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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343708/pteropods-counter-mechanical-damage-and-dissolution-through-extensive-shell-repair
#1
Victoria L Peck, Rosie L Oakes, Elizabeth M Harper, Clara Manno, Geraint A Tarling
The dissolution of the delicate shells of sea butterflies, or pteropods, has epitomised discussions regarding ecosystem vulnerability to ocean acidification over the last decade. However, a recent demonstration that the organic coating of the shell, the periostracum, is effective in inhibiting dissolution suggests that pteropod shells may not be as susceptible to ocean acidification as previously thought. Here we use micro-CT technology to show how, despite losing the entire thickness of the original shell in localised areas, specimens of polar species Limacina helicina maintain shell integrity by thickening the inner shell wall...
January 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310956/medication-history-versus-point-of-care-platelet-activity-testing-in-patients-with-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#2
Matthew B Maas, Andrew M Naidech, Minjee Kim, Ayush Batra, Edward M Manno, Farzaneh A Sorond, Shyam Prabhakaran, Eric M Liotta
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether reduced platelet activity detected by point-of-care (POC) testing is a better predictor of hematoma expansion and poor functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) than a history of antiplatelet medication exposure. METHODS: Patients presenting with spontaneous ICH were enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study that collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiographic data. We measured platelet activity using the PFA-100 (Siemens AG, Germany) and VerifyNow-ASA (Accumetrics, CA) systems on admission...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303080/latest-evidence-on-the-role-of-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-active-surveillance-for-insignificant-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review
#3
Francesco Cantiello, Stefano Manno, Antonio Cicione, Rocco Damiano
OBJECTIVE: Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) has become a very useful tool in the management of low risk Prostate Cancer (PCa) patients eligible for Active Surveillance (AS). The aim of this systematic review was to critically review the latest literature concerning the role of mpMRI in this clinical setting, underlying current strengths and weakness. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive literature research for English-language original and review articles was carried out using the National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed database with the aim of identify studies on mpMRI for AS in low risk PCa patients...
January 4, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277661/crystal-structure-of-d-glycero-%C3%AE-d-manno-heptose-1-phosphate-guanylyltransferase-from-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis
#4
Hyojin Kim, Jimin Park, Suwon Kim, Dong Hae Shin
The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of yersiniosis. d-glycero-α-d-manno-heptose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase (HddC) is the fourth enzyme of the GDP-d-glycero-α-d-manno-heptose biosynthesis pathway which is important for the virulence of the microorganism. Therefore, HddC is a potential target of antibiotics against yersiniosis. In this study, HddC from the synthesized HddC gene of Y. pseudotuberculosis has been expressed, purified, crystallized. Synchrotron X-ray data from a selenomethionine-substituted HddC crystal were also collected and its structure was determined at 2...
December 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247909/structural-and-immunological-characterization-of-a-glycoconjugate-based-on-the-delipidated-lipopolysaccharide-from-a-nontypeable-helicobacter-pylori-strain-pj1-containing-an-extended-d-glycero-d-manno-heptan
#5
Eleonora Altman, Vandana Chandan, Blair A Harrison, Evgeny Vinogradov
Structural characterization of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from a nontypeable Helicobacter pylori strain PJ1 and two corresponding mutants, PJ1 HP1283:cam and PJ1 HP1284:cam, was performed using a combination of NMR and mass spectrometric techniques. It resulted in the core structure that differed significantly from the one proposed previously. Overall architecture of PJ1 LPS was found to be consistent with a structural model described for several other H. pylori strains. It contained a polymer of d-glycero-d-manno-heptose (dd-Hep) as the O-chain component, linked to α-1,6-glucan through a dd-Hep oligosaccharide...
