keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

csf physiology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458189/impact-of-time-of-day-on-diffusivity-measures-of-brain-tissue-derived-from-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#1
Cibu Thomas, Neda Sadeghi, Amrita Nayak, Aaron Trefler, Joelle Sarlls, Chris Baker, Carlo Pierpaoli
Diurnal fluctuations in MRI measures of structural and functional properties of the brain have been reported recently. These fluctuations may have a physiological origin, since they have been detected using different MRI modalities, and cannot be explained by factors that are typically known to confound MRI measures. While preliminary evidence suggests that measures of structural properties of the brain based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fluctuate as a function of time-of-day (TOD), the underlying mechanism has not been investigated...
February 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435957/oscillations-of-subarachnoid-space-width-as-a-potential-marker-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-pulsatility
#2
Marcin Gruszecki, Magdalena K Nuckowska, Arkadiusz Szarmach, Marek Radkowski, Dominika Szalewska, Monika Waskow, Edyta Szurowska, Andrzej F Frydrychowski, Urszula Demkow, Pawel J Winklewski
In the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation, two components can be distinguished: bulk flow (circulation) and pulsatile flow (back and forth motion). CSF pulsatile flow is generated by both cardiac and respiratory cycles. Recent years have seen increased interest in cardiac and respiratory-driven CSF pulsatility as an important component of cerebral homeostasis. CSF pulsatility is affected by cerebral arterial inflow and jugular outflow and potentially linked to white matter abnormalities in various diseases, such as multiple sclerosis or hypertension...
February 13, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433947/antiglutamic-acid-decarboxylase-65-gad65-antibody-associated-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Ahmad Daif, Rimas V Lukas, Naoum P Issa, Adil Javed, Stephen VanHaerents, Anthony T Reder, James X Tao, Peter Warnke, Sandra Rose, Vernon L Towle, Shasha Wu
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody-associated encephalitis causes both acute seizures and chronic epilepsy with predominantly temporal lobe onset. This condition is challenging in diagnosis and management, and the incidence of GAD antibody (Ab)-related epilepsy could be much higher than commonly believed. Imaging and CSF evidence of inflammation along with typical clinical presentations, such as adult onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with unexplained etiology, should prompt testing for the diagnostic antibodies...
February 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428972/the-role-of-brain-barriers-in-fluid-movement-in-the-cns-is-there-a-glymphatic-system
#4
REVIEW
N Joan Abbott, Michelle E Pizzo, Jane E Preston, Damir Janigro, Robert G Thorne
Brain fluids are rigidly regulated to provide stable environments for neuronal function, e.g., low K+, Ca2+, and protein to optimise signalling and minimise neurotoxicity. At the same time, neuronal and astroglial waste must be promptly removed. The interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain tissue and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bathing the CNS are integral to this homeostasis and the idea of a glia-lymph or 'glymphatic' system for waste clearance from brain has developed over the last 5 years. This links bulk (convective) flow of CSF into brain along the outside of penetrating arteries, glia-mediated convective transport of fluid and solutes through the brain extracellular space (ECS) involving the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, and finally delivery of fluid to venules for clearance along peri-venous spaces...
February 10, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409811/serum-albumin-s-protective-inhibition-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-fibre-formation-is-suppressed-by-cholesterol-fatty-acids-and-warfarin
#5
David C Bode, Helen F Stanyon, Trisha Hirani, Mark D Baker, Jon Nield, John H Viles
Central to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is the assembly of monomeric amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) into oligomers and fibres. The most abundant protein in the blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is human serum albumin (HSA). Albumin can bind to Aβ and is capable of inhibiting the fibrillisation of Aβ at physiological (μM) concentrations. The ability of albumin to bind Aβ has recently been exploited in a phase-II clinical trial, which showed a reduction in cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease patients undergoing albumin plasma-exchange...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397349/pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-in-adults-pathophysiology-and-clinical-approach
#6
REVIEW
Anupam Kumar, Basem Abdelmalak, Yoshikazu Inoue, Daniel A Culver
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a diffuse lung disease that results from the accumulation of lipoproteinaceous material in the alveoli and alveolar macrophages due to abnormal surfactant homoeostasis. Identification of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an indispensable mediator of macrophage maturation and surfactant catabolism was the key discovery leading to the current understanding of the pathogenesis of most forms of PAP. Impaired GM-CSF bioavailability due to anti-GM-CSF autoimmunity is the cause of approximately 90% of adult PAP cases...
