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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738600/quantification-of-intercellular-adhesion-forces-measured-by-fluid-force-microscopy
#1
Noa Cohen, Saheli Sarkar, Evangelia Hondroulis, Pooja Sabhachandani, Tania Konry
The mechanics of cancer cell adhesion to its neighboring cells, homotypic or heterotypic, have significant impact on tumor progression and metastasis. Intercellular adhesion has been quantified previously using atomic force microscopy-based methods. Here we show the feasibility of the recently developed fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM) to measure adhesive forces exerted by breast cancer cells. Multiple cell pairs were assessed at precisely controlled, increasing contact durations by pressure-dependent immobilization of a cell at the probe tip...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738543/phenolic-compounds-of-triplaris-gardneriana-can-protect-cells-against-oxidative-stress-and-restore-oxidative-balance
#2
Thiago Silva de Almeida, José Joaquim Lopes Neto, Nathanna Mateus de Sousa, Igor Parra Pessoa, Leonardo Rogério Vieira, Jackeline Lima de Medeiros, Aline Augusti Boligon, Astrid R M Hamers, Davi Felipe Farias, Ad Peijnenburg, Ana Fontenele Urano Carvalho
This work aimed to add value to an underexploited plant species from Brazil, Triplaris gardneriana. To that, the phenolic compounds profile of its seed ethanolic extract and fractions was examined by HPLC and the antioxidant capacity assessed using chemical assays as well as in vitro cell imaging. Twelve compounds were quantified and classified as either phenolic acids or flavonoids. The fractionation process did not generate fractions with different compositions except for chloroformic fraction, which showed only 6 out of 12 standard compounds used...
July 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738527/evaluation-of-heavy-metal-mobilization-in-creek-sediment-influence-of-rac-values-and-ambient-environmental-factors
#3
Guannan Liang, Bo Zhang, Mao Lin, Simiao Wu, Hao Hou, Jia Zhang, Guangren Qian, Xin Huang, Jizhi Zhou
The risk assessment code (RAC) is a common method for assessing heavy metal (HM) mobility and their potential health risks, based on HM total concentration and chemical speciation. In this study, both the RAC and the influence of ambient environmental factors were investigated in a river sediment system. Sixty-eight sediment samples were collected from the main river system in Shanghai, China. The total concentration and chemical speciation of Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg were determined in the samples...
July 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738270/chemical-structure-and-correlation-analysis-of-hiv-1-nnrt-and-nrt-inhibitors-and-database-curated-published-inhibition-constants-with-chemical-structure-in-diverse-datasets
#4
Birgit Viira, Alfonso T García-Sosa, Uko Maran
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase is a major target for designing anti-HIV drugs. Developed inhibitors are divided into non-nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) depending on their mechanism. Given that many inhibitors have been studied and for many of them binding affinity constants have been calculated, it is beneficial to analyze the chemical landscape of these families of inhibitors and correlate these inhibition constants with molecular structure descriptors...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738173/simulating-the-meteorology-and-pm10-concentrations-in-arizona-dust-storms-with-the-weather-research-and-forecasting-model-with-chemistry-wrf-chem
#5
Peter Hyde, Alex Mahalov, Jialun Li
Nine dust storms in south-central Arizona, USA were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem) at 2-km resolution. The windblown dust emission algorithm was the Air Force Weather Agency model. In comparison with ground-based PM10 observations, the model unevenly reproduces the dust storm events. The model adequately estimates the location and timing of the events, but it is unable to precisely replicate the magnitude and timing of the elevated hourly concentrations of particles 10 microns and smaller ([PM10])...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738141/quantification-of-chemical-and-mechanical-effects-on-the-formation-of-g-quadruplex-and-i-motif-in-duplex-dna
#6
Sangeetha Selvam, Shankar Mandal, Hanbin Mao
Formation of biologically significant tetraplex DNA species, such as G-quadruplexes and i-motifs, is affected by chemical (ions and pH) and mechanical (superhelicity [σ] and molecular crowding) factors. Due to the extremely challenging experimental conditions, relative im-portance of these factors on tetraplex folding is unknown. In this work, we quantitatively evalu-ated the chemical and mechanical effects on the population dynamics of DNA tetraplexes in In-sulin Linked Polymorphic Region using magneto-optical tweezers...