December 7, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241311/a-larger-detrusor-wall-thickness-increases-the-risk-of-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-recurrence-and-progression-result-from-a-multicenter-observational-study
#6
Antonio Cicione, Stefano Manno, Giuseppe Ucciero, Francesco Cantiello, Rocco Damiano, Estevao Lima, Alessandro Posti, Filippo Balloni, Cosimo DE Nunzio
BACKGROUND: Recent experimental study showed a higher incidence of bladder cancer in presence of bladder detrusor muscle thickening. The aim of this study is to assess whether a higher detrusor muscle thickness (DWT) may be a risk factor of recurrence of non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer (NMIBC). METHODS: Men with histologically-confirmed diagnosis of NMIBC were prospectively enrolled in 4 centers between December 2015 and April 2017. DWT was measured by ultrasound and DWT>2...
December 14, 2017: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180631/strt-seq-2i-dual-index-5-single-cell-and-nucleus-rna-seq-on-an-addressable-microwell-array
#7
Hannah Hochgerner, Peter Lönnerberg, Rebecca Hodge, Jaromir Mikes, Abeer Heskol, Hermann Hubschle, Philip Lin, Simone Picelli, Gioele La Manno, Michael Ratz, Jude Dunne, Syed Husain, Ed Lein, Maithreyan Srinivasan, Amit Zeisel, Sten Linnarsson
Single-cell RNA-seq has become routine for discovering cell types and revealing cellular diversity, but archived human brain samples still pose a challenge to current high-throughput platforms. We present STRT-seq-2i, an addressable 9600-microwell array platform, combining sampling by limiting dilution or FACS, with imaging and high throughput at competitive cost. We applied the platform to fresh single mouse cortical cells and to frozen post-mortem human cortical nuclei, matching the performance of a previous lower-throughput platform while retaining a high degree of flexibility, potentially also for other high-throughput applications...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170568/southern-ocean-pteropods-at-risk-from-ocean-warming-and-acidification
#8
Jessie Gardner, Clara Manno, Dorothee C E Bakker, Victoria L Peck, Geraint A Tarling
Early life stages of marine calcifiers are particularly vulnerable to climate change. In the Southern Ocean aragonite undersaturation events and areas of rapid warming already occur and are predicted to increase in extent. Here, we present the first study to successfully hatch the polar pteropod Limacina helicina antarctica and observe the potential impact of exposure to increased temperature and aragonite undersaturation resulting from ocean acidification (OA) on the early life stage survival and shell morphology...
2018: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122686/an-artificially-constructed-dimer-through-deformation-of-a-short-zinc-binding-loop
#9
Jimin Park, Mi-Sun Kim, Keehyoung Joo, Jooyoung Lee, Dong Hae Shin
We have analyzed the crystal structure of the dimeric form of d-glycero-d-manno-heptose-1,7-bisphosphate phosphatase from Burkholderia thailandensis (BtGmhB), catalyzing the removal of the phosphate at the 7 position of d-glycero-d-manno-heptose-1,7-bisphosphate. The crystal structure of BtGmhB revealed a dimeric form caused by a disruption of a short zinc-binding loop. The dimeric BtGmhB structure was induced by triggering the loss of Zn(2+)via the protonation of cysteine residues at pH 4.8 of the crystallization condition...
