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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324840/biosorption-of-diethyl-phthalate-ester-by-living-and-nonliving-burkholderia-cepacia-and-the-role-of-its-cell-surface-components
#1
Si Luo, Langlang Li, Anwei Chen, Qingru Zeng, Hao Xia, Ji-Dong Gu
In this study, the dibutyl phthalate (DBP) binding properties of a DBP-tolerant bacterium (B. cepacia) were characterized in terms of adsorption kinetics and isotherm. Living and nonliving cells both exhibited rapid removal of DBP, achieving more than 80% of maximum sorption within 30 min of contact and reached the equilibrium after 3 h. The adsorption isotherms were well fitted with the Sips model and the nonliving cells have greater biosorption capacity and affinity for DBP than the living cells. Furthermore, the absence of an active mechanism dependent on metabolism implied that the DBP bioaccumulation by living cells was mainly attribute to passive surface binding...
March 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324781/genesis-and-properties-of-wetland-soils-by-vis-nir-swir-as-a-technique-for-environmental-monitoring
#2
José Alexandre Melo Demattê, Ingrid Horák-Terra, Raphael Moreira Beirigo, Fabrício da Silva Terra, Karina Patrícia Prazeres Marques, Caio Troula Fongaro, Alexandre Christófaro Silva, Pablo Vidal-Torrado
Wetlands are important ecosystems characterized by redoximorphic environments producing typical soil forming processes and organic carbon accumulation. Assessments and management of these areas are dependent on knowledge about soil characteristics and variability. By reflectance spectroscopy, information about soils can be obtained since their spectral behaviors are directly related to their chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties reflecting the pedogenetic processes and environment conditions. Our aims were: (a) to characterize the main soil classes of wetlands regarding their spectral behaviors in VIS-NIR-SWIR (350-2500 nm) and relate them to pedogenesis and environmental conditions, (b) to determine spectral ranges (bands) with greater expression of the main soil properties, (c) to identify spectral variations and similarities between hydromorphic soils from wetlands and other soils under different moisture conditions, and (d) to propose spectral models to quantify some chemical and physical soil properties used as environmental quality indicators...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324506/induction-of-site-specific-oxidative-damage-at-telomeres-by-killerred-fused-shelretin-proteins
#3
Rong Tan, Li Lan
Chronic oxidative stress is the major endogenous metabolic stress and contributes directly to telomere shortening and senescence. Understanding the dysfunction of telomeres under oxidative stress will greatly facilitate healthy aging and advance the treatment of aging-related diseases. Here, we describe the KR-TEL (KillerRed induced DNA damage at telomeres) system that induces site-specific oxidative damage at telomeres. We have developed the KR-TEL system by fusing killerred with the shelterin component TRF1 (KR-TRF1) or other shelterin proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323637/accelerated-monte-carlo-simulation-on-the-chemical-stage-in-water-radiolysis-using-gpu
#4
Zhen Tian, Steve B Jiang, Xun Jia
The accurate simulation of water radiolysis is an important step to understand the mechanisms of radiobiology and quantitatively test some hypotheses regarding radiobiological effects. However, the simulation of water radiolysis is highly time consuming, taking hours or even days to be completed by a conventional CPU processor. This time limitation hinders cell-level simulations for a number of research studies. We recently initiated efforts to develop gMicroMC, a GPU-based fast microscopic MC simulation package for water radiolysis...
March 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323483/taphonomy-of-microbial-biosignatures-in-spring-deposits-a-comparison-of-modern-quaternary-and-jurassic-examples
#5
Sally L Potter-McIntyre, Jason Williams, Charity Phillips-Lander, Laura O'Connell
On Earth, microorganisms commonly enhance mineral precipitation and mediate mineralogical and chemical compositions of resulting deposits, particularly at spring systems. However, preservation of any type of microbial fossil or chemical or textural biosignature depends on the degree of alteration during diagenesis and factors such as exposure to diagenetic fluids. Little is known about the transformation of biosignatures during diagenesis over geologic time. Ten Mile Graben, Utah, USA, hosts a cold spring system that is an exceptional site for evaluation of diagenetic alteration of biosignatures because of the presence of modern springs with actively precipitating microbial mats and a series of progressively older tufa terraces (<400 ka) preserved in the area from the same spring system...
