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Sabha Bhatti, Srikanth Vallurupalli, Stephanie Ambach, Adam Magier, Evan Watts, Vien Truong, Abdul Hakeem, Wojciech Mazur
Cardiac MRI is frequently used in the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. Feature tracking is a novel method of analyzing myocardial strain at the myocardial borders. We investigated myocardial deformation mechanics of both the right and left ventricles in patients with multiple myeloma with suspected cardiac amyloidosis. Comprehensive strain analysis was performed in 43 patients with multiple myeloma and suspected cardiac amyloidosis. MRI strain by feature tracking was measured using 2D cardiac performance analysis MR software (Tomtec, Germany)...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Antonio Berruezo, Juan Acosta, Juan Fernández-Armenta, Alonso Pedrote, Alberto Barrera, Eduardo Arana-Rueda, Andrés Ignacio Bodegas, Ignasi Anguera, Luis Tercedor, Diego Penela, David Andreu, Rosario Jesus Perea, Susana Prat-González, Lluis Mont
BACKGROUND: First-line endoepicardial ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation has been proposed for patients with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC). This study reports procedural safety, outcomes, and predictors of recurrence. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-one consecutive patients [12 with left ventricle (LV) involvement, 7 left-dominant] underwent first-line endoepicardial VT substrate ablation. Standard bipolar and unipolar thresholds were used to define low-voltage areas (LVA)...
October 12, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Christopher Piorkowski, Ole-A Breithardt, Hedi Razavi, Yelena Nabutovsky, Stuart P Rosenberg, Craig D Markovitz, Arash Arya, Sascha Rolf, Silke John, Jedrzej Kosiuk, Eric Olson, Charlotte Eitel, Yan Huo, Michael Döring, Sergio Richter, Kyungmoo Ryu, Thomas Gaspar, Frits W Prinzen, Gerhard Hindricks, Philipp Sommer
AIMS: In times of evolving cardiac resynchronization therapy, intra-procedural characterization of left ventricular (LV) mechanical activation patterns is desired but technically challenging with currently available technologies. In patients with normal systolic function, we evaluated the feasibility of characterizing LV wall motion using a novel sensor-based, real-time tracking technology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten patients underwent simultaneous motion and electrical mapping of the LV endocardium during sinus rhythm using electroanatomical mapping and navigational systems (EnSite™ NavX™ and MediGuide™, SJM)...
October 12, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Karen Beets, Michael W Staring, Nathan Criem, Elke Maas, Niels Schellinx, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Lieve Umans, An Zwijsen
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling has emerged as a fundamental pathway in endothelial cell biology and deregulation of this pathway is implicated in several vascular disorders. BMP signalling output in endothelial cells is highly context- and dose-dependent. Phosphorylation of the BMP intracellular effectors, SMAD1/5/9, is routinely used to monitor BMP signalling activity. To better understand the in vivo context-dependency of BMP-SMAD signalling, we investigated differences in BMP-SMAD transcriptional activity in different vascular beds during mouse embryonic and postnatal stages...
October 10, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Ai Sugimoto, Shuichi Shiraishi, Maya Watanabe, Jiyong Moon, Riuko Ohashi, Masashi Takahashi, Masanori Tsuchida
BACKGROUND: Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is an uncommon pathological situation, which involves the presence of bland, fibrin-platelet thrombi. It usually occurs at the endocardium of cardiac valves, in association with endothelial injury and a hypercoagulative state. However, NBTE on the endocardium at the right atrial free wall in a patient without any apparent hypercoagulative background is rarely reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A girl aged 4 years with severe pectus excavatum was referred to our hospital for treatment of a recurrent right atrial tumor...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
Craig J Goergen, Howard H Chen, Sava Sakadžić, Vivek J Srinivasan, David E Sosnovik
Myocardial infarction leads to complex changes in the fiber architecture of the heart. Here, we present a novel optical approach to characterize these changes in intact hearts in three dimensions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to derive a depth-resolved field of orientation on which tractography was performed. Tractography of healthy myocardium revealed a smooth linear transition in fiber inclination or helix angle from the epicardium to endocardium. Conversely, in infarcted hearts, no coherent microstructure could be identified in the infarct with OCT Additional characterization of the infarct was performed by the measurement of light attenuation and with two-photon microscopy...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Rubén Marín-Juez, Michele Marass, Sebastien Gauvrit, Andrea Rossi, Shih-Lei Lai, Stefan C Materna, Brian L Black, Didier Y R Stainier
Zebrafish have a remarkable capacity to regenerate their heart. Efficient replenishment of lost tissues requires the activation of different cell types including the epicardium and endocardium. A complex set of processes is subsequently needed to support cardiomyocyte repopulation. Previous studies have identified important determinants of heart regeneration; however, to date, how revascularization of the damaged area happens remains unknown. Here, we show that angiogenic sprouting into the injured area starts as early as 15 h after injury...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ali Sharif, Muhammad Ashraf, Aqeel Javeed, Aftab Ahmed Anjum, Muhammad Furqan Akhtar, Bushra Akhtar, Ammara Saleem
Water pollution has been a major concern for agrarian societies like Pakistan. Pharmaceutical industries are amongst the foremost contributor to industrial waste. Present study addresses the generation of oxidative stress caused by 2 months exposure to pharmaceutical wastewater in rats and their response to oral treatment with vitamin E, a potent antioxidant. The rats were randomized into five groups (n = 5) named as negative control, pharmaceutical wastewater (PEW) 100 %, PEW 10 %, PEW 1 %, and PEW 100 % + vitamin E...
