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Metabolic causes of progression renal diseases

Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
Junichiro Hashimoto
Arterial structure and function change progressively with advancing age. Owing to long-lasting repetitive stretch with intermittent cardiac contraction, elastic fibers in the tunica media of large arteries gradually degenerate and are replaced by collagenous fibers. Such medial degeneration causes elastic arteries to stiffen and dilate. However, the speed of the vascular aging varies considerably among individuals; a discrepancy often exists between the chronological age of an individual and the biological age of his or her arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rosa M Montero, Gurjeet Bhangal, Charles D Pusey, Andrew H Frankel, Frederick W K Tam
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end stage kidney disease worldwide. The pathogenesis of this disease remains elusive and multiple factors have been implicated. These include the effects of hyperglycaemia, haemodynamic and metabolic factors, and an inflammatory process that stimulates cellular signalling pathways leading to disease progression and severe fibrosis. Fibronectin (Fn) is an important protein of the extracellular matrix that is essential in fibrosis and its presence in increased amounts has been identified in the kidney in diabetic nephropathy...
September 29, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Silvia Lai, Mauro Ciccariello, Mira Dimko, Alessandro Galani, Silvio Lucci, Rosario Cianci, Amalia Mariotti
: Bakground/Aims: Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cronich kidney disease (CKD). The pathogenesis includes a complex, bidirectional interaction between heart and kidney termed cardiorenal syndrome type 4. The aim of study was to evaluate the association between renal and cardiovascular ultrasonographic parameters and identify early markers of cardiovascular risk. METHODS: A total of 35 patients with CKD and 25 healthy controls, were enrolled and we have evaluated inflammatory indexes, mineral metabolism, renal function, renal and cardiovascular ultrasonographic parameters...
September 26, 2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Junichiro Hashimoto
Arterial structure and function change progressively with advancing age. Owing to long-lasting repetitive stretch with intermittent cardiac contraction, elastic fibers in the tunica media of large arteries gradually degenerate and are replaced by collagenous fibers. Such medial degeneration causes elastic arteries to stiffen and dilate. However, the speed of the vascular aging varies considerably among individuals; a discrepancy often exists between the chronological age of an individual and the biological age of his or her arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Gregory J Weber, Sathnur Pushpakumar, Suresh C Tyagi, Utpal Sen
Over the past several years, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to be an important player in a variety of physiological functions, including neuromodulation, vasodilation, oxidant regulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis. H2S is synthesized primarily through metabolic processes from the amino acid cysteine and homocysteine in various organ systems including neuronal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and kidney. Derangement of cysteine and homocysteine metabolism and clearance, particularly in the renal vasculature, leads to H2S biosynthesis deregulation causing or contributing to existing high blood pressure...
September 4, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Meera Nair, Carel W le Roux, Neil G Docherty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Albuminuria is a biomarker of renal injury commonly used to monitor progression of diabetic kidney disease. The appearance of excess albumin in the urine reflects alterations in the structure and permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier. The present article summarizes the clinical evidence base for remission of albuminuria after bariatric surgery. It furthermore focuses on how beneficial impacts on glomerular podocyte structure and function may explain this phenomenon...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Maria Abajo, Àngels Betriu, David Arroyo, Marta Gracia, M Dolores Del Pino, Isabel Martínez, Jose M Valdivielso, Elvira Fernández
BACK GROUND: The leading cause of premature death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is cardiovascular disease (CVD), but risk assessment in renal patients is challenging. The aim of the study was to analyse the factors that predict accelerated progression of common carotid intima-media thickness (CCIMT) in a CKD cohort after 2 years of follow-up (2010-12). METHODS: The study included 1152 patients from the NEFRONA cohort with CKD stages 3-5D and without a clinical history of CVD...
August 27, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Nicholas Doerr, Yidi Wang, Kevin R Kipp, Guangyi Liu, Jesse J Benza, Vladimir Pletnev, Tengis S Pavlov, Alexander Staruschenko, Ashraf M Mohieldin, Maki Takahashi, Surya M Nauli, Thomas Weimbs
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disease that leads to progressive renal cyst growth and loss of renal function, and is caused by mutations in the genes encoding polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), respectively. The PC1/PC2 complex localizes to primary cilia and can act as a flow-dependent calcium channel in addition to numerous other signaling functions. The exact functions of the polycystins, their regulation and the purpose of the PC1/PC2 channel are still poorly understood...
2016: PloS One
Yanjun Long, Jing Nie
BACKGROUND: Homocysteine (Hcy) is an intermediate of methionine metabolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) can result from a deficiency in the enzymes or vitamin cofactors required for Hcy metabolism. Patients with renal disease tend to be hyperhomocysteinemic, particularly as renal function declines, although the underlying cause of HHcy in renal disease is not entirely understood. SUMMARY: HHcy is considered a risk or pathogenic factor in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as the cardiovascular complications...
June 2016: Kidney Diseases
Amine Chakroun, Mariem Ben Said, Amine Ennouri, Imen Achour, Mouna Mnif, Mohamed Abid, Abdelmonem Ghorbel, Jan D Marshall, Jürgen K Naggert, Saber Masmoudi
Alström syndrome is a clinically complex disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of sensory functions, resulting in visual and audiological impairment as well as metabolic disturbances. It is caused by recessively inherited mutations in the ALMS1 gene, which codes for a centrosomal/basal body protein. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic and clinical features of two Tunisian affected siblings with Alström syndrome. Detailed clinical examinations were performed including complete ophthalmic examination, serial audiograms and several biochemical and hormonal blood tests...
