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csf physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047355/hyperdynamic-csf-motion-profiles-found-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-and-alzheimer-s-disease-assessed-by-fluid-mechanics-derived-from-magnetic-resonance-images
#1
Ken Takizawa, Mitsunori Matsumae, Naokazu Hayashi, Akihiro Hirayama, Satoshi Yatsushiro, Kagayaki Kuroda
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) does not only ascertain morphological features, but also measures physiological properties such as fluid velocity or pressure gradient. The purpose of this study was to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in patients with morphological abnormalities such as enlarged brain ventricles and subarachnoid spaces. We used a time-resolved three dimensional phase contrast (3D-PC) MRI technique to quantitatively evaluate CSF dynamics in the Sylvian aqueduct of healthy elderly individuals and patients with either idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) presenting with ventricular enlargement...
October 18, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023798/intrathecal-antibody-distribution-in-the-rat-brain-surface-diffusion-perivascular-transport-and-osmotic-enhancement-of-delivery
#2
Michelle E Pizzo, Daniel J Wolak, Niyanta N Kumar, Eric Brunette, Christina L Brunnquell, Melanie-Jane Hannocks, N Joan Abbott, M Elizabeth Meyerand, Lydia Sorokin, Danica B Stanimirovic, Robert G Thorne
The precise mechanisms governing the central distribution of macromolecules from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the brain and spinal cord remain poorly understood, despite their importance for physiological processes such as antibody trafficking for central immune surveillance as well as several ongoing intrathecal clinical trials. Here, we clarify how immunoglobulin G (IgG) and smaller single-domain antibodies (sdAb) distribute throughout the whole brain in a size-dependent manner after intrathecal infusion in rats using ex vivo fluorescence and in vivo 3D magnetic resonance imaging...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961260/biochemical-phenotyping-unravels-novel-metabolic-abnormalities-and-potential-biomarkers-associated-with-treatment-of-glut1-deficiency-with-ketogenic-diet
#3
Gerarda Cappuccio, Michele Pinelli, Marianna Alagia, Taraka Donti, Debra-Lynn Day-Salvatore, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Valentina De Giorgis, Simona Lunghi, Maria Stella Vari, Pasquale Striano, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Adam D Kennedy, Sarah H Elsea
Global metabolomic profiling offers novel opportunities for the discovery of biomarkers and for the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms that might lead to the development of novel therapies. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is an inborn error of metabolism due to reduced function of glucose transporter type 1. Clinical presentation of GLUT1-DS is heterogeneous and the disorder mirrors patients with epilepsy, movement disorders, or any paroxysmal events or unexplained neurological manifestation triggered by exercise or fasting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960554/an-eigenvalue-approach-for-the-automatic-scaling-of-unknowns-in-model-based-reconstructions-application-to-real-time-phase-contrast-flow-mri
#4
Zhengguo Tan, Thorsten Hohage, Oleksandr Kalentev, Arun A Joseph, Xiaoqing Wang, Dirk Voit, K Dietmar Merboldt, Jens Frahm
The purpose of this work is to develop an automatic method for the scaling of unknowns in model-based nonlinear inverse reconstructions and to evaluate its application to real-time phase-contrast (RT-PC) flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Model-based MRI reconstructions of parametric maps which describe a physical or physiological function require the solution of a nonlinear inverse problem, because the list of unknowns in the extended MRI signal equation comprises multiple functional parameters and all coil sensitivity profiles...
September 28, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938276/anesthesia-with-dexmedetomidine-and-low-dose-isoflurane-increases-solute-transport-via-the-glymphatic-pathway-in-rat-brain-when-compared-with-high-dose-isoflurane
#5
Helene Benveniste, Hedok Lee, Fengfei Ding, Qian Sun, Ehab Al-Bizri, Rany Makaryus, Stephen Probst, Maiken Nedergaard, Elliot A Stein, Hanbing Lu
BACKGROUND: The glymphatic pathway transports cerebrospinal fluid through the brain, thereby facilitating waste removal. A unique aspect of this pathway is that its function depends on the state of consciousness of the brain and is associated with norepinephrine activity. A current view is that all anesthetics will increase glymphatic transport by inducing unconsciousness. This view implies that the effect of anesthetics on glymphatic transport should be independent of their mechanism of action, as long as they induce unconsciousness...