July 24, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737933/efficient-application-of-continuous-fractional-component-monte-carlo-in-the-reaction-ensemble
#7
Ali Poursaeidesfahani, Remco Hens, Ahmadreza Rahbari, Mahinder Ramdin, David Dubbeldam, Thijs J H Vlugt
A new formulation of the Reaction Ensemble Monte Carlo technique (RxMC) combined with the Continuous Fractional Component Monte Carlo method is presented. This method is denoted by serial Rx/CFC. The key ingredient is that fractional molecules of either reactants or reaction products are present, and that chemical reactions always involve fractional molecules. Serial Rx/CFC has the following advantages compared to other approaches: (1) one directly obtains chemical potentials of all reactants and reaction products...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737914/dft-study-on-the-complexation-of-nota-as-a-bifunctional-chelator-with-radiometal-ions
#8
Fatima Y Adeowo, Bahareh Honarparvar, Adam A Skelton
1,4,7 triazacyclononane-1,4,7 triacetic acid (NOTA) is a key bifunctional chelator utilized for the complexation of metal ions in radiopharmaceutical applications; the ability of these chelators depends on the strength of their binding with ions. The focus of the present work is to evaluate the complexation of Cu2+, Ga3+, Sc3+ and In3+ radiometal ions with NOTA using density functional theory (B3LYP functional) and 6-311+G(2d,2p)/DGDZVP basis sets. The significant role of ion-water interactions in the chelation interaction energies in solution reflects the competition between ion-water and NOTA-ion interaction in the chelation process...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737909/inhibitory-kappa-b-kinse-%C3%AE-ikk%C3%AE-inhibitors-that-recapitulate-their-selectivity-in-cells-against-isoform-related-biomarkers
#9
Nahoum G Anthony, Jessica Baiget, Giacomo Berretta, Marie Boyd, David Breen, Joanne Edwards, Carly Gamble, Alexander I Gray, Alan L Harvey, Sophia Hatziieremia, Ka Ho Ho, Judith K Huggan, Stuart Lang, Sabin Llona-Minguez, Jia Lin Luo, Kathryn McIntosh, Andrew Paul, Robin J Plevin, Murray N Robertson, Rebecca Scott, Colin J Suckling, Oliver Brook Sutcliffe, Louise C Young, Simon Paul Mackay
IKKβ plays a central role in the canonical NF-kB pathway, which has been extensively characterised. The role of IKKα in the non-canonical NF-kB pathway, and indeed in the canonical pathway as a complex with IKKβ, is less well understood. One major reason for this is the absence of chemical tools designed as selective inhibitors for IKKα over IKKβ, until now. Herein, we report for the first time a series of novel, potent and selective inhibitors of IKKα. We demonstrate effective target engagement and selectivity with IKKα in U2OS cells through inhibition of IKKα-driven p100 phosphorylation in the non-canonical NF-kB pathway without affecting IKKβ-dependent IKappa-Bα loss in the canonical pathway...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737885/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-memantine
#10
Shahrina Alam, Kaelyn Skye Lingenfelter, Aaron M Bender, Craig W Lindsley
Memantine was the first breakthrough medication for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and represents a fundamentally new mechanism of action (moderate-affinity, uncompetitive, voltage-dependent, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that exhibits fast on/off kinetics) to modulate glutamatergic dysfunction. Since its approval by the FDA in 2003, memantine, alone, and in combination with donepezil, has improved patient outcomes in terms of cognition, behavioral disturbances, daily functioning and delaying time to institutionalization...
July 24, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737783/fluorination-enriched-electronic-and-magnetic-properties-in-graphene-nanoribbons
#11
Duy Khanh Nguyen, Yu-Tsung Lin, Shih-Yang Lin, Yu-Huang Chiu, Ngoc Thanh Thuy Tran, Ming Fa-Lin
The feature-rich electronic and magnetic properties of fluorine-doped graphene nanoribbons are investigated by the first-principles calculations. They arise from the cooperative or competitive relations among the significant chemical bonds, finite-size quantum confinement and edge structure. There exist C-C, C-F, and F-F bonds with multi-orbital hybridizations. Fluorine adatoms can create p-type metals or concentration- and distribution-dependent semiconductors, depending on whether the π bonding is seriously suppressed by the top-site chemical bonding...
July 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737711/the-effects-of-artemisinin-on-the-cytolytic-activity-of-natural-killer-nk-cells
#12
Youn Kyung Houh, Kyung Eun Kim, Sunyoung Park, Dae Young Hur, Seonghan Kim, Daejin Kim, Sa Ik Bang, Yoolhee Yang, Hyun Jeong Park, Daeho Cho
Artemisinin, a chemical compound used for the treatment of malaria, has been known to show anti-cancer activity. However, the effect of this chemical on natural killer (NK) cells, which are involved in tumor killing, remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that artemisinin exerts a potent anti-cancer effect by activating NK cells. NK-92MI cells pre-treated with artemisinin were subjected to a cytotoxicity assay using K562 cells. The results showed that artemisinin significantly enhances the cytolytic activity of NK cells in a dose-dependent manner...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737446/quantitative-in-vitro-phenotyping-and-prediction-of-drug-interaction-potential-of-cyp2b6-substrates-as-victims
#13
Raghava Choudary Palacharla, Ramakrishna Nirogi, Venkatesham Uthukam, Arunkumar Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar Ponnamaneni, Ilayaraja Kalaikadhiban
1. Determination of fm, CYP for a compound is critical to assess the potential risk of a drug candidate as a victim of DDI. Several compounds are identified as CYP2B6 substrates but the fm, CYP2B6 values are not determined quantitatively 2. Two methods of reaction phenotyping, the chemical inhibition method, and metabolism in rCYP enzymes, were used to determine the relative contributions of the enzymes. Chemical inhibition method was also conducted in the presence of BSA (0.5% w/v) 3. The results confirm with the earlier studies concerning the identity of the CYP2B6 enzyme...
