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Radial migration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427678/application-and-mechanism-of-ultrasonic-static-mixer-in-heavy-oil-viscosity-reduction
#1
Chunwei Shi, Wei Yang, Jianbin Chen, Xiaoping Sun, Wenyi Chen, Huiyong An, Yili Duo, Mingyuan Pei
In the present study, heavy oil viscosity reduction in Daqing oil field was investigated by using an ultrasonic static mixer. The influence of the ultrasonic power on the viscosity reduction rate was investigated and the optimal technological conditions were determined for the ultrasonic treatment. The mechanism for ultrasonic viscosity reduction was analyzed. The flow characteristics of heavy oil in the mixer under the effect of cavitation were investigated using numerical modeling, and energy consumptions were calculated during the ultrasonic treatment and vis-breaking processes...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427592/pathologic-active-mtor-mutation-in-brain-malformation-with-intractable-epilepsy-leads-to-cell-autonomous-migration-delay
#2
Sae Hanai, Sayuri Sukigara, Hongmei Dai, Tomoo Owa, Shin-Ichi Horike, Taisuke Otsuki, Takashi Saito, Eiji Nakagawa, Naoki Ikegaya, Takanobu Kaido, Noriko Sato, Akio Takahashi, Kenji Sugai, Yuko Saito, Masayuki Sasaki, Mikio Hoshino, Yu-Ichi Goto, Schuichi Koizumi, Masayuki Itoh
The activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKTs-mammalian target of rapamycin cell signaling pathway leads to cell overgrowth and abnormal migration and results in various types of cortical malformations, such as hemimegalencephaly (HME), focal cortical dysplasia, and tuberous sclerosis complex. However, the pathomechanism underlying abnormal cell migration remains unknown. With the use of fetal mouse brain, we performed causative gene analysis of the resected brain tissues from a patient with HME and investigated the pathogenesis...
May 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395088/neuropathological-hallmarks-of-brain-malformations-in-extreme-phenotypes-related-to-dync1h1-mutations
#3
Annie Laquerriere, Camille Maillard, Mara Cavallin, Françoise Chapon, Florent Marguet, Arnaud Molin, Sabine Sigaudy, Marie Blouet, Guillaume Benoist, Carla Fernandez, Karine Poirier, Jamel Chelly, Sophie Thomas, Nadia Bahi-Buisson
Dyneins play a critical role in a wide variety of cellular functions such as the movement of organelles and numerous aspects of mitosis, making it central player in neocortical neurogenesis and migration. Recently, cytoplasmic dynein-1, heavy chain-1 (DYNC1H1) mutations have been found to cause a wide spectrum of brain cortical malformations. We report on the detailed neuropathological features of brain lesions from 2 fetuses aged 36 and 22 weeks of gestation (WG), respectively, carrying de novo DYNC1H1 mutations, p...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384945/excision-versus-fixation-of-the-radial-head-a-comparative-study-of-the-functional-outcomes-of-the-two-techniques
#4
Sanath Kumar Shetty, Ashwin Shetty, Bijith Balan, Arjun Ballal, H Ravindranath Rai, Anoop Hegde
INTRODUCTION: The management of displaced and comminuted radial head fractures has been a matter of debate amongst surgeons for many years. Radial head excision formed the mainstay of surgical management of these injuries. Over the years, there have been improvements in the surgical techniques and availability of better implants and instrumentation techniques, hence, open reduction and internal fixation of these fractures is gaining popularity. AIM: To compare the outcome of elbow function between radial head excision and open reduction and internal fixation of the radial head with mini screws of Mason Type II and Type III radial head fractures and to assess the complications that occur in both techniques...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353121/temperature-monitored-optical-treatment-for-radial-tissue-expansion
#5
Jinoh Bak, Hyun Wook Kang
Esophageal stricture occurs in 7-23% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, the current treatments including stent therapy, balloon dilation, and bougienage involve limitations such as stent migration, formation of the new strictures, and snowplow effect. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of structural expansion in tubular tissue ex vivo during temperature-monitored photothermal treatment with a diffusing applicator for esophageal stricture. Porcine liver was used as an ex vivo tissue sample for the current study...
