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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344983/effects-of-bile-acids-on-human-airway-epithelial-cells-implications-for-aerodigestive-diseases
#1
Adil Aldhahrani, Bernard Verdon, Chris Ward, Jeffery Pearson
Gastro-oesophageal reflux and aspiration have been associated with chronic and end-stage lung disease and with allograft injury following lung transplantation. This raises the possibility that bile acids may cause lung injury by damaging airway epithelium. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bile acid challenge using the immortalised human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B). The immortalised human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) was cultured. A 48-h challenge evaluated the effect of individual primary and secondary bile acids...
January 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343338/expression-of-typical-osteoclast-markers-by-pbmcs-after-peg-induced-fusion-as-a-model-for-studying-osteoclast-differentiation
#2
Luz M Castillo, Carlos A Guerrero, Orlando Acosta
Bone is a metabolically active organ subjected to continuous remodeling process that involves resorption by osteoclast and subsequent formation by osteoblasts. Osteoclast involvement in this physiological event is regulated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Fusion of mono-nuclear pre-osteoclasts is a critical event for osteoclast differentiation and for bone resorption. Here we show that PBMCs can be successfully fused with polyethylenglicol (PEG) in order to generated viable osteoclast-like cells that exhibit tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and bone resorptive activities...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340601/rantes-levels-in-peripheral-blood-csf-and-contused-brain-tissue-as-a-marker-for-outcome-in-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-patients
#3
Venencia Albert, Arulselvi Subramanian, Deepak Agrawal, Sanjeev Kumar Bhoi, Pooja Pallavi, A K Mukhopadhayay
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes activation of several neurochemical and physiological cascades, leading to neurological impairment. We aimed to investigate the level of novel chemokine RANTES in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and contused brain tissue in traumatic brain injury patients and to correlate the expression of this chemokine with the severity of head injury and neurological outcome. METHODS: This longitudinal case control study was performed on 70 TBI patients over a period of 30 months...
March 24, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337665/effect-of-efflux-transporter-inhibition-on-the-distribution-of-fluconazole-in-the-rat-brain
#4
Wei Wang, Na Zheng, Jiatang Zhang, Xusheng Huang, Shengyuan Yu
Multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) and organic anion transporters (OATs) are expressed on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), preventing the entry of or the pumping out of numerous molecules. Fluconazole is widely used to treat fungal meningoencephalitis. The effect of these transporters on the distribution of fluconazole in the brain is unclear. We used microdialysis to compare the distribution of fluconazole in the rat brain with and without co-administration of probenecid, a MRP and OAT inhibitor...
March 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330873/amp-activated-protein-kinase-%C3%AE-1-promotes-atherogenesis-by-increasing-monocyte-to-macrophage-differentiation
#5
Miao Zhang, Huaiping Zhu, Ye Ding, Zhaoyu Liu, Zhejun Cai, Ming-Hui Zou
Monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation, which can be initiated by physiological or atherogenic factors, is a pivotal process in atherogenesis, a disorder in which monocytes adhere to endothelial cells and subsequently migrate into the sub-endothelial spaces, where they differentiate into macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells and cause atherosclerotic lesions. However, the monocyte-differentiation signaling pathways that are activated by atherogenic factors are poorly defined. Here we report that the AMP- activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1 in monocytes promotes atherosclerosis by increasing monocyte differentiation and survival...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330845/transport-across-the-choroid-plexus-epithelium
#6
Jeppe Praetorius, Helle Hasager Damkier
The choroid plexus epithelium is a secretory epithelium par excellence. However, this is perhaps not the most prominent reason for the massive interest in this modest-sized tissue residing inside the brain ventricles. Most likely, the dominant reason for extensive studies of the choroid plexus is the identification of this epithelium as the source of the majority of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid. This finding has direct relevance for studies of diseases and conditions with deranged central fluid volume or ionic balance...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325760/neisseria-meningitidis-uses-sibling-small-regulatory-rnas-to-switch-from-cataplerotic-to-anaplerotic-metabolism
#7
Yvonne Pannekoek, Robert A G Huis In 't Veld, Kim Schipper, Sandra Bovenkerk, Gertjan Kramer, Matthijs C Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek, Dave Speijer, Arie van der Ende
Neisseria meningitidis (the meningococcus) is primarily a commensal of the human oropharynx that sporadically causes septicemia and meningitis. Meningococci adapt to diverse local host conditions differing in nutrient supply, like the nasopharynx, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid, by changing metabolism and protein repertoire. However, regulatory transcription factors and two-component systems in meningococci involved in adaptation to local nutrient variations are limited. We identified novel sibling small regulatory RNAs ( Neisseriametabolic switch regulators [NmsRs]) regulating switches between cataplerotic and anaplerotic metabolism in this pathogen...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300644/the-connective-tissue-phenotype-of-glaucomatous-cupping-in-the-monkey-eye-clinical-and-research-implications
#8
REVIEW
Hongli Yang, Juan Reynaud, Howard Lockwood, Galen Williams, Christy Hardin, Luke Reyes, Cheri Stowell, Stuart K Gardiner, Claude F Burgoyne
In a series of previous publications we have proposed a framework for conceptualizing the optic nerve head (ONH) as a biomechanical structure. That framework proposes important roles for intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP-related stress and strain, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp), systemic and ocular determinants of blood flow, inflammation, auto-immunity, genetics, and other non-IOP related risk factors in the physiology of ONH aging and the pathophysiology of glaucomatous damage to the ONH. The present report summarizes 20 years of technique development and study results pertinent to the characterization of ONH connective tissue deformation and remodeling in the unilateral monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) model...
