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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339476/transgenic-mice-overexpressing-desmocollin-2-dsc2-develop-cardiomyopathy-associated-with-myocardial-inflammation-and-fibrotic-remodeling
#1
Andreas Brodehl, Darrell D Belke, Lauren Garnett, Kristina Martens, Nelly Abdelfatah, Marcela Rodriguez, Catherine Diao, Yong-Xiang Chen, Paul M K Gordon, Anders Nygren, Brenda Gerull
BACKGROUND: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy is an inherited heart muscle disorder leading to ventricular arrhythmias and heart failure, mainly as a result of mutations in cardiac desmosomal genes. Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions mediating adhesion of cardiomyocytes; however, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the disease remain widely unknown. Desmocollin-2 is a desmosomal cadherin serving as an anchor molecule required to reconstitute homeostatic intercellular adhesion with desmoglein-2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338096/identification-of-cardiac-hemo-vascular-precursors-and-their-requirement-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-for-heart-development
#2
Yan Hu, Brian C Belyea, Minghong Li, Joachim R Göthert, R Ariel Gomez, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez
The cardiac endothelium plays a crucial role in the development of a functional heart. However, the precise identification of the endocardial precursors and the mechanisms they require for their role in heart morphogenesis are not well understood. Using in vivo and in vitro cell fate tracing concomitant with specific cell ablation and embryonic heart transplantation studies, we identified a unique set of precursors which possess hemogenic functions and express the stem cell leukemia (SCL) gene driven by its 5' enhancer...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334658/extraction-of-the-3d-local-orientation-of-myocytes-in-human-cardiac-tissue-using-x-ray-phase-contrast-micro-tomography-and-multi-scale-analysis
#3
François Varray, Iulia Mirea, Max Langer, Françoise Peyrin, Laurent Fanton, Isabelle E Magnin
This paper presents a methodology to access the 3D local myocyte arrangements in fresh human post-mortem heart samples. We investigated the cardiac micro-structure at a high and isotropic resolution of 3.5 µm in three dimensions using X-ray phase micro-tomography at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. We then processed the reconstructed volumes to extract the 3D local orientation of the myocytes using a multi-scale approach with no segmentation. We created a simplified 3D model of tissue sample made of simulated myocytes with known size and orientations, to evaluate our orientation extraction method...
February 20, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332215/effects-of-increased-left-ventricular-wall-thickness-on-the-myocardium-in-severe-aortic-stenosis-with-normal-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-two-and-three-dimensional-multilayer-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#4
Eun Jeong Cho, Sung-Ji Park, Eun Kyoung Kim, Ga Yeon Lee, Sung-A Chang, Jin-Oh Choi, Sang-Chol Lee, Seung Woo Park
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the capability of real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) and two-dimensional (2D) multilayer speckle tracking echocardiography (MSTE) for evaluation of early myocardial dysfunction triggered by increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness in severe aortic stenosis (AS) with normal LV ejection fraction (EF≥55%). METHODS: Conventional, RT3D STE and 2D MSTE were performed in 45 patients (mean 68.9±9...
March 23, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329451/preliminary-experience-with-the-use-of-an-extracellular-matrix-to-augment-the-native-pulmonary-valve-during-repair-of-tetralogy-of-fallot
#5
Anil Dharmapuram, Nagarajan Ramadoss, Sudeep Verma, Vejendla Gouthami, Ivatury Rao
BACKGROUND: During repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), when a transannular patch is needed in case of a small annulus and dysplastic pulmonary valve, we chose to reconstruct the right ventricular outflow tract by augmenting the divided anterior leaflet with an extracellular matrix (ECM) patch to produce a competent valve. In this study, we present our preliminary experience and early outcomes. METHODS: From March 2013 to December 2015, of the 206 patients who underwent primary repair of TOF, 52 required a transannular incision...
