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Chemical dependency

Brant Gracia, Hashim M Al-Hashimi, Namita Bisaria, Rhiju Das, Daniel Herschlag, Rick Russell
Large-scale, cooperative rearrangements underlie the functions of RNA in RNA-protein machines and gene regulation. To understand how such rearrangements are orchestrated, we used high-throughput chemical footprinting to dissect a seemingly concerted rearrangement in P5abc RNA, a paradigm of RNA folding studies. With mutations that systematically disrupt or restore putative structural elements, we found that this transition reflects local folding of structural modules, with modest and incremental cooperativity that results in concerted behavior...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Pyae Phyo, Tuo Wang, Yu Yang, Hugh M O'Neill, Mei Hong
In contrast to the well-studied crystalline cellulose of microbial and animal origins, cellulose in plant cell walls is disordered due to its interactions with matrix polysaccharides. Plant cell wall (PCW) is an undisputed source of sustainable global energy, therefore it is important to determine the molecular structure of PCW cellulose. The most reactive component of cellulose is the exocyclic hydroxymethyl group: when it adopts the tg conformation, it stabilizes intra-chain and inter-chain hydrogen bonding, while gt and gg conformations destabilize the hydrogen-bonding network...
March 21, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Hiroshi Matsui, Soichi Ito, Masayoshi Nakano
The open-shell character dependences of second hyperpolarizability γ is investigated for rectangular-shaped tetraradicaloid models such as diradical dimers, using numerically exact solutions of the extended Hubbard model. The newly-defined local diradical characters for intra- and inter-molecular interactions (referred to as yintra and yinter, respectively) are compared to conventional global ones (y0 and y1) and provide comprehensive understanding of the electronic structure of the system. The system shows two kinds of enhancements of γ components, γintra and γinter (caused, respectively, by intra- and inter-molecular diradical interactions): (i) the system with large yintra (yinter) (> ~0...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Martin Michalík, Peter Poliak, Vladimír Lukeš
A systematic DFT investigation of 3-hydroxy-N-phenylnaphthalene-2-carboxamide and its sixteen para-derivatives is presented. The structural analysis showed that the energetically preferred conformation of all derivatives is practically planar and it is stabilised via intramolecular hydrogen bonds occurring between (C)O...H(3)O atomic pairs. The quantum chemically evaluated partition coefficients logarithms correlate well with Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship models as well as with experimentally determined isocratic retention factors logarithm...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Xiangyun Li, Xiangxiang Zhu, Chong Xu, Jianhua Wu
2-Methyl-2-butanol (MBT) is a chemical compound from the group of alcohols more specifically pentanols, which has shown an excellent anti-cancer activity in our previous study. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-cancer effect of MBT on human retinoblastoma cells. The results showed that the use of MBT leads to HXO-RB44 cell death but is cytotoxic to normal cells at higher concentrations. It showed a dose- as well as a time-dependent inhibition of HXO-RB44 cells...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Luisana Di Cristo, Ciaran Manus Maguire, Karen Mc Quillan, Mattia Aleardi, Yuri Volkov, Dania Movia, Adriele Prina-Mello
Nanoparticles (NP)-based inhalation systems for drug delivery can be administered in liquid form, by nebulization or using pressurized metered dose inhalers, and in solid form by means of dry powder inhalers. However, NP delivery to the lungs has many challenges including the formulation instability due to particle-particle interactions and subsequent aggregation, causing poor deposition in the small distal airways and subsequent alveolar macrophages activity, which could lead to inflammation. This work aims at providing an in vitro experimental design for investigating the correlation between the physico-chemical properties of NP, and their biological behavior, when they are used as NP-based inhalation treatments, comparing two different exposure systems...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tomoo Shimada, Junpei Takagi, Takuji Ichino, Makoto Shirakawa, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura
Plant vacuoles are multifunctional organelles.Onthe one hand, most vegetative tissues develop lytic vacuoles that have a role in degradation.Onthe other hand, seed cells have two types of storage vacuoles: protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) in endosperm and embryonic cells and metabolite storage vacuoles in seed coats. Vacuolar proteins and metabolites are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum and then transported to the vacuoles via Golgi-dependent and Golgi-independent pathways. Proprotein precursors delivered to the vacuoles are converted into their respective mature forms by vacuolar processing enzyme, which also regulates various kinds of programmed cell death in plants...