January 31, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371166/neuroendoscopic-fenestration-for-entrapped-temporal-horn-after-surgery%C3%AF-report-of-3-cases
#7
Bin Zhang, Xinsheng Wang, Chuzhong Li, Zhong Li
The postoperative ventricular adhesion after resection of CNS tumors may obstruct physiological CSF circulation and cause temporal horn entrapment. The surgical goal is to restore physiological flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The authors reviewed their database to report their experience with endoscopic fenestration for treating entrapped temporal horn caused by atrial adhesions. All endoscopic operations performed from February 2015 to December 2016 were reviewed. Three patients developed temporal horn entrapment after tumor resection...
January 22, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368213/molecular-anatomy-and-functions-of-the-choroidal-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier-in-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Jean-François Ghersi-Egea, Nathalie Strazielle, Martin Catala, Violeta Silva-Vargas, Fiona Doetsch, Britta Engelhardt
The barrier between the blood and the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is located at the choroid plexuses. At the interface between two circulating fluids, these richly vascularized veil-like structures display a peculiar morphology explained by their developmental origin, and fulfill several functions essential for CNS homeostasis. They form a neuroprotective barrier preventing the accumulation of noxious compounds into the CSF and brain, and secrete CSF, which participates in the maintenance of a stable CNS internal environment...
January 24, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351662/the-versatile-tanycyte-a-hypothalamic-integrator-of-reproduction-and-energy-metabolism
#9
Vincent Prevot, Bénédicte Dehouck, Ariane Sharif, Philippe Ciofi, Paolo Giacobini, Jerome Clasadonte
The fertility and survival of an individual rely on the ability of the periphery to promptly, effectively and reproducibly communicate with brain neural networks that control reproduction, food intake and energy homeostasis. Tanycytes, a specialized glial cell type lining the wall of the third ventricle in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, appear to act as the linchpin of these processes by dynamically controlling the secretion of neuropeptides into the portal vasculature by hypothalamic neurons and regulating blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid exchanges, both processes that depend on the ability of these cells to adapt their morphology to the physiological state of the individual...
January 17, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350434/the-cystine-glutamate-exchanger-xct-slc7a11-is-expressed-in-significant-concentrations-in-a-subpopulation-of-astrocytes-in-the-mouse-brain
#10
Sigrid Ottestad-Hansen, Qiu Xiang Hu, Virgine Veronique Follin-Arbelet, Eduard Bentea, Hideyo Sato, Ann Massie, Yun Zhou, Niels Christian Danbolt
The cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) promotes glutathione synthesis by catalyzing cystine uptake and glutamate release. The released glutamate may modulate normal neural signaling and contribute to excitotoxicity in pathological situations. Uncertainty, however, remains as neither the expression levels nor the distribution of xCT have been unambiguously determined. In fact, xCT has been reported in astrocytes, neurons, oligodendrocytes and microglia, but most of the information derives from cell cultures. Here, we show by immunohistochemistry and by Western blotting that xCT is widely expressed in the central nervous system of both sexes...