March 29, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338985/regulatory-mechanisms-and-cellular-functions-of-non-centrosomal-microtubules
#6
Michiru Nishita, Tomoko Satake, Yasuhiro Minami, Atsushi Suzuki
Proper organization of microtubule (MT) arrays is essential for numerous cellular functions, including intracellular transport and cell migration. Although the centrosome generally serves as the primary MT organizing center in proliferating animal cells, MTs are also organized at the Golgi apparatus in a wide range of cell types to regulate Golgi ribbon formation that is required for polarized cell migration. Furthermore, differentiated epithelial cells and neurons possess organized non-centrosomal MTs predominantly at the apical cortical regions and the axonal and dendritic neurites, respectively, to establish and maintain their highly polarized morphology...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336683/let-7-regulates-radial-migration-of-new-born-neurons-through-positive-regulation-of-autophagy
#7
Rebecca Petri, Karolina Pircs, Marie E Jönsson, Malin Åkerblom, Per Ludvik Brattås, Thies Klussendorf, Johan Jakobsson
During adult neurogenesis, newly formed olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons migrate radially to integrate into specific layers of the OB Despite the importance of this process, the intracellular mechanisms that regulate radial migration remain poorly understood. Here, we find that microRNA (miRNA) let-7 regulates radial migration by modulating autophagy in new-born neurons. Using Argonaute2 immunoprecipitation, we performed global profiling of miRNAs in adult-born OB neurons and identified let-7 as a highly abundant miRNA family...
March 23, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334226/loss-of-cannabinoid-cb-1-receptors-induces-cortical-migration-malformations-and-increases-seizure-susceptibility
#8
Javier Díaz-Alonso, Adán de Salas-Quiroga, Juan Paraíso-Luna, Daniel García-Rincón, Patricia P Garcez, Maddy Parsons, Clara Andradas, Cristina Sánchez, François Guillemot, Manuel Guzmán, Ismael Galve-Roperh
Neuronal migration is a fundamental process of brain development, and its disruption underlies devastating neurodevelopmental disorders. The transcriptional programs governing this process are relatively well characterized. However, how environmental cues instruct neuronal migration remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the cannabinoid CB 1 receptor is strictly required for appropriate pyramidal neuron migration in the developing cortex. Acute silencing of the CB 1 receptor alters neuronal morphology and impairs radial migration...
October 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304078/moving-messages-in-the-developing-brain-emerging-roles-for-mrna-transport-and-local-translation-in-neural-stem-cells
#9
REVIEW
Louis-Jan Pilaz, Debra L Silver
The mammalian cerebral cortex is a complex brain structure integral to our higher cognition. During embryonic cortical development, radial glial progenitors (RGCs) produce neurons and serve as physical structures for migrating neurons. Recent discoveries highlight new roles for RNA localization and local translation in RGCs, both at the cell body and at distal structures called basal endfeet. By implementing technologies from the field of RNA research to brain development, investigators can manipulate RNA-binding proteins as well as visualize single-molecule RNAs, live movement of mRNAs and their binding proteins, and translation...
