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Sphingolipids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328957/sphingolipids-in-host-microbial-interactions
#1
REVIEW
Stacey L Heaver, Elizabeth L Johnson, Ruth E Ley
Sphingolipids, a lipid class characterized by a long-chain amino alcohol backbone, serve vital structural and signaling roles in eukaryotes. Though eukaryotes produce sphingolipids, this capacity is phylogenetically highly restricted in Bacteria. Intriguingly, bacterial species commonly associated in high abundance with eukaryotic hosts include sphingolipid producers, such as the Bacteroidetes in the mammalian gut. To date, a role for bacterial sphingolipids in immune system maturation has been described, but their fate and impact in host physiology and metabolism remain to be elucidated...
January 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327584/gama-aminobutyric-acid-enriched-rice-bran-diet-attenuates-insulin-resistance-and-balances-energy-expenditure-via-modification-of-gut-microbiota-and-scfas
#2
Xu Si, Wenting Shang, Zhongkai Zhou, Guanghou Shui, Sin Man Lam, Christopher L Blanchard, Padraig Strappe
In this study, gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enriched rice bran (ERB) was supplemented to obese rats to investigate the attenuation of metabolic syndromes induced by high-fat diet. ERB-containing diet stimulated butyrate and propionate production by promoting Anaerostipes, Anaerostipes sp. and associated synthesizing enzymes. This altered SCFA distribution further enhanced circulatory levels of leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1, controlling food intake by down-regulating orexigenic factors. Together with the enhanced fatty acid β-oxidation highlighted by Prkaa2, Ppara, Scd1 expression via AMPK signaling pathway and Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathway, energy expenditure was positively modulated...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323104/the-mechanism-of-glycosphingolipid-degradation-revealed-by-a-galc-sapa-complex-structure
#3
Chris H Hill, Georgia M Cook, Samantha J Spratley, Stuart Fawke, Stephen C Graham, Janet E Deane
Sphingolipids are essential components of cellular membranes and defects in their synthesis or degradation cause severe human diseases. The efficient degradation of sphingolipids in the lysosome requires lipid-binding saposin proteins and hydrolytic enzymes. The glycosphingolipid galactocerebroside is the primary lipid component of the myelin sheath and is degraded by the hydrolase β-galactocerebrosidase (GALC). This enzyme requires the saposin SapA for lipid processing and defects in either of these proteins causes a severe neurodegenerative disorder, Krabbe disease...
January 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322265/the-role-of-sphingolipids-in-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction
#4
REVIEW
Liubov S Kalinichenko, Erich Gulbins, Johannes Kornhuber, Christian P Müller
Psychoactive drug use is a common behavior in many societies worldwide, frequently associated with drug instrumentalization. Regular use may develop into drug addiction, which is a severe psychiatric disorder with multiple pathological effects to virtually all organ systems. Treatment strategies for addiction are often insufficient with no broadly working pharmaco-treatment available. Recently, lipids, and particularly sphingolipids, have been considered as new mediators in the pathogenic pathways and as possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of addictive states...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321954/a-role-for-caspase-2-in-sphingosine-kinase-1-proteolysis-in-response-to-doxorubicin-in-breast-cancer-cells-implications-for-the-chk1-suppressed-pathway
#5
Brittany L Carroll, Joseph Bonica, Achraf A Shamseddine, Yusuf A Hannun, Lina M Obeid
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) is a lipid kinase whose activity produces sphingosine 1-phosphate, a prosurvival lipid associated with proliferation, angiogenesis, and invasion. SK1 overexpression has been observed in numerous cancers. Recent studies have demonstrated that SK1 proteolysis occurs downstream of the tumor suppressor p53 in response to several DNA-damaging agents. Moreover, loss of SK1 in p53-knockout mice resulted in complete protection from thymic lymphoma, providing evidence that regulation of SK1 constitutes a major tumor suppressor function of p53...
