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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161651/enhanced-anticancer-effect-of-fabricated-gallic-acid-cds-on-the-rgo-nanosheets-on-human-glomerular-mesangial-ip15-and-epithelial-proximal-hk2-kidney-cell-lines-cytotoxicity-investigations
#1
Wei Peng, Pengcheng Luo, Dingwen Gui, Weidong Jiang, Haixia Wu, Jie Zhang
In spite of the technological innovation in the biomedical science, cancer remains a critical disease. In this study, we designed a gallic acid/cadmium sulfide (GA/CdS) nanocomposite fabricated on the reduced graphene oxide (GA/CdS-rGO) nanosheets for the treatment system of human kidney cancer cells. The GA/CdS-rGO nanosheets have been prepared using gallic acid as a reducing agent. The characterization of nanocomposites was studied using UV-Vis spectroscope, FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TEM. The microscopic images showed the spherical shape and nano-scaled CdS nanoparticles on the sheet like rGO nanomaterials...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161499/polymerization-of-well-aligned-organic-nanowires-on-a-ferromagnetic-rare-earth-surface-alloy
#2
Mikel Abadía, Maxim Ilyn, Ignacio Piquero-Zulaica, Pierluigi Gargiani, Celia Rogero, Jose Enrique Ortega, Jens Brede
The high reactivity of magnetic substrate toward molecular overlayers has so far inhibited the realization of more sophisticated on-surface reactions thereby depriving these interfaces of a significant class of chemically tailored organics such as graphene nanoribbons, oligonuclear spin-chains, and metal-organic networks. Here, we present a multi-technique characterization of the polymerization of 4,4″-dibromo-p-terphenyl precursors into ordered poly (p-phenylene) arrays on top of the bi-metallic GdAu$_2$ surface alloy...
November 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161412/fluid-dynamics-in-heart-development-effects-of-hematocrit-and-trabeculation
#3
Nicholas A Battista, Andrea N Lane, Jiandong Liu, Laura A Miller
Recent in vivo experiments have illustrated the importance of understanding the haemodynamics of heart morphogenesis. In particular, ventricular trabeculation is governed by a delicate interaction between haemodynamic forces, myocardial activity, and morphogen gradients, all of which are coupled to genetic regulatory networks. The underlying haemodynamics at the stage of development in which the trabeculae form is particularly complex, given the balance between inertial and viscous forces. Small perturbations in the geometry, scale, and steadiness of the flow can lead to changes in the overall flow structures and chemical morphogen gradients, including the local direction of flow, the transport of morphogens, and the formation of vortices...
November 16, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161034/dynamic-glycosylation-governs-the-vertebrate-copii-protein-trafficking-pathway
#4
Nathan J Cox, Gokhan Unlu, Brittany J Bisnett, Thomas R Meister, Brett Condon, Peter M Luo, Tim J Smith, Michael Hanna, Abhishek Chhetri, Erik J Soderblom, Anjon Audhya, Ela W Knapik, Michael Boyce
The COPII coat complex, which mediates secretory cargo trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum, is a key control point for subcellular protein targeting. Because misdirected proteins cannot function, protein sorting by COPII is critical for establishing and maintaining normal cell and tissue homeostasis. Indeed, mutations in COPII genes cause a range of human pathologies, including cranio-lenticulo-sutural dysplasia (CLSD), which is characterized by collagen trafficking defects, craniofacial abnormalities and skeletal dysmorphology...
November 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160793/a-gal-m%C3%A2%C2%B5s-device-to-evaluate-cell-migratory-response-to-combined-galvano-chemotactic-fields
#5
Shawn Mishra, Maribel Vazquez
Electric fields have been studied extensively in biomedical engineering (BME) for numerous regenerative therapies. Recent studies have begun to examine the biological effects of electric fields in combination with other environmental cues, such as tissue-engineered extracellular matrices (ECM), chemical gradient profiles, and time-dependent temperature gradients. In the nervous system, cell migration driven by electrical fields, or galvanotaxis, has been most recently studied in transcranial direct stimulation (TCDS), spinal cord repair and tumor treating fields (TTF)...