September 22, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931297/-intracranial-pressure-evaluation-by-ophthalmologist
#6
J Čmelo, R Illéš, J Šteňo
The value of ICT is important in diagnosis of the diseases of the eye and orbit Methods for direct measurement of intracranial pressure (ICT) are exact, but they are invasive and there is some risk of infection and damage of the tissue. Currently there are 2 valid indirect methods of mesurement of IKT. Digital Ophthalmodynamometry (D-ODM) and Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TDU). D-ODM is a non-invasive method for measuring of the Pulsating Venous Pressure (VPT). We can measure VPT by the pulse phenomena...
2017: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903061/lymphatic-drainage-system-of-the-brain-a-novel-target-for-intervention-of-neurological-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Bao-Liang Sun, Li-Hua Wang, Tuo Yang, Jing-Yi Sun, Lei-Lei Mao, Ming-Feng Yang, Hui Yuan, Robert A Colvin, Xiao-Yi Yang
The belief that the vertebrate brain functions normally without classical lymphatic drainage vessels has been held for many decades. On the contrary, new findings show that functional lymphatic drainage does exist in the brain. The brain lymphatic drainage system is composed of basement membrane-based perivascular pathway, a brain-wide glymphatic pathway, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage routes including sinus-associated meningeal lymphatic vessels and olfactory/cervical lymphatic routes. The brain lymphatic systems function physiological as a route of drainage for interstitial fluid (ISF) from brain parenchyma to nearby lymph nodes...
September 10, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900724/hypothalamic-dysfunction-is-related-to-sleep-impairment-and-csf-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Claudio Liguori, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Marzia Nuccetelli, Francesca Izzi, Giuseppe Sancesario, Andrea Cimini, Sergio Bernardini, Orazio Schillaci, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Placidi Fabio
Hypothalamus is a key brain region regulating several essential homeostatic functions, including the sleep-wake cycle. Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology affects nuclei controlling sleep-wake rhythm sited in this brain area. Since only post-mortem studies documented the relationship between hypothalamic atrophy and sleep-wake cycle impairment, we investigated in AD patients the possible hypothalamic in vivo alteration using 2-deoxy-2-(18F) fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG PET), and its correlations with sleep impairment and cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers (tau proteins and β-amyloid42)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894164/investigating-the-relationship-between-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-magnetic-induction-phase-shift-in-rabbit-intracerebral-hematoma-expansion-monitoring-by-mri
#9
Mingsheng Chen, Qingguang Yan, Jian Sun, Gui Jin, Mingxin Qin
In a prior study of intracerebral hemorrhage monitoring using magnetic induction phase shift (MIPS), we found that MIPS signal changes occurred prior to those seen with intracranial pressure. However, the characteristic MIPS alert is not yet fully explained. Combining the brain physiology and MIPS theory, we propose that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be the primary factor that leads to hematoma expansion being alerted by MIPS earlier than with intracranial pressure monitoring. This paper investigates the relationship between CSF and MIPS in monitoring of rabbit intracerebral hemorrhage models, which is based on the MIPS measurements data, the quantified data on CSF from medical images and the amount of injected blood in the rabbit intracerebral hemorrhage model...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891201/predicting-drug-concentration-time-profiles-in-multiple-cns-compartments-using-a-comprehensive-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model
#10
Yumi Yamamoto, Pyry A Välitalo, Dymphy R Huntjens, Johannes H Proost, An Vermeulen, Walter Krauwinkel, Margot W Beukers, Dirk-Jan van den Berg, Robin Hartman, Yin Cheong Wong, Meindert Danhof, Johan G C van Hasselt, Elizabeth C M de Lange
Drug development targeting the central nervous system (CNS) is challenging due to poor predictability of drug concentrations in various CNS compartments. We developed a generic physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for prediction of drug concentrations in physiologically relevant CNS compartments. System-specific and drug-specific model parameters were derived from literature and in silico predictions. The model was validated using detailed concentration-time profiles from 10 drugs in rat plasma, brain extracellular fluid, two cerebrospinal fluid sites, and total brain tissue...
