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Sheela Swamy, William Barcella, Maria De Iorio, Kiren Gill, Rajvinder Khasriya, Anthony S Kupelian, Jennifer L Rohn, James Malone-Lee
PURPOSE: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) may be associated with chronic urinary tract infection (UTI) undetected by routine diagnostic tests. Antimicrobial therapy might confer benefit for these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over 10 years, we treated patients with chronic LUTS. Pyuria was adopted as the principal biomarker of infection. Urinary leucocyte counts were recorded from microscopy of fresh midstream urine (MSU) samples. Antibiotics were prescribed and the prescription adjusted to achieve a measurable clinical response and a reduction in pyuria...
March 20, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Mohsen Jari, Alireza Merrikhi, Roya Kelishadi, Zahra Ghaffarzadeh
Background: Proteinuria is a well-known indicator of renal dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of proteinuria in a sample of healthy Iranian elementary school students using both dipsticks and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) methods. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 478 school students aged 7-9 years who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from Isfahan city, Iran. A clean midstream first-morning urine sample was obtained from each subject...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Jihua Wu, Zhiwei Tao, Yaoliang Deng, Quan Liu, Yunlong Liu, Xiaofeng Guan, Xiang Wang
Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) play an important role in kidney stone formation, but the mechanism(s) are unclear. CNPs were isolated and cultured from midstream urine of patients with kidney stones. CNP morphology and characteristics were examined by electron microscopy and electrophoresis analysis. Chemical composition was analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis and Western blotting. Human renal proximal convoluted tubule cell (HK-2) cultures were exposed to CNPs for 0, 12 and 72 h, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis levels were evaluated...
March 6, 2018: Urolithiasis
Kiren Gill, Ryoon Kang, Sanchutha Sathiananthamoorthy, Rajvinder Khasriya, James Malone-Lee
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: This study sought to characterise the microbial ecology of the lower urinary tract in patients with symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) using culture of the urinary urothelial cell sediment. The pathological significance of the microbiome was assessed through its relationship with known urothelial inflammatory markers and patient reported symptoms. METHODS: Adult female patients with OAB symptoms and asymptomatic controls were assessed at 12 study visits scheduled every 4 weeks...
February 17, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Buddhadeb Ghosh
Three ground-based ambient air studies were conducted in February through March of 2015, 2016, and 2017 at the Phillips 66 Research Center in Northeastern Oklahoma. C2-C12 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured using whole air sampling/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In 2016 and 2017, online methane and ethane measurements were also conducted. Strong methane-ethane correlation identified oil & gas (O&G) upstream/midstream operations to be the primary methane source. C2-C5 alkanes were the dominant NMHCs whose average mixing ratio peaked in 2016 before dropping in 2017...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Bo Gao, Li Gao, Dongyu Xu, Yang Zhou, Jin Lu
The mobility and transfer of trace metals in sediments are vital to understanding trace metals environmental behavior in water environment. However, as a predominant aquatic carcinogen, an effective method for assessing the release and deposition for Cr at the sediment-water interface (SWI) is still not clearly understood. Here we established a comprehensive methodology to evaluate the release risk of Cr at the SWI combining regional geochemical baseline (RGB) and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). Sediment cores and water samples were collected in the two tributaries and mainstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir, which is the world's largest man-made hydroelectric station...
February 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
K S Shabeena, Rahul Bhargava, Muhammed A P Manzoor, M Mujeeburahiman
Background: Indwelling Double-J ureteral stenting is commonly used in urological practice and has various complications. This study aimed to assess the frequency of bacterial stent colonization and stent-associated bacteriuria after indwelling it for different time durations and to evaluate the significance of urinary cultures for identification of colonizing microorganisms. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Midstream urine from 72 patients undergoing J stent insertion was investigated microbiologically before stent insertion and on the day of stent removal...
January 2018: Urology Annals
Huijuan Xia, Weijing Kong, Xuesen Li, Juntao Fan, Fen Guo, Osbert Jianxin Sun
The study aimed to identify the lateral heterogeneity of soil physicochemical properties in riparian zones, and its underlying drivers during natural restoration after agricultural abandonment. Abandoned farmlands, after 5-year natural restoration, within 500 m from the edges on both sides of Liaohe River were selected as the study area. Soil physicochemical properties of four lateral buffers (<10 m, 10~100 m, 100~300 m, and >300 m from river edge, respectively) along riparian zones were measured...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jun Wang, Lijiao He, Jintong Sha, Haobo Zhu, Liqu Huang, Xiaojiang Zhu, Juan Dong, Guogen Li, Zheng Ge, Rugang Lu, Geng Ma, Yaqi Shi, Yunfei Guo
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of most common pediatric infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of hospitalized children in our center. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of all UTIs from January 1, 2013 to November 31, 2016 in children discharged from Nanjing Children's Hospital. The isolated pathogens and their resistance patterns were examined from midstream urine culture...
February 2, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
M M Jarabo, M A Asencio, R Carranza, O Herráez, M Huertas, A Arias-Arias, O Redondo, M A Galán, M S Illescas, P Zamarrón, S Solís, S Jiménez-Alvarez
OBJECTIVE: Urine culture, the gold standard to confirm the presence of urinary tract infection (UTI), is the most requested assay in the microbiology department. Our objective was to determine the diagnostic yield of the UF-Series cytometer as a screening method for UTI. METHODS: All the urine samples sent to the six Microbiology Laboratories participating in a period of 5 working days were analyzed. We collected demographic variables, apart from those variables related to urine samples: source and sample type (midstream, catheterized or nephrostomy urines), collection with/without boric acid, cytometer parameters (leukocyturia, bacteriuria, bacteria morphology and epithelial cells) and urine culture results...