March 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323413/designing-morphology-in-epitaxial-silicon-nanowires-the-role-of-gold-surface-chemistry-and-phosphorus-doping
#6
Seokhyoung Kim, David J Hill, Christopher W Pinion, Joseph D Christesen, James R McBride, James F Cahoon
Vertically-aligned semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have many potential applications for NW-based technologies, ranging from solar cells to intracellular sensors. Aligned NWs can be fabricated by top-down etching of planar wafers or synthesized from the bottom-up using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism to induce epitaxial growth on lattice-matched substrates. The VLS process permits the modulation of dopants along the NW growth axis, which, if combined with dopant-dependent wet-chemical etching, can be used to encode precise morphology...
March 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319851/-31-p-dephased-13-c-detected-redor-for-nmr-crystallography-at-natural-isotopic-abundance
#7
Alexander I Greenwood, Mary C Clay, Chad M Rienstra
Typically, the process of NMR-based structure determination relies on accurately measuring a large number of internuclear distances to serve as restraints for simulated annealing calculations. In solids, the rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) experiment is a widely used approach to determine heteronuclear dipolar couplings corresponding to distances usually in the range of 1.5-8Å. A challenge in the interpretation of REDOR data is the degeneracy of symmetric subunits in an oligomer or equivalent molecules in a crystal lattice, which produce REDOR trajectories that depend explicitly on two or more distances instead of one...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319663/2h-ws2-quantum-dots-produced-by-modulating-the-dimension-and-phase-of-1t-nanosheets-for-antibody-free-optical-sensing-of-neurotransmitters
#8
Man-Jin Kim, Su-Ji Jeon, Tae Woog Kang, Jong-Min Ju, DaBin Yim, Hye-In Kim, Jung Hyun Park, Jong-Ho Kim
Modulating the dimensions and phases of transition metal dichalcogenides is of great interest to enhance their intrinsic properties or to create new physicochemical properties. Herein, we report an effective approach to synthesize 2H-WS2 quantum dots (QDs) via the dimension and phase engineering of 1T-WS2 nanosheets. The solvothermal reaction of chemically-exfoliated 1T-WS2 nanosheets in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) under an N2 atmosphere induced their chopping and phase transition at lower temperature to produce 2H-WS2 QDs with a high quantum yield (5...
March 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319644/the-retinal-relaxing-factor-update-on-an-enigmatic-regulator-of-the-retinal-circulation
#9
Laura Vanden Daele, Charlotte Boydens, Bart Pauwels, Johan Van de Voorde
The retinal circulation is regulated by different local factors and might include the retinal relaxing factor (RRF). This factor is found to be continuously released by the retina and relaxes smooth muscle cells. This review describes the current knowledge about the RRF. Despite many research efforts, the cellular source, identity, mechanism, and physiological role of the RRF remain largely unknown. Thus far, it seems that the RRF is a hydrophilic, thermostable, diffusible chemical messenger, which characteristics do not correspond with most well-known endogenous vasorelaxants...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319409/investigation-of-anticarcinogenic-and-antioxidant-effects-of-methylimidazole
#10
M Norizadeh Tazehkand, O Hajipour, F Moridikia, A Moridikia, E Valipour, M B Yilmaz, M Topaktas
4-methylimidazole is widely used in pharmaceuticals, photographic and agricultural chemicals. The substance is extensively found in many human and animals foods. In this research, anticancer effect of the 4-MEI was studded using MTT test using MCF-7 cell line. Effect of the 4-MEI on apoptosis or necrosis was analyzed by DNA fragmentation assay using Swiss Albino rats as a model organism. Antioxidant effect of the substance was investigated by assaying protective effect of the substance on circular plasmid DNA against H2O2 as an oxidative agent...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319368/comparative-analysis-reveals-furoyl-in-vivo-shape-rea-gents-form-stable-ribosyl-ester-adducts
#11
Dalen Chan, Chao Feng, Yuran Zhen, Ryan Flynn, Robert C Spitale
RNA molecules depend on structural elements which are critical for cellular function. Chemical methods to probe RNA structure have emerged as a necessary component of characterizing RNA function. As such, understanding the limitations and idiosyncrasies of such methods are essential for their utility. Selective hydroxyl acylation has emerged as a common method for analyzing RNA structure. Ester products as a result from 2'-hydroxyl acylation can then be identified through reverse transcription or mutational enzyme profiling...