July 24, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737394/l-proline-and-rna-duplex-m-value-temperature-dependence
#14
Jeffrey J Schwinefus, Nadia L Baka, Kalpit Modi, Kaylyn N Billmeyer, Shutian Lu, Lucas R Haase, Ryan J Menssen
The temperature dependence of l-proline interactions with the RNA dodecamer duplex surface exposed after unfolding was quantified using thermal and isothermal titration denaturation monitored by uv-absorbance. The m-value quantifying proline interactions with the RNA duplex surface area exposed after unfolding was measured using RNA duplexes with GC content ranging between 17 and 83%. The m-values from thermal denaturation decreased with increasing GC content signifying increasingly favorable proline interactions with the exposed RNA surface area...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737161/linbo-sub-3-sub-surfaces-from-a-microscopic-perspective
#15
Simone Sanna, Wolf Gero Schmidt
A large number of oxides has been investigated in the last twenty years as possible new materials for various applications ranging from opto-electronics to heterogeneous catalysis. In this context, ferroelectric oxides are particularly promising. The electric polarization plays a crucial role at many oxide surfaces, and it largely determines their physical and chemical properties. Ferroelectrics offer in addition the possibility to control/switch the electric polarization and hence the surface chemistry, allowing for the realization of domain-engineered nanoscale devices such as molecular detectors or highly efficient catalysts...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737078/effect-heating-dwell-time-has-on-the-retention-of-heavy-metals-in-the-structure-of-lightweight-aggregates-manufactured-from-wastes
#16
Beatriz González-Corrochano, Jacinto Alonso-Azcárate, Luis Rodríguez, Agripino Pérez Lorenzo, María Fernández Torío, Juan José Tejado Ramos, María Dolores Corvinos, Carlos Muro
The main objective of this paper was to study how effective thermal treatment is in the retention of different heavy metals (HMs) within the structure of artificial lightweight aggregates (LWAs). These LWAs were manufactured by washing aggregate sludge and sewage sludge. The consequence of increasing the heating dwell time whilst manufacturing these LWAs was also determined. Partitioning of the HMs (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in both the waste raw materials and in the LWAs was studied by means of the optimized BCR sequential extraction procedure with lithium metaborate in the final fusion...
July 24, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737037/polyimide-aerogels-using-tri-isocyanate-as-cross-linker
#17
Baochau N Nguyen, Mary Ann Babin Meador, Daniel A Scheiman, Linda S McCorkle
Cross-linked polyimide (PI) aerogels are highly porous, lightweight materials with low thermal conductivity and low dielectric constant. Depending on the backbone chemistry, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels can be molded into various size and shape or cast into flexible, thin film. They are excellent candidates for many applications including antenna-based substrate, thermal insulation for space suits or inflatable structures for entry, descent and landing, or industrial pipelines, protective clothing or building and construction...
July 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736255/isoalantolactone-derivative-promotes-glucose-utilization-in-skeletal-muscle-cells-and-increases-energy-expenditure-in-db-db-mice-via-activating-ampk-dependent-signaling
#18
Deepti Arha, E Ramakrishna, Anand P Gupta, Amit K Rai, Aditya Sharma, Ishbal Ahmad, Mohammed Riyazuddin, Jiaur R Gayen, Rakesh Maurya, Akhilesh K Tamrakar
Augmenting glucose utilization and energy expenditure in skeletal muscle via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an imperative mechanism for the management of type 2 diabetes. Chemical derivatives (2a-2h, 3, 4a-4d, 5) of the isoalantolactone (K007), a bioactive molecule from roots of Inula racemosa were synthesized to optimize the bioactivity profile to stimulate glucose utilization in skeletal muscle cells. Interestingly, 4a augmented glucose uptake, driven by enhanced translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to cell periphery in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells...
July 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736082/differential-proteome-expression-analysis-of-androgen-dependent-and-independent-pathways-in-lncap-prostate-cancer-cells
#19
Seho Cha, Dong Hoon Shin, Jun Ryeong Seok, Jae Kyung Myung
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in men. It commonly develops in older males, but the number of younger men diagnosed with the disease has increased in recent years. Hormone therapies, such as chemical and surgical methods that inhibit androgen synthesis or androgen receptor (AR) activation, have been used for advanced disease. However, castration-resistant PC (CRPC), which exhibits androgen-independent mechanisms for activating AR, develops after a few years of such treatment and no therapy is available...
July 20, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736050/effects-of-aeration-and-leachate-recirculation-on-methyl-mercaptan-emissions-from-landfill
#20
Siyuan Zhang, Yuyang Long, Yuan Fang, Yao Du, Weijia Liu, Dongsheng Shen
The issue of odorous volatile organic sulfur compound methyl mercaptan (MM) released from landfill sites cannot be ignored for its extremely low odor threshold and high toxicity. In this study, we focused on the formation and emission of MM in four lab-scaled simulated landfill reactors running in different operation modes, namely, R1 and R2, without leachate recirculation, running under anaerobic and semi-aerobic atmosphere, R3 and R4, with leachate recirculation, running under anaerobic and semi-aerobic atmosphere, respectively...
July 20, 2017: Waste Management
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