January 19, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345363/effects-of-il-10-and-th-2-cytokines-on-human-m%C3%AF-phenotype-and-response-to-csf1r-inhibitor
#11
Leon P Pradel, Andreas Franke, Carola H Ries
Tumor-associated Mφs display a plastic phenotype that is regulated by the local tumor milieu. Gene expression analysis and functional characterization of Mφs exposed in vitro to individual cytokines aids to delineate the cross-talk between defined cytokines shaping the complex Mφ phenotype. Human monocyte-derived Mφs can be differentiated in vitro with the T helper cell type 2 response cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 or the immunosuppressive IL-10. Notably, only the latter subset undergoes apoptosis when treated with the CSF 1 receptor (CSF1R) blocking antibody emactuzumab...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342085/development-of-a-region-specific-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-brain-model-to-assess-hippocampus-and-frontal-cortex-pharmacokinetics
#12
Zaril Zakaria, Raj Badhan
Central nervous system drug discovery and development is hindered by the impermeable nature of the blood-brain barrier. Pharmacokinetic modeling can provide a novel approach to estimate CNS drug exposure; however, existing models do not predict temporal drug concentrations in distinct brain regions. A rat CNS physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed, incorporating brain compartments for the frontal cortex (FC), hippocampus (HC), "rest-of-brain" (ROB), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Model predictions of FC and HC Cmax, tmax and AUC were within 2-fold of that reported for carbamazepine and phenytoin...
January 17, 2018: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304863/gm-csf-overexpression-after-influenza-a-virus-infection-prevents-mortality-and-moderates-m1-like-airway-monocyte-macrophage-polarization
#13
E Scott Halstead, Todd M Umstead, Michael L Davies, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Patricia Silveyra, Judie Howyrlak, Linlin Yang, Weichao Guo, Sanmei Hu, Eranda Kurundu Hewage, Zissis C Chroneos
BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses cause life-threatening pneumonia and lung injury in the lower respiratory tract. Application of high GM-CSF levels prior to infection has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality from pathogenic influenza infection in mice, but the mechanisms of protection and treatment efficacy have not been established. METHODS: Mice were infected intranasally with influenza A virus (PR8 strain). Supra-physiologic levels of GM-CSF were induced in the airways using the double transgenic GM-CSF (DTGM) or littermate control mice starting on 3 days post-infection (dpi)...
January 5, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303789/sevoflurane-blocks-the-induction-of-long-term-potentiation-when-present-during-but-not-when-present-only-before-the-high-frequency-stimulation
#14
Jinyang Liu, Lie Yang, Daisy Lin, James E Cottrell, Ira S Kass
BACKGROUND: This study tests the hypothesis that sevoflurane blocks long-term potentiation only if it is present during the high-frequency stimulation that induces long-term potentiation. METHODS: Long-term potentiation, an electrophysiologic correlate of memory, was induced by high-frequency stimulation and measured as a persistent increase in the field excitatory postsynaptic potential slope in the CA1 region. RESULTS: Long-term potentiation was induced in the no sevoflurane group (171 ± 58% vs...
January 5, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281065/usefulness-of-sealants-for-dural-closure-evaluation-in-an-in-vitro-model
#15
Tristan van Doormaal, Ahmet Kinaci, Sander van Thoor, Saskia Redegeld, Wilhelmina Bergmann, Albert van der Zwan
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage occurs in 4% to 32% of cranial surgeries and is associated with significant patient burden and expense. The use of sealant as an adjunct to primary dural closure is assumed to help prevent CSF leakage. OBJECTIVE: To examine the utility of different sealants for dural closure using an in Vitro model. METHODS: We evaluated 9 commonly used dural sealants, including Tachosil (Takeda Inc, Osaka, Japan), Adherus (Hyperbranch Inc, Durham, North Carolina), Duraform (Codman, Raynham, Massachusetts), Tissudura (Baxter, Deerfield, Illinois), Hemopatch (Baxter), TissuePatchDural (Tissuemed, Leeds, United Kingdom), Tisseel (Baxter), Duragen Secure (Integra, Plainsboro, New Jersey), and Duraseal, (Integra)...
