arthroplasty is often performed intraoperatively. Factors that contribute include ligamentous and bony stability, cartilage injury, mechanical alignment as well as patient factors. Recent data has suggested conventional methods may not be sufficiently sensitive in detecting Essex Lopresti injuries. Here we describe an intraoperative technique that could objectively assess proximal radio-ulnar stability with subsequent disruption of the ligamentous structures...
March 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615573/ttc21b-is-required-in-bergmann-glia-for-proper-granule-cell-radial-migration
#17
Ashley M Driver, Christopher Shumrick, Rolf W Stottmann
Proper cerebellar development is dependent on tightly regulated proliferation, migration, and differentiation events. Disruptions in any of these leads to a range of cerebellar phenotypes from ataxia to childhood tumors. Animal models have shown that proper regulation of sonic hedgehog ( Shh ) signaling is crucial for normal cerebellar architecture, and increased signaling leads to cerebellar tumor formation. Primary cilia are known to be required for the proper regulation of multiple developmental signaling pathways, including Shh ...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614620/cross-sectional-distributions-of-normal-and-abnormal-red-blood-cells-in-capillary-tubes-determined-by-a-new-technique
#18
Takahiro Sasaki, Junji Seki, Tomoaki Itano, Masako Sugihara-Seki
BACKGROUND: In the microcirculation, red blood cells (RBCs) were observed to be confined to an axial stream surrounded by a marginal RBC depleted layer. This axial accumulation of RBCs is considered to arise from the RBC deformability. OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively evaluate the effect of RBC deformability on their axial accumulation at a flow condition comparable to that in arterioles by developing a new observation system for accurate measurements of radial RBC positions in the cross section of capillary tubes...
March 28, 2018: Biorheology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611808/formation-of-retinal-direction-selective-circuitry-initiated-by-starburst-amacrine-cell-homotypic-contact
#19
Thomas A Ray, Suva Roy, Christopher Kozlowski, Jingjing Wang, Jon Cafaro, Samuel W Hulbert, Christopher V E Wright, Greg D Field, Jeremy N Kay
A common strategy by which developing neurons locate their synaptic partners is through projections to circuit-specific neuropil sublayers. Once established, sublayers serve as a substrate for selective synapse formation, but how sublayers arise during neurodevelopment remains unknown. Here we identify the earliest events that initiate formation of the direction-selective circuit in the inner plexiform layer of mouse retina. We demonstrate that radially-migrating newborn starburst amacrine cells establish homotypic contacts on arrival at the inner retina...
April 3, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601895/chronic-administration-of-amphetamines-disturbs-development-of-neural-progenitor-cells-in-young-adult-nonhuman-primates
#20
Rahul R Dutta, Michael A Taffe, Chitra D Mandyam
The detrimental effects of amphetamines on developmental stages of NPCs are limited to rodent brain and it is not known if these effects occur in nonhuman primates which are the focus of the current investigation. Young adult rhesus macaques either experienced MDMA only, a combination of amphetamines (MDMA, MDA and methamphetamine) or no amphetamines (controls) and hippocampal tissue was processed for immunohistochemical analysis. Quantitative stereological analysis showed that intermittent exposure to MDMA or the three amphetamines over 9...
March 27, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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