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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757973/a-new-strategy-to-control-and-eradicate-undruggable-oncogenic-k-ras-driven-pancreatic-cancer-molecular-insights-and-core-principles-learned-from-developmental-and-evolutionary-biology
#1
REVIEW
Robert E Van Sciver, Michael P Lee, Caroline Dasom Lee, Alex C Lafever, Elizaveta Svyatova, Kevin Kanda, Amber L Colliver, Lauren L Siewertsz van Reesema, Angela M Tang-Tan, Vasilena Zheleva, Monicah N Bwayi, Minglei Bian, Rebecca L Schmidt, Lynn M Matrisian, Gloria M Petersen, Amy H Tang
Oncogenic K-RAS mutations are found in virtually all pancreatic cancers, making K-RAS one of the most targeted oncoproteins for drug development in cancer therapies. Despite intense research efforts over the past three decades, oncogenic K-RAS has remained largely "undruggable". Rather than targeting an upstream component of the RAS signaling pathway (i.e., EGFR/HER2) and/or the midstream effector kinases (i.e., RAF/MEK/ERK/PI3K/mTOR), we propose an alternative strategy to control oncogenic K-RAS signal by targeting its most downstream signaling module, Seven-In-Absentia Homolog (SIAH)...
May 14, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754096/estimating-bioaccessibility-of-trace-elements-in-particles-suspended-in-the-athabasca-river-using-sequential-extraction
#2
Muhammad Babar Javed, William Shotyk
Employing protocols developed for polar snow and ice, water samples were collected upstream, midstream and downstream of open pit bitumen mines and upgraders along the Lower Athabasca River (AR). The purpose was to: i) estimate the bioaccessibility of trace elements associated with particulate matter in the AR using sequential extraction, and ii) determine whether their forms have been measurably impacted by industrial activities. Of the trace metals known to be enriched in bitumen (V, Ni, Mo and Re), a substantial proportion of V (78-93%) and Ni (35-81%) was found in the residual fraction representing stable minerals...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733799/asymptomatic-bacteriuria-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-pattern-of-the-isolates-among-pregnant-women-attending-dessie-referral-hospital-northeast-ethiopia-a-hospital-based-cross-sectional-study
#3
Ismail Ebrie Ali, Teklay Gebrecherkos, Mucheye Gizachew, Martha Alemayehu Menberu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to find out the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates and related risk factors among pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2017 to May 2017 among asymptomatic pregnant mothers attending Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. About 10-15 mL of freshly voided midstream urine samples were collected from each study participants, and analyzed at Dessie regional research microbiology laboratory with conventional antibiotic susceptibility, and biochemical tests...
May 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717875/a-single-mutation-traps-a-half-sites-reactive-enzyme-in-midstream-explaining-asymmetry-in-hydride-transfer
#4
Janet S Finer-Moore, Tom T Lee, Robert M Stroud
In Escherichia coli thymidylate synthase (EcTS), rate-determining hydride transfer from the cofactor 5,10-methylene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate to the intermediate 5-methylene-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate occurs by hydrogen tunneling, requiring precise alignment of reactants and a closed binding cavity, sealed by the C-terminal carboxyl group. Mutations that destabilize the closed conformation of the binding cavity allow small molecules such as β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) to enter the active site and compete with hydride for addition to the 5-methylene group of the intermediate...
May 2, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708967/metabolite-profiling-for-biomarkers-in-schistosoma-haematobium-infection-and-associated-bladder-pathologies
#5
Adewale S Adebayo, Swapnil D Mundhe, Henrietta O Awobode, Olugbenga S Onile, Atinuke M Agunloye, Raphael D Isokpehi, Yogesh S Shouche, Bayatigeri Santhakumari, Chiaka I Anumudu
BACKGROUND: Metabolic fingerprinting analysis can offer insights into underlying reactions in a biological system; hence it is crucial to the understanding of disease pathogenesis and could provide useful tools for discovering biomarkers. We sought to examine the urine and plasma metabolome in individuals affected by urogenital schistosomiasis and its associated-bladder pathologies. METHODOLOGY: Blood and midstream urine were obtained from volunteers who matched our inclusion criteria among residents from Eggua, southwestern Nigeria...
April 30, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704182/early-childhood-obesity-risk-factors-socioeconomic-adversity-family-dysfunction-offspring-distress-and-junk-food-self-medication
#6
REVIEW
Erik Hemmingsson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the sequence and interaction of infancy and early childhood risk factors, particularly relating to disturbances in the social environment, and how the consequences of such exposures can promote weight gain and obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: This review will argue that socioeconomic adversity is a key upstream catalyst that sets the stage for critical midstream risk factors such as family strain and dysfunction, offspring insecurity, stress, emotional turmoil, low self-esteem, and poor mental health...