December 21, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273948/icp-curve-morphology-and-intracranial-flow-volume-changes-a-simultaneous-icp-and-cine-phase-contrast-mri-study-in-humans
#16
Mårten Unnerbäck, Johnny T Ottesen, Peter Reinstrup
BACKGROUND: The intracranial pressure (ICP) curve with its different peaks has been extensively studied, but the exact physiological mechanisms behind its morphology are still not fully understood. Both intracranial volume change (ΔICV) and transmission of the arterial blood pressure have been proposed to shape the ICP curve. This study tested the hypothesis that the ICP curve correlates to intracranial volume changes. METHODS: Cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were performed in neuro-intensive care patients with simultaneous ICP monitoring...
December 22, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262348/cellular-differentiation-of-human-monocytes-is-regulated-by-time-dependent-interleukin-4-signaling-and-the-transcriptional-regulator-ncor2
#17
Jil Sander, Susanne V Schmidt, Branko Cirovic, Naomi McGovern, Olympia Papantonopoulou, Anna-Lena Hardt, Anna C Aschenbrenner, Christoph Kreer, Thomas Quast, Alexander M Xu, Lisa M Schmidleithner, Heidi Theis, Lan Do Thi Huong, Hermi Rizal Bin Sumatoh, Mario A R Lauterbach, Jonas Schulte-Schrepping, Patrick Günther, Jia Xue, Kevin Baßler, Thomas Ulas, Kathrin Klee, Natalie Katzmarski, Stefanie Herresthal, Wolfgang Krebs, Bianca Martin, Eicke Latz, Kristian Händler, Michael Kraut, Waldemar Kolanus, Marc Beyer, Christine S Falk, Bettina Wiegmann, Sven Burgdorf, Nicholas A Melosh, Evan W Newell, Florent Ginhoux, Andreas Schlitzer, Joachim L Schultze
Human in vitro generated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and macrophages are used clinically, e.g., to induce immunity against cancer. However, their physiological counterparts, ontogeny, transcriptional regulation, and heterogeneity remains largely unknown, hampering their clinical use. High-dimensional techniques were used to elucidate transcriptional, phenotypic, and functional differences between human in vivo and in vitro generated mononuclear phagocytes to facilitate their full potential in the clinic...
December 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258201/impact-of-unsaturated-fatty-acids-on-cytokine-driven-endothelial-cell-dysfunction
#18
Simon Trommer, Anja Leimert, Michael Bucher, Julia Schumann
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are reported to exert prophylactic and acute therapeutic effects in diseases linked to endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, the consequences of a PUFA enrichment of endothelial cells (cell line TIME) on cell viability, expression of the cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), synthesis of the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and production of the coagulation factors plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and tissue factor (TF) was analyzed in parallel...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244804/conditional-knockout-mice-for-the-distal-appendage-protein-cep164-reveal-its-essential-roles-in-airway-multiciliated-cell-differentiation
#19
Saul S Siller, Himanshu Sharma, Shuai Li, June Yang, Yong Zhang, Michael J Holtzman, Wipawee Winuthayanon, Holly Colognato, Bernadette C Holdener, Feng-Qian Li, Ken-Ichi Takemaru
Multiciliated cells of the airways, brain ventricles, and female reproductive tract provide the motive force for mucociliary clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and ovum transport. Despite their clear importance to human biology and health, the molecular mechanisms underlying multiciliated cell differentiation are poorly understood. Prior studies implicate the distal appendage/transition fiber protein CEP164 as a central regulator of primary ciliogenesis; however, its role in multiciliogenesis remains unknown...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239310/micrornas-as-diagnostic-markers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by primary damage to the brain from the external mechanical force and by subsequent secondary injury due to various molecular and pathophysiological responses that eventually lead to neuronal cell death. Secondary brain injury events may occur minutes, hours, or even days after the trauma, and provide valuable therapeutic targets to prevent further neuronal degeneration. At the present time, there is no effective treatment for TBI due, in part, to the widespread impact of numerous complex secondary biochemical and pathophysiological events occurring at different time points following the initial injury...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
keyword
keyword
101802
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"