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creatine ethyl ester

Enrico Adriano, Maurizio Gulino, Maria Arkel, Annalisa Salis, Gianluca Damonte, Nara Liessi, Enrico Millo, Patrizia Garbati, Maurizio Balestrino
Creatine is pivotal in energy metabolism of the brain. In primary creatine deficiency syndromes, creatine is missing from the brain. Two of them (AGAT and GAMT deficiency) are due to impaired creatine synthesis, and can be treated by creatine supplementation. By contrast, creatine transporter deficiency cannot be treated by such supplementation, since creatine crossing of biological membranes (plasma membrane and blood-brain barrier) is dependent on its transporter. This problem might be overcome by modifying the creatine molecule to allow it to cross biological membranes independently of its transporter...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Maria Arkel, Patrizia Garbati, Annalisa Salis, Gianluca Damonte, Nara Liessi, Enrico Adriano, Umberto Benatti, Maurizio Balestrino, Enrico Millo
Background Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy currency of the body; it takes part in various and indispensable metabolic processes for the maintenance of cell homeostasis, degrading to its hydrolysis product, adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Efficient ways to restore ATP are therefore necessary in the cells. When the cell lacks energy due to ischemic conditions or high ATP demand, phosphocreatine gives its phosphate group to ADP that converts to ATP, in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme creatine kinase...
November 20, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
Susanne Andres, Rainer Ziegenhagen, Iris Trefflich, Sophie Pevny, Katharina Schultrich, Hans Braun, Wilhelm Schänzer, Karen Ildico Hirsch-Ernst, Bernd Schäfer, Alfonso Lampen
Creatine is a popular ergogenic supplement in sports nutrition. Yet, supplementation of creatine occasionally caused adverse effects such as gastrointestinal complaints, muscle cramps and an increase in body weight. Creatine monohydrate has already been evaluated by different competent authorities and several have come to the conclusion that a daily intake of 3 g creatine per person is unlikely to pose safety concerns, focusing on healthy adults with exclusion of pregnant and breastfeeding women. Possible vulnerable subgroups were also discussed in relation to the safety of creatine...
June 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Zhanke Wang, Rongjian Chen, Zhongzhen Zhu, Xiaoyun Zhang, Shiliang Wang
BACKGROUND: Inflammation response and oxidative stress promote the occurrence and development of multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). METHODS: Eighty MODS rats with third-degree burns were divided randomly into 4 groups: insulin, ethyl pyruvate (EP), insulin combined with EP, and control. Blood levels of glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine (CRE), creatine kinase (CK), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) before as well as 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after burns were measured...
November 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Mauricio P Cunha, Vicente Lieberknecht, Ana Belén Ramos-Hryb, Gislaine Olescowicz, Fabiana K Ludka, Carla I Tasca, Nelson H Gabilan, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Creatine has been reported to exert beneficial effects in several neurodegenerative diseases in which glutamatergic excitotoxicity and oxidative stress play an etiological role. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of creatine, as compared to the N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801), against glutamate or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure of cells to glutamate (60-80 mM) or H2O2 (200-300 μM) for 24 h decreased cellular viability and increased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence (indicative of increased reactive oxygen species, ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production (assessed by mono-nitrogen oxides, NOx, levels)...
May 2016: Neurochemistry International
Olga S Veselkina, Vasily A Morozov, Dmitrii E Korzhevskii, Denis B Tihonov, Oleg I Barygin, Anna V Isaeva, Maria N Portsel, Timur D Vlasov
BACKGROUND: We have recently shown neuroprotective activity of the creatine amides in the focal cerebral ischemia in rats on the 280 mg/kg administration. In the present study, neuroprotective properties of creatylglycine ethyl ester fumarate (CrGEt) in rats with focal cerebral ischemia were explored in a wide dosage range (30-280 mg/kg, intravenous and intragastric). METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). RESULTS: The CrGEt administration 30 minutes before and at the last 5 minutes of MCAO dose dependently attenuated cerebral ischemic damage on 35%-65%, reduced neurobehavioral deficits, led to high neuronal survival in ischemic rat brains...