November 21, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160728/selection-of-amino-acid-chirality-via-neutrino-interactions-with-14-n-in-crossed-electric-and-magnetic-fields
#6
Michael A Famiano, Richard N Boyd, Toshitaka Kajino, Takashi Onaka
Previous work has suggested that the chirality of the amino acids could be established in the magnetic field of a nascent neutron star from a core-collapse supernova or massive collapsar. The magnetic field would orient the (14)N nuclei, and the alignment of its nuclear spin with respect to those of the electron antineutrinos emitted from the collapsing star would determine the probability of destruction of the (14)N nuclei by interactions with the antineutrinos. Subsequent work estimated the bulk polarization of the (14)N nuclei in large rotating meteoroids in such an environment...
November 21, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160478/family-resilience-and-chemical-dependency-perception-of-mental-health-professionals
#7
Sonia Regina Zerbetto, Sueli Aparecida Frari Galera, Bianca Oliveira Ruiz
OBJECTIVE: To learn the perception of health professionals from the Psychosocial Attention Center for Alcohol and Other Drugs regarding the resilience attributes that are critical to family members of psychoactive substance dependents. METHOD: A qualitative descriptive study conducted from February to May 2016, using a focus group technique for data collection. In total, 15 professionals participated in the study: 13 health professionals and two administrative professionals...
November 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160312/ph-dependent-spin-state-population-and-19-f-nmr-chemical-shift-via-remote-ligand-protonation-in-an-iron-ii-complex
#8
Alexandra I Gaudette, Agnes E Thorarinsdottir, T David Harris
An Fe(II) complex that features a pH-dependent spin state population, by virtue of a variable ligand protonation state, is described. This behavior leads to a highly pH-dependent (19)F NMR chemical shift with a sensitivity of 13.9(5) ppm per pH unit at 37 °C, thereby demonstrating the potential utility of the complex as a (19)F chemical shift-based pH sensor.
November 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160243/formation-and-magnetic-properties-of-infep-ag-nanorods-fabricated-with-noble-metal-ag-using-an-ion-milling-method
#9
Jae Min Sohn, Hyungsang Kim, Hyunsik Im, Hyungbae Kim, Juwon Lee, Yoon Shon, N G Subramaniam, Taewon Kang, Deuk Young Kim, Hyun Cheol Koo, Joo-Hyeon Lee, Jing Dong Song, Chang-Soo Park, Eun Kyu Kim
The formation, including the density and height of the InFeP:Ag nanorods doped with noble metal Ag using an ion milling method, was preponderantly determined from transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses. We investigate, in particular, the enhanced ferromagnetism of the well-aligned InFeP:Ag nanorods. Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were carried out in order to investigate the incorporation of Ag and to verify the local chemical bonding of the InFeP:Ag nanorods...
November 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160238/thermal-transport-in-epitaxial-si1-x-ge-x-alloy-nanowires-with-varying-composition-and-morphology
#10
A El Sachat, J S Reparaz, J Spiece, M I Alonso, A R Goñi, M Garriga, P O Vaccaro, M R Wagner, O V Kolosov, C M Sotomayor Torres, F Alzina
We report on structural, compositional, and thermal characterization of self-assembled in-plane epitaxial Si1-x Ge x alloy nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si (001) substrates. The thermal properties were studied by means of scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), while the microstructural characteristics, the spatial distribution of the elemental composition of the alloy nanowires and the sample surface were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis...