March 20, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319361/block-copolymer-templated-hierarchical-porous-carbon-nanostructures-with-nitrogen-rich-functional-groups-for-molecular-sensing
#12
Ya-Sen Sun, Chien-Fu Lin, Shih-Ting Luo, Ching-Yuan Su
The self-assembly of a block copolymer offers access to micellar nanodomains with tunable dimensions and structural diversity through control of such molecular parameters as the volume fraction and molecular mass. We fabricated hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) nanostructures with bundles of aggregated nanospheres and with nitrogen-rich functional groups through pyrolysis of diblock copolymer micelles in multiple layers. The resultant HPC nanostructures with a considerable specific surface area serve as an excellent substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), coupled with fluorescence quenching, for molecular sensing of physically adsorbed Rhodamine 6G...
March 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319121/growth-altering-microbial-interactions-are-responsive-to-chemical-context
#13
Angela Liu, Anne M Archer, Matthew B Biggs, Jason A Papin
Microbial interactions are ubiquitous in nature, and are equally as relevant to human wellbeing as the identities of the interacting microbes. However, microbial interactions are difficult to measure and characterize. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that they are not fixed, but dependent on environmental context. We present a novel workflow for inferring microbial interactions that integrates semi-automated image analysis with a colony stamping mechanism, with the overall effect of improving throughput and reproducibility of colony interaction assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318695/monitoring-water-quality-in-toronto-s-urban-stormwater-ponds-assessing-participation-rates-and-data-quality-of-water-sampling-by-citizen-scientists-in-the-freshwater-watch
#14
Andrew B Scott, Paul C Frost
From 2013 to 2015, citizen scientist volunteers in Toronto, Canada were trained to collect and analyze water quality in urban stormwater ponds. This volunteer sampling was part of the research program, FreshWater Watch (FWW), which aimed to standardize urban water sampling efforts from around the globe. We held training sessions for new volunteers twice yearly and trained a total of 111 volunteers. Over the course of project, ~30% of volunteers participated by collecting water quality data after the training session with 124 individual sampling events at 29 unique locations in Toronto, Canada...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318347/teratogenic-hazard-of-bpei-coated-silver-nanoparticles-to-xenopus-laevis
#15
Anita Colombo, Melissa Saibene, Elisa Moschini, Patrizia Bonfanti, Maddalena Collini, Kaja Kasemets, Paride Mantecca
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most exploited antimicrobial agents and are used in many consumer products. Size and surface reactivity are critical physico-chemical properties responsible for NPs toxicity, and surface coatings, often used to functionalize or stabilize AgNPs, can influence their toxic profile and biocompatibility. In the current study the developmental toxicity of 1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (Cit-AgNPs), 2) positively charged branched polyethylenimine-coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs), and 3) Ag(+) (from 0...
