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csf physiology

David Fleischman, Amanda K Bicket, Sandra S Stinnett, John P Berdahl, Jost B Jonas, Ning Li Wang, Michael P Fautsch, R Rand Allingham
Purpose: To evaluate a frequently used regression model and a new, modified regression model to estimate cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP). Methods: Datasets from the Beijing iCOP study from Tongren Hospital, Beijing, China, and the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, were tested in this retrospective, case-control study. An often-used regression model derived from the Beijing iCOP dataset, but without radiographic data, was used to predict CSFP by using demographic and physiologic data...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Carolyn R Schaeffer, Tra-My N Hoang, Craig M Sudbeck, Malik Alawi, Isaiah E Tolo, D Ashley Robinson, Alexander R Horswill, Holger Rohde, Paul D Fey
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-associated infections, including those of intravascular catheters, cerebrospinal fluid shunts, and orthopedic implants. Multiple biofilm matrix molecules with heterogeneous characteristics have been identified, including proteinaceous, polysaccharide, and nucleic acid factors. Two of the best-studied components in S. epidermidis include accumulation-associated protein (Aap) and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), produced by the enzymatic products of the icaADBC operon...
September 2016: MSphere
Farron L McIntee, Patrizia Giannoni, Steven Blais, George Sommer, Thomas A Neubert, Agueda Rostagno, Jorge Ghiso
Amyloid β (Aβ) is the major constituent of the brain deposits found in parenchymal plaques and cerebral blood vessels of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several lines of investigation support the notion that synaptic pathology, one of the strongest correlates to cognitive impairment, is related to the progressive accumulation of neurotoxic Aβ oligomers. Since the process of oligomerization/fibrillization is concentration-dependent, it is highly reliant on the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate the steady state levels of Aβ influencing the delicate balance between rate of synthesis, dynamics of aggregation, and clearance kinetics...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yusuke Yoshioka, Takahiro Ochiya
Exosomes are membrane vesicles approximately 100 nm in diameter, present in a wide range of body fluids, including blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and saliva. Exosomes reflect the physiological state of their cells of origin and cancer cell-derived exosomes carry pathogenic components, such as proteins, messenger RNA (mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and DNA. Thus, exosomes in body fluids provide a rich source of potential biomarkers. However, the use of exosomes as biomarkers to improve patient care has been limited by their small size and the extensive sample preparation required for their isolation and measurement...
2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Martina Pigoni, Johanna Wanngren, Peer-Hendrik Kuhn, Kathryn M Munro, Jenny M Gunnersen, Hiroshi Takeshima, Regina Feederle, Iryna Voytyuk, Bart De Strooper, Mikail D Levasseur, Brian J Hrupka, Stephan A Müller, Stefan F Lichtenthaler
BACKGROUND: The protease BACE1 (beta-site APP cleaving enzyme) is a major drug target in Alzheimer's disease. However, BACE1 therapeutic inhibition may cause unwanted adverse effects due to its additional functions in the nervous system, such as in myelination and neuronal connectivity. Additionally, recent proteomic studies investigating BACE1 inhibition in cell lines and cultured murine neurons identified a wider range of neuronal membrane proteins as potential BACE1 substrates, including seizure protein 6 (SEZ6) and its homolog SEZ6L...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Jay M Meythaler, Jean D Peduzzi
OBJECTIVES: Baclofen is a zwitterion molecule where increased ions in the excipient increase the solubility. We developed baclofen in a stable solution similar to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) without bicarbonate and proteins to improve the solubility of the baclofen and to reduce the potential toxicity to the central nervous system (CNS) and subarachnoid space. The objective is to develop a solution of baclofen wherein baclofen is solubilized in a multivalent physiological ion solution such as artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) at a concentration from 2 mg/cc to 10 mg/cc...