January 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321137/novel-function-of-ceramide-for-regulation-of-mitochondrial-atp-release-in-astrocytes
#6
Ji-Na Kong, Zhihui Zhu, Yutaka Itokazu, Guanghu Wang, Michael B Dinkins, Liansheng Zhong, Hsuan-Pei Lin, Ahmed Elsherbini, Silvia Leanhart, Xue Jiang, Haiyan Qin, Wenbo Zhi, Stefka D Spassieva, Erhard Bieberich
We reported that amyloid beta peptide (Abeta42) activated neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) thereby increasing the concentration of the sphingolipid ceramide in astrocytes. Here, we show that Abeta42 induced mitochondrial fragmentation in wild type astrocytes, but not in nSMase2-deficient cells or astrocytes treated with Fumonisin B1 (FB1), an inhibitor of ceramide synthases. Unexpectedly, ceramide depletion was concurrent with rapid movements of mitochondria, indicating an unknown function of ceramide for mitochondria...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317831/four-mirna-signature-as-a-prognostic-tool-for-lung-adenocarcinoma
#7
Yan Lin, Yufeng Lv, Rong Liang, Chunling Yuan, Jinyan Zhang, Dan He, Xiaowen Zheng, Jianfeng Zhang
Purpose: The aim of this study was to generate a novel miRNA expression signature to accurately predict prognosis for patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Patients and methods: Using expression profiles downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, we identified multiple miRNAs with differential expression between LUAD and paired healthy tissues. We then evaluated the prognostic values of the differentially expressed miRNAs using univariate/multivariate Cox regression analysis...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317695/alterations-in-the-properties-of-the-cell-membrane-due-to-glycosphingolipid-accumulation-in-a-model-of-gaucher-disease
#8
Gyula Batta, Lilla Soltész, Tamás Kovács, Tamás Bozó, Zoltán Mészár, Miklós Kellermayer, János Szöllősi, Peter Nagy
Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by the malfunction of glucocerebrosidase resulting in the accumulation of glucosylceramide and other sphingolipids in certain cells. Although the disease symptoms are usually attributed to the storage of undigested substrate in lysosomes, here we show that glycosphingolipids accumulating in the plasma membrane cause profound changes in the properties of the membrane. The fluidity of the sphingolipid-enriched membrane decreased accompanied by the enlargement of raft-like ordered membrane domains...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317528/sphingolipids-activate-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-surveillance-pathway
#9
Francisco Piña, Fumi Yagisawa, Keisuke Obara, J D Gregerson, Akio Kihara, Maho Niwa
Proper inheritance of functional organelles is vital to cell survival. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress surveillance (ERSU) pathway ensures that daughter cells inherit a functional ER. Here, we show that the ERSU pathway is activated by phytosphingosine (PHS), an early biosynthetic sphingolipid. Multiple lines of evidence support this: (1) Reducing PHS levels with myriocin diminishes the ability of cells to induce ERSU phenotypes. (2) Aureobasidin A treatment, which blocks conversion of early intermediates to downstream complex sphingolipids, induces ERSU...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316552/arteriovenous-sphingosine-1-phosphate-differences-across-selected-organs-of-the-rat
#10
Monika Książek, Urszula Baranowska, Adrian Chabowski, Marcin Baranowski
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lysosphingolipid that is found in high concentration in plasma. The majority of plasma S1P is transported bound to HDL and albumin. Although the major sources of circulating S1P have been identified, it remains obscure what is the contribution of different organs/tissues to S1P homeostasis in plasma. Answering this question was the major aim of the present study. METHODS: The experiment was performed on male Wistar rats from whom blood samples were taken from either: 1) femoral vein, right ventricle of the heart, and abdominal aorta (n=15) or 2) hepatic vein, portal vein, and abdominal aorta (n=11)...