April 27, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691969/obesity-and-the-food-system-transformation-in-latin-america
#7
REVIEW
B M Popkin, T Reardon
The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region faces a major diet-related health problem accompanied by enormous economic and social costs. The shifts in diet are profound: major shifts in intake of less-healthful low-nutrient-density foods and sugary beverages, changes in away-from-home eating and snacking and rapid shifts towards very high levels of overweight and obesity among all ages along with, in some countries, high burdens of stunting. Diet changes have occurred in parallel to, and in two-way causality with, changes in the broad food system - the set of supply chains from farms, through midstream segments of processing, wholesale and logistics, to downstream segments of retail and food service (restaurants and fast food chains)...
April 24, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651696/diversity-of-the-midstream-urine-microbiome-in-adults-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Holly Kramer, Gina Kuffel, Krystal Thomas-White, Alan J Wolfe, Kavitha Vellanki, David J Leehey, Vinod K Bansal, Linda Brubaker, Robert Flanigan, Julia Koval, Anuradha Wadhwa, Michael J Zilliox
PURPOSE: To examine the characteristics of the midstream urine microbiome in adults with stage 3-5 non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 ) and diuretic use were recruited from outpatient nephrology clinics. Midstream voided urine specimens were collected using the clean-catch method. The bacterial composition was determined by sequencing the hypervariable (V4) region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene...
April 12, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642411/presence-of-human-enteric-viruses-protozoa-and-indicators-of-pathogens-in-the-bagmati-river-nepal
#9
Sarmila Tandukar, Jeevan B Sherchand, Dinesh Bhandari, Samendra P Sherchan, Bikash Malla, Rajani Ghaju Shrestha, Eiji Haramoto
Quantification of waterborne pathogens in water sources is essential for alerting the community about health hazards. This study determined the presence of human enteric viruses and protozoa in the Bagmati River, Nepal, and detected fecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli , and Enterococcus spp.), human-fecal markers (human Bacteroidales and JC and BK polyomaviruses), and index viruses (tobacco mosaic virus and pepper mild mottle virus). During a one-year period between October 2015 and September 2016, a total of 18 surface water samples were collected periodically from three sites along the river...
April 6, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603811/utility-of-catheterized-specimens-in-reducing-overdiagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-women
#10
Carrie M Aisen, Erica Ditkoff, Arindam RoyChoudhury, Michele Corish, Matthew P Rutman, Doreen E Chung, Gina M Badalato, Kimberly L Cooper
AIMS: To evaluate the utility of catheterized samples in reducing overdiagnosis of UTI based on voided specimens among patients presenting with a range of urinary symptoms. We also aimed to determine variables that may modify the predictive value of the voided midstream urine culture. METHODS: Patient charts were reviewed to identify female patients referred to our voiding dysfunction clinic with a range of complaints warranting urine studies (5/2014-8/2016). Patients with a positive voided urine culture who also had a catheterized urine culture in our system were included...
March 31, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603019/assessment-of-surface-water-quality-using-a-growing-hierarchical-self-organizing-map-a-case-study-of-the-songhua-river-basin-northeastern-china-from-2011-to-2015
#11
Mingcen Jiang, Yeyao Wang, Qi Yang, Fansheng Meng, Zhipeng Yao, Peixuan Cheng
The analysis of a large number of multidimensional surface water monitoring data for extracting potential information plays an important role in water quality management. In this study, growing hierarchical self-organizing map (GHSOM) was applied to a water quality assessment of the Songhua River Basin in China using 22 water quality parameters monitored monthly from 13 monitoring sites from 2011 to 2015 (14,782 observations). The spatial and temporal features and correlation between the water quality parameters were explored, and the major contaminants were identified...
March 30, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556674/recalcitrant-chronic-bladder-pain-and-recurrent-cystitis-but-negative-urinalysis-what-should-we-do
#12
Sheela Swamy, William Barcella, Maria De Iorio, Kiren Gill, Rajvinder Khasriya, Anthony S Kupelian, Jennifer L Rohn, James Malone-Lee
PURPOSE: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) may be associated with chronic urinary tract infection (UTI) undetected by routine diagnostic tests. Antimicrobial therapy might confer benefit for these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over 10 years, we treated patients with chronic LUTS. Pyuria was adopted as the principal biomarker of infection. Urinary leucocyte counts were recorded from microscopy of fresh midstream urine (MSU) samples. Antibiotics were prescribed and the prescription adjusted to achieve a measurable clinical response and a reduction in pyuria...