November 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099761/the-role-of-carbohydrates-in-the-lipopolysaccharide-lps-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-signalling
#10
REVIEW
Florent Cochet, Francesco Peri
The interactions between sugar-containing molecules from the bacteria cell wall and pattern recognition receptors (PRR) on the plasma membrane or cytosol of specialized host cells are the first molecular events required for the activation of higher animal's immune response and inflammation. This review focuses on the role of carbohydrates of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS, lipooligosaccharide, LOS, and lipid A), in the interaction with the host Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (TLR4/MD-2) complex...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093680/mechanistic-study-of-bakuchiol-induced-anti-breast-cancer-stem-cell-and-in-vivo-anti-metastasis-effects
#11
Li Li, Chi C Liu, Xueping Chen, Shisan Xu, Sinai Hernandez Cortes-Manno, Shuk H Cheng
Cancer stem cells are involved in cancer establishment, progression, and resistance to current treatments. We demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo anti-breast cancer effect of bakuchiol in a previous study. However, the ability of bakuchiol to target breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) and inhibit breast cancer metastasis remains unknown. In the current study, we used the cell surface markers CD44 and CD24 to distinguish BCSCs from MCF-7 cells. Bakuchiol inhibited mammosphere formation and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in BCSCs...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062238/structural-and-functional-characterization-of-the-helicobacter-pylori-cytidine-5-monophosphate-pseudaminic-acid-synthase-psef-molecular-insight-into-substrate-recognition-and-catalysis-mechanism
#12
Syeda Umme Habiba Wahid
The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is a human gastric pathogen that can cause a wide range of diseases, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma. It is classified as a definitive (class I) human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Flagella-mediated motility is essential for H. pylori to initiate colonization and for the development of infection in human beings. Glycosylation of the H. pylori flagellum with pseudaminic acid (Pse; 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-l-glycero-l-manno-nonulosonic acid) is essential for flagella assembly and function...
2017: Advances and Applications in Bioinformatics and Chemistry: AABC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050611/structure-and-in-vitro-anticancer-activity-of-sulfated-o-polysaccharide-from-marine-bacterium-poseidonocella-pacifica-kmm-9010-t
#13
Maxim S Kokoulin, Alexandra S Kuzmich, Anatoly I Kalinovsky, Eugene S Rubtsov, Lyudmila A Romanenko, Valery V Mikhailov, Nadezhda A Komandrova
We presented the structure of the sulfated polysaccharide moiety and anticancer activity in vitro of the О-deacylated lipopolysaccharide (DPS) isolated from the marine bacterium Poseidonocella pacifica KMM 9010(T). The structure of O-polysaccharide was investigated by chemical methods along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The O-polysaccharide was built up of sulfated disaccharide repeating units consisted of d-rhamnose (d-Rhaр) and 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdop): →7)-β-Kdoр4Ac5S-(2→3)-β-d-Rhaр2S-(1→...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039672/stereoselective-epimerizations-of-glycosyl-thiols
#14
Lisa M Doyle, Shane O'Sullivan, Claudia Di Salvo, Michelle McKinney, Patrick McArdle, Paul V Murphy
Glycosyl thiols are widely used in stereoselective S-glycoside synthesis. Their epimerization from 1,2-trans to 1,2-cis thiols (e.g., equatorial to axial epimerization in thioglucopyranose) was attained using TiCl4, while SnCl4 promoted their axial-to-equatorial epimerization. The method included application for stereoselective β-d-manno- and β-l-rhamnopyranosyl thiol formation. Complex formation explains the equatorial preference when using SnCl4, whereas TiCl4 can shift the equilibrium toward the 1,2-cis thiol via 1,3-oxathiolane formation...
October 17, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032659/in-silico-analysis-of-putative-drug-and-vaccine-target-of-the-metabolic-pathways-of-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-using-subtractive-comparative-genomics-approach
#15
Biruk Tesfaye Birhanu, Seung-Jin Lee, Na-Hye Park, Ju-Beom Song, Seung-Chun Park