December 22, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315593/unraveling-the-metabolic-response-of-brassica-oleracea-exposed-to-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#11
María Tortosa, María E Cartea, Víctor M Rodríguez, Pablo Velasco
BACKGROUND: Brassica crops together with cereals represent the basis of world supplies. Due to their importance, the production losses caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) infection represent a high economic impact. Understanding molecular and biochemical mechanisms of plants is essential to develop resistant crops with durable protection against diseases. In this regard, metabolomics has emerged as a valuable technology to provide an overview of the biological status of a plant exposed to a disease...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311085/the-rim-pathway-mediates-antifungal-tolerance-in-candida-albicans-through-newly-identified-rim101-transcriptional-targets-including-hsp90-and-ipt1
#12
Cécile Garnaud, Encar García-Oliver, Yan Wang, Danièle Maubon, Sébastien Bailly, Quentin Despinasse, Morgane Champleboux, Jérôme Govin, Muriel Cornet
Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite antifungal treatment. Azoles and echinocandins are used as first-line therapies in IC. However, their efficacy is limited by yeast tolerance and the emergence of acquired resistance. Tolerance is a reversible stage due to the yeast's capacity to counter the antifungal drug exposure, leading to persistent growth. In C. albicans, multiple stress signaling pathways have been shown to contribute to this adaptation. Among those, the Rim pH-responsive pathway, through its transcription factor Rim101p, was shown to mediate azole and echinocandin tolerance...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311083/aspergillus-fumigatus-afssn3-afssn8-pair-reverse-regulates-azole-resistance-by-conferring-extracellular-polysaccharide-sphingolipid-pathway-intermediates-and-efflux-pumps-to-biofilm
#13
Nanbiao Long, Liping Zeng, Shanlei Qiao, Lei Li, Guowei Zhong
Antifungal treatment is often ineffectual, which is partly contributed by biofilm. In this study, combined forward and reverse genetics strategy, we identified the nucleus-localized AfSsn3 and its partner AfSsn8, which constituting a cdk8-cyclin pair, are required for azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus Deletion of Afssn3 led to increased absorption and utilization of glucose and amino acids. Interestingly, absorption and utilization of glucose accelerated the extracellular polysaccharide formation, while utilization of the amino acids serine, threonine and glycine increased sphingolipid pathway intermediates accumulation...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305510/lipidomics-of-thalassiosira-pseudonana-under-phosphorus-stress-reveal-underlying-phospholipid-substitution-dynamics-and-novel-diglycosylceramide-substitutes
#14
Jonathan E Hunter, Joost Brandsma, Marcus K Dymond, Grielof Koster, C Mark Moore, Anthony D Postle, Rachel A Mills, George S Attard
Phytoplankton substitute phosphorus (P) containing lipids with non-P analogues boosting growth in P-limited oceans. In the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, lipid headgroup substitution dynamics are well described, but those of the individual lipids, varying in fatty acids, are unknown. Moreover, the behaviour of lipids outside of the common headgroup classes, and the relationship between lipid substitution and cellular particulate organic P (POP) are yet to be reported. We investigated these through the mass spectrometric lipidomics of P replete (P+) and depleted (P-) T...