November 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160058/unraveled-face-dependent-effects-of-multi-layered-graphene-embedded-in-transparent-organic-light-emitting-diodes
#11
Jong Tae Lim, Jaesu Kim, Hyunkoo Lee, Jaehyun Moon, Byoung-Hwa Kwon, Seongdeok Ahn, Nam Sung Cho, Byung-Wook Ahn, Jeong-Ik Lee, Kyuwook Ihm, Seong Chu Lim
With increasing demand for transparent conducting electrode, graphene has attracted considerable attention, owing to its high electrical conductivity, high transmittance, low reflectance, flexibility and tunable work function. Two faces of single layer graphene are indistinguishable in its nature and this idea has not been doubted even in multilayered graphene (MLG) because it is difficult to separately characterize the front (first-born) and rear face (last-born) of MLG by using conventional analysis tools, such as Raman, ultraviolet spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and sheet resistance...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159749/fullerenol-based-intracellular-delivery-of-methotrexate-a-water-soluble-nanoconjugate-for-enhanced-cytotoxicity-and-improved-pharmacokinetics
#12
Shradha Bahuguna, Manish Kumar, Gajanand Sharma, Rajendra Kumar, Bhupinder Singh, Kaisar Raza
Derivatization of fullerenes to polyhydroxylated fullerenes, i.e., fullerenols (FLU), dramatically decreases their toxicity and has been reported to enhance the solubility as well as cellular permeability. In this paper, we report synthesis of FLU as nanocarrier and subsequent chemical conjugation of Methotrexate (MTX) to FLU with a serum-stable and intracellularly hydrolysable ester bond between FLU and MTX. The conjugate was characterized for physiochemical attributes, micromeritics, drug-loading, and drug-release and evaluated for cancer cell-toxicity, cellular-uptake, hemocompatibility, protein binding, and pharmacokinetics...
November 20, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159340/bonding-and-optical-properties-of-spirocyclic-phosphazene-derivatives-a-dft-approach
#13
Raúl Guajardo Maturana, María-Luisa Valenzuela, Eduardo Schott, Macarena Rojas-Poblete
The bonding properties of phosphazenes and spirocyclophosphazenes containing tris-2,2'-dioxybiphenyl groups and their derivatives were investigated by means of different computational techniques. Electronic delocalization and phosphazene-ligand bonding were studied in terms of natural bond orbitals (NBOs) and energy decomposition (EDA) analysis in combination with the natural orbital for chemical valence (NOCV), which showed the dependency of the charge transfer with the electron delocalization. TD-DFT calculations were employed to study the absorption profile of the studied molecules and to contrast the redshift and change in intensities of the λmax...
November 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158890/oxidation-of-pyrrole-by-dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin-chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-pyrrolin-2-ones
#14
Nikolette L McCombs, Tatyana Smirnova, Reza A Ghiladi
The use of oxidoreductases as biocatalysts in the syntheses of functionalized, monomeric pyrroles has been a challenge owing to, among a number of factors, undesired polypyrrole formation. Here, we have investigated the ability of dehaloperoxidase (DHP), the coelomic hemoglobin from the terebellid polychaete Amphitrite ornata, to catalyze the H2O2-dependent oxidation of pyrroles as a new class of substrate for this enzyme. Substrate oxidation was observed for all compounds employed (pyrrole, N-methylpyrrole, 2-methylpyrrole, 3-methylpyrrole and 2,5-dimethylpyrrole) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
2017: Catalysis Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158703/vapour-phase-method-in-the-synthesis-of-polymer-ibuprofen-sodium-silica-gel-composites
#15
Agnieszka Kierys, Patrycja Krasucka, Marta Grochowicz
The study discusses the synthesis of polymer-silica composites comprising water soluble drug (ibuprofen sodium, IBS). The polymers selected for this study were poly(TRIM) and poly(HEMA-co-TRIM) produced in the form of permanently porous beads via the suspension-emulsion polymerization method. The acid and base set ternary composites were prepared by the saturation of the solid dispersions of drug (poly(TRIM)-IBS and/or poly(HEMA-co-TRIM)-IBS) with TEOS, and followed by their exposition to the vapour mixture of water and ammonia, or water and hydrochloric acid, at autogenous pressure...
