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Metabolic causes of progression renal diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247356/current-and-future-pharmacological-therapies-for-nafld-nash
#1
REVIEW
Yoshio Sumida, Masashi Yoneda
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease worldwide, and there is no approved pharmacotherapy. The efficacy of vitamin E and pioglitazone has been established in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a progressive form of NAFLD. GLP-1RA and SGLT2 inhibitors, which are currently approved for use in diabetes, have shown early efficacy in NASH, and also have beneficial cardiovascular or renal effects. Innovative NASH therapies include four main pathways. The first approach is targeting hepatic fat accumulation...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224958/renal-involvement-in-neuropathy-ataxia-retinitis-pigmentosa-narp-syndrome-a-case-report
#2
Sandrine Lemoine, Marine Panaye, Maud Rabeyrin, Elisabeth Errazuriz-Cerda, Bénédicte Mousson de Camaret, Philippe Petiot, Laurent Juillard, Fitsum Guebre-Egziabher
We report a case of a patient who had the mitochondrial cytopathy complex of neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) syndrome diagnosed at age 11 years with a biopsy-proven kidney involvement that progressed to end-stage renal disease at age 21 years. Mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are maternally inherited and lead to mitochondrial cytopathies with predominant neurologic manifestations: psychomotor retardation, epilepsy, ataxia, neuropathy, and myopathy. Given the ubiquitous nature of mitochondria, cellular dysfunction can also appear in tissues with high metabolic turnover; thus, there can be cardiac, digestive, ophthalmologic, and kidney complications...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168475/chronic-kidney-disease
#3
REVIEW
Paola Romagnani, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Richard Glassock, Adeera Levin, Kitty J Jager, Marcello Tonelli, Ziad Massy, Christoph Wanner, Hans-Joachim Anders
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by persistent urine abnormalities, structural abnormalities or impaired excretory renal function suggestive of a loss of functional nephrons. The majority of patients with CKD are at risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease and death. For those who progress to end-stage renal disease, the limited accessibility to renal replacement therapy is a problem in many parts of the world. Risk factors for the development and progression of CKD include low nephron number at birth, nephron loss due to increasing age and acute or chronic kidney injuries caused by toxic exposures or diseases (for example, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus)...
November 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164839/residual-renal-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-conventionally-treated-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-the-potential-of-non-traditional-biomarkers-and-treatments-related-redox-metabolism
#4
Karima Zitouni, Mia Steyn, Kenneth A Earle
Diabetes is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the developed world. Promoters of the progression of kidney disease include the traditional profile of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the development of CKD and vulnerability to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is highly variable. Determinants of the susceptibility to ESRD may include non-traditional risk factors such as gene-environment interactions, socio-geographic factors and/or treatment strategies. We review the conflicting clinical relevance of studies implicating pathways related to oxidative stress...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104728/oxidative-stress-and-acute-kidney-injury-in-critical-illness-pathophysiologic-mechanisms-biomarkers-interventions-and-future-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Paraskevi Pavlakou, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Michael Mitsis, Evangelia Dounousi
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a multifactorial entity that occurs in a variety of clinical settings. Although AKI is not a usual reason for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, it often complicates critically ill patients' clinical course requiring renal replacement therapy progressing sometimes to end-stage renal disease and increasing mortality. The causes of AKI in the group of ICU patients are further complicated from damaged metabolic state, systemic inflammation, sepsis, and hemodynamic dysregulations, leading to an imbalance that generates oxidative stress response...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100420/protein-bound-uremic-toxins-impaired-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-functions
#6
Chiao-Yin Sun, Mei-Ling Cheng, Heng-Chih Pan, Jia-Hung Lee, Chin-Chan Lee
Protein-bound uremic toxins, indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate, increase oxidative stress and adversely affect chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular complications. In this study, we examined whether mitochondria are the target of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate intoxication in vivo and in vitro. The kidneys of 10-week-old male B-6 mice with ½-nephrectomy treated with indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate were used for the animal study. Cultured human renal tubular cells were used for the in vitro study...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050011/urine-ammonium-metabolic-acidosis-and-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Negiin Pourafshar, Shirin Pourafshar, Manoocher Soleimani
The metabolism of a typical Western diet generates 50-100 mEq of acid (H+) per day, which must be excreted in the urine for the systemic acid-base to remain in balance. The 2 major mechanisms that are responsible for the renal elimination of daily acid under normal conditions are ammonium (NH4+) excretion and titratable acidity. In the presence of systemic acidosis, ammonium excretion is intensified and becomes the crucial mechanism for the elimination of acid. The impairment in NH4+ excretion is therefore associated with reduced acid excretion, which causes excess accumulation of acid in the body and consequently results in metabolic acidosis...
