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Komathy Munusamy, Jamuna Vadivelu, Sun Tee Tay
BACKGROUND: Biofilm is known to contribute to the antifungal resistance of Candida yeasts. Aureobasidin A (AbA), a cyclic depsipeptide targeting fungal sphingolipid biosynthesis, has been shown to be effective against several Candida species. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate Candida biofilm growth morphology, its biomass, metabolic activity, and to determine the effects of AbA on the biofilm growth. METHODS: The biofilm forming ability of several clinical isolates of different Candida species from our culture collection was determined using established methods (crystal violet and XTT assays)...
March 12, 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Laurits J Holm, Martin Haupt-Jorgensen, Jesper Larsen, Jano D Giacobini, Mesut Bilgin, Karsten Buschard
Sphingolipids are a diverse group of lipids with important roles in beta-cell biology regulating insulin folding and controlling apoptosis. Sphingolipid biosynthesis begins with the condensation of L-serine and palmitoyl-CoA. Here we tested the effect of L-serine supplementation on autoimmune diabetes development and blood glucose homeostasis in female NOD mice. We found that continuous supplementation of L-serine reduces diabetes incidence and insulitis score. In addition, L-serine treated mice had an improved glucose tolerance test, reduced HOMA-IR, and reduced blood glucose levels...
2018: PloS One
Karamat Mohammad, Paméla Dakik, Younes Medkour, Mélissa McAuley, Darya Mitrofanova, Vladimir I Titorenko
The concentrations of some key metabolic intermediates play essential roles in regulating the longevity of the chronologically aging yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . These key metabolites are detected by certain ligand-specific protein sensors that respond to concentration changes of the key metabolites by altering the efficiencies of longevity-defining cellular processes. The concentrations of the key metabolites that affect yeast chronological aging are controlled spatially and temporally. Here, we analyze mechanisms through which the spatiotemporal dynamics of changes in the concentrations of the key metabolites influence yeast chronological lifespan...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Woojin Scott Kim, Eve Jary, Russell Pickford, Ying He, Rebekah M Ahmed, Olivier Piguet, John R Hodges, Glenda M Halliday
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is the most prevalent form of FTD syndromes. bvFTD is characterized clinically by changes in behavior and cognition and pathologically by focal brain atrophy and concomitant loss of lipids. bvFTD is further characterized by eating abnormalities that result in dyslipidemia. Although dyslipidemia is apparent in bvFTD, very little is known about global lipid changes in bvFTD and lipid dysregulation underlying bvFTD. Here, we undertook a comprehensive lipidomics analysis of blood plasma from patients with bvFTD, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with the aim of understanding lipid dysregulation in bvFTD...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Sabine Grösch, Alice V Alessenko, Elisabetta Albi
This review provides an overview on components of the sphingolipid superfamily, on their localization and metabolism. Information about the sphingolipid biological activity in cell physiopathology is given. Recent studies highlight the role of sphingolipids in inflammatory process. We summarize the emerging data that support the different roles of the sphingolipid members in specific phases of inflammation: (1) migration of immune cells, (2) recognition of exogenous agents, and (3) activation/differentiation of immune cells...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Takashi Baba, J Larry Campbell, J C Yves Le Blanc, Paul R S Baker, Kazutaka Ikeda
We report a method for comprehensive structural characterization of lipids in animal tissues using a combination of differential Ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) with electron-impact excitation of ions from organics (EIEIO) mass spectrometry. Singly charged lipid ions in protonated or sodiated forms were dissociated by an electron beam having a kinetic energy of 10 eV in a branched radio-frequency ion trap. We established a comprehensive set of diagnostics to characterize structures of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and acylglycerols, including glycosylated, plasmalogen, and ester forms...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Visesato Mor, Antonella Rella, Amir M Farnoud, Ashutosh Singh, Mansa Munshi, Arielle Bryan, Shamoon Naseem, James B Konopka, Iwao Ojima, Erika Bullesbach, Alan Ashbaugh, Michael J Linke, Melanie Cushion, Margaret Collins, Hari Krishna Ananthula, Larry Sallans, Pankaj B Desai, Nathan P Wiederhold, Annette W Fothergill, William R Kirkpatrick, Thomas Patterson, Lai Hong Wong, Sunita Sinha, Guri Giaever, Corey Nislow, Patrick Flaherty, Xuewen Pan, Gabriele Vargas Cesar, Patricia de Melo Tavares, Susana Frases, Kildare Miranda, Marcio L Rodrigues, Chiara Luberto, Leonardo Nimrichter, Maurizio Del Poeta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: MBio
Natalia Pascuali, Leopoldina Scotti, Mariana Di Pietro, Gonzalo Oubiña, Diana Bas, María May, Antonio Gómez Muñoz, Patricia S Cuasnicú, Débora J Cohen, Marta Tesone, Dalhia Abramovich, Fernanda Parborell
STUDY QUESTION: Is ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) an ovarian protective agent during alkylating chemotherapy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Local administration of C1P drastically reduces ovarian damage induced by cyclophosphamide (Cy) via protection of follicular reserve, restoration of hormone levels, inhibition of apoptosis and improvement of stromal vasculature, while protecting fertility, oocyte quality and uterine morphology. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cancer-directed therapies cause accelerated loss of ovarian reserve and lead to premature ovarian failure (POF)...