January 29, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Byung Soo Kim, Bum Sik Tae, Ja Hyeon Ku, Cheol Kwak, Hyeon Hoe Kim, Chang Wook Jeong
Purpose: To evaluate the rate of pyuria and bacteriuria after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated data obtained from 363 patients who underwent TURBT between October 2012 and December 2013 at Seoul National University Hospital. Urinalysis and urine culture were assessed at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Primary endpoint was the rate of bacteriuria (≥105 /mL in a midstream) and pyuria (white blood cells ≥5/high-power field)...
January 2018: Investigative and Clinical Urology
Chunhuei Chi, Anaïs Tuepker, Rebecca Schoon, Alicia Núñez Mondaca
Striking changes in the funding and implementation of international health programs in recent decades have stimulated debate about the role of communities in deciding which health programs to implement. An important yet neglected piece of that discussion is the need to change norms in program evaluation so that analysis of community ownership, beyond various degrees of "participation," is seen as central to strong evaluation practices. This article challenges mainstream evaluation practices and proposes a framework of Critical Evaluation with 3 levels: upstream evaluation assessing the "who" and "how" of programming decisions; midstream evaluation focusing on the "who" and "how" of selecting program objectives; and downstream evaluation, the focus of current mainstream evaluation, which assesses whether the program achieved its stated objectives...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Y T Tu, J H Ou, D C W Tsang, C D Dong, C W Chen, C M Kao
The Love River and Ho-Jin River, two major urban rivers in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, are moderately to heavily polluted because different types of improperly treated wastewaters are discharged into the rivers. In this study, sediment and river water samples were collected from two rivers to investigate the river water quality and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments. The spatial distribution, composition, and source appointment of PAHs of the sediments were examined. The impacts of PAHs on ecological system were assessed using toxic equivalence quotient (TEQ) of potentially carcinogenic PAHs (TEQcarc) and sediment quality guidelines...
December 5, 2017: Chemosphere
Yijun Yuan, Yonghong Bi, Zhengyu Hu
In order to reveal the role of phytoplankton in the spatio-temporal distribution of alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), monthly investigations were conducted in the Xiaojiang River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China. Different APA fractions, environmental parameters, and phytoplankton communities were followed. High spatio-temporal variations of APA were observed, with the highest value in summer and the lowest in winter. The annual average APAT (total alkaline phosphatase activity) ranged from 7...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vineet V Mishra, Preeti A Goyal, Roy Priyankur, S Choudhary, Rohina S Aggarwal, Khushali Gandhi, Bhumika Vyas, Shaheen Hokabaj
Objective: The aim of this study was to establish whether a spot urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) measured between 20 and 28 weeks of gestation can predict subsequent pre-eclampsia in asymptomatic pregnant women. Design: Prospective observational study. Subjects: The patients included sixty-two women with singleton pregnancy, normal renal function and no evident proteinuria, attending antenatal clinics between 20 and 28 weeks of gestation in a tertiary care hospital...
December 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Mengmeng Zhang, Shuai Wang, Bojie Fu, Guangyao Gao, Qin Shen
To curb the severe ecological deterioration in the lower Heihe River Basin (HRB) in northwest China, a water diversion project was initiated in 2000. A comprehensive analysis of the ecological effects and potential risks associated with the project is needed. We assessed the hydrological and ecological achievements, and also analyzed the potential problems after the project was completed. We found that since the project began the hydrological regime has changed, with more than 57.82% of the upstream water being discharged to the lower reaches on average...
November 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hao Chen, Qi-Ting Zuo, Yong-Yong Zhang
Water pollution has been a significant issue in the Huai River Basin (HRB) of China since the late 1970s. In July and December 2013, two field investigations were carried out at 10 sites along the main streams of the basin. The monitoring indices contained both physicochemical variables and the structure and composition of phytoplankton communities. The correlations between communities and physicochemical variables were analyzed using cluster analysis and redundancy analysis. Moreover, water quality was evaluated using the comprehensive nutrition state index (TLI) and Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H)...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Mujtaba Baqar, Yumna Sadef, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Adeel Mahmood, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
This study monitored the human health risks through dermal exposure, hazardous risks to ecological integrity, contamination levels, spatio-temporal distribution, and congener specific analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) across River Ravi and its three northern tributaries (Nullah Bein, Nullah Basanter and Nullah Deg). The residual levels of OCPs isomers were screened for water (n=54) and surface sediment (n=54) samples from twenty seven sampling sites in two alternate seasons (pre-monsoon and post-monsoon)...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Alireza Esmailzadeh, Hossein Zarrinfar, AbdolMajid Fata, Tanuka Sen
BACKGROUND: Among the fungal pathogens, Candida species are the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Some predisposing factors such as diabetes mellitus, urinary retention, urinary stasis, renal transplantation, and hospitalization can increase the risk of candiduria. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate candiduria among type 2 diabetic patients and identification of the Candida isolates. METHOD: Four hundred clean-catch midstream urine specimens were obtained from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Vural Özdemir, George P Patrinos
Original ideas and innovation cannot always be ordered like a courier service and delivered fresh to our desk at 9 am. Yet, most creativity-based organizations, careers, and professions, science and biotechnology innovation included, emphasize the speed as the prevailing ideology. But a narrow focus on speed has several and overlooked shortcomings. For example, it does not offer the opportunity to draw from, and stitch together disparate concepts and practices for truly disruptive innovation. Preventing false starts, learning from others' or our own mistakes, and customizing innovations for local community needs are difficult in a speed-hungry innovation ecosystem...
November 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
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