October 19, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992279/targeting-new-cellular-disease-pathways-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#8
Ming-Yang Chang, Albert C M Ong
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited cause of end-stage renal failure. Understanding the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of ADPKD could help to identify new targets for treatment. The classic cellular cystic phenotype includes changes in proliferation, apoptosis, fluid secretion, extracellular matrix and cilia function. Hoever, recent research, suggests that the cellular cystic phenotype could be broader and that changes, such as altered metabolism, autophagy, inflammation, oxidative stress and epigenetic modification, could play important roles in the processes of cyst initiation, cyst growth or disease progression...
August 29, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971322/the-diabetic-foot-as-a-proxy-for-cardiovascular-events-and-mortality-review
#9
REVIEW
Isa Dietrich, Gustavo Arruda Braga, Fernanda Gomes de Melo, Ana Carolina Calmon da Costa Silva Silva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviewed very recent papers (2016) discussing or bringing clinical evidences of the possible common pathways leading to diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) and increased mortality rates. RECENT FINDINGS: Diabetic patients with diabetic foot syndrome have a mortality rate greater than twofold when compared with non-ulcerated diabetics. In addition, the 5-year mortality rate following amputation is estimated at 39-68%, a life expectancy comparable to aggressive types of cancer or advanced congestive heart failure...
October 2, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956034/metabolomics-reveal-mitochondrial-and-fatty-acid-metabolism-disorders-that-contribute-to-the-development-of-dkd-in-t2dm-patients
#10
Ling Li, Chengshi Wang, Hongliu Yang, Shuyun Liu, Yanrong Lu, Ping Fu, Jingping Liu
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of ESRD; however, early intervention can greatly prevent the progression of DKD; thus, sensitive biomarkers for DKD are still required. This study was aimed at the identification of potential biomarkers and revelation of underlying pathways in DKD patients by non-targeted metabolomics. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze urine obtained from the control and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and DKD patients, and the renal histological changes in DKD patients were assessed...
October 24, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952246/-research-progress-of-berberine-in-treatment-of-diabetic-kidney-disease
#11
REVIEW
Yan-Lin Ren, Ding-Kun Wang, Hui Dong, Fu-Er Lu
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a chronic renal microvascular complication associated with abnormal glucose metabolism, which is an important cause of end stage renal disease. Diabetes can damage the kidney through many ways, including renal vascular, glomerular, tubular, and renal interstitial damages. Therefore, a comprehensive treatment process must be taken for the treatment of DKD, and the selection of appropriate drugs has important significance in the treatment of DKD. Berberine has significant curative effect in the treatment of DKD, and the mechanism is related to the reduction of blood sugar, improvement of renal hemodynamics abnormality, regulation of blood lipid profile and the attenuation of systemic and local inflammation...
February 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946766/salvia-miltiorrhiza-lipophilic-fraction-attenuates-oxidative-stress-in-diabetic-nephropathy-through-activation-of-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2
#12
Lin An, Mei Zhou, Faiz M M T Marikar, Xue-Wen Hu, Qiu-Yun Miao, Ping Li, Jun Chen
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which can be triggered by oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the renoprotective effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (EASM) on DN and examined the underlying molecular mechanism. We observed that EASM treatment attenuated metabolic abnormalities associated with hyperglycemic conditions in the experimental DN model. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mice, EASM treatment reduced albuminuria, improved renal function and alleviated the pathological alterations within the glomerulus...