March 9, 2018: Human Reproduction
Gopinath Viswanathan, Md Jafurulla, G Aditya Kumar, Tirumalai R Raghunand, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
Mycobacteria are intracellular pathogens that can invade and survive within host macrophages. Mycobacterial infections remain a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with serious concerns of emergence of multi and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. While significant advances have been made in identifying mycobacterial virulence determinants, the detailed molecular mechanism of internalization of mycobacteria into host cells remains poorly understood. Although several studies have highlighted the crucial role of sphingolipids in mycobacterial growth, persistence and establishment of infection, the role of sphingolipids in the entry of mycobacteria into host cells is not known...
March 8, 2018: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Yeji Sung, Konstantina Spagou, Marina Kafeza, Michael Kyriakides, Brahman Dharmarajah, Joseph Shalhoub, Jose A Diaz, Thomas W Wakefield, Elaine Holmes, Alun H Davies
OBJECTIVES: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major health problem, responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. The identification of a simple and effective diagnostic biomarker of DVT remains a challenge. Metabolomics have recently emerged as a new powerful scientific tool to characterise metabolic phenotypes of complex diseases and investigate small molecules in biofluids. The aim of the study was to identify the blood and vein wall metabolomic signature of DVT in a murine experimental model...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Yoko Maruyama, Satoko Ueno, Mitsuhiro Morita, Fumio Hayashi, Shohei Maekawa
Neurons have well-developed membrane microdomains called "rafts" that are recovered as a detergent-resistant membrane microdomain fraction (DRM). NAP-22 is one of the major protein components of neuronal DRM. In a previous study, we showed that DRM-derived NAP-22 binds ganglioside and the inhibitory effect of ganglioside to calcineurin (CaN), a neuron-enriched calmodulin-regulated phosphoprotein phosphatase. Considering the important roles of CaN in neurons, identification of other cellular regulators of CaN could be a good clue to understand the molecular background of neuronal function...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Maria Fuller, Anthony H Futerman
Cholesterol, sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids are critical constituents of the brain, subserving neuronal membrane architecture and providing a platform for biochemical processes essential for proper neurodevelopment and function. When lysosomal defects arise in a lipid metabolic pathway, it is therefore easy to imagine that neurological decline will transpire, however for deficits in non-lipid pathways, this becomes harder to envisage. Here we suggest the working hypothesis that neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders might manifest as primary and/or secondary disorders of lipid metabolism...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Akimitsu Yamada, Masayuki Nagahashi, Tomoyoshi Aoyagi, Wei-Ching Huang, Santiago Lima, Nitai C Hait, Aparna Maiti, Kumiko Kida, Krista P Terracina, Hiroshi Miyazaki, Takashi Ishikawa, Itaru Endo, Michael R Waters, Qianya Qi, Li Yan, Sheldon Milstien, Sarah Spiegel, Kazuaki Takabe
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid mediator, has been implicated in regulation of many processes important for breast cancer progression. Previously we observed that S1P is exported out of human breast cancer cells by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCC1, but not by ABCB1, both known multidrug resistance proteins that efflux chemotherapeutic agents. However, the pathological consequences of these events to breast cancer progression and metastasis has not been elucidated. Here, it is demonstrated that high expression of ABCC1, but not ABCB1, is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Anna Kovalchuk, Lilit Nersisyan, Rupasri Mandal, David Wishart, Maria Mancini, David Sidransky, Bryan Kolb, Olga Kovalchuk
Cancer survivors experience numerous treatment side effects that negatively affect their quality of life. Cognitive side effects are especially insidious, as they affect memory, cognition, and learning. Neurocognitive deficits occur prior to cancer treatment, arising even before cancer diagnosis, and we refer to them as "tumor brain." Metabolomics is a new area of research that focuses on metabolome profiles and provides important mechanistic insights into various human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Burkhard Kleuser
