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creatine ethyl ester

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567422/effects-of-insulin-combined-with-ethyl-pyruvate-on-inflammatory-response-and-oxidative-stress-in-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-rats-with-severe-burns
#1
Zhanke Wang, Rongjian Chen, Zhongzhen Zhu, Xiaoyun Zhang, Shiliang Wang
BACKGROUND: Inflammation response and oxidative stress promote the occurrence and development of multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). METHODS: Eighty MODS rats with third-degree burns were divided randomly into 4 groups: insulin, ethyl pyruvate (EP), insulin combined with EP, and control. Blood levels of glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine (CRE), creatine kinase (CK), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) before as well as 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after burns were measured...
August 9, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26804444/creatine-affords-protection-against-glutamate-induced-nitrosative-and-oxidative-stress
#2
Mauricio P Cunha, Vicente Lieberknecht, Ana Belén Ramos-Hryb, Gislaine Olescowicz, Fabiana K Ludka, Carla I Tasca, Nelson H Gabilan, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Creatine has been reported to exert beneficial effects in several neurodegenerative diseases in which glutamatergic excitotoxicity and oxidative stress play an etiological role. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of creatine, as compared to the N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801), against glutamate or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure of cells to glutamate (60-80 mM) or H2O2 (200-300 μM) for 24 h decreased cellular viability and increased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence (indicative of increased reactive oxygen species, ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production (assessed by mono-nitrogen oxides, NOx, levels)...
May 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25561316/neuroprotective-activity-of-creatylglycine-ethyl-ester-fumarate
#3
Olga S Veselkina, Vasily A Morozov, Dmitrii E Korzhevskii, Denis B Tihonov, Oleg I Barygin, Anna V Isaeva, Maria N Portsel, Timur D Vlasov
BACKGROUND: We have recently shown neuroprotective activity of the creatine amides in the focal cerebral ischemia in rats on the 280 mg/kg administration. In the present study, neuroprotective properties of creatylglycine ethyl ester fumarate (CrGEt) in rats with focal cerebral ischemia were explored in a wide dosage range (30-280 mg/kg, intravenous and intragastric). METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). RESULTS: The CrGEt administration 30 minutes before and at the last 5 minutes of MCAO dose dependently attenuated cerebral ischemic damage on 35%-65%, reduced neurobehavioral deficits, led to high neuronal survival in ischemic rat brains...
March 2015: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25239988/how-the-use-of-creatine-supplements-can-elevate-serum-creatinine-in-the-absence-of-underlying-kidney-pathology
#4
Lydia Williamson, David New
Serum creatinine is a widely used marker in the assessment of renal function. Elevated creatinine levels suggest kidney dysfunction, prompting the need for further investigation. This report describes a case in which the consumption of the bodybuilding supplement creatine ethyl ester resulted in raised serum creatinine in the absence of true underlying kidney pathology. The abnormalities reversed after discontinuation of the supplement. A case of pseudo renal failure was recognised and kidney function was concluded to be normal...
2014: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24524836/role-of-energy-metabolic-deficits-and-oxidative-stress-in-excitotoxic-spinal-motor-neuron-degeneration-in%C3%A2-vivo
#5
Luz Diana Santa-Cruz, Ricardo Tapia
MN (motor neuron) death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may be mediated by glutamatergic excitotoxicity. Previously, our group showed that the microdialysis perfusion of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate) in the rat lumbar spinal cord induced MN death and permanent paralysis within 12 h after the experiment. Here, we studied the involvement of energy metabolic deficiencies and of oxidative stress in this MN degeneration, by testing the neuroprotective effect of various energy metabolic substrates and antioxidants...
2014: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23957855/ph-dependent-stability-of-creatine-ethyl-ester-relevance-to-oral-absorption
#6
Brandon T Gufford, Edward L Ezell, Dennis H Robinson, Donald W Miller, Nicholas J Miller, Xiaochen Gu, Jonathan L Vennerstrom
Creatine ethyl ester hydrochloride (CEE) was synthesized as a prodrug of creatine (CRT) to improve aqueous solubility, gastrointestinal permeability, and ultimately the pharmacodynamics of CRT. We used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to characterize the pH-dependent stability of CEE in aqueous solution and compared the permeability of CEE to CRT and creatinine (CRN) across Caco-2 human epithelial cell monolayers and transdermal permeability across porcine skin...
September 2013: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23851411/creatine-supplementation
#7
Matthew Hall, Thomas H Trojian
Creatine monohydrate is a dietary supplement that increases muscle performance in short-duration, high-intensity resistance exercises, which rely on the phosphocreatine shuttle for adenosine triphosphate. The effective dosing for creatine supplementation includes loading with 0.3 g·kg·d for 5 to 7 days, followed by maintenance dosing at 0.03 g·kg·d most commonly for 4 to 6 wk. However loading doses are not necessary to increase the intramuscular stores of creatine. Creatine monohydrate is the most studied; other forms such as creatine ethyl ester have not shown added benefits...