March 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325439/a-novel-myocardium-segmentation-approach-based-on-neutrosophic-active-contour-model
#6
Yanhui Guo, Guo-Qing Du, Jing-Yi Xue, Rong Xia, Yu-Hang Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Automatic delineation of the myocardium in echocardiography can assist radiologists to diagnosis heart problems. However, it is still challenging to distinguish myocardium from other tissue due to a low signal-to-noise ratio, low contrast, vague boundary, and speckle noise. The purpose of this study is to automatically detect myocardium region in left ventricle myocardial contrast echocardiography (LVMCE) images to help radiologists' diagnosis and further measurement on infarction size...
April 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318955/calcified-amorphous-tumor-causing-shower-embolism-to-the-brain-a-case-report-with-serial-echocardiographic-and-neuroradiologic-images-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
Takaomi Singu, Yuichiro Inatomi, Toshiro Yonehara, Yukio Ando
An 89-year-old woman with chronic atrial fibrillation, hypertension, chronic heart failure, and dementia was admitted to our hospital due to multiple small cerebral and cerebellar infarctions. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a floating calcified mass lesion arising from the endocardium of the posterior portion of the mitral annulus with mitral annular calcification. Furthermore, the mass had a heterogeneity of the echogenicity. The mass was diagnosed as a calcified amorphous tumor based on specific echocardiographic features...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271994/nkx2-5-marks-angioblasts-that-contribute-to-hemogenic-endothelium-of-the-endocardium-and-dorsal-aorta
#8
Lyad Zamir, Reena Singh, Elisha Nathan, Ralph Patrick, Oren Yifa, Yfat Yahalom-Ronen, Alaa A Arraf, Thomas M Schultheiss, Shengbao Suo, Jing-Dong Jackie Han, Guangdun Peng, Naihe Jing, Yuliang Wang, Nathan Palpant, Patrick Pl Tam, Richard P Harvey, Eldad Tzahor
Novel regenerative therapies may stem from deeper understanding of the mechanisms governing cardiovascular lineage diversification. Using enhancer mapping and live imaging in avian embryos, and genetic lineage tracing in mice, we investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of cardiovascular progenitor populations. We show that expression of the cardiac transcription factor Nkx2.5 marks a mesodermal population outside of the cardiac crescent in the extraembryonic and lateral plate mesoderm, with characteristics of hemogenic angioblasts...
March 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260735/mechanisms-of-left-ventricular-dysfunction-assessed-by-layer-specific-strain-analysis-in-patients-with-repaired-tetralogy-of-fallot
#9
Mariko Yamada, Ken Takahashi, Maki Kobayashi, Kana Yazaki, Hirobumi Takayasu, Katsumi Akimoto, Masahiko Kishiro, Akio Inage, Tadahiro Yoshikawa, In-Sam Park, Keisuke Nakanishi, Shiori Kawasaki, Toshiaki Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) is an important risk factor for adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the details and time course of such LV dysfunction using layer-specific strain analysis by echocardiography.Methods and Results:The 66 patients with rTOF (mean age, 16.3±9.3 years) were divided into 3 groups (T1: 4-10 years, T2: 11-20 years, T3: 21-43 years), and 113 controls of similar age (mean age, 17...
March 3, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247577/an-unusual-presentation-of-papillary-fibroelastoma-originating-from-right-ventricular-outflow-tract
#10
Mehmet Erdogan, Murat Can Guney, Hüseyin Ayhan, Hacı Ahmet Kasapkara, Emrah Uğuz, Tahir Durmaz, Telat Keleş, Engin Bozkurt
Papillary fibroelastomas (PFEs) are primary cardiac tumors with a benign and avascular nature. Majority of the PFEs are originated from the valvular endocardium, while the most common site is aortic valve. In this case, we present a patient with multiple PFEs originating from the right ventricular outflow tract who was admitted to our clinic with exertional dyspnea. As far as we know, this is the first case of this unusual presentation of multiple PFEs and also had a history of breast cancer and permanent pacemaker reported in the literature...