2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939921/pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
REVIEW
Nadine Khouzam, Katherine Wesseling-Perry
Life expectancy in patients with all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) falls far short of that in the general population. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in pediatric patients with CKD. In contrast to the intimal atherosclerotic lesions that characterize cardiovascular disease in the general population, vascular endothelial dysfunction, medial arterial calcification, and cardiac dysfunction contribute to cardiovascular pathological conditions in CKD. The pathogenesis of these lesions, the origins of which can be identified in the absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, is incompletely understood...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930541/molecular-mechanisms-of-disorders-of-lipid-metabolism-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
Hamid Moradi, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive condition marked by protracted kidney damage which over time can lead to end stage renal disease (ESRD). CKD can be categorized into different stages based on the extent of renal damage and degree of renal dysfunction with ESRD requiring renal replacement therapy considered the final stage. It is important to note that CKD in all of its forms is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis, cardiovascular (CV) disease and poor CV outcomes. While a number of factors contribute to the high risk of CV mortality in this patient population, dyslipidemia is considered to be a key player in the pathogenesis of CV disease in CKD...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891970/the-abcc6-transporter-a-new-player-in-biomineralization
#15
REVIEW
Guillaume Favre, Audrey Laurain, Tamas Aranyi, Flora Szeri, Krisztina Fulop, Olivier Le Saux, Christophe Duranton, Gilles Kauffenstein, Ludovic Martin, Georges Lefthériotis
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an inherited metabolic disease with autosomal recessive inheritance caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene. Since the first description of the disease in 1896, alleging a disease involving the elastic fibers, the concept evolved with the further discoveries of the pivotal role of ectopic mineralization that is preponderant in the elastin-rich tissues of the skin, eyes and blood vessel walls. After discovery of the causative gene of the disease in 2000, the function of the ABCC6 protein remains elusive...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889268/aluminum-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Maria Teresa Colomina, Fiona Peris-Sampedro
Aluminum (Al) is one of the most extended metals in the Earth's crust. Its abundance, together with the widespread use by humans, makes Al-related toxicity particularly relevant for human health.Despite some factors influence individual bioavailability to this metal after oral, dermal, or inhalation exposures, humans are considered to be protected against Al toxicity because of its low absorption and efficient renal excretion. However, several factors can modify Al absorption and distribution through the body, which may in turn progressively contribute to the development of silent chronic exposures that may lately trigger undesirable consequences to health...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875258/molecular-analysis-of-oxalate-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-apoptosis-in-the-pathogenesis-of-kidney-stone-disease
#17
Albert Abhishek, Shaly Benita, Monika Kumari, Divya Ganesan, Eldho Paul, Ponnusamy Sasikumar, Ayyavu Mahesh, Subramani Yuvaraj, Tharmarajan Ramprasath, Govindan Sadasivam Selvam
Oxalate, a non-essential end product of metabolism, causes hyperoxaluria and eventually calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone disease. Kidney cells exposed to oxalate stress results in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and progression of stone formation. Perturbations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) result in accumulation of misfolded proteins and Ca(2+) ions homeostasis imbalance and serve as a common pathway for various diseases, including kidney disorders. ER stress induces up-regulation of pro-survival protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and pro-apoptotic signaling protein C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)...
November 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839447/hypokalemic-paralysis-a-hidden-card-of-several-autoimmune-diseases
#18
Yelitza Velarde-Mejía, Rocío Gamboa-Cárdenas, Manuel Ugarte-Gil, César Pastor Asurza
Acute hypokalemic paralysis is a rare and potentially fatal condition, with few related causes, one of which highlights distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Distal renal tubular acidosis is a rare complication of several autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, and Hashimoto thyroiditis. We report a case of a lupic patient who presented rapidly progressive quadriparesis in the context of active renal disease. Research revealed severe refractory hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, and alkaline urine suggestive of dRTA...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814245/benefits-of-sglt2-inhibitors-beyond-glycemic-control-a-focus-on-metabolic-cardiovascular-and-renal-outcomes
#19
Molly G Minze, Kayley Will, Brian T Terrell, Robin L Black, Brian K Irons
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new pharmacotherapeutic class for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate beneficial effects of the SGLT2 inhibitors on metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal outcomes. METHODS: A Pub-Med search (1966 to July 2017) was performed of published English articles using keywords sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin...
August 16, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779862/neurological-complications-of-renal-disease
#20
Jorge H Baluarte
Neurological manifestations related to electrolyte disorders, drug toxicity, and uremia are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Seizures and coma are frequent complications of acute renal insufficiency (uremia), whereas peripheral neuropathy and encephalopathy, observed in progressive uremia, are terminal events. Failure to excrete metabolic products causes their accumulation and can lead to severe intoxication. Clinically, the signs and symptoms of uremia can vary widely, depending on the biological characteristics of the patient, the specific type of renal disease, and the time of the uremic intoxication...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
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