July 2013: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23759178/-impaired-renal-function-be-aware-of-exogenous-factors
#8
Wilbert A G van der Meijden, Peter J H Smak Gregoor
BACKGROUND: Renal function is currently estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula, which is partly based on the serum creatinine level. Patients with impaired renal function are referred to nephrologists in accordance with the Dutch national transmural agreement for 'Chronic renal impairment'. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 54-year-old woman without significant history was referred to analyse a coincidentally found decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
2013: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22642114/creatine-ethyl-ester-a-new-substrate-for-creatine-kinase
#9
S Ravera, E Adriano, M Balestrino, I Panfoli
The creatine kinase/phosphocreatine system plays a key role in cell energy buffering and transport, particularly in cells with high or fluctuating energy requirements, like neurons, i.e. it participates in the energetic metabolism of the brain. Creatine depletion causes several nervous system diseases, alleviated by phosphagen supplementation. Often, the supplementation contains both creatine and creatine ethyl ester, known to improve the effect of creatine through an unknown mechanism. In this work we showed that purified creatine kinase is able to phosphorilate the creatine ethyl ester...
January 2012: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21963865/searching-for-a-therapy-of-creatine-transporter-deficiency-some-effects-of-creatine-ethyl-ester-in-brain-slices-in-vitro
#10
E Adriano, P Garbati, G Damonte, A Salis, A Armirotti, M Balestrino
Creatine, an ergogenic compound essential for brain function, is very hydrophilic and needs a transporter to cross lipid-rich cells' plasma membranes. Hereditary creatine transporter deficiency is a severe incurable neurological disease where creatine is missing from the brain. Creatine esters are more lipophylic than creatine and may not need the transporter to cross plasma membranes. Thus, they may represent a useful therapy for hereditary creatine transporter deficiency. Creatine ethyl ester (CEE) is commercially available and widely used as a nutritional supplement...
December 29, 2011: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21644247/creatinyl-amino-acids-new-hybrid-compounds-with-neuroprotective-activity
#11
Sergey Burov, Maria Leko, Marina Dorosh, Anatoliy Dobrodumov, Olga Veselkina
Prolonged oral creatine administration resulted in remarkable neuroprotection in experimental models of brain stroke. However, because of its polar nature creatine has poor ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) without specific creatine transporter (CRT). Thus, synthesis of hydrophobic derivatives capable of crossing the BBB by alternative pathway is of great importance for the treatment of acute and chronic neurological diseases including stroke, traumatic brain injury and hereditary CRT deficiency...
September 2011: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21575742/effect-of-creatine-creatinine-and-creatine-ethyl-ester-on-tlr-expression-in-macrophages
#12
Korey M Leland, Thomas L McDonald, Kristen M Drescher
Despite the widespread availability and use of dietary supplements, minimal work has been performed to assess the potential dangers many of these supplements may have on the host's well-being, in particular the host's ability to respond to infection. One supplement extensively used by both adolescents and adults is creatine. Using Real-time PCR, we examined the impact of short-term exposure of a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 cells) to two readily available forms of creatine used in supplements--creatine monohydrate (CR) and creatine ethyl ester (CEE) as well as the end product of creatine metabolism, creatinine (CRN), on expression of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2), TLR-3, TLR-4, and TLR-7...
September 2011: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21411845/elevated-plasma-creatinine-due-to-creatine-ethyl-ester-use
#13
M S Velema, W de Ronde
Creatine is a nutritional supplement widely used in sport, physical fitness training and bodybuilding. It is claimed to enhance performance. We describe a case in which serum creatinine is elevated due to the use of creatine ethyl esther. One week after withdrawal, the plasma creatinine had normalised. There are two types of creatine products available: creatine ethyl esther (CEE) and creatine monohydrate (CM). Plasma creatinine is not elevated in all creatine-using subjects. CEE , but not CM, is converted into creatinine in the gastrointestinal tract...
February 2011: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19955008/response-to-creatine-analogs-in-fibroblasts-and-patients-with-creatine-transporter-deficiency
#14
C Fons, A Arias, A Sempere, P Póo, M Pineda, A Mas, A López-Sala, J Garcia-Villoria, M A Vilaseca, L Ozaez, M Lluch, R Artuch, J Campistol, A Ribes
Creatine transporter (CRTR) deficiency is one of the most frequent causes of X-linked mental retardation. The lack of an effective treatment for this disease, in contrast to creatine (Cr) biosynthesis disorders that respond to Cr monohydrate (CM), led us to analyze the efficacy of a lipophilic molecule derived from Cr, creatine ethyl ester (CEE), in fibroblasts and patients with CRTR deficiency. CM and CEE uptake studies were performed in six controls and four fibroblast cell lines from patients. We found a significant increase in Cr uptake after 72 h of incubation with CEE (500 micromol/L) in patients and control fibroblasts compared to incubation with CM...
