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Metabolic causes of progression renal diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903991/role-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-factors-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#1
Esmat Aghadavod, Samaneh Khodadadi, Azar Baradaran, Parto Nasri, Mahmood Bahmani, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus, and its prevalence has been increasing in developed countries. Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common single cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Oxidative stress and inflammation factors are hypothesized to play a role in the development of late diabetes complications. Chronic hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress, significantly modifies the structure and function of proteins and lipids, and induces glycoxidation and peroxidation...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878313/targeting-renal-glucose-reabsorption-to-treat-hyperglycaemia-the-pleiotropic-effects-of-sglt2-inhibition
#2
REVIEW
Volker Vallon, Scott C Thomson
Healthy kidneys filter ∼160 g/day of glucose (∼30% of daily energy intake) under euglycaemic conditions. To prevent valuable energy from being lost in the urine, the proximal tubule avidly reabsorbs filtered glucose up to a limit of ∼450 g/day. When blood glucose levels increase to the point that the filtered load exceeds this limit, the surplus is excreted in the urine. Thus, the kidney provides a safety valve that can prevent extreme hyperglycaemia as long as glomerular filtration is maintained. Most of the capacity for renal glucose reabsorption is provided by sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 in the early proximal tubule...
November 22, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873229/subclinical-kidney-damage-in-hypertensive-patients-a-renal-window-opened-on-the-cardiovascular-system-focus-on-microalbuminuria
#3
Giuseppe Mulè, Antonella Castiglia, Claudia Cusumano, Emilia Scaduto, Giulio Geraci, Dario Altieri, Epifanio Di Natale, Onofrio Cacciatore, Giovanni Cerasola, Santina Cottone
The kidney is one of the major target organs of hypertension.Kidney damage represents a frequent event in the course of hypertension and arterial hypertension is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD).ESRD has long been recognized as a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. However, over the past 20 years a large and consistent body of evidence has been produced suggesting that CV risk progressively increases as the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) declines and is already significantly elevated even in the earliest stages of renal damage...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871310/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-manifold-mechanisms-of-cyst-development-in-adpkd
#4
Rita M C de Almeida, Sherry G Clendenon, William G Richards, Michael Boedigheimer, Michael Damore, Sandro Rossetti, Peter C Harris, Britney-Shea Herbert, Wei Min Xu, Angela Wandinger-Ness, Heather H Ward, James A Glazier, Robert L Bacallao
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) causes progressive loss of renal function in adults as a consequence of the accumulation of cysts. ADPKD is the most common genetic cause of end-stage renal disease. Mutations in polycystin-1 occur in 87% of cases of ADPKD and mutations in polycystin-2 are found in 12% of ADPKD patients. The complexity of ADPKD has hampered efforts to identify the mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis. No current FDA (Federal Drug Administration)-approved therapies ameliorate ADPKD progression...
November 21, 2016: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835692/uric-acid-as-a-marker-of-mortality-and-morbidity-in-fabry-disease
#5
Daniel Rob, Josef Marek, Gabriela Dostálová, Lubor Goláň, Aleš Linhart
BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (UA) elevation is common in patients with cardiovascular, renal and metabolic diseases. However, no study to date has analysed the role of UA in Fabry disease (FD). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between serum UA levels and mortality and morbidity in FD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a post-hoc analysis of a prospectively followed-up cohort of 124 patients with genetically proven FD. Serum UA levels were acquired at baseline; clinical events and mortality were assessed during regular visits every 6 to 12 months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833378/cardiovascular-risk-after-orthotopic-liver-transplantation-a-review-of-the-literature-and-preliminary-results-of-a-prospective-study
#6
REVIEW
Giuseppina Pisano, Anna L Fracanzani, Lucio Caccamo, Maria F Donato, Silvia Fargion
Improved surgical techniques and greater efficacy of new anti-rejection drugs have significantly improved the survival of patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). This has led to an increased incidence of metabolic disorders as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases as causes of morbidity and mortality in OLT patients. In the last decade, several studies have examined which predisposing factors lead to increased cardiovascular risk (i.e., age, ethnicity, diabetes, NASH, atrial fibrillation, and some echocardiographic parameters) as well as which factors after OLT (i...