November 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158409/hydrophobicity-of-proteins-and-nanostructured-solutes-is-governed-by-topographical-and-chemical-context
#16
Erte Xi, Vasudevan Venkateshwaran, Lijuan Li, Nicholas Rego, Amish J Patel, Shekhar Garde
Hydrophobic interactions drive many important biomolecular self-assembly phenomena. However, characterizing hydrophobicity at the nanoscale has remained a challenge due to its nontrivial dependence on the chemistry and topography of biomolecular surfaces. Here we use molecular simulations coupled with enhanced sampling methods to systematically displace water molecules from the hydration shells of nanostructured solutes and calculate the free energetics of interfacial water density fluctuations, which quantify the extent of solute-water adhesion, and therefore solute hydrophobicity...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158269/the-glucocorticoid-receptor-is-a-key-player-for-prostate-cancer-cell-survival-and-a-target-for-improved-anti-androgen-therapy
#17
Martin Puhr, Julia Hoefer, Andrea Eigentler, Christian Ploner, Florian Handle, Georg Schaefer, Jan Kroon, Angela Leo, Isabel M Heidegger, Iris E Eder, Zoran Culig, Gabri van der Pluijm, Helmut Klocker
PURPOSE: The major obstacle in the management of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) is the occurrence of resistance to endocrine-therapy. Although the androgen receptor (AR) has been linked to therapy failure, the underlying escape mechanisms have not been fully clarified. Being closely related to the AR, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has been suggested to play a role in enzalutamide and docetaxel resistance. Given that glucocorticoids are frequently applied to PCa patients, it is essential to unravel the exact role of the GR in PCa progression...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158256/heart-failure-induced-activation-of-phospholipase-ipla2%C3%AE-%C3%A2-generates-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acids-opening-the-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore
#18
Sung Ho Moon, Xinping Liu, Ari M Cedars, Kui Yang, Michael A Kiebish, Susan M Joseph, John Kelley, Christopher M Jenkins, Richard W Gross
Congestive heart failure typically arises from cardiac myocyte necrosis/apoptosis, associated with the pathological opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). mPTP opening decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential leading to the activation of Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) and the production of downstream toxic metabolites. However, the array of enzymatic mediators and the exact chemical mechanisms responsible for modulating myocardial mPTP opening remain unclear...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158200/effects-of-diesel-exhaust-derived-secondary-organic-aerosol-soa-on-oocytes-potential-risks-to-meiotic-maturation
#19
Osamu Udagawa, Akiko Furuyama, Koji Imai, Yuji Fujitani, Seishiro Hirano
Particulate air pollution (PM 2.5) is a worldwide concern. Growing epidemiological evidence has shown pathophysiological effects of PM 2.5,not only on cardiovascular system but also on reproductive performance. The composition and physicochemical properties of PM 2.5 vary depending on the emission sources, climate conditions, and complex chemical reactions in the air. These factors make it difficult to understand the cause and mechanistic details of the adverse health effects of PM 2.5. Here, we show potential impacts of PM 2...
November 17, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157894/selective-inhibition-reveals-cyclin-dependent-kinase-2-as-another-kinase-that-phosphorylates-the-androgen-receptor-at-serine-81
#20
Radek Jorda, Zuzana Bučková, Eva Řezníčková, Jan Bouchal, Vladimír Kryštof
Several studies have revealed that cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) can mediate phosphorylation of steroid receptors at multiple sites, including serine 81 of the androgen receptor (AR). Phosphorylation of S81 is required for AR nuclear translocation in association with chromatin and also regulates endogenous AR-regulated transcription in response to hormones. Up to date, S81-phosphorylation has been studied using different CDK inhibitors. Nevertheless, most inhibitors are non-selective or have unknown selectivity...
November 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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