March 17, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286555/silicone-covered-biodegradable-magnesium-stent-insertion-in-the-esophagus-a-comparison-with-plastic-stents
#10
Yue-Qi Zhu, Kai Yang, Laura Edmonds, Li-Ming Wei, Reila Zheng, Ruo-Yu Cheng, Wen-Guo Cui, Ying-Sheng Cheng
BACKGROUND: We determined the feasibility of, and tissue response to silicone-covered biodegradable magnesium- and plastic-stent insertion into the esophagus in rabbits. METHODS: The mechanical compression-recovery characteristics and degradation behaviors of the magnesium stent were investigated in vitro. A total of 45 rabbits were randomly divided into a magnesium- (n = 15) and a plastic- (n = 15) stent group, and underwent stent insertion into the lower third of the esophagus under fluoroscopic guidance; a control group (n = 15) did not undergo the intervention...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259553/jip3-regulates-neuronal-radial-migration-by-mediating-trkb-axonal-anterograde-transport-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#11
Huixian Ma, Hui Yu, Ting Li, Yan Zhao, Ming Hou, Zheyu Chen, Yue Wang, Tao Sun
Radial migration is essential for the precise lamination and the coordinated function of the cerebral cortex. However, the molecular mechanisms for neuronal radial migration are not clear. Here, we report that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein-3 (JIP3) is highly expressed in the brain of embryonic mice and essential for radial migration. Knocking down JIP3 by in utero electroporation specifically perturbs the radial migration of cortical neurons but has no effect on neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250799/inhibition-of-cell-proliferation-does-not-slow-down-echinoderm-neural-regeneration
#12
Vladimir S Mashanov, Olga R Zueva, José E García-Arrarás
BACKGROUND: Regeneration of the damaged central nervous system is one of the most interesting post-embryonic developmental phenomena. Two distinct cellular events have been implicated in supplying regenerative neurogenesis with cellular material - generation of new cells through cell proliferation and recruitment of already existing cells through cell migration. The relative contribution and importance of these two mechanisms is often unknown. METHODS: Here, we use the regenerating radial nerve cord (RNC) of the echinoderm Holothuria glaberrima as a model of extensive post-traumatic neurogenesis in the deuterostome central nervous system...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237546/seasonal-variation-in-telencephalon-cell-proliferation-in-adult-female-tsinling-dwarf-skinks-scincella-tsinlingensis
#13
Chun Yang, Limin Wang, Xiangyang Xing, Yanyan Gao, Li Guo
In adult mammals, neurogenesis is limited to specific niches in the brain, but considerable adult neurogenesis occurs in many brain regions in non-mammalian vertebrates. Non-mammalian vertebrates provide invaluable comparative material for understanding the core mechanisms of adult neural stem cell maintenance and fate, but phylogenetic differences in adult neurogenesis remain poorly understood. Here we examine cell proliferation seasonality in the telencephalon of adult female tsinling dwarf skinks (Scincella tsinlingensis) by injecting wild animals caught in summer, autumn and spring, and animals caught in autumn and raised under winter conditions, with 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)...
May 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236016/fully-covered-stents-are-similar-to-semi-covered-stents-with-regard-to-migration-in-palliative-treatment-of-malignant-strictures-of-the-esophagus-and-gastric-cardia-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Jan Persson, Ulrika Smedh, Åse Johnsson, Bo Ohlin, Magnus Sundbom, Magnus Nilsson, Lars Lundell, Berit Sund, Erik Johnsson
INTRODUCTION: Stent migration is a significant clinical problem in palliation of malignant strictures in the esophagus and gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ). We have compared a newer design of a fully-covered stent to a widely used semi-covered stent using migration >20 mm as the primary outcome variable. Effects on dysphagia, quality of life (QoL) and re-intervention frequency were also investigated. METHODS: Patients with dysphagia due to non-curable esophagus/GEJ cancer were randomized to receive either a more recent design of a fully-covered stent (n = 48) or a conventional semi-covered stent (n = 47)...
