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Radial migration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344982/experience-with-pharmacologic-leeching-with-bivalirudin-for-adjunct-treatment-of-venous-congestion-of-head-and-neck-reconstructive-flaps
#1
Aisha Harun, Rachel M Kruer, Andrew Lee, Kofi Boahene, Patrick J Byrne, Jeremy D Richmon
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to review the feasibility of local bivalirudin injection for adjunct treatment of venous congestion of head and neck reconstructive flaps. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent bivalirudin treatment for venous congestion of head and neck reconstructive flaps in a single institution from September 1, 2012 to September 1, 2015 was undertaken. Individuals were treated with variable number of intradermal injections directly into the flap followed by a small skin incision to allow extended passive bleeding...
January 18, 2018: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336992/schwann-cell-lamellipodia-regulate-cell-cell-interactions-and-phagocytosis
#2
Johana Tello Velasquez, James A St John, Lynn Nazareth, Jenny A K Ekberg
Lamellipodia in Schwann cells (SCs) are crucial for myelination, but their other biological functions remain largely uncharacterised. Two types of lamellipodia exist in SCs: axial lamellipodia at the outermost edge of the cell processes, and radial lamellipodia appearing peripherally along the entire cell. We have previously shown that radial lamellipodia on olfactory glia (olfactory ensheathing cells; OECs) promote cell-cell adhesion, contact-mediated migration and phagocytosis. Here we have investigated whether lamellipodia in SCs have similar roles...
January 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336725/adaptability-of-mitosporic-stage-in-sphaerodes-mycoparasitica-towards-its-mycoparasitic-polyphagous-lifestyle
#3
Vladimir Vujanovic, Seon Hwa Kim
Sphaerodes mycoparasitica Vuj. is a Fusarium-specific mycoparasite. Some recent discoveries recognize its biotrophic polyphagous lifestyle as an interesting biocontrol property against a broad spectrum of mycotoxigenic Fusarium hosts. Secondary metabolites such as mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. may play an important role in the signaling process, allowing an early mycoparasite-host recognition. A multiple-paper-disc assay has been conducted to test S. mycoparasitica hyphal adaptability to filtrates of 12 Fusarium spp...
November 17, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330522/the-racgap-%C3%AE-chimaerin-is-essential-for-cerebellar-granule-cell-migration
#4
Jason A Estep, Wenny Wong, Yiu-Cheung E Wong, Brian M Loui, Martin M Riccomagno
During mammalian cerebellar development, postnatal granule cell progenitors proliferate in the outer part of the External Granule Layer (EGL). Postmitotic granule progenitors migrate tangentially in the inner EGL before switching to migrate radially inward, past the Purkinje cell layer, to achieve their final position in the mature Granule Cell Layer (GCL). Here, we show that the RacGAP β-chimaerin is expressed by a small population of late-born, premigratory granule cells. β-chimaerin deficiency causes a subset of granule cells to become arrested in the EGL, where they differentiate and form ectopic neuronal clusters...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327199/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-equilibrium-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-crosstalk-with-wnt-and-notch-signaling
#5
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326173/transcriptional-regulator-zeb2-is-essential-for-bergmann-glia-development
#6
Li He, Kun Yu, Fanghui Lu, Jiajia Wang, Laiman N Wu, Chuntao Zhao, Qianmei Li, Xianyao Zhou, Hanmin Liu, Dezhi Mu, Mei Xin, Mengsheng Qiu, Q Richard Lu
Bergmann glia facilitate granule neuron migration during development and maintain the cerebellar organization and functional integrity. At present, molecular control of Bergmann glia specification from cerebellar radial glia is not fully understood. In this report, we show that Zeb2 (a.k.a. Sip1 or Zfhx1b), a Mowat-Wilson-syndrome-associated transcriptional regulator, is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, but hardly detectable in astrocytes in the cerebellum. The mice lacking Zeb2 in cerebellar radial glia exhibit severe deficits in Bergmann glia specification, and develop cerebellar cortical lamination dysgenesis and locomotion defects...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325060/pathophysiological-analyses-of-leptomeningeal-heterotopia-using-gyrencephalic-mammals
#7
Naoyuki Matsumoto, Naoki Kobayashi, Natsu Uda, Miwako Hirota, Hiroshi Kawasaki
Leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia (LGH) is a focal malformation of the cerebral cortex and frequently found in patients with thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying LGH formation are still largely unclear because of difficulties in obtaining brain samples from human TD patients. Recently, we established a new animal model for analyzing cortical malformations of human TD by utilizing our genetic manipulation technique for gyrencephalic carnivore ferrets. Here we investigated the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the formation of LGH using our TD ferrets...