March 2010: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19773644/cognitive-effects-of-creatine-ethyl-ester-supplementation
#15
Jonathan Ling, Minos Kritikos, Brian Tiplady
Supplementation with creatine-based substances as a means of enhancing athletic performance has become widespread. Until recently, however, the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive performance has been given little attention. This study used a new form of creatine--creatine ethyl ester--to investigate whether supplementation would improve performance in five cognitive tasks, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Creatine dosing led to an improvement over the placebo condition on several measures...
December 2009: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19660433/non-enzymatic-cyclization-of-creatine-ethyl-ester-to-creatinine
#16
Matthew W Giese, Carl S Lecher
Creatine ethyl ester was incubated at 37 degrees C in both water and phosphate-buffered saline and the diagnostic methylene resonances in the (1)H NMR spectrum were used to identify the resultant products. It was found that mild aqueous conditions result in the cyclization of creatine ethyl ester to provide inactive creatinine as the exclusive product, and this transformation becomes nearly instantaneous as the pH approaches 7.4. This study demonstrates that mild non-enzymatic conditions are sufficient for the cyclization of creatine ethyl ester into creatinine, and together with previous results obtained under enzymatic conditions suggests that there are no physiological conditions that would result in the production of creatine...
October 16, 2009: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19585404/qualitative-in-vitro-nmr-analysis-of-creatine-ethyl-ester-pronutrient-in-human-plasma
#17
M W Giese, C S Lecher
There are a number of forms of creatine available that attempt to improve the solubility and permeability, with the anticipation this will result in an improved pharmacokinetic profile and ultimately an enhanced ergogenic response. Previous research has shown that the different salt forms can improve solubility resulting in slightly altered pharmacokinetic profiles, however specific data exploring the conversion of esterified derivatives to creatine is lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the assertion that creatine ethyl ester undergoes enzymatic conversion to creatine in human tissues...
October 2009: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19524547/non-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-creatine-ethyl-ester
#18
Nicholas S Katseres, David W Reading, Luay Shayya, John C Dicesare, Gordon H Purser
The rate of the non-enzymatic hydrolysis of creatine ethyl ester (CEE) was studied at 37 degrees C over the pH range of 1.6-7.0 using (1)H NMR. The ester can be present in solution in three forms: the unprotonated form (CEE), the monoprotonated form (HCEE(+)), and the diprotonated form (H(2)CEE(2+)). The values of pK(a1) and pK(a2) of H(2)CEE(2+) were found to be 2.30 and 5.25, respectively. The rate law is found to be Rate=-dCCEE/dt=k++[H2CEE2+][OH-]+k+[HCEE+][OH-]+k0[CEE][OH-] where the rate constants k(++), k(+), and k(0) are (3...
August 21, 2009: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19228401/the-effects-of-creatine-ethyl-ester-supplementation-combined-with-heavy-resistance-training-on-body-composition-muscle-performance-and-serum-and-muscle-creatine-levels
#19
Mike Spillane, Ryan Schoch, Matt Cooke, Travis Harvey, Mike Greenwood, Richard Kreider, Darryn S Willoughby
Numerous creatine formulations have been developed primarily to maximize creatine absorption. Creatine ethyl ester is alleged to increase creatine bio-availability. This study examined how a seven-week supplementation regimen combined with resistance training affected body composition, muscle mass, muscle strength and power, serum and muscle creatine levels, and serum creatinine levels in 30 non-resistance-trained males. In a double-blind manner, participants were randomly assigned to a maltodextrose placebo (PLA), creatine monohydrate (CRT), or creatine ethyl ester (CEE) group...
2009: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15331397/glutathione-depletion-impairs-myogenic-differentiation-of-murine-skeletal-muscle-c2c12-cells-through-sustained-nf-kappab-activation
#20
Esther Ardite, Joan Albert Barbera, Josep Roca, Jose C Fernández-Checa
Skeletal muscle differentation is a complex process regulated at multiple levels. This study addressed the effect of glutathione (GSH) depletion on the transition of murine skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts into myocytes induced by growth factor inactivation. Cellular GSH levels increased within 24 hours on myogenic stimulation of myoblasts due to enhanced GSH synthetic rate accounted for by stimulated glutamate-L-cysteine ligase (also known as gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase) activity. In contrast, the synthesis rate of GSH using gamma-glutamylcysteine and glutamate as precursors, which reflects the activity of the GSH synthetase, did not change during differentiation...
September 2004: American Journal of Pathology
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