September 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
A K Dutta, B K Paulose, S Danda, S Alexander, V Tamilarasi, S Omprakash
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism due to liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine-glyoxylate transaminase deficiency. Here, we describe two unrelated patients who were diagnosed to have primary hyperoxaluria. Homozygous c.445_452delGTGCTGCT (p.L151Nfs*14) (Transcript ID: ENST00000307503; human genome assembly GRCh38.p2) (HGMD ID CD073567) mutation was detected in both the patients and the parents were found to be heterozygous carriers. Our patients developed end-stage renal disease at 23 years and 35 years of age...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Imad Mohammad Dweikat, Issa Shaher Alawneh, Sami Fares Bahar, Mutaz Idrees Sultan
BACKGROUND: Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (FBS, OMIM 227810) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), a member of the facilitative glucose transporter family (Santer et al. J Inherit Metab Dis 21:191-194, 1998). The typical clinical picture is characterized by hepatorenal glycogen accumulation resulting in hepato- and nephromegaly, impaired utilization of glucose and galactose, proximal renal tubular dysfunction, rickets and severe short stature...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Haijiang Dai, Shijuan Lu, Xiaohong Tang, Minggen Lu, Ruifang Chen, Zhiheng Chen, Pingting Yang, Chang Liu, Honghao Zhou, Yao Lu, Hong Yuan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the major complications of hypertension. It is not only associated with the future burden of end-stage renal disease but also affects mortality and cardiovascular outcomes caused by hypertension. To help understand the pathogenesis and early prevention of progressive CKD, this large-scale study is designed to determine the complex association between serum uric acid (SUA), metabolic syndrome and the prevalence of CKD in hypertensive patients...
2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Feng Liu, Shougang Zhuang
Renal fibrosis can be induced in different renal diseases, but ultimately progresses to end stage renal disease. Although the pathophysiologic process of renal fibrosis have not been fully elucidated, it is characterized by glomerulosclerosis and/or tubular interstitial fibrosis, and is believed to be caused by the proliferation of renal inherent cells, including glomerular epithelial cells, mesangial cells, and endothelial cells, along with defective kidney repair, renal interstitial fibroblasts activation, and extracellular matrix deposition...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
N Shenoy, L Pagliaro
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accounts for ∼80% of all RCC, and biallelic Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene defects occur in ∼75% of sporadic ccRCC. The etiopathogenesis of VHL mutant metastatic RCC, based on our understanding to date of molecular mechanisms involved, is a sequence of events which can be grouped under the following: (i) loss of VHL activity (germline/somatic mutation + inactivation of the wild-type copy); (ii) constitutive activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway due to loss of VHL activity and transcription of genes involved in angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion, metastasis, survival, anaerobic glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway; (iii) interactions of the HIF pathway with other oncogenic pathways; (iv) genome-wide epigenetic changes (potentially driven by an overactive HIF pathway) and the influence of epigenetics on various oncogenic, apoptotic, cell cycle regulatory and mismatch repair pathways (inhibition of multiple tumor suppressor genes); (v) immune evasion, at least partially caused by changes in the epigenome...
September 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Valérie Ghilain, Elsa Wiame, Edward Fomekong, Marie-Françoise Vincent, Dana Dumitriu, Marie-Cécile Nassogne
INTRODUCTION: Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a form of inherited aminoaciduria caused by a deficiency in the cationic amino acid transport process on the basolateral membrane of enterocytes and renal tubular cells. Clinical signs include gastrointestinal symptoms, failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, episodes of coma, intellectual deficiency, lung and renal involvement, bone marrow abnormalities, as well as altered immune response. Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular disorder predisposing sufferers to stroke through progressive stenosis of the intracranial internal carotid arteries and their proximal branches...
September 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Jayesh Mudgal, Vasantharaju S Gowdra, Piya P Mudgal, Pawan G Nayak, Nitesh Kumar, Zenab Attari, C Mallikarjuna Rao, Gopalan K Nampurath
The promising role of thiazolidin-4-ones (TZOs) against inflammatory conditions has been reported. From our lab, one of the TZO derivatives, compound 4C, exerted anti-inflammatory potential via inhibition of locally released cytokines and prostaglandin. In continuance, a detailed study was undertaken for the preclinical profiling of this promising TZO derivative against polyarthritis in rats, along with assessment of risk associated with the treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model...
August 25, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Juan Wang, Chunli Cui, Li Fu, Zili Xiao, Nanzi Xie, Yang Liu, Lu Yu, Haifeng Wang, Bangzhen Luo
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a common diabetes-related complication, is the leading cause of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end‑stage renal disease. Despite the rapid development in the treatment of DN, currently available therapies used in early DN cannot prevent progressive CKD. The exact pathogenic mechanisms and the molecular events underlying DN development remain unclear. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a herbal medicine with numerous pharmacological effects. To gain a greater understanding of the molecular mechanism and signaling pathway underlying the effect of ginsenoside Rg3 in DN therapy, an RNA sequencing approach was performed to screen differential gene expression in a rat model of DN treated with ginsenoside Rg3...
August 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Nageh Ahmed El-Mahdy, Magda El-Sayed El-Sayad, Aya Hassan El-Kadem
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the world. Several signaling pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of DN including elevation in level of angiotensin II, formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), activation of protein kinase c (PKC), and lipid accumulation. These pathways activate one another mutually leading to oxidative stress, increasing expression of transforming growth factor beta-1(TGF-β 1) and release of interleukins and adhesion molecules, so the aim of this study is to interrupt more than pathogenic pathway to ameliorate the progression of DN...
July 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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