Two decades ago, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) was discovered as a novel bioactive molecule that regulates a variety of cellular functions. The plethora of S1P-mediated effects is due to the fact that the sphingolipid not only modulates intracellular functions but also acts as a ligand of G protein-coupled receptors after secretion into the extracellular environment. In the plasma, S1P is found in high concentrations, modulating immune cell trafficking and vascular endothelial integrity. The liver is engaged in modulating the plasma S1P content, as it produces apolipoprotein M, which is a chaperone for the S1P transport...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
M Carmen Crespo, Joao Tomé-Carneiro, Diego Gómez-Coronado, Emma Burgos-Ramos, Alba García-Serrano, Roberto Martín-Hernández, Shishir Baliyan, Javier Fontecha, César Venero, Alberto Dávalos, Francesco Visioli
The increasing incidence of age-induced cognitive decline justifies the search for complementary ways of prevention or delay. We studied the effects of concentrates of phospholipids, sphingolipids, and/or 3-n fatty acids on the expression of genes or miRNAs related to synaptic activity and/or neurodegeneration, in the hippocampus of aged Wistar rats following a 3-month supplementation. The combination of two phospholipidic concentrates of krill oil (KOC) and buttermilk (BMFC) origin modulated the hippocampal expression of 119 miRNAs (11 were common to both BMFC and BMFC + KOC groups)...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cristina Lazzarini, Krupanandan Haranahalli, Robert Rieger, Hari Krishna Ananthula, Pankaj B Desai, Alan Ashbaugh, Michael J Linke, Melanie T Cushion, Bela Ruzsicska, John Haley, Iwao Ojima, Maurizio Del Poeta
The incidence of invasive fungal infections has risen dramatically in the past decades. Current antifungal drugs are either toxic, likely to interact with other drugs, have a narrow spectrum of activity or induce fungal resistance. Hence, there is a great need for new antifungals, possibly with novel mechanisms of action. Previously our group reported an acylhydrazone called BHBM that targeted the sphingolipid pathway, and showed strong antifungal activity against several fungi. In this study, we screened 19 derivatives of BHBM...
March 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Weidong Zuo, Chunlin Li, Yue Luan, Hao Zhang, Xiaoling Tong, Minjin Han, Rui Gao, Hai Hu, Jiangbo Song, Fangyin Dai, Cheng Lu
Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), such as sphingolipids, are components of cellular lipids, which are essential for cell proliferation. Mutations in the genes that encode proteins participating in VLCFA biosynthesis may cause inherited diseases, such as macular degeneration. Elongases of very long chain fatty acid (ELOVL) are enzymes that are involved in the biosynthesis of VLCFAs. Here, a total of 13 ELOVL genes, distributed across three chromosomes, were identified in the silkworm genome; all the ELOVL members contain a distinct ELO domain and a conserved HXXHH motif...
March 5, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
By Sara Woodman, Christopher Trousdale, Justin Conover, Kyoungtae Kim
Protein recycling is an essential cellular process involving endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, and exocytosis. In mammalian systems membrane lipids, including cholesterol, sphingolipids, and phospholipids, play a pivotal role in protein recycling. To address this role in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we utilized GFP-Snc1, a v-SNARE protein serving as a fluorescent marker for faithfully reporting the recycling pathway. Here we demonstrate results that display moderate to significant GFP-Snc1 recycling defects upon overexpression or inactivation of phospholipid, ergosterol, and sphingolipid biosynthesis enzymes, indicating that the homeostasis of membrane lipid levels is prerequisite for proper protein recycling...
March 3, 2018: Cell Biology International
Ana C O Neves, Camilo L M Morais, Thais P P Mendes, Boniek G Vaz, Kássio M G Lima
Cervical cancer is still an important issue of public health since it is the fourth most frequent type of cancer in women worldwide. Much effort has been dedicated to combating this cancer, in particular by the early detection of cervical pre-cancerous lesions. For this purpose, this paper reports the use of mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate analysis as an untargeted lipidomic approach to classifying 76 blood plasma samples into negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM, n = 42) and squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL, n = 34)...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
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