January 5, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301259/sphingolipids-in-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-role-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-lyase
#15
Vidyani Suryadevara, Panfeng Fu, David Lenin Ebenezer, Evgeny Berdyshev, Irina A Bronova, Long Shuang Huang, Anantha Harijith, Viswanathan Natarajan
Mechanical ventilation (MV) performed in respiratory failure patients to maintain lung function leads to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). This study investigates the role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes in VILI using a rodent model of VILI and alveolar epithelial cells subjected to cyclic stretch (CS). MV (0 PEEP (Positive End Expiratory Pressure), 30 mL/kg, 4 h) in mice enhanced sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) expression, and ceramide levels, and decreased S1P levels in lung tissue, thereby leading to lung inflammation, injury and apoptosis...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300303/lysophosphatidic-acid-signaling-axis-mediates-ceramide-1-phosphate-induced-proliferation-of-c2c12-myoblasts
#16
Caterina Bernacchioni, Francesca Cencetti, Alberto Ouro, Marina Bruno, Antonio Gomez-Muñoz, Chiara Donati, Paola Bruni
Sphingolipids are not only crucial for membrane architecture but act as critical regulators of cell functions. The bioactive sphingolipid ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P), generated by the action of ceramide kinase, has been reported to stimulate cell proliferation, cell migration and to regulate inflammatory responses via activation of different signaling pathways. We have previously shown that skeletal muscle is a tissue target for C1P since the phosphosphingolipid plays a positive role in myoblast proliferation implying a role in muscle regeneration...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290137/small-leucine-rich-proteoglycans-in-renal-inflammation-two-sides-of-the-coin
#17
Madalina V Nastase, Andrea Janicova, Heiko Roedig, Louise Tzung-Harn Hsieh, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Liliana Schaefer
It is now well-established that members of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family act in their soluble form, released proteolytically from the extracellular matrix (ECM), as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). By interacting with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the inflammasome, the two SLRPs, biglycan and decorin, autonomously trigger sterile inflammation. Recent data indicate that these SLRPs, besides their conventional role as pro-inflammatory DAMPs, additionally trigger anti-inflammatory signaling pathways to tightly control inflammation...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288159/sphingolipid-metabolic-pathway-impacts-thiazide-diuretics-blood-pressure-response-insights-from-genomics-metabolomics-and-lipidomics
#18
Mohamed H Shahin, Yan Gong, Reginald F Frye, Daniel M Rotroff, Amber L Beitelshees, Rebecca A Baillie, Arlene B Chapman, John G Gums, Stephen T Turner, Eric Boerwinkle, Alison Motsinger-Reif, Oliver Fiehn, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Xianlin Han, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk, Julie A Johnson
BACKGROUND: Although hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a well-established first-line antihypertensive in the United States, <50% of HCTZ treated patients achieve blood pressure (BP) control. Thus, identifying biomarkers that could predict the BP response to HCTZ is critically important. In this study, we utilized metabolomics, genomics, and lipidomics to identify novel pathways and biomarkers associated with HCTZ BP response. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we conducted a pathway analysis for 13 metabolites we recently identified to be significantly associated with HCTZ BP response...
December 29, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285771/endotoxemia-rocks-sphingolipid-metabolism-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-an-editorial-highlight-for-alteration-of-sphingolipid-metabolism-as-a-putative-mechanism-underlying-lps-induced-bbb-disruption-on-doi-10-1111-jnc-14236
#19
Eric Camerer
In this issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry, Vutukuri et al. evaluate the impact of endotoxemia-induced encephalopathy on the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling pathway at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Four hours after intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 4 mg/kg) to mice, they first demonstrate BBB dysfunction and then evaluate changes in sphingolipid metabolites in serum, isolated brain microvessels (MBMV), and whole brain. In parallel, they investigate the fate of indicated S1P generating and metabolizing enzymes and S1P receptors in brain and MBMV...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284607/weight-loss-and-exercise-alter-the-high-density-lipoprotein-lipidome-and-improve-high-density-lipoprotein-functionality-in-metabolic-syndrome
#20
Anmar A Khan, Piyushkumar A Mundra, Nora E Straznicky, Paul J Nestel, Gerard Wong, Ricardo Tan, Kevin Huynh, Theodore W Ng, Natalie A Mellett, Jacquelyn M Weir, Christopher K Barlow, Zahir H Alshehry, Gavin W Lambert, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Peter J Meikle
OBJECTIVE: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) lipid composition and function may better reflect cardiovascular risk than HDL cholesterol concentration. This study characterized the relationships between HDL composition, metabolism, and function in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and how changes in composition after weight loss (WL) and exercise treatments are related to function. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Plasma samples from MetS patients (n=95) and healthy individuals (n=40) were used in this study...
December 28, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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