September 11, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886491/interleukin-34-from-pathogenesis-to-clinical-applications
#11
REVIEW
Muhammad Baghdadi, Hiraku Endo, Yoshino Tanaka, Haruka Wada, Ken-Ichiro Seino
Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is a hematopoietic cytokine that was described for the first time in 2008 as a second ligand of CSF1R in addition to M-CSF. IL-34 and M-CSF share no sequence homology, but have similar functions, affecting the biology of myeloid cell lineage. In contrast to M-CSF, IL-34 shows unique signaling and expression patterns. Physiologically, IL-34 expression is restricted to epidermis and CNS, acting as a regulator of Langerhans cells and microglia, respectively. However, IL-34 expression can be induced and regulated by NF-κB under pathological conditions...
September 5, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875862/an-update-on-the-role-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-the-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Marina Boziki, Nikolaos Grigoriadis
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-containing endopeptidases, proteins essential to the degradation of various tissue extracellular matrix proteins. Under normal conditions MMPs participate in several physiological processes, both in the developing organism and the adult. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), affecting primarily young adults. Inflammatory infiltrations of the CNS parenchyma by autoreactive immune cells, that mediate myelin degradation in the form of the demyelination "plaque", are the pathological hallmark of the disease...
September 6, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868067/cerebrospinal-fluid-apolipoprotein-e-levels-in-delirium
#13
Gideon A Caplan, JIan Tai, Fazrul Mohd Hanizan, Catherine L McVeigh, Mark A Hill, Anne Poljak
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Delirium and the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele are risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), but the connection is unclear. We looked for an association. METHODS: Inpatients with delirium (n = 18) were compared with LOAD outpatients (n = 19), assaying blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using multiplex ELISA. RESULTS: The patients with delirium had a higher Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) score (5.6 ± 1.2 vs. 0...
May 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867487/arp2-3-complex-is-required-for-macrophage-integrin-functions-but-is-dispensable-for-fcr-phagocytosis-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-motility
#14
Jeremy D Rotty, Hailey E Brighton, Stephanie L Craig, Sreeja B Asokan, Ning Cheng, Jenny P Ting, James E Bear
The Arp2/3 complex nucleates branched actin, forming networks involved in lamellipodial protrusion, phagocytosis, and cell adhesion. We derived primary bone marrow macrophages lacking Arp2/3 complex (Arpc2(-/-)) and directly tested its role in macrophage functions. Despite protrusion and actin assembly defects, Arpc2(-/-) macrophages competently phagocytose via FcR and chemotax toward CSF and CX3CL1. However, CR3 phagocytosis and fibronectin haptotaxis, both integrin-dependent processes, are disrupted. Integrin-responsive actin assembly and αM/β2 integrin localization are compromised in Arpc2(-/-) cells...
September 11, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866082/the-in-situ-morphology-of-microglia-is-highly-sensitive-to-the-mode-of-tissue-fixation
#15
Bogdan Cătălin, Laura Stopper, Tudor-Adrian Bălşeanu, Anja Scheller
Microglia are known as the most motile cells in the central nervous system (CNS). It was shown in vivo that they permanently scan their direct microenvironment and react to pathological conditions within minutes. Many studies of brain pathologies use fixed brain tissue to investigate cellular changes. Unfortunately, due to technical reasons, the time span between the induction of the fixation procedure (start of the perfusion) and the finally-fixed tissue lasts several minutes, giving time to microglia to start reacting to the ischemic conditions due to perfusion start...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859995/glymphatic-system-disruption-as-a-mediator-of-brain-trauma-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#16
REVIEW
Molly J Sullan, Breton M Asken, Michael S Jaffee, Steven T DeKosky, Russell M Bauer
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an increasingly important issue among veterans, athletes and the general public. Difficulties with sleep onset and maintenance are among the most commonly reported symptoms following injury, and sleep debt is associated with increased accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in the interstitial space. Recent research into the glymphatic system, a lymphatic-like metabolic clearance mechanism in the central nervous system (CNS) which relies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), interstitial fluid (ISF), and astrocytic processes, shows that clearance is potentiated during sleep...