October 3, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Valentin Mutemberezi, Owein Guillemot-Legris, Giulio G Muccioli
Oxysterols are cholesterol metabolites that can be produced through enzymatic or radical processes. They constitute a large family of lipids (i.e. the oxysterome) involved in a plethora of physiological processes. They can act through GPCR (e.g. EBI2, SMO, CXCR2), nuclear receptors (LXR, ROR, ERα) and through transporters or regulatory proteins. Their physiological effects encompass cholesterol, lipid and glucose homeostasis. Additionally, they were shown to be involved in other processes such as immune regulatory functions and brain homeostasis...
September 26, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
Stefanie Dinner, Julian Kaltschmidt, Carolin Stump-Guthier, Svetlana Hetjens, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Tobias Tenenbaum, Horst Schroten, Christian Schwerk
Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive bacterium, can cause meningitis after invading the human central nervous system. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), located at the epithelium of the choroid plexus, is a possible entry site for L. monocytogenes into the brain, and in vitro L. monocytogenes invades human choroid plexus epithelial papilloma (HIBCPP) cells. Although host cell signal transduction subsequent to infection by L. monocytogenes has been investigated, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) is not clarified yet...
September 23, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Xu Sheng Cao, Xiao Yan Peng, Qi Sheng You, Li Bin Jiang, Jost B Jonas
PURPOSE: To describe the occurrence of a congenital contractile peripapillary staphyloma in association with a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. METHODS: The clinical course of a 17-year-old patient with a contractile peripapillary staphyloma and undergoing pars plana vitrectomy for repair of an associated retinal detachment was studied. RESULTS: The left eye showed a peripapillary staphyloma which during the ophthalmoscopical examination revealed contractile movements after the presentation of a light stimulus to either eye...
September 23, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Amanda K Huber, David A Giles, Benjamin M Segal, David N Irani
Eotaxins are C-C motif chemokines first identified as potent eosinophil chemoattractants. They facilitate eosinophil recruitment to sites of inflammation in response to parasitic infections as well as allergic and autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The eotaxin family currently includes three members: eotaxin-1 (CCL11), eotaxin-2 (CCL24), and eotaxin-3 (CCL26). Despite having only ~30% sequence homology to one another, each was identified based on its ability to bind the chemokine receptor, CCR3...
September 21, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Se-Woong Chun, Hack-Jin Lee, Koong-Ho Nam, Chul-Ho Sohn, Kwang Dong Kim, Eun-Jin Jeong, Sun-Gun Chung, Keewon Kim, Dong-Joo Kim
Spinal stenosis is a common degenerative condition. However, how neurogenic claudication develops has not been clearly elucidated. Moreover, cerebrospinal fluid physiology at the lumbosacral level has not received adequate attention. This study was conducted to compare cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics at the lumbosacral spinal level between patients with spinal stenosis and healthy controls. Twelve subjects (4 patients and 8 healthy controls; 25-77 years old; 7 males) underwent phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging to quantify cerebrospinal fluid dynamics...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Michael A Williams, Jan Malm, Anders Eklund, Nicholas J Horton, Susan E Voss
BACKGROUND: A noninvasive method to monitor changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) is required for astronauts on long-duration spaceflight who are at risk of developing the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure syndrome that has some, but not all of the features of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. We assessed the validity of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to detect changes in ICP. METHODS: Subjects were eight patients undergoing medically necessary diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infusion testing for hydrocephalus...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Nitya Shree, Ramesh R Bhonde
It has been established that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from bone marrow enter the peripheral circulation intermittently for possible tissue regeneration, repair and to take care of daily wear and tear. This is evident from the detection of MSCs from peripheral blood. The factors governing this migration remain elusive. These MSCs carry out the work of policing and are supposed to repair the injured tissues. Thus, these cells help in maintaining the tissue and organ homeostasis. Yoga and pranayama originated in India and is now being practiced all over the world for positive health...