March 2015: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Lydia Williamson, David New
Serum creatinine is a widely used marker in the assessment of renal function. Elevated creatinine levels suggest kidney dysfunction, prompting the need for further investigation. This report describes a case in which the consumption of the bodybuilding supplement creatine ethyl ester resulted in raised serum creatinine in the absence of true underlying kidney pathology. The abnormalities reversed after discontinuation of the supplement. A case of pseudo renal failure was recognised and kidney function was concluded to be normal...
September 19, 2014: BMJ Case Reports
Luz Diana Santa-Cruz, Ricardo Tapia
MN (motor neuron) death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may be mediated by glutamatergic excitotoxicity. Previously, our group showed that the microdialysis perfusion of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate) in the rat lumbar spinal cord induced MN death and permanent paralysis within 12 h after the experiment. Here, we studied the involvement of energy metabolic deficiencies and of oxidative stress in this MN degeneration, by testing the neuroprotective effect of various energy metabolic substrates and antioxidants...
2014: ASN Neuro
Brandon T Gufford, Edward L Ezell, Dennis H Robinson, Donald W Miller, Nicholas J Miller, Xiaochen Gu, Jonathan L Vennerstrom
Creatine ethyl ester hydrochloride (CEE) was synthesized as a prodrug of creatine (CRT) to improve aqueous solubility, gastrointestinal permeability, and ultimately the pharmacodynamics of CRT. We used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to characterize the pH-dependent stability of CEE in aqueous solution and compared the permeability of CEE to CRT and creatinine (CRN) across Caco-2 human epithelial cell monolayers and transdermal permeability across porcine skin...
September 2013: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Matthew Hall, Thomas H Trojian
Creatine monohydrate is a dietary supplement that increases muscle performance in short-duration, high-intensity resistance exercises, which rely on the phosphocreatine shuttle for adenosine triphosphate. The effective dosing for creatine supplementation includes loading with 0.3 g·kg·d for 5 to 7 days, followed by maintenance dosing at 0.03 g·kg·d most commonly for 4 to 6 wk. However loading doses are not necessary to increase the intramuscular stores of creatine. Creatine monohydrate is the most studied; other forms such as creatine ethyl ester have not shown added benefits...
July 2013: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Wilbert A G van der Meijden, Peter J H Smak Gregoor
BACKGROUND: Renal function is currently estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula, which is partly based on the serum creatinine level. Patients with impaired renal function are referred to nephrologists in accordance with the Dutch national transmural agreement for 'Chronic renal impairment'. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 54-year-old woman without significant history was referred to analyse a coincidentally found decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
2013: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
S Ravera, E Adriano, M Balestrino, I Panfoli
The creatine kinase/phosphocreatine system plays a key role in cell energy buffering and transport, particularly in cells with high or fluctuating energy requirements, like neurons, i.e. it participates in the energetic metabolism of the brain. Creatine depletion causes several nervous system diseases, alleviated by phosphagen supplementation. Often, the supplementation contains both creatine and creatine ethyl ester, known to improve the effect of creatine through an unknown mechanism. In this work we showed that purified creatine kinase is able to phosphorilate the creatine ethyl ester...
January 2012: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
E Adriano, P Garbati, G Damonte, A Salis, A Armirotti, M Balestrino
Creatine, an ergogenic compound essential for brain function, is very hydrophilic and needs a transporter to cross lipid-rich cells' plasma membranes. Hereditary creatine transporter deficiency is a severe incurable neurological disease where creatine is missing from the brain. Creatine esters are more lipophylic than creatine and may not need the transporter to cross plasma membranes. Thus, they may represent a useful therapy for hereditary creatine transporter deficiency. Creatine ethyl ester (CEE) is commercially available and widely used as a nutritional supplement...