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a gram-negative bacterium residing in the respiratory tract of pigs that causes porcine respiratory disease complex, which leads to significant losses in the pig industry worldwide. The incidence of drug resistance in this bacterium is increasing; thus, identifying new protein/gene targets for drug and vaccine development is critical. In this study, we used an in silico approach, utilizing several databases, including Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), the database of essential genes (DEG), DrugBank, and Swiss-Prot, to identify non-homologous essential genes and prioritize these proteins for their druggability...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031030/ectopic-bone-as-a-nidus-for-calcium-oxalate-urocystolithiasis-in-a-cat
#16
J P Lulich, H S Prasad, M Manno, B Bagley
A 7-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was referred to the urology service for nonsurgical urocystolith removal. A urolith was attached to the urothelium by ectopic bone. Interventional removal without surgery was successful. Follow-up evaluation 3 years after urolith removal revealed recurrent uroliths, bladder wall mineralization, and marked renal mineralization. This case illustrates the metaplastic potential of the urothelium and that ectopic bone should be included among the pathological factors that promote lithogenesis...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028168/synthesis-of-a-pentasaccharide-fragment-related-to-the-inner-core-region-of-rhizobial-and-agrobacterial-lipopolysaccharides
#17
Nino Trattnig, Jean-Baptiste Farcet, Philipp Gritsch, Anna Christler, Ralph Pantophlet, Paul Kosma
The pentasaccharide fragment α-d-Man-(1 → 5)-[α-d-Kdo-(2 → 4)-]α-d-Kdo-(2 → 6)-β-d-GlcNAc-(1 → 6)-α-d-GlcNAc equipped with a 3-aminopropyl spacer moiety was prepared by a sequential assembly of monosaccharide building blocks. The glucosamine disaccharide-as a backbone surrogate of the bacterial lipid A region-was synthesized using an 1,3-oxazoline donor, which was followed by coupling with an isopropylidene-protected Kdo-fluoride donor to afford a protected tetrasaccharide intermediate. Eventually, an orthogonally protected manno-configured trichloroacetimidate donor was used to achieve the sterically demanding glycosylation of the 5-OH group of Kdo in good yield...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027241/spatial-distribution-of-kidney-disease-in-the-contaminated-site-of-taranto-italy
#18
Marta Benedetti, Marco De Santis, Valerio Manno, Sante Minerba, Antonella Mincuzzi, Angela Morabito, Nicola Panocchia, Maria Eleonora Soggiu, Annalisa Tanzarella, Tiziano Pastore, Maurizio Bossola, Roberto Giua, Simona Leogrande, Alessandra Nocioni, Susanna Conti, Pietro Comba
BACKGROUND: Exposure to heavy metals has been associated with kidney disease. We investigated the spatial distribution of kidney disease in the industrially contaminated site of Taranto. METHODS: Cases were subjects with a first hospital discharge diagnosis of kidney disease. Cases affected by specific comorbidities were excluded. Standardized Hospitalization Ratios (SHRs) were computed for low/high exposure area and for modeled spatial distribution of cadmium and fine particulate matter...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026979/hpaec-pad-for-oligosaccharide-analysis-novel-insights-into-analyte-sensitivity-and-response-stability
#19
Matthias Mechelke, Jonathan Herlet, J Philipp Benz, Wolfgang H Schwarz, Vladimir V Zverlov, Wolfgang Liebl, Petra Kornberger
The rising importance of accurately detecting oligosaccharides in biomass hydrolyzates or as ingredients in food, such as in beverages and infant milk products, demands for the availability of tools to sensitively analyze the broad range of available oligosaccharides. Over the last decades, HPAEC-PAD has been developed into one of the major technologies for this task and represents a popular alternative to state-of-the-art LC-MS oligosaccharide analysis. This work presents the first comprehensive study which gives an overview of the separation of 38 analytes as well as enzymatic hydrolyzates of six different polysaccharides focusing on oligosaccharides...
October 12, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024844/structural-characterisation-of-the-capsular-polysaccharide-expressed-by-burkholderia-thailandensis-strain-e555-wbii-pknock-kmr-and-assessment-of-the-significance-of-the-2-o-acetyl-group-in-immune-protection
#20
Marc Bayliss, Matthew I Donaldson, Sergey A Nepogodiev, Giulia Pergolizzi, Andrew E Scott, Nicholas J Harmer, Robert A Field, Joann L Prior
Burkholderia pseudomallei and its close relative B. mallei are human pathogens that are classified as Tier 1 bio-threat agents. Both organisms have previously been shown to constitutively produce a capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that is both a virulence determinant and protective antigen. Extraction and purification of CPS for use as a potential vaccine candidate requires containment level 3 laboratories which is expensive and time-consuming. B. thailandensis strain E555 is closely related to B. pseudomallei and B...
November 27, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
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