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Maxim S Kokoulin, Anatoly I Kalinovsky, Lyudmila A Romanenko, Valery V Mikhailov
The O-polysaccharide was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of a marine bacterium Pseudomonas glareae KMM 9500T and studied by chemical methods along with 1D and 2D1 H and13 C NMR spectroscopy including1 H,1 H-TOCSY,1 H,1 H-COSY,1 H,1 H-ROESY,1 H,13 C-HSQC and1 H,13 C-HMBC experiments. The O-polysaccharide was found to consist of linear tetrasaccharide repeating units constituted by D-glucuronic acid (D-GlcA), L-rhamnose (L-Rha), D-glucose (D-Glc) and 5-acetamido-7,9-O-[(S)-1-carboxyethylidene]-3,5-dideoxy-L-glycero-L-manno-non-2-ulosonic acid (Sug7,9(S-Pyr)), partially O-acetylated at position 8 (∼70%): →4)-α-D-GlcpA-(1→3)-β-L-Rhap-(1→4)-β-D-Glcp-(1→4)-β-Sugp8Ac(∼70%)7,9(S-Pyr)-(2→...
March 8, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Mads Heuckendorff, Lulu Teressa Poulsen, Christinne Hedberg, Henrik H Jensen
Neighboring group effects were investigated in gluco- and manno-configured thioglycosides under NIS/TfOH activation. Donors possessing a 2-O-benzoyl group that are capable (1,2-trans) and incapable (1,2-cis) of exerting nucleophilic push were compared with donors possessing a participatory neutral 2-O-benzyl group. By using competition experiments between sets of glycosyl donors the direct effect of neighboring group participation and the electron withdrawing effect of the 2-O-benzoyl group could be separated...
March 13, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
L De Riccardis, A Buccolieri, M Muci, E Pitotti, F De Robertis, G Trianni, D Manno, M Maffia
Although many studies have been carried out in order to understand the implication of copper (Cu) in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), the exact role that this metal plays in the disease is not still clear. Because of the lack of information in this subject, the present study compared the serum and cerebrospinal (CSF) levels of copper in MS patients in respect to a control group, matched for age and sex, finding a significant increase of metal concentrations, in both biological fluids of MS subjects...
March 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Alessandro Buccolieri, Antonio Serra, Gabriele Giancane, Daniela Manno
Silver nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of saccharides and ammonia (NH3 ) in the concentration range from 10-2 to 103 ppm to develop an optical sensor for NH3 in aqueous solutions. Ammonia affects the features of the nanoparticles obtained in a concentration-dependent manner as determined by UV-vis absorption analysis and TEM observations. Structural and morphological analysis provides the basis for the production of a colorimetric label-free sensor for ammonia. Overall, surface plasmon resonance increases when ammonia concentration rises, although the functional trend is not the same over the entire investigated ammonia concentration range...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Fernando G Dupuy, Isabella Pagano, Kathryn Andenoro, Maria F Peralta, Yasmene Elhady, Frank Heinrich, Stephanie Tristram-Nagle
Although colistin's clinical use is limited due to its nephrotoxicity, colistin is considered to be an antibiotic of last resort because it is used to treat patients infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria. In an effort to provide molecular details about colistin's ability to kill Gram-negative (G(-)) but not Gram-positive (G(+)) bacteria, we investigated the biophysics of the interaction between colistin and lipid mixtures mimicking the cytoplasmic membrane of G(+), G(-) bacteria as well as eukaryotic cells...
February 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Wei Tang, Zhengyan Guo, Zhenju Cao, Min Wang, Pengwei Li, Xiangxi Meng, Xuejin Zhao, Zhoujie Xie, Wenzhao Wang, Aihua Zhou, Chunbo Lou, Yihua Chen
Seven-carbon-chain-containing sugars exist in several groups of important bacterial natural products. Septacidin represents a group of l-heptopyranoses containing nucleoside antibiotics with antitumor, antifungal, and pain-relief activities. Hygromycin B, an aminoglycoside anthelmintic agent used in swine and poultry farming, represents a group of d-heptopyranoses-containing antibiotics. To date, very little is known about the biosynthesis of these compounds. Here we sequenced the genome of the septacidin producer and identified the septacidin gene cluster by heterologous expression...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wei Huang, Ying-Yu Zhou, Xing-Ling Pan, Xian-Yang Zhou, Jin-Cai Lei, Dong-Mei Liu, Yue Chu, Jin-Song Yang
The stereodirecting effect of C5-ester functions on the glycosylation stereoselectivity of 3-Deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) ethyl thioglycoside donors is presented. The coupling of 5-O-arylcarbonyl or acetyl protected Kdo thioglycosides with acceptors proceeds in an α-selective and high-yielding manner, leading to formation of α-linked Kdo glycosides products. On the other hand, the glycosylation stereoselectivity of the 5-O-2-quinolinecarbonyl (Quin) or 4-nitropicoloyl substituted Kdo thioglycoside donors is switchable: (1) the glycosylation of the 5-O-Quin carrying Kdo donors with primary glycosyl acceptors shows complete β-stereoselectivity, furnishing the corresponding β-glycosides in good-to-excellent yield...