January 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304341/a-coated-sponge-toward-neonatal-brain-repair
#8
Orly Reiner, Tamar Sapir
In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Jinnou et al. (2018) identify a limited time window wherein neonatal brain injuries may be treated through neuroblast migration toward the injury site on radial glial fibers. Implanting a sponge coated with an adhesive factor in the injured neonatal brain supports the migration of neuroblasts and improves functional recovery.
January 4, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298437/absence-of-tangentially-migrating-glutamatergic-neurons-in-the-developing-avian-brain
#9
Fernando García-Moreno, Edward Anderton, Marta Jankowska, Jo Begbie, Juan Manuel Encinas, Manuel Irimia, Zoltán Molnár
Several neuronal populations orchestrate neocortical development during mammalian embryogenesis. These include the glutamatergic subplate-, Cajal-Retzius-, and ventral pallium-derived populations, which coordinate cortical wiring, migration, and proliferation, respectively. These transient populations are primarily derived from other non-cortical pallial sources that migrate to the dorsal pallium. Are these migrations to the dorsal pallium conserved in amniotes or are they specific to mammals? Using in ovo electroporation, we traced the entire lineage of defined chick telencephalic progenitors...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290064/the-impacts-of-the-axial-to-radial-airflow-quantity-ratio-and-suction-distance-on-air-curtain-dust-control-in-a-fully-mechanized-coal-face
#10
Hao Wang, Weimin Cheng, Biao Sun, Haiming Yu, Hu Jin
To understand the impacts of the axial-to-radial airflow quantity ratio (denoted as R) and the suction distance (denoted as Ds) on air curtain dust control in a fully mechanized coal face, the 3down610 coal face in Jiangzhuang coal mine was numerically simulated in this study. A mathematic model was established to describe the airflow migration and dust diffusion in a coal face, and a scaled physical model was constructed. The comparison between simulation results and field measurements validated the model and the parameter settings...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276142/radial-glial-fibers-promote-neuronal-migration-and-functional-recovery-after-neonatal-brain-injury
#11
Hideo Jinnou, Masato Sawada, Koya Kawase, Naoko Kaneko, Vicente Herranz-Pérez, Takuya Miyamoto, Takumi Kawaue, Takaki Miyata, Yasuhiko Tabata, Toshihiro Akaike, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Itsuki Ajioka, Shinji Saitoh, Kazunobu Sawamoto
Radial glia (RG) are embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce neuroblasts and provide fibers that act as a scaffold for neuroblast migration during embryonic development. Although they normally disappear soon after birth, here we found that RG fibers can persist in injured neonatal mouse brains and act as a scaffold for postnatal ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate to the lesion site. This injury-induced maintenance of RG fibers has a limited time window during post-natal development and promotes directional saltatory movement of neuroblasts via N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts that promote RhoA activation...
December 14, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274743/ankrd11-associated-with-intellectual-disability-and-autism-regulates-dendrite-differentiation-via-the-bdnf-trkb-signaling-pathway
#12
Minhan Ka, Woo-Yang Kim
Haploinsufficiency of ANKRD11 due to deletion or truncation mutations causes KBG syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and craniofacial abnormalities. However, little is known about the neurobiological role of ANKRD11 during brain development. Here we show that ANKRD11 regulates pyramidal neuron migration and dendritic differentiation in the developing moue cerebral cortex. Using an in utero manipulation approach, we found that Ankrd11 knockdown delayed radial migration of cortical neurons...