October 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822733/-cutaneous-manifestations-in-renal-diseases
#7
M Schmid-Simbeck, A Udvardi, B Volc-Platzer
In addition to general skin changes like pallor or dryness and the frequent, often excruciating nephrogenic pruritus, specific diseases in patients with renal failure may occur. Acquired perforating dermatoses are usually also highly pruritic. Calciphylaxis is a severe disease with poor prognosis. Nonhealing wounds with superinfection and progression to sepsis are characteristic. Bullous lesions can be caused by disturbances in porphyrin metabolism. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a disease which was first described in 2000...
December 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801685/dietary-protein-intake-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Gang Jee Ko, Yoshitsugu Obi, Amanda R Tortorici, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low-protein diet (LPD) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD in the CKD management. RECENT FINDINGS: Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remains substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD...
October 31, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771702/role-of-the-renal-microcirculation-in-progression-of-chronic-kidney-injury-in-obesity
#9
Alejandro R Chade, John E Hall
Obesity is largely responsible for the growing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Current strategies to prevent and treat obesity and its consequences have been insufficient to reverse the ongoing trends. Lifestyle modification or pharmacological therapies often produce modest weight loss which is not sustained and recurrence of obesity is frequently observed, leading to progression of target organ damage in many obese subjects. Therefore, research efforts have focused not only on the factors that regulate energy balance, but also on understanding mechanisms of target organ injury in obesity...
2016: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755938/arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-of-the-brain-emerging-clinical-applications
#10
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754285/me-04-3-epidemiology-and-consequences-of-early-vascular-aging
#11
Junichiro Hashimoto
Arterial structure and function change progressively with advancing age. Owing to long-lasting repetitive stretch with intermittent cardiac contraction, elastic fibers in the tunica media of large arteries gradually degenerate and are replaced by collagenous fibers. Such medial degeneration causes elastic arteries to stiffen and dilate. However, the speed of the vascular aging varies considerably among individuals; a discrepancy often exists between the chronological age of an individual and the biological age of his or her arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686838/ccl18-synergises-with-high-concentrations-of-glucose-in-stimulating-fibronectin-production-in-human-renal-tubuloepithelial-cells
#12
Rosa M Montero, Gurjeet Bhangal, Charles D Pusey, Andrew H Frankel, Frederick W K Tam
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end stage kidney disease worldwide. The pathogenesis of this disease remains elusive and multiple factors have been implicated. These include the effects of hyperglycaemia, haemodynamic and metabolic factors, and an inflammatory process that stimulates cellular signalling pathways leading to disease progression and severe fibrosis. Fibronectin (Fn) is an important protein of the extracellular matrix that is essential in fibrosis and its presence in increased amounts has been identified in the kidney in diabetic nephropathy...
September 29, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665506/cardio-renal-syndrome-type-4-the-correlation-between-cardiorenal-ultrasound-parameters
#13
Silvia Lai, Mauro Ciccariello, Mira Dimko, Alessandro Galani, Silvio Lucci, Rosario Cianci, Amalia Mariotti
: Bakground/Aims: Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cronich kidney disease (CKD). The pathogenesis includes a complex, bidirectional interaction between heart and kidney termed cardiorenal syndrome type 4. The aim of study was to evaluate the association between renal and cardiovascular ultrasonographic parameters and identify early markers of cardiovascular risk. METHODS: A total of 35 patients with CKD and 25 healthy controls, were enrolled and we have evaluated inflammatory indexes, mineral metabolism, renal function, renal and cardiovascular ultrasonographic parameters...