December 29, 2011: Neuroscience
Sergey Burov, Maria Leko, Marina Dorosh, Anatoliy Dobrodumov, Olga Veselkina
Prolonged oral creatine administration resulted in remarkable neuroprotection in experimental models of brain stroke. However, because of its polar nature creatine has poor ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) without specific creatine transporter (CRT). Thus, synthesis of hydrophobic derivatives capable of crossing the BBB by alternative pathway is of great importance for the treatment of acute and chronic neurological diseases including stroke, traumatic brain injury and hereditary CRT deficiency...
September 2011: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Korey M Leland, Thomas L McDonald, Kristen M Drescher
Despite the widespread availability and use of dietary supplements, minimal work has been performed to assess the potential dangers many of these supplements may have on the host's well-being, in particular the host's ability to respond to infection. One supplement extensively used by both adolescents and adults is creatine. Using Real-time PCR, we examined the impact of short-term exposure of a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 cells) to two readily available forms of creatine used in supplements--creatine monohydrate (CR) and creatine ethyl ester (CEE) as well as the end product of creatine metabolism, creatinine (CRN), on expression of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2), TLR-3, TLR-4, and TLR-7...
September 2011: International Immunopharmacology
M S Velema, W de Ronde
Creatine is a nutritional supplement widely used in sport, physical fitness training and bodybuilding. It is claimed to enhance performance. We describe a case in which serum creatinine is elevated due to the use of creatine ethyl esther. One week after withdrawal, the plasma creatinine had normalised. There are two types of creatine products available: creatine ethyl esther (CEE) and creatine monohydrate (CM). Plasma creatinine is not elevated in all creatine-using subjects. CEE , but not CM, is converted into creatinine in the gastrointestinal tract...
February 2011: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
C Fons, A Arias, A Sempere, P Póo, M Pineda, A Mas, A López-Sala, J Garcia-Villoria, M A Vilaseca, L Ozaez, M Lluch, R Artuch, J Campistol, A Ribes
Creatine transporter (CRTR) deficiency is one of the most frequent causes of X-linked mental retardation. The lack of an effective treatment for this disease, in contrast to creatine (Cr) biosynthesis disorders that respond to Cr monohydrate (CM), led us to analyze the efficacy of a lipophilic molecule derived from Cr, creatine ethyl ester (CEE), in fibroblasts and patients with CRTR deficiency. CM and CEE uptake studies were performed in six controls and four fibroblast cell lines from patients. We found a significant increase in Cr uptake after 72 h of incubation with CEE (500 micromol/L) in patients and control fibroblasts compared to incubation with CM...
March 2010: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Jonathan Ling, Minos Kritikos, Brian Tiplady
Supplementation with creatine-based substances as a means of enhancing athletic performance has become widespread. Until recently, however, the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive performance has been given little attention. This study used a new form of creatine--creatine ethyl ester--to investigate whether supplementation would improve performance in five cognitive tasks, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Creatine dosing led to an improvement over the placebo condition on several measures...
December 2009: Behavioural Pharmacology
Matthew W Giese, Carl S Lecher
Creatine ethyl ester was incubated at 37 degrees C in both water and phosphate-buffered saline and the diagnostic methylene resonances in the (1)H NMR spectrum were used to identify the resultant products. It was found that mild aqueous conditions result in the cyclization of creatine ethyl ester to provide inactive creatinine as the exclusive product, and this transformation becomes nearly instantaneous as the pH approaches 7.4. This study demonstrates that mild non-enzymatic conditions are sufficient for the cyclization of creatine ethyl ester into creatinine, and together with previous results obtained under enzymatic conditions suggests that there are no physiological conditions that would result in the production of creatine...
October 16, 2009: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
M W Giese, C S Lecher
There are a number of forms of creatine available that attempt to improve the solubility and permeability, with the anticipation this will result in an improved pharmacokinetic profile and ultimately an enhanced ergogenic response. Previous research has shown that the different salt forms can improve solubility resulting in slightly altered pharmacokinetic profiles, however specific data exploring the conversion of esterified derivatives to creatine is lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the assertion that creatine ethyl ester undergoes enzymatic conversion to creatine in human tissues...
October 2009: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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