December 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259547/a-radial-glia-fascicle-leads-principal-neurons-from-the-pallial-subpallial-boundary-into-the-developing-human-insula
#13
Emilio González-Arnay, Miriam González-Gómez, Gundela Meyer
The human insular lobe, in the depth of the Sylvian fissure, displays three main cytoarchitectonic divisions defined by the differentiation of granular layers II and IV. These comprise a rostro-ventral agranular area, an intermediate dysgranular area, and a dorso-caudal granular area. Immunohistochemistry in human embryos and fetuses using antibodies against PCNA, Vimentin, Nestin, Tbr1, and Tb2 reveals that the insular cortex is unique in that it develops far away from the ventricular zone (VZ), with most of its principal neurons deriving from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the pallial-subpallial boundary (PSB)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259161/revealing-chiral-cell-motility-by-3d-riesz-transform-differential-interference-contrast-microscopy-and-computational-kinematic-analysis
#14
Atsushi Tamada, Michihiro Igarashi
Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental feature of body plans, but its formation mechanisms and roles in functional lateralization remain unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that left-right asymmetry originates in the cellular chirality. However, cell chirality has not yet been quantitatively investigated, mainly due to the absence of appropriate methods. Here we combine 3D Riesz transform-differential interference contrast (RT-DIC) microscopy and computational kinematic analysis to characterize chiral cellular morphology and motility...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244704/nonunion-of-a-nondisplaced-radial-neck-fracture-a-case-report
#15
John G Coury, Zachary C Lum, Marc A Trzeciak
CASE: We describe the case of a 66-year-old man who sustained a nondisplaced radial neck fracture and subsequently developed a symptomatic nonunion. After a period of unsuccessful conservative treatment, a radial head resection was performed. CONCLUSION: Radial neck fractures, unlike their radial head counterparts, have a low rate of nonunion. Our patient's only positive risk factor was age, but he developed a nonunion. At the 2-year follow-up after excision of the radial head, there was a lack of proximal migration of the radius during axial loading, demonstrating a positive outcome without the need for replacement of the radial head...
July 2017: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238811/displacement-propagation-and-nonaffinity-in-collagen-networks-due-to-local-contraction
#16
Peter Grimmer, Jacob Notbohm
The extracellular matrix provides macroscale structure to tissues and microscale guidance for cell contraction, adhesion, and migration. The matrix is composed of a network of fibers, which each deform by stretching, bending, and buckling. Whereas the mechanics has been well characterized in uniform shear and extension, the response to more general loading conditions remains less clear, because the associated displacement fields cannot be predicted a priori. Studies simulating contraction, such as due to a cell, have observed displacements that propagate over a long range, suggesting mechanisms such as reorientation of fibers toward directions of tensile force and nonlinearity due to buckling of fibers under compression...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238303/near-wall-migration-dynamics-of-erythrocytes-in-vivo-effects-of-cell-deformability-and-arteriolar-bifurcation
#17
Bumseok Namgung, Yan Cheng Ng, Hwa Liang Leo, Joseph M Rifkind, Sangho Kim
Red blood cell (RBC) deformability has a significant impact on microcirculation by affecting cell dynamics. Despite previous studies that have demonstrated the margination of rigid cells and particles in vitro, little information is available on the in vivo margination of deformability-impaired RBCs under physiological flow and hematocrit conditions. Thus, in this study, we examined how the deformability-dependent, RBC migration alters the cell distribution under physiological conditions, particularly in arteriolar network flows...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227862/genetic-maps-and-patterns-of-cerebral-cortex-folding
#18
REVIEW
Camino de Juan Romero, Víctor Borrell
Folding of the cerebral cortex during brain development is a complex process that depends on the orchestrated action of a number of factors, including generation and proliferation of basal progenitor cells, and the radial migration of neurons. Patterns of primary cortical folding are stereotyped between individuals and across phylogeny, reflecting a strong genetic regulation of the underlying cellular mechanisms. Here we summarize recent findings on cellular and genetic mechanisms regulating this fascinating process that underlies expansion and functional complexification of the mammalian cerebral cortex...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212033/enhancer-sines-link-pol-iii-to-pol-ii-transcription-in-neurons
#19
Cristina Policarpi, Luca Crepaldi, Emily Brookes, Justyna Nitarska, Sarah M French, Alessandro Coatti, Antonella Riccio
Spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression depends on the cooperation of multiple mechanisms, including the functional interaction of promoters with distally located enhancers. Here, we show that, in cortical neurons, a subset of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) located in the proximity of activity-regulated genes bears features of enhancers. Enhancer SINEs (eSINEs) recruit the Pol III cofactor complex TFIIIC in a stimulus-dependent manner and are transcribed by Pol III in response to neuronal depolarization...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208348/nuclear-migration-in-mammalian-brain-development
#20
REVIEW
Chiara Bertipaglia, João Carlos Gonçalves, Richard Bert Vallee
During development of the mammalian brain, neural stem cells divide and give rise to adult stem cells, glia and neurons, which migrate to their final locations. Nuclear migration is an important feature of neural stem cell (radial glia progenitor) proliferation and subsequent postmitotic neuronal migration. Defects in nuclear migration contribute to severe neurodevelopmental disorders such as microcephaly and lissencephaly. In this review, we address the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for nuclear migration during the radial glia cell cycle and postmitotic neuronal migration, with a particular focus on the role of molecular motors and cytoskeleton dynamics in regulating nuclear behavior...
December 2, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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