September 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Darae Kim, Chi Young Shim, Geu-Ru Hong, In Jeong Cho, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Jong-Won Ha, Namsik Chung
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to comprehensively assess mechanical adaptation of LV in subclinical patients with hypertension(HTN) using a layer specific speckle-tracking echocardiography. DESIGN AND METHOD: Conventional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) with 2D-layer specific speckle-tracking echocardiography was performed on 218 HTN patients with preserved LV ejection fraction (EF > 50%). Endocardial, epicardial, and transmural global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strains (GCS), and peak LV torsion were measured...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sai-Nan Bian, Li-Fan Zhang, Yue-Qiu Zhang, Qi-Wen Yang, Peng Wang, Ying-Chun Xu, Xiao-Chun Shi, Xiao-Qing Liu
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) bloodstream infection (BSI) is relatively rare. We aimed in this study to evaluate the clinical characteristics, laboratory evaluation, and outcomes of patients with NTM BSI. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of inpatients with NTM BSI at our institution between January 2008 and January 2015 and recorded clinical parameters including age, gender, underlying disease, clinical manifestation, organs involved with NTM disease, species of NTM, laboratory data, treatment and outcome of these patients...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Ying-Yan Qiao, Mu Zeng, Rong-Juan Li, Zhao-Ting Leng, Jiao Yang, Ya Yang
AIM: The purpose of the present study was to determine the characteristics of myocardial damage at different stages of diabetes mellitus (DM) using layer-specific myocardial strain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty six New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into either the control group (n =18) or the DM group (induced with alloxan) (n=18). For the myocardial deformation studies echocardiography and layer-specific strain were performed at baseline and after 3, 6, and 9 months in all of the rabbits...
September 2016: Medical Ultrasonography
Fabio Zampieri, Alberto Zanatta, Cristina Basso, Gaetano Thiene
The most significant cardiovascular anatomoclinical observations from Morgagni's masterpiece De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis (1761) are herein reported, divided into the current taxonomy according to cardiac structure: (a) aorta and pulmonary artery, (b) pericardium, (c) coronary arteries, (d) myocardium, (e) endocardium, (f) congenital heart defects, and (g) heart rhythm disorders. Morgagni's interpretations in cardiovascular pathology were strictly related with the most advanced theories of his time, such as those of blood circulation and iatromechanics; nevertheless, he remained close to the empirical description of clinical and pathological anatomy phenomena with their individual specificity...
