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Radial migration

Samer Toume, Amit Gefen, Daphne Weihs
We observed that radially stretching cell monolayers at a low level (3%) increases the rate at which they migrate to close a gap formed by in vitro injury. Wound healing has been shown to accelerate in vivo when deformations are topically applied, for example, by negative pressure wound therapy. However, the direct effect of deformations on cell migration during gap closure is still unknown. Thus, we have evaluated the effect of radially applied, sustained (static) tensile strain on the kinematics of en mass cell migration...
October 17, 2016: International Wound Journal
Toshifumi Fukuda, Shun Nagashima, Takaya Abe, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Ryoko Inatome, Shigeru Yanagi
The DISC1-interacting protein CAMDI has been suggested to promote radial migration through centrosome regulation. However, its physiological relevance is unclear. Here, we report the generation and characterization of CAMDI-deficient mice. CAMDI-deficient mice exhibit delayed radial migration with aberrant neural circuit formation and psychiatric behaviors including hyperactivity, repetitive behavior, and social abnormality typically observed in autism spectrum disorder patients. Analyses of direct targets of CAMDI identify HDAC6 whose α-tubulin deacetylase activity is inhibited by CAMDI at the centrosome...
October 13, 2016: EMBO Reports
A Nakajima, M Ishida, T Fujimori, Y Wakamoto, S Sawai
Studies of chemotactic cell migration rely heavily on various assay systems designed to evaluate the ability of cells to move in response to attractant molecules. In particular, the development of microfluidics-based devices in recent years has made it possible to spatially distribute attractant molecules in graded profiles that are sufficiently stable and precise to test theoretical predictions regarding the accuracy and efficiency of chemotaxis and the underlying mechanism of stimulus perception. However, because the gradient is fixed in a direction orthogonal to the laminar flow and thus the chamber geometry, conventional devices are limited for the study of cell re-orientation to gradients that move or change directions...
October 13, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Martin R Schmuck, Thomas Temme, Katharina Dach, Denise de Boer, Marta Barenys, Farina Bendt, Axel Mosig, Ellen Fritsche
Current developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing in animals faces major limitations, such as high cost and time demands as well as uncertainties in their methodology, evaluation and regulation. Therefore, the use of human-based 3D in vitro systems in combination with high-content image analysis (HCA) might contribute to DNT testing with lower costs, increased throughput and enhanced predictivity for human hazard identification. Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) grown as 3D neurospheres mimic basic processes of brain development including hNPC migration and differentiation and are therefore useful for DNT hazard identification...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Balachandar Radhakrishnan, A Alwin Prem Anand
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs involved in gene regulation. The regulation is effected by either translational inhibition or transcriptional silencing. In vertebrates, the importance of miRNA in development was discovered from mice and zebrafish dicer knockouts. The miRNA-9 (miR-9) is one of the most highly expressed miRNAs in the early and adult vertebrate brain. It has diverse functions within the developing vertebrate brain. In this article, the role of miR-9 in the developing forebrain (telencephalon and diencephalon), midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord of vertebrate species is highlighted...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Yaroslav O Kamenev, Igor Y Dolmatov
The regeneration of the anterior portion of the body after fission was studied in the holothurian Cladolabes schmeltzii using electron microscopy methods. Following fission, the posterior portion of the digestive tube, cloaca, and respiratory trees remain in the posterior fragment of the body. The regeneration comprises five stages. In the first stage, connective-tissue thickening (an anlage of the aquapharyngeal bulb) occurs on the anterior end between the torn-off ends of the ambulacra. Most of the lost anterior organs developed in the second and third stages...
October 7, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Vincent Poulichet, Axel Huerre, Valeria Garbin
Bubbles stabilised by colloidal particles can find applications in advanced materials, catalysis and drug delivery. For applications in controlled release, it is desirable to remove the particles from the interface in a programmable fashion. We have previously shown that ultrasound waves excite volumetric oscillations of particle-coated bubbles, resulting in precisely timed particle expulsion due to interface compression on a ultrafast timescale [Poulichet et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2015, 112, 5932]...