March 12, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296283/effects-of-transendocardial-cd34-cell-transplantation-on-diastolic-parameters-in-patients-with-nonischemic-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#9
Mojca Bervar, Mirta Kozelj, Gregor Poglajen, Matjaz Sever, Gregor Zemljic, Sabina Frljak, Marko Cukjati, Peter Cernelc, François Haddad, Bojan Vrtovec
We sought to evaluate the physiological background and the effects of CD34(+) cell transplantation on diastolic parameters in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy patients (DCM). We enrolled 38 DCM patients with NYHA class III and LVEF <40% who underwent transendocardial CD34(+) cell transplantation. Peripheral blood CD34(+) cells were mobilized by G-CSF, collected via apheresis, and injected transendocardially in the areas of myocardial hibernation. Patients were followed for 1 year. At baseline, estimated filling pressures were significantly elevated (E/e'≥15) in 18 patients (Group A), and moderately elevated (E/e'<15) in 20 patients (Group B)...
March 11, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292683/lower-inflammatory-markers-in-women-with-antenatal-depression-brings-the-m1-m2-balance-into-focus-from-a-new-direction
#10
Åsa Edvinsson, Emma Bränn, Charlotte Hellgren, Eva Freyhult, Richard White, Masood Kamali-Moghaddam, Jocelien Olivier, Jonas Bergquist, Adrian E Boström, Helgi B Schiöth, Alkistis Skalkidou, Janet L Cunningham, Inger Sundström-Poromaa
BACKGROUND: Antenatal depression and use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in pregnancy have both been associated with an increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth and impaired fetal growth. While the underlying biological pathways for these complications are poorly understood, it has been hypothesized that inflammation may be a common physiological pathway. The aim of the present study was to assess peripheral inflammatory markers in healthy women, women with antenatal depression, and in women using SSRI during pregnancy...
February 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273770/transglutaminase-6-is-an-autoantigen-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-and-is-upregulated-in-reactive-astrocytes
#11
Massimiliano Cristofanilli, Daniel Gratch, Benjamin Pagano, Kelsey McDermott, Jessie Huang, Jeffrey Jian, Deneb Bates, Saud A Sadiq
BACKGROUND: Transglutaminase-6 (TGM6), a member of the transglutaminase enzyme family, is found predominantly in central nervous system (CNS) neurons under physiological conditions. It has been proposed as an autoimmune target in cerebral palsy, gluten-sensitive cerebellar ataxia, and schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate TGM6 involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Antibody levels against TGM6 (TGM6-IgG) were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 62 primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), 85 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and 50 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 51 controls...
December 1, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243999/physiological-effects-of-early-incremental-mobilization-of-a-patient-with-acute-intracerebral-and-intraventricular-hemorrhage-requiring-dual-external-ventricular-drainage
#12
Sowmya Kumble, Elizabeth K Zink, Mackenzie Burch, Sandra Deluzio, Robert D Stevens, Mona N Bahouth
BACKGROUND: Recent trials have challenged the notion that very early mobility benefits patients with acute stroke. It is unclear how cerebral autoregulatory impairments, prevalent in this population, could be affected by mobilization. The safety of mobilizing patients who have external ventricular drainage (EVD) devices for cerebrospinal fluid diversion and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is another concern due to risk of device dislodgment and potential elevation in ICP. We report hemodynamic and ICP responses during progressive, device-assisted mobility interventions performed in a critically ill patient with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) requiring two EVDs...
February 27, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237144/retrospective-analysis-of-translaminar-demographic-and-physiologic-parameters-in-relation-to-papilledema-severity
#13
MULTICENTER STUDY
David Fleischman, Jennifer T Perry, R Rand Allingham, Sandra S Stinnett, Gita M Fleischman, Syndee J Givre, David A Chesnutt
OBJECTIVE: Some case reports suggest that the translaminar pressure difference is important in cases of papilledema. The purpose of this study was to determine ocular, physiologic, and demographic factors associated with papilledema severity. DESIGN: Retrospective, blinded study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients who had undergone a diagnostic lumbar puncture and had a diagnosis of papilledema in conjunction with idiopathic intracranial hypertension between 2004 and 2012 were included in the study...
