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Hemmat Khattab, Zeinab El Marid
Now days, production of fuels and petrochemicals from renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an indispensable issue to meet the growing energy demand. Meanwhile, the changes in the climate and soil topography influence the growth and development as well as canopy level of the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, Zilla spinosa Turr (Zilla) plants with similar age and size were collected from three main sectors (upstream, midstream, and downstream) of Wadi Hagul during spring (April) and summer (July) seasons...
October 14, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Nandini Chatterjee, Chandan Chatterjee, Sinjan Ghosh, Mainak Mukhopadhyay, Ramkrishna Brahmachari, Kartik Patar
BACKGROUND: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in urinary tract infections have led to emergence of 'superbugs' worldwide. Periodical review of antibiograms is of utmost importance for optimum patient benefit. OBJECTIVE: To identify the spectrum of organisms responsible for urinary tract infection and evaluate the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity of the organisms. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from all consecutive patients getting admitted in the medicine indoor irrespective of symptomatology...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Wasantha P Jayawardene, David K Lohrmann, Stephanie Dickinson, Mohammad R Torabi
PURPOSE: To estimate school-level obesity burden, as reflected in prevalence of obesity, based on the characteristics of students' socioeconomic and geographic environments. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. SETTING: Public schools (N = 504) from 43 of 67 counties in Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS: Kindergarten through grade 12 students (N = 255 949). MEASURES: School-level obesity prevalence for the year 2014 was calculated from state-mandated student body mass index (BMI) measurements...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Kumara V Nibhanipudi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age) with febrile diarrhea, as outpatients. METHODS: This was a prospective institutional review board-approved study. patients (between 4 months and 6 years of age) were enrolled in the study who presented to the pediatric emergency room with a complaint of fever (rectal temperature 101°F or more) and diarrhea (watery stools >3 in number)...
2016: Global Pediatric Health
S Heytens, J Boelens, G Claeys, A DeSutter, T Christiaens
Treatment of cystitis in primary care is usually empirical, guided by the prior probability of causal pathogens and their susceptibility. To re-evaluate empirical treatment guidelines, the actual distribution and susceptibility of uropathogens was examined and compared with two previous surveys in Belgium over the past 20 years. Because of the alarming increase in carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli, this specific resistance was explored. From May 2014 to December 2015, 120 general practitioners collected midstream urine specimens from adult pre- and postmenopausal female patients with suspected cystitis...
September 17, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Dongyu Xu, Bo Gao, Li Gao, Huaidong Zhou, Xingjuan Zhao, Shuhua Yin
The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the largest reservoir in China. Cadmium (Cd) is a primary pollutant in the TGR, and its speciation and bioavailability have attracted extensive attention since TGR submergence. In this study, Chelex-100 DGT (diffusive gradient in thin films) and the sequential extraction method were used to investigate the bioavailable Cd in sediments obtained from a typical tributary (Meixi) and mainstream (Yangtze) in the TGR. The total Cd concentrations in sediments of the four stations were also determined...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Fanrong Xiao, Canchao Yang, Haitao Shi, Jichao Wang, Liang Sun, Liu Lin
Background matching is an important way to camouflage and is widespread among animals. In the field, however, few studies have addressed background matching, and there has been no reported camouflage efficiency in freshwater turtles. Background matching and camouflage efficiency of the four-eyed turtle, Sacalia quadriocellata, among three microhabitat sections of Hezonggou stream were investigated by measuring carapace components of CIE L*a*b* (International Commission on Illumination; lightness, red/green and yellow/blue) color space, and scoring camouflage efficiency through the use of humans as predators...
October 2016: Behavioural Processes
Martin Gustavsson, Sang Yup Lee
While academic-level studies on metabolic engineering of microorganisms for production of chemicals and fuels are ever growing, a significantly lower number of such production processes have reached commercial-scale. In this work, we review the challenges associated with moving from laboratory-scale demonstration of microbial chemical or fuel production to actual commercialization, focusing on key requirements on the production organism that need to be considered during the metabolic engineering process. Metabolic engineering strategies should take into account techno-economic factors such as the choice of feedstock, the product yield, productivity and titre, and the cost effectiveness of midstream and downstream processes...
September 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
N Xu, Y N Liu, P Yin, L J Wang, Y S Dou, W J Yang, M G Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between liver cancer and the water environment, we analyzed the life expectancy in 14 counties (districts), which form the Huai River Basin with respect to liver cancer deaths in 2013 and changes in the surface water quality from 2004 to 2010. METHODS: The study area included the 14 counties (districts) of the Huai River Basin in China. We obtained surveillance data for all causes of death in the study area during 2013, as well as data for International Classification of Diseases,Tenth Edition(ICD-10) code C22 or liver cancer...
July 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Eleanor Wai Man Hung, Kristan J Aronson, Michael Leung, Andrew Day, Joan Tranmer
Shift work is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Disruption of cortisol production is a potential underlying mechanism. This study explored the associations of diurnal quantity and pattern of cortisol production in relation to (1) current shift work status (exclusive day versus rotating days and nights), (2) years of past shift work and (3) parameters of rotating shift work (timing, length and intensity). Female hospital employees (160 day workers and 168 rotating shift workers) from southeastern Ontario, Canada, participated in a cross-sectional study...