August 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859977/lowering-the-concentration-affects-the-migration-and-viability-of-intracerebroventricular-delivered-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Hyeong Seop Kim, Na Kyung Lee, Dongkyeom Yoo, Jeongmin Lee, Soo Jin Choi, Wonil Oh, Jong Wook Chang, Duk L Na
Due to their widely known therapeutic benefits, mesenchymal stem cells have been proposed as a novel treatment option for a wide range of diseases including Alzheimer's disease. To maximize these benefits, critical factors such as delivery route, cell viability, and cell migration must be accounted for. Out of the various delivery routes to the brain, the intracerebroventricular (ICV) route stands out due to the widespread distribution that can occur via cerebrospinal fluid flow. The major objective of this present study was to observe how altering cell concentration influences the migration and viability of human umbilical cord blood derived-mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs), delivered via ICV injection, in the brains of wild-type (WT) mice...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846166/cortisol-inhibits-csf2-and-csf3-via-dna-methylation-and-inhibits-invasion-in-first-trimester-trophoblast-cells
#18
Arianna Smith, Elizabeth Witte, Devin McGee, Jason Knott, Kavita Narang, Karen Racicot
PROBLEM: Heightened maternal stress affects trophoblast function and increases risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS OF STUDY: Studies were performed using the first-trimester trophoblast cell line, Sw.71. Cytokines were quantified using qPCR and ELISA. Epigenetic regulation of cytokines was characterized by inhibiting histone deacetylation (1 μmol/L suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [SAHA]) or methylation (5 μmol/L 5-azacytidine), or with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with a pan-acetyl histone-3 antibody...
August 28, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839004/ventilation-and-neurochemical-changes-during-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptor-activation-or-blockade-of-excitatory-receptors-in-the-hypoglossal-motor-nucleus-of-goats
#19
Thomas M Langer, Suzanne E Neumueller, Emma Crumley, Nicholas J Burgraff, Sawan Talwar, Matthew Robert Hodges, Lawrence G Pan, Hubert V Forster
Neuromodulator interdependence posits that changes in one or more neuromodulators are compensated by changes in other modulators to maintain stability in the respiratory control network. Herein, we studied compensatory neuromodulation in the hypoglossal motor nucleus (HMN) after chronic implantation of microtubules unilaterally (n=5) or bilaterally (n=5) into the HMN. After recovery, receptor agonists or antagonists in mock cerebrospinal fluid (mCSF) were dialyzed during the awake and NREM sleep state. During day studies, dialysis of the µ-opioid inhibitory receptor agonist DAMGO (100 µM) decreased pulmonary ventilation (V̇I), breathing frequency (f), and genioglossus (GG) muscle activity, but did not alter neuromodulators measured in the effluent mCSF...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834826/valsalva-maneuver-induced-changes-in-anterior-lamina-cribrosa-surface-depth-a-comparison-between-normal-and-glaucomatous-eyes
#20
Young Kook Kim, Ahnul Ha, Yong Ju Song, Kyeong Ik Na, Won June Lee, Jin Wook Jeoung, Ki Ho Park
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of the Valsalva maneuver (VM) on anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (ALCSD), and to compare normal with treated glaucomatous eyes in terms of this effect. METHODS: Thirty-two patients (32 eyes) with early-to-moderate glaucoma under treatment and 30 normal healthy participants (30 eyes) were prospectively enrolled. Study subjects performed the VM by blowing through a mouthpiece attached to a handheld manometer; expiratory pressure during the maneuver ranged from 35 to 40 mmHg...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
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