February 2017: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236064/the-disconnected-shunt-a-window-of-opportunities
#14
Jonathan Roth, Shlomi Constantini
INTRODUCTION: Shunt disconnection (SD), or migration of the distal end to extra-peritoneal tissues, may lead to shunt malfunction or be diagnosed incidentally. We present a systematic approach for treatment options that is tailored to each patient's personalized history, CSF physiology, and distribution (MRI), as well as a careful informed consent process. METHODS: We present two algorithms, for symptomatic and asymptomatic SD. In cases presenting with symptomatic elevated intracranial pressure, a distal shunt revision (DSR), or, in selected patients, an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), should be performed...
February 24, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228375/is-it-time-to-reinvent-basic-cell-culture-medium
#15
Turney J McKee, Svetlana V Komarova
The success of in vitro experiments depends largely on the quality of the cell culture media. Four synthetic media formulations, Dulbecco's Modified Minimum Essential Media (DMEM), RPMI 1640, Minimum Essential Media and its alpha modification (MEM), and Medium 199 (M199) are used in ~90% of published in vitro studies. We compared the levels of electrolytes and carbohydrates in these media formulations to physiological values in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. The most commonly used media, DMEM and RPMI 1640, largely deviate from physiological levels of glucose...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219399/noninvasive-detection-of-alarming-intracranial-pressure-changes-by-auditory-monitoring-in-early-management-of-brain-injury-a-prospective-invasive-versus-noninvasive-study
#16
Fabrice Giraudet, François Longeras, Aurélien Mulliez, Aurélie Thalamy, Bruno Pereira, Paul Avan, Laurent Sakka
BACKGROUND: In brain-injured patients intracranial pressure (ICP) is monitored invasively by a ventricular or intraparenchymal transducer. The procedure requires specific expertise and exposes the patient to complications such as malposition, hemorrhage or infection. As inner-ear fluid compartments are connected to the cerebrospinal fluid space, ICP changes elicit subtle changes in the physiology of the inner ear. Notably, we previously demonstrated that the phase of cochlear microphonic potential (CM) generated by sound stimuli rotates with ICP...
February 21, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219319/biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-recent-update
#17
Sushil Sharma, Walter Lipincott
Alzheimer disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of memory and cognitive function. It is the common cause of dementia in elderly and is a global health concern as the population of people aged 85 and older, is growing alarmingly. Although pharmacotherapy for the treatment of AD has improved, lot of work remains to treat this devastating disease. AD pathology begins even before the onset of clinical symptoms. Because therapies could be more effective if implemented early in the disease progression, it is highly prudent to discover reliable biomarkers, to detect its exact pathophysiology during pre-symptomatic stage...
February 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211543/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-physiology-of-low-nanomolar-concentrations-of-zn-2-in-artificial-cerebrospinal-fluid
#18
Haruna Tamano, Ryusuke Nishio, Yukina Shakushi, Miku Sasaki, Yuta Koike, Misa Osawa, Atsushi Takeda
Artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), i.e., brain extracellular medium, which includes Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), but not other divalent cations such as Zn(2+), has been used for in vitro and in vivo experiments. The present study deals with the physiological significance of extracellular Zn(2+) in ACSF. Spontaneous presynaptic activity is suppressed in the stratum lucidum of brain slices from young rats bathed in ACSF containing 10 nM ZnCl2, indicating that extracellular Zn(2+) modifies hippocampal presynaptic activity...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210225/increased-apoptosis-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-mediated-by-at1r-ras-erk1-2-signaling-results-in-sympathetic-hyperactivity-and-renovascular-hypertension-in-rats-after-kidney-injury
#19
Hongguo Zhu, Lishan Tan, Yumin Li, Jiawen Li, Minzi Qiu, Lanying Li, Mengbi Zhang, Min Liang, Aiqing Li
Background: The central nervous system plays a vital role in the development of hypertension, but the molecular regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore signaling in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) which might contribute to renal hypertension. Methods: Renal hypertension model was established by five-sixth nephrectomy operation (5/6Nx) in male Sprague Dawley rats. Ten weeks afterwards, they were random assigned to no treatment, or intracerebroventricular injection (ICV) with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, losartan [angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) antagonist], farnesylthiosalicylic acid (Ras inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), or SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) and Z-DEVD-FMK (caspase-3 inhibitor)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209740/quantitative-mri-volumetry-diffusivity-cerebrovascular-flow-and-cranial-hydrodynamics-during-head-down-tilt-and-hypercapnia-the-spacecot-study
#20
Larry Allen Kramer, Khader M Hasan, Ashot E Sargsyan, Karina Marshall-Goebel, Jörn Rittweger, Dorit Donoviel, Saki Higashi, Benson Mwangi, Darius A Gerlach, Eric M Bershad
PURPOSE: In order to improve the pathophysiologic understanding of visual changes observed in astronauts, we aimed to use quantitative MRI to measure anatomic and physiologic responses during a ground-based spaceflight analogue (head down tilt, HDT) combined with increased ambient carbon dioxide (CO2). METHODS: Six healthy, male subjects participated in the double-blinded, randomized cross-over design study with two conditions: 26.5 h of -12° HDT with ambient air and with 0...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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