February 26, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Livia Garzia, Noriyuki Kijima, A Sorana Morrissy, Pasqualino De Antonellis, Ana Guerreiro-Stucklin, Borja L Holgado, Xiaochong Wu, Xin Wang, Michael Parsons, Kory Zayne, Alex Manno, Claudia Kuzan-Fischer, Carolina Nor, Laura K Donovan, Jessica Liu, Lei Qin, Alexandra Garancher, Kun-Wei Liu, Sheila Mansouri, Betty Luu, Yuan Yao Thompson, Vijay Ramaswamy, John Peacock, Hamza Farooq, Patryk Skowron, David J H Shih, Angela Li, Sherine Ensan, Clinton S Robbins, Myron Cybulsky, Siddhartha Mitra, Yussanne Ma, Richard Moore, Andy Mungall, Yoon-Jae Cho, William A Weiss, Jennifer A Chan, Cynthia E Hawkins, Maura Massimino, Nada Jabado, Michal Zapotocky, David Sumerauer, Eric Bouffet, Peter Dirks, Uri Tabori, Poul H B Sorensen, Priscilla K Brastianos, Kenneth Aldape, Steven J M Jones, Marco A Marra, James R Woodgett, Robert J Wechsler-Reya, Daniel W Fults, Michael D Taylor
While the preponderance of morbidity and mortality in medulloblastoma patients are due to metastatic disease, most research focuses on the primary tumor due to a dearth of metastatic tissue samples and model systems. Medulloblastoma metastases are found almost exclusively on the leptomeningeal surface of the brain and spinal cord; dissemination is therefore thought to occur through shedding of primary tumor cells into the cerebrospinal fluid followed by distal re-implantation on the leptomeninges. We present evidence for medulloblastoma circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in therapy-naive patients and demonstrate in vivo, through flank xenografting and parabiosis, that medulloblastoma CTCs can spread through the blood to the leptomeningeal space to form leptomeningeal metastases...
February 22, 2018: Cell
Yan-Xiao Li, Ping Yi, Jun Liu, Qiao-Juan Yan, Zheng-Qiang Jiang
An engineered β-mannanase (mRmMan5A) from Rhizomucor miehei was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. Through high cell density fermentation, the expression level of mRmMan5A reached 79,680 U mL-1. The mRmMan5A showed maximum activity at pH 4.5 and 65 °C, and exhibited high specific activities towards mannans. To produce manno-oligosaccharides, palm kernel cake (PKC) was pretreated by steam explosion at 200 °C for 7.5 min, and then hydrolyzed by mRmMan5A. As a result, the total manno-oligosaccharide yield reached 34...
February 1, 2018: Bioresource Technology
A Lauro, A D Pinna, E Tossani, V Stanghellini, M Manno, G Caio, L Golfieri, C Zanfi, N Cautero, A Bagni, U Volta, M Di Simone, L Pironi, R F Cogliandro, M Serra, A Venturoli, S Grandi, R De Giorgio
BACKGROUND: Clinical and psychosocial outcomes of a multimodal surgical approach for chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction were analyzed in 24 patients who were followed over a 2- to 12-year period in a single center after surgery or intestinal/multivisceral transplant (CTx). METHODS: The main reasons for surgery were sub-occlusion in surgery and parenteral nutrition-related irreversible complications with chronic intestinal failure in CTx. RESULTS: At the end of follow-up (February 2015), 45...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Jennifer L McKimm-Breschkin, Susan Barrett, Patricia A Pilling, Stefan Hader, Andrew G Watts, Victor A Streltsov
Competitive inhibitors of the influenza neuraminidase (NA) were discovered almost 20 years ago, with zanamivir and oseltamivir licensed globally. These compounds are based on a transition state analogue of the sialic acid substrate. We recently showed that 5-N-(acetylamino)-2,3,5-trideoxy-2,3-difluoro-d-erythro-β-l-manno-2-nonulopyranosonic acid (DFSA) and its derivatives are also potent inhibitors of the influenza NA. They are mechanism based inhibitors, forming a covalent bond between the C2 of the sugar ring and Y406 in the NA active site, thus inactivating the enzyme...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Marta Pacheco, Beatriz Jurado Sánchez, Alberto Escarpa
Food poisoning caused by bacteria is a major cause of disease and death worldwide. Herein we describe the use of Janus micromotors as mobile sensors for the detection of toxins released by enterobacteria as indicators of food contamination. The micromotors are prepared by a pickering emulsion approach and rely on the simultaneous encapsulation of platinum nanoparticles -for enhanced bubble-propulsion- and receptor-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) for selective binding with the 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid target in the endotoxin molecule...