September 14, 2016: Soft Matter
Yue-Qi Zhu, Laura Edmonds, Li-Ming Wei, Rei-La Zheng, Ruo-Yu Cheng, Wen-Guo Cui, Ying-Sheng Cheng
OBJECTIVES: Determine the feasibility of and tissue response to biodegradable magnesium-silicone stent insertion into the oesophagus of rabbits. METHODS: Mechanical compression-recovery and degradation behaviours of the stents were investigated in vitro. Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into a magnesium-silicone stent group (n = 15) that received stent insertion into the lower 1/3 of the oesophagus under fluoroscopic guidance and a control group (n = 15)...
October 4, 2016: European Radiology
Emilie Pacary, François Guillemot
Brain electroporation is a rapid and powerful approach to study neuronal development. In particular, this technique has become a method of choice for studying the process of radial migration of projection neurons in the embryonic cerebral cortex. This method has considerably helped to describe in detail the different steps of radial migration and to characterize the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Delineating the complexities of neuronal migration is critical to our understanding not only of normal cerebral cortex formation but also of neurodevelopmental disorders resulting from neuronal migration defects...
October 3, 2016: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
Yaiza Lópiz, Ana González, Carlos García-Fernández, Javier García-Coiradas, Fernando Marco
INTRODUCTION: At present, surgical treatment of comminuted radial head fractures without associated instability continues to be controversial. When anatomical reconstruction is not possible, radial head excision is performed. However, the appearance of long-term complications with this technique, along with the development of new radial head implants situates arthroplasty as a promising surgical alternative. The purpose of the present study was to compare the mid-term functional outcomes of both techniques...
September 2016: Injury
Bing Lang, Lei Zhang, Guanyu Jiang, Ling Hu, Wei Lan, Lei Zhao, Irene Hunter, Michal Pruski, Ning-Ning Song, Ying Huang, Ling Zhang, David St Clair, Colin D McCaig, Yu-Qiang Ding
Schizophrenia is a debilitating familial neuropsychiatric disorder which affects 1% of people worldwide. Although the heritability for schizophrenia approaches 80% only a small proportion of the overall genetic risk has been accounted for, and to date only a limited number of genetic loci have been definitively implicated. We have identified recently through genetic and in vitro functional studies, a novel serine/threonine kinase gene, unc-51-like kinase 4 (ULK4), as a rare risk factor for major mental disorders including schizophrenia...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Carine Jaafar, Saad Omais, Sawsan Al Lafi, Nadim El Jamal, Mohammad Noubani, Larissa Skaf, Noël Ghanem
The Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, was shown to regulate distinct aspects of neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain besides its primary role in cell cycle control. It is still unknown, however, whether Rb is required for tissue morphogenesis and the establishment of synaptic connections between adjacent tissues during development. We have investigated here the role of Rb during development of the olfactory system (OS), which heavily relies on reciprocal interactions between the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the olfactory bulb (OB)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Shauna L Houlihan, Alison A Lanctot, Yan Guo, Yuanyi Feng
Neuronal fate-restricted intermediate progenitors (IPs) are derived from the multipotent radial glia (RGs) and serve as the direct precursors for cerebral cortical neurons, but factors that control their neurogenic plasticity remain elusive. Here we report that IPs' neuron production is enhanced by abrogating filamin function, leading to the generation of periventricular neurons independent of normal neocortical neurogenesis and neuronal migration. Loss of Flna in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) led RGs to undergo changes resembling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) along with exuberant angiogenesis that together changed the microenvironment and increased neurogenesis of IPs...
September 24, 2016: ELife
Rolf W Stottmann, Ashley Driver, Arnold Gutierrez, Matthew R Skelton, Michael Muntifering, Christopher Stepien, Luke Knudson, Matthew Kofron, Charles V Vorhees, Michael T Williams
Development of the mammalian forebrain requires a significant contribution from tubulin proteins to physically facilitate both the large number of mitoses in the neurogenic brain (in the form of mitotic spindles) as well as support cellular scaffolds to guide radial migration (radial glial neuroblasts). Recent studies have identified a number of mutations in human tubulin genes affecting the forebrain, including TUBB2B . We previously identified a mouse mutation in Tubb2b and we show here that mice heterozygous for this missense mutation in Tubb2b have significant cognitive defects in spatial learning and memory...