March 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242613/notch-signalling-restricts-inflammation-and-serpine1-in-the-dynamic-endocardium-of-the-regenerating-zebrafish-heart
#11
Juliane Münch, Dimitrios Grivas, Álvaro González-Rajal, Rebeca Torregrosa-Carrión, José Luis de la Pompa
The zebrafish heart regenerates after ventricular damage through a process involving inflammation, fibrotic tissue deposition/removal and myocardial regeneration. Using 3D whole-mount imaging, we reveal a highly dynamic endocardium during cardiac regeneration, including changes in cell morphology, behaviour and gene expression. These events lay the foundation for an initial expansion of the endocardium that matures to form a coherent endocardial structure within the injury site. We studied two important endocardial molecules, Serpine1 and Notch, which are implicated in different aspects of endocardial regeneration...
February 27, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230770/vegfa-impacts-early-myocardium-development-in-zebrafish
#12
Diqi Zhu, Yabo Fang, Kun Gao, Jie Shen, Tao P Zhong, Fen Li
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) signaling regulates cardiovascular development. However, the cellular mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in early cardiogenesis remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to understand the differential functions and mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in cardiac development. A loss-of-function approach was utilized to study the effect of Vegfa signaling in cardiogenesis. Both morphants and mutants for vegfaa display defects in cardiac looping and chamber formation, especially the ventricle...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228731/increased-hemodynamic-load-in-early-embryonic-stages-alters-endocardial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#13
Madeline Midgett, Claudia S López, Larry David, Alina Maloyan, Sandra Rugonyi
Normal blood flow is essential for proper heart formation during embryonic development, as abnormal hemodynamic load (blood pressure and shear stress) results in cardiac defects seen in congenital heart disease. However, the progressive detrimental remodeling processes that relate altered blood flow to cardiac defects remain unclear. Endothelial-mesenchymal cell transition is one of the many complex developmental events involved in transforming the early embryonic outflow tract into the aorta, pulmonary trunk, interventricular septum, and semilunar valves...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212738/delayed-efficacy-of-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation-on-ventricular-arrhythmias-originating-from-the-left-ventricular-anterobasal-wall
#14
Ligang Ding, Bingbo Hou, Lingmin Wu, Yu Qiao, Wei Sun, Jinrui Guo, Lihui Zheng, Gang Chen, Linfeng Zhang, Shu Zhang, Yan Yao
BACKGROUND: Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) originating from the left ventricular anterobasal wall (LV-ABW) may represent a therapeutic challenge. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the delayed efficacy of radiofrequency catheter (RFCA) ablation without an epicardial approach on VAs originating from the LV-ABW. METHODS: Eighty patients (mean age 46.9 ± 14.9 years; 47 male) with VAs originating from the LV-ABW were enrolled...
March 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188661/idiopathic-epicardial-ventricular-tachycardia-from-the-coronary-venous-system-from-electrocardiographic-recognition-to-appropriate-therapy
#15
Stéphane Boulé, Claire Federspiel, Eric Verbrugge, Didier Klug
Idiopathic epicardial ventricular tachycardias (VTs) account for 9% of idiopathic VTs. The recognition of this entity is important, as a minimally invasive ablation procedure performed exclusively through the coronary sinus branches may be considered, avoiding the potential risks associated with access to the left ventricular endocardium, the aortic root, and the pericardial space. The electrocardiographic features and therapeutic management of this rare form of tachycardia are discussed.