February 24, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230156/drebrin-mediated-microtubule-actomyosin-coupling-steers-cerebellar-granule-neuron-nucleokinesis-and-migration-pathway-selection
#15
Niraj Trivedi, Daniel R Stabley, Blake Cain, Danielle Howell, Christophe Laumonnerie, Joseph S Ramahi, Jamshid Temirov, Ryan A Kerekes, Phillip R Gordon-Weeks, David J Solecki
Neuronal migration from a germinal zone to a final laminar position is essential for the morphogenesis of neuronal circuits. While it is hypothesized that microtubule-actomyosin crosstalk is required for a neuron's 'two-stroke' nucleokinesis cycle, the molecular mechanisms controlling such crosstalk are not defined. By using the drebrin microtubule-actin crosslinking protein as an entry point into the cerebellar granule neuron system in combination with super-resolution microscopy, we investigate how these cytoskeletal systems interface during migration...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225561/flotillins-control-zebrafish-epiboly-through-their-role-in-cadherin-mediated-cell-cell-adhesion
#16
Eduardo A Rios Morris, Stéphane Bodin, Bénédicte Delaval, Franck Comunale, Virginie Georget, Manoel L Costa, Georges Lutfalla, Cécile Gauthier-Rouvière
Zebrafish gastrulation and particularly epiboly that involves coordinated movements of several cell layers is a dynamic process for which regulators remain to be identified. We show here that Flotillin 1 and 2, ubiquitous and highly conserved proteins, are required for epiboly. Flotillins knockdown compromised embryo survival, strongly delayed epiboly and impaired deep cell radial intercalation and directed collective migration without affecting enveloping layer cell movement. At the molecular level, we identified that Flotillins are required for the formation of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions...
February 22, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215293/neuronal-roles-of-the-bicaudal-d-family-of-motor-adaptors
#17
M Budzinska, K B Wicher, M Terenzio
All cell types rely on active intracellular cargo transport to shuttle essential cellular components such as proteins, lipids, RNA, and even organelles from the center to the periphery and vice versa. Additionally, several signaling pathways take advantage of intracellular transport to propagate their signals by moving activated receptors and protein effectors to specific locations inside the cell. Neurons particularly, being a very polarized cell type, are highly dependent on molecular motors for the anterograde and retrograde delivery of essential cellular components and signaling molecules...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195490/investigation-of-spatial-heterogeneity-of-salt-disproportionation-in-tablets-by-synchrotron-x-ray-diffractometry
#18
Sampada Koranne, Ramprakash Govindarajan, Raj Suryanarayanan
Tablets which were binary mixtures of pioglitazone hydrochloride (PioHCl) with magnesium stearate (MgSt), croscarmellose sodium (CCS), microcrystalline cellulose, or lactose monohydrate were prepared. Two sets of experiments, using intact tablets, were performed. (i) Tablets containing PioHCl (90% w/w) and MgSt were exposed to 25 or 40 °C and 75% RH in a custom-built temperature/humidity chamber. In situ spatiotemporal mapping of disproportionation was performed by transmission-mode synchrotron X-ray diffractometry (SXRD; Argonne National Laboratories)...
April 3, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174271/reelin-transiently-promotes-n-cadherin-dependent-neuronal-adhesion-during-mouse-cortical-development
#19
Yuki Matsunaga, Mariko Noda, Hideki Murakawa, Kanehiro Hayashi, Arata Nagasaka, Seika Inoue, Takaki Miyata, Takashi Miura, Ken-Ichiro Kubo, Kazunori Nakajima
Reelin is an essential glycoprotein for the establishment of the highly organized six-layered structure of neurons of the mammalian neocortex. Although the role of Reelin in the control of neuronal migration has been extensively studied at the molecular level, the mechanisms underlying Reelin-dependent neuronal layer organization are not yet fully understood. In this study, we directly showed that Reelin promotes adhesion among dissociated neocortical neurons in culture. The Reelin-mediated neuronal aggregation occurs in an N-cadherin-dependent manner, both in vivo and in vitro...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167836/autism-associated-dyrk1a-truncation-mutants-impair-neuronal-dendritic-and-spine-growth-and-interfere-with-postnatal-cortical-development
#20
T Dang, W Y Duan, B Yu, D L Tong, C Cheng, Y F Zhang, W Wu, K Ye, W X Zhang, M Wu, B B Wu, Y An, Z L Qiu, B L Wu
Autism is a prevailing neurodevelopmental disorder with a large genetic/genomic component. Recently, the dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1 A (DYRK1A) gene was implicated as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We identified five DYRK1A variants in ASD patients and found that the dose of DYRK1A protein has a crucial role in various aspects of postnatal neural development. Dyrk1a loss of function and gain of function led to defects in dendritic growth, dendritic spine development and radial migration during cortical development...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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