2016: Chronobiology International
Yang Yang, Zhengchao Zhou, Yanying Bai, Wentao Jiao, Weiping Chen
The distribution of trace elements (TEs) in water, sediment, riparian soil and dominant plants was investigated in the Fenghe River, Northwestern China. The Fenghe River ecosystem was polluted with Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb. There was a high pollution risk in the midstream and downstream regions and the risk level for Cd was much higher than that of the other elements. The average values of bioconcentration coefficient for Cd and Zn were 2.21 and 1.75, respectively, indicating a large accumulation of Cd and Zn in the studied species...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Xiaohui Mo, Caixia Zhu, Jin Gan, Chong Wang, Fang Wei, Weiming Gong, Qiliang Cai
Background: Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium) has been shown to be involved in chronic non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). However, the prevalence and determinants of this emerging sexually transmissible infection among prostatitis patients remain obscure. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-five patients diagnosed with prostatitis and 152 health controls from sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinics in Shanghai, China, were selected. M. genitalium was detected in the initial voided urine (VB1), midstream of urine (VB2), expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) and the opening urine after massage (VB3) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) targeting the Mycoplasma genitalium adhesion protein (MgPa)...
July 4, 2016: Sexual Health
M Valleix-Leclerc, C Bahans, A Tahir, S Faubert, A Fargeot, S Abouchi, A Dallocchio, M Mussgnug, V Guigonis
CONTEXT: When a urinary tract infection is suspected, it is recommended to capture a midstream sample of urine for analysis, but this strategy is difficult to apply before successful toilet training. A cutaneous stimulation technique has been reported to be effective in provoking micturition in newborns. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of this technique in a population of non-toilet-trained infants. DESIGN AND METHODS: Fifty infants were enrolled in this prospective non-controlled study in three pediatric emergency departments...
August 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Andrea B Troxel, David A Asch, Kevin G Volpp
BACKGROUND: Randomized clinical trials provide gold-standard evidence for the efficacy of interventions, but have limitations, including highly selected populations that make inference on effectiveness difficult and a lack of ability to adapt and change midstream. METHODS: We propose two innovations for pragmatic trial design. RESULTS: Evidence-based evolutionary testing, a framework that allows adaptation of interventions and rapid-cycle innovation, preserves the power of randomization while acknowledging the need for adaptation and learning...
October 2016: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
Rongrong Zhang, Longcang Shu, Jianting Zhu, Zhongbo Yu, Peng Jiang
The characteristics of karst aquifers are difficult to be determined due to their heterogeneous physical properties and lack of hydrogeological information. In this case study, we applied two methods for a comparative analysis of storage and drainage characteristics in upstream, midstream, and downstream of Houzhai cave stream basin. In the first method, Minimum Smoothed Method (MSM) is used to determine the proportion of baseflow to the total flow (Baseflow Index, BFI). In the second method, a bicarbonate-base two-end member mixing model is used to quantify the slow flow component and fast flow component...
June 29, 2016: Ground Water
Sarva Mangala Praveena, Tang Seok Lui, Nur'Aqilah Hamin, Siti Quistina Noorain Abdul Razak, Ahmad Zaharin Aris
The occurrence and estrogenic activities of steroid estrogens, such as the natural estrone (E1), 17β estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3), as well as the synthetic 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), were investigated in eight sampling points along the Langat River (Malaysia). Surface water samples were collected at 0.5 m and surface sediment 0-5 cm from the river surface. Instrument analysis of steroid estrogens was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS with an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (Perkin Elmer FX15) coupled to a Q Trap function mass spectrophotometer (model 3200: AB Sciex)...
July 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Moslem Sharifinia, Abbas Mahmoudifard, Javid Imanpour Namin, Zohreh Ramezanpour, Chee Kong Yap
This study evaluates the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Shahrood River using water physico-chemical variables and macroinvertebrates data sets obtained over a period of 12 months between February 2012 and February 2013 at 8 sampling sites. Biotic indices i.e. FBI and BMWP based on macroinvertebrates and physico-chemical indices (MPI, HPI and NSF-WQI) were employed to evaluate the water quality status in connection with natural- and human-induced pressures. Based on physico-chemical indices, water quality was categorized as low polluted level and it is suitable for drinking purposes...
September 2016: Chemosphere
Zheng-lan Xie, Yu-chuan Sun, Mei Zhang, Qin Yu, Xin Xu
Six typical surface soil samples were taken in Laolongdong underground river basin, and 20 OCPs were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with micro-⁶³Ni electron capture detector. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, composition and source of organochlorine pesticides ( OCPs) in the surface soil of Laolongdong underground river basin, and to further evaluate the pollution level. The results showed that 20 OCPs were inordinately detected in the soil samples and the detection rate of 16 OCPs (except for p,p'-DDE, cis-Chlordane, trans-Chlordane, dieldrin) was 100%...
March 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Warangkana Na Phatthalung, Charongpun Musikavong, Oramas Suttinun
This research aimed at determining the dimethylamine (DMA), diethylamine (DEA), dibutylamine (DBA), and aromatic aniline (AN) in reservoir and canal water in the U-Tapao River Basin, Songkhla, Thailand. The trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential (NDMA-FP) of the reservoir and canal water were analyzed. Water samples from two reservoirs and raw water from water treatment plants at upstream, midstream, and downstream locations of the canal were collected twice...
September 18, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Nissi Priya Mekapogu, Swarnalatha Gundela, Renuka Devi Avula
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is a known risk factor for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). However, the influence of diabetes on antenatal ASB was previously not addressed. AIM: The prevalence of ASB, effect of risk factors and type of isolates and susceptibility patterns were studied in diabetic pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 311 pregnant women were recruited for this study of which 103 were diabetic and 208 non-diabetic. A clean catch midstream urine samples were collected and cultured...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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