February 11, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184198/local-left-ventricular-epicardial-j-waves-and-late-potentials-in-brugada-syndrome-patients-with-inferolateral-early-repolarization-pattern
#16
Satoshi Nagase, Masamichi Tanaka, Hiroshi Morita, Koji Nakagawa, Tadashi Wada, Masato Murakami, Nobuhiro Nishii, Kazufumi Nakamura, Hiroshi Ito, Tohru Ohe, Kengo F Kusano
Background: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is characterized by J-point or ST-segment elevation on electrocardiograms (ECGs) and increased risk of ventricular fibrillation (VF). In BrS, epicardial depolarization abnormality with delayed potential on the right ventricular outflow tract is reportedly the predominant mechanism underlying VF. Yet VF occurrence is also associated with early repolarization (ER) pattern in the inferolateral ECG leads, which may represent the inferior and/or left lateral ventricular myocardium...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167492/disruption-of-pdgfra-alters-endocardial-and-myocardial-fusion-during-zebrafish-cardiac-assembly
#17
Suzan El-Rass, Shahram Eisa-Beygi, Edbert Khong, Koroboshka Brand-Arzamendi, Antonio Mauro, Haibo Zhang, Karl J Clark, Stephen C Ekker, Xiao-Yan Wen
Cardiac development in vertebrates is a finely tuned process regulated by a set of conserved signaling pathways. Perturbations of these processes are often associated with congenital cardiac malformations. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) is a highly conserved tyrosine kinase receptor, which is essential for development and organogenesis. Disruption of Pdgfrα function in murine models is embryonic lethal due to severe cardiovascular defects, suggesting a role in cardiac development, thus necessitating the use of alternative models to explore its precise function...
March 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129147/myocardium-segmentation-from-de-mri-using-multi-component-gaussian-mixture-model-and-coupled-level-set
#18
Jie Liu, Xiahai Zhuang, Lianming Wu, Dongaolei An, Jianrong Xu, Terry Peters, Lixu Gu
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we propose a fully 2 automatic framework for myocardium segmentation of 3 delayed-enhancement (DE) MRI images without relying on 4 prior patient-specific information. METHODS: We employ a 5 multi-component Gaussian mixture model to deal with the 6 intensity heterogeneity of myocardium caused by the infarcts. 7 To differentiate the myocardium from other tissues with similar 8 intensities, while at the same time maintain spatial continuity, 9 we introduce a coupled level set (CLS) to regularize the 10 posterior probability...
January 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108548/the-effect-of-left-ventricular-pacing-on-transmural-activation-delay-in-myopathic-human-hearts
#19
Andreu Porta-Sánchez, Paul Angaran, Stéphane Massé, Krishnakumar Nair, Talha Farid, Karthikeyan Umapathy, John Asta, Sigfus Gizurarson, Kumaraswamy Nanthakumar
AIMS: Left ventricular (LV) epicardial pacing (LVEpiP) in human myopathic hearts does not decrease global epicardial activation delay compared with right ventricular (RV) endocardial pacing (RVEndoP); however, the effect on transmural activation delay has not been evaluated. To characterize the transmural electrical activation delay in human myopathic hearts during RVEndoP and LVEpiP compared with global epicardial activation delay. METHODS AND RESULTS: Explanted hearts from seven patients (5 male, 46 ± 10 years) undergoing cardiac transplantation were Langendorff-perfused and mapped using an epicardial sock electrode array (112 electrodes) and 25 transmural plunge needles (four electrodes, 2 mm spacing), for a total of 100 unipolar transmural electrodes...
January 20, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108373/left-ventricle-segmentation-via-two-layer-level-sets-with-circular-shape-constraint
#20
Cong Yang, Weiguo Wu, Yuanqi Su, Shaoxiang Zhang
This paper proposes a circular shape constraint and a novel two-layer level set method for the segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) from short-axis magnetic resonance images without training any shape models. Since the shape of LV throughout the apex-base axis is close to a ring shape, we propose a circle fitting term in the level set framework to detect the endocardium. The circle fitting term imposes a penalty on the evolving contour from its fitting circle, and thereby handles quite well with issues in LV segmentation, especially the presence of outflow track in basal slices and the intensity overlap between TPM and the myocardium...
January 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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