March 21, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Shivraj, B Siddlingeshwar, Elena M Kirilova, Sergey V Belyakov, Darshan Devang Divakar, Abdulaziz Abdullah Alkheraif
Benzanthrone derivatives are potential fluorescent probes for various chemical and biological environments. A mechanistic understanding of their photophysical properties is pivotal for designing an efficient fluorescence sensor based on the benzanthrone framework. In this study, we report on the effect of chemical substitution on the photophysical properties of two benzanthrone derivatives, namely, 3-(N'-methyl)-piperazino-7H-benzo[de]anthracen-7-one [Me-PBA] and 3-(N'-phenyl)-piperazino-7H-benzo[de]anthracen-7-one [Ph-PBA] in different solvents and solvent mixtures of varying polarities and proticities...
March 21, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Fanny Girard, Mathieu Peret, Natacha Dumont, Vasilica Badets, Sylvie Blanc, Kristaq Gazeli, Cédric Noël, Thierry Belmonte, Laurent Marlin, Jean-Pierre Cambus, Guillaume Simon, Neso Sojic, Bernard Held, Stéphane Arbault, Franck Clément
The understanding of plasma-liquid interactions is of major importance, not only in physical chemistry, chemical engineering and polymer science, but in biomedicine as well as to better control the biological processes induced on/in biological samples by Cold Atmospheric Plasmas (CAPs). Moreover, plasma-air interactions have to be particularly considered since these CAPs propagate in the ambient air. Herein, we developed a helium-based CAP setup equipped with a shielding-gas device, which allows the control of plasma-air interactions...
March 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yang Zhang, Yang Wang, Wei-Wei Cao, Ke-Tao Ma, Wei Ji, Zi-Wei Han, Jun-Qiang Si, Li Li
Significant autofluorescence (AF) of renal tissue is one of the major causes restricting the use of immunofluorescent staining. This study aimed at controlling renal tissue AF and testing an effective method for optimizing specific signals. In the present study, we observed emergence of strong AF in all renal cells under different fluorescent channels. Significant concentration-dependent reduction in AF of kidney tissue was observed with the use of sodium borohydride (NaBH4 ) and Sudan black B (SBB) alone (p < 0...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Fluorescence
Irina Turku, Timo Kärki, Ari Puurtinen
The influence of accelerated weathering, xenon-arc light and freeze-thaw cycling on wood plastic composites extruded from a recycled plastic was studied. The results showed that, in general, weathering had a stronger impact on samples made from plastic waste compared to a sample made from virgin material. After weathering, the mechanical properties, tensile and flexural, were reduced by 2-30%, depending on the plastic source. Wettability of the samples was shown to play a significant role in their stability...
March 2018: Heliyon
Zerihun Ataro, Abraham Geremew, Fekadu Urgessa
Background: Occupational exposure to chemicals in garages causes a wide range of biological effects, depending upon the level and duration of exposure. In Ethiopia, there have been few studies conducted to assess the exposure of garage workers to chemicals. Preceding studies have not explored the effect of working in garage on blood pressure and hematological parameters. Therefore, this study aimed to assess differences in blood pressure and hematological parameters among garage workers compared to the Haramaya University community, Harar, eastern Ethiopia...
2018: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Dennis A Smith, Timothy Hammond, Thomas A Baillie
While simple O- (ether-linked) and N-glucuronide drug conjugates generally are unreactive and considered benign from a safety perspective, the acyl glucuronides that derive from metabolism of carboxylic acid-containing xenobiotics can exhibit a degree of chemical reactivity that is dependent upon their molecular structure. As a result, concerns have arisen over the safety of acyl glucuronides as a class, several members of which have been implicated in the toxicity of their respective parent drugs. However, direct evidence in support of these claims remains sparse, and due to frequently encountered species differences in the systemic exposure to acyl glucuronides (both of parent drug and oxidized derivatives thereof), coupled with their instability in aqueous media and potential to undergo chemical rearrangement (acyl migration), qualification of these conjugates by traditional safety assessment methods can be very challenging...