January 27, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Patricia Barbarini Takaki, Marilena Manno Vieira, Angelica Veiga Said, Silvana Bommarito
Introduction  Studies in the fields of voice and speech have increasingly focused on the vocal tract and the importance of its structural integrity, and changes in the anatomy and configuration of the vocal tract determine the variations in phonatory and acoustic measurements, especially in the formation of the formants (Fs). Recent studies have revealed the functional consequences arising from being overweight and having an accumulation of fat in the pharyngeal region, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and impacts on the voice...
January 2018: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Yajian Song, Duoduo Liu, Mengya Liu, Haixu Yang, Yanli Fan, Wenyuan Sun, Yanfen Xue, Tongcun Zhang, Yanhe Ma
Bacillus sp. N16-5 is an alkaliphile with great ability of utilizing mannan. Its mannan utilization gene cluster has been identified in a previous study. The ManR protein encoded by the cluster was predicted to be a LacI family regulator, and the transcription level of the mannan utilization gene cluster was upregulated after the manR gene was deleted, indicating that ManR is the repressor of this cluster. The transcription of the related genes was downregulated when manH, encoding the extracellular substrate-binding domain of the manno-oligosaccharide transporter, was deleted...
January 18, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Victoria L Peck, Rosie L Oakes, Elizabeth M Harper, Clara Manno, Geraint A Tarling
The dissolution of the delicate shells of sea butterflies, or pteropods, has epitomised discussions regarding ecosystem vulnerability to ocean acidification over the last decade. However, a recent demonstration that the organic coating of the shell, the periostracum, is effective in inhibiting dissolution suggests that pteropod shells may not be as susceptible to ocean acidification as previously thought. Here we use micro-CT technology to show how, despite losing the entire thickness of the original shell in localised areas, specimens of polar species Limacina helicina maintain shell integrity by thickening the inner shell wall...
January 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Matthew B Maas, Andrew M Naidech, Minjee Kim, Ayush Batra, Edward M Manno, Farzaneh A Sorond, Shyam Prabhakaran, Eric M Liotta
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether reduced platelet activity detected by point-of-care (POC) testing is a better predictor of hematoma expansion and poor functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) than a history of antiplatelet medication exposure. METHODS: Patients presenting with spontaneous ICH were enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study that collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiographic data. We measured platelet activity using the PFA-100 (Siemens AG, Germany) and VerifyNow-ASA (Accumetrics, CA) systems on admission...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Francesco Cantiello, Stefano Manno, Antonio Cicione, Rocco Damiano
OBJECTIVE: Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) has become a very useful tool in the management of low risk Prostate Cancer (PCa) patients eligible for Active Surveillance (AS). The aim of this systematic review was to critically review the latest literature concerning the role of mpMRI in this clinical setting, underlying current strengths and weakness. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive literature research for English-language original and review articles was carried out using the National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed database with the aim of identify studies on mpMRI for AS in low risk PCa patients...
January 4, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Hyojin Kim, Jimin Park, Suwon Kim, Dong Hae Shin
The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of yersiniosis. d-glycero-α-d-manno-heptose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase (HddC) is the fourth enzyme of the GDP-d-glycero-α-d-manno-heptose biosynthesis pathway which is important for the virulence of the microorganism. Therefore, HddC is a potential target of antibiotics against yersiniosis. In this study, HddC from the synthesized HddC gene of Y. pseudotuberculosis has been expressed, purified, crystallized. Synchrotron X-ray data from a selenomethionine-substituted HddC crystal were also collected and its structure was determined at 2...
December 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Eleonora Altman, Vandana Chandan, Blair A Harrison, Evgeny Vinogradov
Structural characterization of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from a nontypeable Helicobacter pylori strain PJ1 and two corresponding mutants, PJ1 HP1283:cam and PJ1 HP1284:cam, was performed using a combination of NMR and mass spectrometric techniques. It resulted in the core structure that differed significantly from the one proposed previously. Overall architecture of PJ1 LPS was found to be consistent with a structural model described for several other H. pylori strains. It contained a polymer of d-glycero-d-manno-heptose (dd-Hep) as the O-chain component, linked to α-1,6-glucan through a dd-Hep oligosaccharide...
December 7, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Antonio Cicione, Stefano Manno, Giuseppe Ucciero, Francesco Cantiello, Rocco Damiano, Estevao Lima, Alessandro Posti, Filippo Balloni, Cosimo DE Nunzio
BACKGROUND: Recent experimental study showed a higher incidence of bladder cancer in presence of bladder detrusor muscle thickening. The aim of this study is to assess whether a higher detrusor muscle thickness (DWT) may be a risk factor of recurrence of non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer (NMIBC). METHODS: Men with histologically-confirmed diagnosis of NMIBC were prospectively enrolled in 4 centers between December 2015 and April 2017. DWT was measured by ultrasound and DWT>2...
December 14, 2017: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
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