March 20, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531933/the-first-report-on-the-frequency-of-asymptomatic-proteinuria-in-iranian-school-aged-children
#13
Mohsen Jari, Alireza Merrikhi, Roya Kelishadi, Zahra Ghaffarzadeh
Background: Proteinuria is a well-known indicator of renal dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of proteinuria in a sample of healthy Iranian elementary school students using both dipsticks and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) methods. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 478 school students aged 7-9 years who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from Isfahan city, Iran. A clean midstream first-morning urine sample was obtained from each subject...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511793/calcifying-nanoparticles-induce-cytotoxicity-mediated-by-ros-jnk-signaling-pathways
#14
Jihua Wu, Zhiwei Tao, Yaoliang Deng, Quan Liu, Yunlong Liu, Xiaofeng Guan, Xiang Wang
Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) play an important role in kidney stone formation, but the mechanism(s) are unclear. CNPs were isolated and cultured from midstream urine of patients with kidney stones. CNP morphology and characteristics were examined by electron microscopy and electrophoresis analysis. Chemical composition was analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis and Western blotting. Human renal proximal convoluted tubule cell (HK-2) cultures were exposed to CNPs for 0, 12 and 72 h, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis levels were evaluated...
March 6, 2018: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455238/a-blinded-observational-cohort-study-of-the-microbiological-ecology-associated-with-pyuria-and-overactive-bladder-symptoms
#15
Kiren Gill, Ryoon Kang, Sanchutha Sathiananthamoorthy, Rajvinder Khasriya, James Malone-Lee
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: This study sought to characterise the microbial ecology of the lower urinary tract in patients with symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) using culture of the urinary urothelial cell sediment. The pathological significance of the microbiome was assessed through its relationship with known urothelial inflammatory markers and patient reported symptoms. METHODS: Adult female patients with OAB symptoms and asymptomatic controls were assessed at 12 study visits scheduled every 4 weeks...
February 17, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439573/impact-of-changes-in-oil-and-gas-production-activities-on-air-quality-in-northeastern-oklahoma-ambient-air-studies-in-2015-2017
#16
Buddhadeb Ghosh
A total of three ground-based ambient air studies were conducted in February through March of 2015, 2016, and 2017 at the Phillips 66 Research Center in northeastern Oklahoma. C2 -C12 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured using whole-air sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In 2016 and 2017, online methane and ethane measurements were also conducted. Strong methane-ethane correlation identified oil and gas (O&G) upstream and midstream operations to be the primary methane source. C2 -C5 alkanes were the dominant NMHCs whose average mixing ratio peaked in 2016 before dropping in 2017...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438933/assessment-of-cr-pollution-in-tributary-sediment-cores-in-the-three-gorges-reservoir-combining-geochemical-baseline-and-in-situ-dgt
#17
Bo Gao, Li Gao, Dongyu Xu, Yang Zhou, Jin Lu
The mobility and transfer of trace metals in sediments are vital to understanding trace metals environmental behavior in water environment. However, as a predominant aquatic carcinogen, an effective method for assessing the release and deposition for Cr at the sediment-water interface (SWI) is still not clearly understood. Here we established a comprehensive methodology to evaluate the release risk of Cr at the SWI combining regional geochemical baseline (RGB) and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). Sediment cores and water samples were collected in the two tributaries and mainstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir, which is the world's largest man-made hydroelectric station...
July 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416279/characteristics-of-bacterial-colonization-after-indwelling-double-j-ureteral-stents-for-different-time-duration
#18
K S Shabeena, Rahul Bhargava, Muhammed A P Manzoor, M Mujeeburahiman
Background: Indwelling Double-J ureteral stenting is commonly used in urological practice and has various complications. This study aimed to assess the frequency of bacterial stent colonization and stent-associated bacteriuria after indwelling it for different time durations and to evaluate the significance of urinary cultures for identification of colonizing microorganisms. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Midstream urine from 72 patients undergoing J stent insertion was investigated microbiologically before stent insertion and on the day of stent removal...
January 2018: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396551/lateral-heterogeneity-of-soil-physicochemical-properties-in-riparian-zones-after-agricultural-abandonment
#19
Huijuan Xia, Weijing Kong, Xuesen Li, Juntao Fan, Fen Guo, Osbert Jianxin Sun
The study aimed to identify the lateral heterogeneity of soil physicochemical properties in riparian zones, and its underlying drivers during natural restoration after agricultural abandonment. Abandoned farmlands, after 5-year natural restoration, within 500 m from the edges on both sides of Liaohe River were selected as the study area. Soil physicochemical properties of four lateral buffers (<10 m, 10~100 m, 100~300 m, and >300 m from river edge, respectively) along riparian zones were measured...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394522/etiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-in-pediatric-urinary-tract-infection
#20
Jun Wang, Lijiao He, Jintong Sha, Haobo Zhu, Liqu Huang, Xiaojiang Zhu, Jun Dong, Guogen Li, Zheng Ge, Rugang Lu, Geng Ma, Yaqi Shi, Yunfei Guo
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of most common pediatric infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns in children hospitalized at Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of all UTI from 1 January 2013 to 30 November 2016 in children discharged from Nanjing Children's Hospital. The isolated pathogens and their resistance patterns were examined using midstream urine culture...
February 2, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
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