2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643283/me-04-3-epidemiology-and-consequences-of-early-vascular-aging
#14
Junichiro Hashimoto
Arterial structure and function change progressively with advancing age. Owing to long-lasting repetitive stretch with intermittent cardiac contraction, elastic fibers in the tunica media of large arteries gradually degenerate and are replaced by collagenous fibers. Such medial degeneration causes elastic arteries to stiffen and dilate. However, the speed of the vascular aging varies considerably among individuals; a discrepancy often exists between the chronological age of an individual and the biological age of his or her arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602985/homocysteine-and-hydrogen-sulfide-in-epigenetic-metabolic-and-microbiota-related-renovascular-hypertension
#15
REVIEW
Gregory J Weber, Sathnur Pushpakumar, Suresh C Tyagi, Utpal Sen
Over the past several years, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to be an important player in a variety of physiological functions, including neuromodulation, vasodilation, oxidant regulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis. H2S is synthesized primarily through metabolic processes from the amino acid cysteine and homocysteine in various organ systems including neuronal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and kidney. Derangement of cysteine and homocysteine metabolism and clearance, particularly in the renal vasculature, leads to H2S biosynthesis deregulation causing or contributing to existing high blood pressure...
November 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584009/mechanisms-underpinning-remission-of-albuminuria-following-bariatric-surgery
#16
Meera Nair, Carel W le Roux, Neil G Docherty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Albuminuria is a biomarker of renal injury commonly used to monitor progression of diabetic kidney disease. The appearance of excess albumin in the urine reflects alterations in the structure and permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier. The present article summarizes the clinical evidence base for remission of albuminuria after bariatric surgery. It furthermore focuses on how beneficial impacts on glomerular podocyte structure and function may explain this phenomenon...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566835/mineral-metabolism-factors-predict-accelerated-progression-of-common-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-chronic-kidney-disease-the-nefrona-study
#17
Maria Abajo, Àngels Betriu, David Arroyo, Marta Gracia, M Dolores Del Pino, Isabel Martínez, Jose M Valdivielso, Elvira Fernández
BACK GROUND: The leading cause of premature death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is cardiovascular disease (CVD), but risk assessment in renal patients is challenging. The aim of the study was to analyse the factors that predict accelerated progression of common carotid intima-media thickness (CCIMT) in a CKD cohort after 2 years of follow-up (2010-12). METHODS: The study included 1152 patients from the NEFRONA cohort with CKD stages 3-5D and without a clinical history of CVD...
August 27, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560828/regulation-of-polycystin-1-function-by-calmodulin-binding
#18
Nicholas Doerr, Yidi Wang, Kevin R Kipp, Guangyi Liu, Jesse J Benza, Vladimir Pletnev, Tengis S Pavlov, Alexander Staruschenko, Ashraf M Mohieldin, Maki Takahashi, Surya M Nauli, Thomas Weimbs
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disease that leads to progressive renal cyst growth and loss of renal function, and is caused by mutations in the genes encoding polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), respectively. The PC1/PC2 complex localizes to primary cilia and can act as a flow-dependent calcium channel in addition to numerous other signaling functions. The exact functions of the polycystins, their regulation and the purpose of the PC1/PC2 channel are still poorly understood...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536696/homocysteine-in-renal-injury
#19
REVIEW
Yanjun Long, Jing Nie
BACKGROUND: Homocysteine (Hcy) is an intermediate of methionine metabolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) can result from a deficiency in the enzymes or vitamin cofactors required for Hcy metabolism. Patients with renal disease tend to be hyperhomocysteinemic, particularly as renal function declines, although the underlying cause of HHcy in renal disease is not entirely understood. SUMMARY: HHcy is considered a risk or pathogenic factor in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as the cardiovascular complications...
June 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523285/long-term-clinical-follow-up-and-molecular-testing-for-diagnosis-of-the-first-tunisian-family-with-alstr%C3%A3-m-syndrome
#20
Amine Chakroun, Mariem Ben Said, Amine Ennouri, Imen Achour, Mouna Mnif, Mohamed Abid, Abdelmonem Ghorbel, Jan D Marshall, Jürgen K Naggert, Saber Masmoudi
Alström syndrome is a clinically complex disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of sensory functions, resulting in visual and audiological impairment as well as metabolic disturbances. It is caused by recessively inherited mutations in the ALMS1 gene, which codes for a centrosomal/basal body protein. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic and clinical features of two Tunisian affected siblings with Alström syndrome. Detailed clinical examinations were performed including complete ophthalmic examination, serial audiograms and several biochemical and hormonal blood tests...
September 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
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