September 4, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Juan Carlos Rosillo, Maximiliano Torres, Silvia Olivera-Bravo, Gabriela Casanova, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Anabel Sonia Fernández
Adult neurogenesis participates in fish olfaction sensitivity in response to environmental challenges. Therefore, we investigated if several populations of stem/progenitor cells that are retained in the olfactory bulbs (OB) may constitute different neurogenic niches that support growth and functional demands. By electron microscopy and combination cell proliferation and lineage markers, we found that the telencephalic ventricle wall (VW) at OB level of Austrolebias charrua fish presents three neurogenic niches (transitional 1, medial 2 and ventral 3)...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Kota Nakamura, Mako Beppu, Kaori Sakai, Hayata Yagyu, Saori Matsumaru, Takao Kohno, Mitsuharu Hattori
In the normal cerebellum, Purkinje cells (PCs) are generated in a zone along the ventricular surface, migrate radially, and align to form a single-cell layer. However, in mice lacking the secreted protein Reelin or its downstream adaptor protein Dab1, the majority of PCs are located ectopically in the deep cerebellar mass. Nonetheless, how Reelin regulates migration and alignment of PCs remains incompletely understood. Reelin has a highly-conserved C-terminal region (CTR), which is required for its full activity...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Shimon Edvardson, Guoling Tian, Hayley Cullen, Hannah Vanyai, Linh Ngo, Saiuj Bhat, Adi Aran, Muhannad Daana, Naderah Da'amseh, Bassam Abu-Libdeh, Nicholas J Cowan, Julian Heng, Orly Elpeleg
Mutation in a growing spectrum of genes is known to either cause or contribute to primary or secondary microcephaly. In primary microcephaly the genetic determinants frequently involve mutations that contribute to or modulate the microtubule cytoskeleton by causing perturbations of neuronal proliferation and migration. Here we describe four patients from two unrelated families each with an infantile neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of developmental milestones at 9-24 months of age followed by seizures, dystonia and acquired microcephaly...
August 29, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Kosuke Minaga, Masayuki Kitano, Hajime Imai, Yogesh Harwani, Kentaro Yamao, Ken Kamata, Takeshi Miyata, Shunsuke Omoto, Kumpei Kadosaka, Toshiharu Sakurai, Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
AIM: To assess anti-migration potential of six biliary covered self-expandable metal stents (C-SEMSs) by using a newly designed phantom model. METHODS: In the phantom model, the stent was placed in differently sized holes in a silicone wall and retracted with a retraction robot. Resistance force to migration (RFM) was measured by a force gauge on the stent end. Radial force (RF) was measured with a RF measurement machine. Measured flare structure variables were the outer diameter, height, and taper angle of the flare (ODF, HF, and TAF, respectively)...
August 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Petr Walczysko, Ann M Rajnicek, J Martin Collinson
PURPOSE: Patients with a heterozygous mutation in the gene encoding the transcription factor, PAX6, have a degenerative corneal opacity associated with failure of normal radial epithelial cell migration across the corneal surface and a reported wound healing defect. This study investigated the guidance mechanisms that drive the directed migration of corneal epithelial cells. METHODS: In vivo corneal epithelial wounding was performed in adult wild-type and Pax6(+/-) mice, and the healing migration rates were compared...
2016: Molecular Vision
Pedro S Babo, Alexey Klymov, Joost teRiet, Rui L Reis, John A Jansen, Manuela E Gomes, X Frank Walboomers
Micro- and nanotextured biomaterial surfaces have been widely studied for their capacity to drive the regeneration of organized tissues. Nanotopographical features in the shape of groove-ridge patterns aim at mimicking the extracellular matrix organization. However, to date, a wide array of groove and ridge sizes has been described. In this work, we therefore tested a device composed of a multipatterned array consisting of six patterns of radially arranged parallel nanogrooves, with a pitch ranging from 0 to 1000 nm and a depth ranging from 0 to 170 nm, to be used as a tool for the expeditious and simultaneous screening of surface topographies aiming the regeneration of anisotropically organized tissues such as ligament...
September 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
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