July 25, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Hua Wang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Shauna M Dorsey, Jeremy R McGarvey, Kenneth S Campbell, Jason A Burdick, Joseph H Gorman, James J Pilla, Robert C Gorman, Jonathan F Wenk
Myocardial contractility of the left ventricle (LV) plays an essential role in maintaining normal pump function. A recent ex-vivo experimental study showed that cardiomyocyte force generation varies across the three myocardial layers of the LV wall. However, the in-vivo distribution of myocardial contractile force is still unclear. The current study was designed to investigate the in-vivo transmural distribution of myocardial contractility using a non-invasive computational approach. For this purpose, four cases with different transmural distributions of maximum isometric tension (Tmax) and/or reference sarcomere length (lR) were tested with animal-specific finite element (FE) models, in combination with magnetic resonance images (MRI), pressure catheterization, and numerical optimization...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Yuqing Wang, Wei Cai, Lei Wang, Rui Xia, Wei Chen, Jie Zheng, Fabao Gao
OBJECTIVE: To understand microstructural changes after myocardial infarction (MI), we evaluated myocardial fibers of rhesus monkeys during acute or chronic MI, and identified the differences of myocardial fibers between acute and chronic MI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six fixed hearts of rhesus monkeys with left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 1 hour or 84 days were scanned by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA) and helix angle (HA)...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Michel Kindo, Sébastien Gerelli, Jamal Bouitbir, Tam Hoang Minh, Anne-Laure Charles, Jean-Philippe Mazzucotelli, Joffrey Zoll, François Piquard, Bernard Geny
OBJECTIVE: Left ventricle (LV) transmural gradient in mitochondrial respiration has been recently reported. However, to date, the physiological mechanisms involved in the lower endocardium mitochondrial respiration chain capacity still remain to be determined. Since, nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression in the heart has spatial heterogeneity and might impair mitochondrial function, we investigated a potential association between LV transmural NO and mitochondrial function gradient. METHODS: Maximal oxidative capacity (VMax) and relative contributions of the respiratory chain complexes II, III, IV (VSucc) and IV (VTMPD), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase activity), coupling, NO (electron paramagnetic resonance), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (H2O2 and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining) were determined in rat sub-endocardium (Endo) and sub-epicardium (Epi)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Feng Cheng, Liyun Miao, Qing Wu, Xia Gong, Jingwei Xiong, Jian Zhang
Coronary vessel development is a highly coordinated process during heart formation. Abnormal development and dysfunction of the coronary network are contributory factors in the majority of heart disease. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate coronary vessel formation is crucial for preventing and treating the disease. We report a zebrafish gene-trap vinculin b (vclb) mutant that displays abnormal coronary vessel development among multiple cardiac defects. The mutant shows overproliferation of epicardium-derived cells and disorganization of coronary vessels, and they eventually die off at juvenile stages...
October 1, 2016: Development
Swapnalee Sarmah, Pooja Muralidharan, James A Marrs
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), birth defects associated with ethanol exposure in utero, includes a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHDs), the most prevalent of which are septal and conotruncal defects. Zebrafish FASD model was used to dissect the mechanisms underlying FASD-associated CHDs. Embryonic ethanol exposure (3-24 hours post fertilization) led to defects in atrio-ventricular (AV) valvulogenesis beginning around 37 hpf, a morphogenetic event that arises long after ethanol withdrawal...
2016: PloS One
Nuno Almeida, Alexandros Papachristidis, Peter Pearson, Sebastian Imre Sarvari, Jan Engvall, Thor Edvardsen, Mark Monaghan, Olivier Gérard, Eigil Samset, Jan D'hooge
AIMS: This study aims at validating a software tool for automated segmentation and quantification of the left atrium (LA) from 3D echocardiography. METHODS AND RESULTS: The LA segmentation tool uses a dual-chamber model of the left side of the heart to automatically detect and track the atrio-ventricular plane and the LA endocardium in transthoracic 3D echocardiography. The tool was tested in a dataset of 121 ultrasound images from patients with several cardiovascular pathologies (in a multi-centre setting), and the resulting volumes were compared with those assessed manually by experts in a blinded analysis using conventional contouring...
August 22, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Christopher Nguyen, Zhaoyang Fan, Yibin Xie, Jianing Pang, Peter Speier, Xiaoming Bi, Jon Kobashigawa, Debiao Li
PURPOSE: To optimize a diffusion-prepared balanced steady-state free precession cardiac MRI (CMR) technique to perform diffusion-tensor CMR (DT-CMR) in humans on a 3 Tesla clinical scanner METHODS: A previously developed second order motion compensated (M2) diffusion-preparation scheme was significantly shortened (40%) yielding sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for DT-CMR imaging. In 20 healthy volunteers and 3 heart failure (HF) patients, DT-CMR was performed comparing no motion compensation (M0), first order motion compensation (M1), and the optimized M2...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
S Bouchez, B Heyde, D Barbosa, M Vandenheuvel, H Houle, Y Wang, J D'hooge, P F Wouters
Three-dimensional (3D) strain analysis based on real-time 3-D echocardiography (RT3DE) has emerged as a novel technique to quantify regional myocardial function. The goal of this study was to evaluate accuracy of a novel model-based 3D tracking tool (eSie Volume Mechanics, Siemens Ultrasound, Mountain View, CA, USA) using sonomicrometry as an independent measure of cardiac deformation. Thirteen sheep were instrumented with microcrystals sutured to the epi- and endocardium of the inferolateral left ventricular wall to trace myocardial deformation along its three directional axes of motion...
August 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
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