March 20, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Yuwen Zhang, Jiaqing Hao, Jun Zeng, Qiang Li, Enyu Rao, Yanwen Sun, Lianliang Liu, Anita Mandal, V Douglas Landers, Rebecca J Morris, Margot P Cleary, Jill Suttles, Bing Li
Skin lipids (e.g. fatty acids) are essential for normal skin functions. Epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP) is the predominant FABP expressed in skin epidermis. However, the role of E-FABP in skin homeostasis and pathology remains largely unknown. Herein, we utilized the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin tumorigenesis model to assess the role of E-FABP in chemical-induced skin tumorigenesis. Compared to their wild type (WT) littermates, mice deficient in E-FABP, but not adipose FABP (A-FABP), developed more skin tumors with higher incidence...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Lamini Ouedraogo, C J den Otter
Action potentials from individual cells were recorded from antennae (funiculi) of living tsetse flies,Glossina p. palpalis and Glossina f. fuscipesusing a "surface-contact" recording technique. Stimuli were vapours of 1-octen-3-ol, acetone and 3-methylphenol. Of the 101 and 128 olfactory cells tested for their sensitivity to odour stimuli inG. p. palpalisandG. f. fuscipes, respectively, the majority (83 and 77%) were activated by more than one chemical. The numbers of these "generalist" cells were 20 and 15% higher in females than in males...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Francesca Andriani, Maria Teresa Majorini, Miguel Mano, Elena Landoni, Rosalba Miceli, Federica Facchinetti, Mavis Mensah, Enrico Fontanella, Matteo Dugo, Mauro Giacca, Ugo Pastorino, Gabriella Sozzi, Domenico Delia, Luca Roz, Daniele Lecis
BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts are crucial mediators of tumor-stroma cross-talk through synthesis and remodeling of the extracellular matrix and production of multiple soluble factors. Nonetheless, little is still known about specific determinants of fibroblast pro-tumorigenic activity in lung cancer. Here, we aimed at understanding the role of miRNAs, which are often altered in stromal cells, in reprogramming fibroblasts towards a tumor-supporting phenotype. METHODS: We employed a co-culture-based high-throughput screening to identify specific miRNAs modulating the pro-tumorigenic potential of lung fibroblasts...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Zheng Zheng, Julia Saar, Bo Zhi, Tian Autumn Qiu, Miranda J Gallagher, D Howard Fairbrother, Christy L Haynes, Karen Lienkamp, Zeev Rosenzweig
The paper describes the interactions between poly (oxonorbornenes) (PONs)-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with phospholipid vesicles, and shows that the strength of these interactions strongly depends on the molecular structure of PONs, specifically their amine/alkyl side chain ratio. PONs, which are a recently introduced class of cationic polyelectrolytes, can be systematically varied to control the amine/alkyl ratio and to explore how the chemical character of cationic polyelectrolytes affect their interactions and the interactions of their nanoparticle conjugates with model membranes...
March 21, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Bhaskar Mitra, Rene Lametsch, Tolga Akcan, Jorge Ruiz-Carrascal
The impact of thermal processing on meat proteins oxidation was investigated. Cooking treatments included 58 °C for either 72 min or 17 h (mimicking low temperature-long time sous vide cooking), 80, 98 and 160 °C for 72 min (mimicking common cooked meat products, stewing and roasting, respectively) and 118 °C for 8 min (autoclaving). Tryptophan degradation, fluorescent oxidation products, free thiol content and α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes were tracked. For all of them, there was a consistent trend to increased levels of oxidative damage with higher cooking temperatures and longer cooking times, although the extent varied from one indicator to another...
March 10, 2018: Meat Science
Tatiana Robledo-Mahón, Elisabet Aranda, Chiara Pesciaroli, Alfonso Rodríguez-Calvo, Gloria Andrea Silva-Castro, Jesús González-López, Concepción Calvo
Sewage sludge composting is a profitable process economically viable and environmentally friendly. In despite of there are several kind of composting types, the use of combined system of semipermeable cover film and aeration air-floor is widely developed at industrial scale. However, the knowledge of the linkages between microbial communities structure, enzyme activities and physico-chemical factors under these conditions it has been poorly explored. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial dynamic and community structure using next generation sequencing coupled to analyses of microbial enzymatic activity and culturable dependent techniques in a full-scale real composting plant...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Filippo Savazzi, Francesca Risplendi, Giuseppe Mallia, Nicholas M Harrison, Giancarlo Cicero
Graphene oxide (GO) is a versatile 2D material, whose properties can be tuned by changing the type and concentration of oxygen containing functional groups attached to its surface. However, a detailed knowledge of the dependence of the chemo/physical features of this material on its chemical composition is largely unknown. In this paper, we combine classical molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations to predict the structural and electronic properties of GO at low degree of oxidation and suggest a revision of the Lerf-Klinowski model...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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