July 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Qiao Zhao, Jing Lu, Zitong Yao, Shubo Wang, Liming Zhu, Ju Wang, Baian Chen
The cerebral accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) is one of the key pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ is also found in bodily fluids such as the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. However, the significance of Aβ accumulation in the brain and different bodily pools, as well as its correlation with aging and cerebral amyloid pathology, is not completely understood. To better understand this question, we selected the rhesus monkey, which is phylogenetically and physiologically highly similar to the human, as a model to study...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Jeffrey Wagner, Cara M Fleseriu, Aly Ibrahim, Justin S Cetas
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) in patients with Cushing disease (CD), after treatment, is rarely described, in adults. The cause is believed to be multifactorial, potentially related to a relative decrease in cortisol after surgical resection or medical treatment of a corticotroph pituitary adenoma. We investigate our center's CD database (140 surgically and 60 medically [primary or adjunct] treated patients) for cases of IIH, describe our center's experience with symptomatic IIH, and review treatment strategies in adults with CD after transsphenoidal resection...
September 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Paolo Zamboni, Paolo Spath, Veronica Tisato, Mirko Tessari, Patrizia Dalla Caneva, Erica Menegatti, Savino Occhionorelli, Sergio Gianesini, Paola Secchiero
BACKGROUND: To assess if suppression of the oscillatory component of reflux may improve the inflammatory phenotype in chronic venous disease (CVD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 193 CVD patients, we selected 54 (13 males, 41 females, CEAP C2-4EpAsPr) for a blinded, case-control prospective investigation. All of them underwent echo-color-Doppler assessment of reflux parameters. In the same patients a blood systemic assessment of 19 inflammatory cytokines was obtained...
September 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Mohammad Badrul Islam, Zhahirul Islam, Kaniz Sharmin Farzana, Sumit Kumar Sarker, Hubert P Endtz, Quazi Deen Mohammad, Bart C Jacobs
Guillain-Barré syndrome has a diverse clinical phenotype related to geographical origin. To date, the majority of large-scale studies on Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been conducted in developed countries. We aimed to evaluate the key diagnostic features and assess the suitability of the Brighton criteria in 344 adult GBS patients from Bangladesh. All patients fulfilled the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) diagnostic criteria. Standardized data on demographic characteristics and clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and nerve conduction study (NCS) results were elaborated to measure the sensitivity of Brighton criteria...
September 12, 2016: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
Eric P Thelin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of death and disability, and cerebral hypoxia is a frequently occurring harmful secondary event in TBI patients. The hypoxic conditions that occur on the scene of accident, where the airways are often obstructed or breathing is in other ways impaired, could be reproduced using animal TBI models where oxygen delivery is strictly controlled throughout the entire experimental procedure. Monitoring physiological parameters of the animal is of utmost importance in order to maintain an adequate quality of the experiment...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Roberto De Simone, Angelo Ranieri, Vincenzo Bonavita
Two critical functions for the control of intracranial fluids dynamics are carried on the venous side of the perfusion circuit: the first is the avoidance of cortical veins collapse during the physiological increases of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure in which they are immersed. The second, is the generation of an abrupt venous pressure drop at the confluence of the cortical veins with the dural sinuses that is required to allow a CSF outflow rate balanced with its production. There is evidence that both of these effects are ensured by a Starling resistor mechanism (a fluid dynamic construct that governs the flow in collapsible tubes exposed to variable external pressure) acting at the confluence of cortical veins in the dural sinus...
September 6, 2016: Panminerva Medica
Kaveh Barami
Understanding the altered physiology following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion in the setting of adult hydrocephalus is important for optimizing patient care and avoiding complications. There is mounting evidence that the cerebral venous system plays a major role in intracranial pressure (ICP) dynamics especially when one takes into account the effects of postural changes, atmospheric pressure, and gravity on the craniospinal axis as a whole. An evolved mechanism acting at the cortical bridging veins, known as the "Starling resistor," prevents overdrainage of cranial venous blood with upright positioning...
September 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
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