March 20, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318225/in-plane-anisotropies-of-polarized-raman-response-and-electrical-conductivity-in-layered-tin-selenide
#16
Xiaolong Xu, Qingjun Song, Haifeng Wang, Pan Li, Kun Zhang, Yilun Wang, Kai Yuan, Zichen Yang, Yu Ye, Lun Dai
The group IV-VI compound tin selenide (SnSe) has recently attracted particular interest due to its unexpectedly low thermal conductivity and high power factor, showing great promise for thermoelectric applications. With an orthorhombic lattice structure, SnSe displays intriguing anisotropic properties due to the low symmetry of the puckered in-plane lattice structure. When thermoelectric materials, like SnSe, have decreased dimensionality, their thermoelectric conversion efficiency may be improved due to increased power factor and decreased thermal conductivity...
March 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318222/selective-downregulation-of-jak2-and-jak3-by-an-atp-competitive-pan-jak-inhibitor
#17
S Denise Field, Jacob Arkin, Jing Li, Lyn H Jones
PF-956980 has been used previously as a JAK3-selective chemical probe in numerous cell-based experiments. Here, we report that not only is PF-956980 a pan-JAK ATP-competitive inhibitor, but it also causes selective reduction of endogenous JAK2 and JAK3 protein levels in human primary immune cells (in a time-dependent manner), leaving the other JAK family members (JAK1 and TYK2) unchanged. We found that PF-956980 selectively downregulated JAK2 and JAK3 mRNA, corresponding to changes observed at the protein level...
March 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318083/dienophile-modified-mannosamine-derivatives-for-metabolic-labeling-of-sialic-acids-a-comparative-study
#18
Jeremias E G A Dold, Jessica Pfotzer, Anne-Katrin Späte, Valentin Wittmann
Sialic acids play an important role in numerous cell adhesion processes and sialylation levels are known to be altered under certain pathogenic conditions such as cancer. Metabolic glycoengineering with mannosamine derivatives is a convenient way to introduce non-natural chemical reporter groups into sialylated glycoconjugates offering the opportunity to label sialic acids using bioorthogonal ligation chemistry. The labeling intensity not only depends on the rate of the ligation reaction but also on the extent to which the natural sialic acids are replaced by the modified ones, i...
March 20, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317954/surface-chemistry-of-pure-tetragonal-zro2-and-gas-phase-dependence-of-the-tetragonal-to-monoclinic-zro2-transformation
#19
Eva-Maria Köck, Michaela Kogler, Thomas Götsch, Lukas Schlicker, Maged F Bekheet, Andrew Doran, Aleksander Gurlo, Bernhard Klötzer, Benedikt Petermüller, Daniel Schildhammer, Nevzat Yigit, Simon Penner
The surface chemical properties of undoped tetragonal ZrO2 and the gas-phase dependence of the tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformation are studied using a tetragonal ZrO2 polymorph synthesized via a sol-gel method from an alkoxide precursor. The obtained phase-pure tetragonal ZrO2 is defective and strongly hydroxylated with pronounced Lewis acidic and Brønsted basic surface sites. Combined in situ FT-infrared and electrochemical impedance measurements reveal effective blocking of coordinatively unsaturated sites by both CO and CO2, as well as low conductivity...
March 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317922/optical-imaging-of-localized-chemical-events-using-programmable-diamond-quantum-nanosensors
#20
Torsten Rendler, Jitka Neburkova, Ondrej Zemek, Jan Kotek, Andrea Zappe, Zhiqin Chu, Petr Cigler, Jörg Wrachtrup
Development of multifunctional nanoscale sensors working under physiological conditions enables monitoring of intracellular processes that are important for various biological and medical applications. By attaching paramagnetic gadolinium complexes to nanodiamonds (NDs) with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres through surface engineering, we developed a hybrid nanoscale sensor that can be adjusted to directly monitor physiological species through a proposed sensing scheme based on NV spin relaxometry. We adopt a single-step method to measure spin relaxation rates enabling time-dependent measurements on changes in pH or redox potential at a submicrometre-length scale in a microfluidic channel that mimics cellular environments...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
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