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csf physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713245/multifaceted-roles-of-metzincins-in-cns-physiology-and-pathology-from-synaptic-plasticity-and-cognition-to-neurodegenerative-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Patrycja Brzdak, Daria Nowak, Grzegorz Wiera, Jerzy W Mozrzymas
The extracellular matrix (ECM) and membrane proteolysis play a key role in structural and functional synaptic plasticity associated with development and learning. A growing body of evidence underscores the multifaceted role of members of the metzincin superfamily, including metalloproteinases (MMPs), A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases (ADAMs), A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs (ADAMTSs) and astacins in physiological and pathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709498/targeting-fyn-kinase-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Haakon B Nygaard
The past decade has brought tremendous progress in unraveling the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While increasingly sophisticated immunotherapy targeting soluble and aggregated brain amyloid-beta (Aβ) continues to dominate clinical research in AD, a deeper understanding of Aβ physiology has led to the recognition of distinct neuronal signaling pathways linking Aβ to synaptotoxicity and neurodegeneration and to new targets for therapeutic intervention. Identifying specific signaling pathways involving Aβ has allowed for the development of more precise therapeutic interventions targeting the most relevant molecular mechanisms leading to AD...
June 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706505/cell-cell-interaction-proteins-gap-junctions-tight-junctions-and-desmosomes-and-water-transporter-aquaporin-4-in-meningothelial-cells-of-the-human-optic-nerve
#3
Thi Ngoc Co Zeleny, Corina Kohler, Albert Neutzner, Hanspeter E Killer, Peter Meyer
PURPOSE: Meningothelial cells (MECs) play a central role in the maintenance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis and in physiological and pathophysiological processes within the subarachnoid space (SAS) linking them to optic nerve (ON) pathologies. Still, not much is known about their structural properties that might enable MECs to perform specific functions within the ON microenvironment. METHODS: For closer characterization of the structural properties of the human MEC layer in the arachnoid, we performed immunohistological analyses to evaluate the presence of cell-cell interaction markers, namely, markers for tight junctions (JAM1, Occludin, and Claudin 5), gap junctions (Connexin 26 and 43), and desmosomes (Desmoplakin) as well as for water channel marker aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retrobulbar, midorbital, and intracanalicular human ON sections...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700706/spatial-distribution-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-1-cb1-in-normal-canine-central-and-peripheral-nervous-system
#4
Jessica Freundt-Revilla, Kristel Kegler, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Andrea Tipold
The endocannabinoid system is a regulatory pathway consisting of two main types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. The CB1 receptor is highly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems (PNS) in mammalians and is involved in neuromodulatory functions. Since endocannabinoids were shown to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of epileptic dogs, knowledge about the species specific CB receptor expression in the nervous system is required. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution of CB1 receptors in the normal canine CNS and PNS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698553/efficient-characterization-and-classification-of-contrast-sensitivity-functions-in-aging
#5
Fang-Fang Yan, Fang Hou, Zhong-Lin Lu, Xiaopeng Hu, Chang-Bing Huang
The contrast sensitivity function (CSF), delineating contrast sensitivity over a wide range of spatial frequencies, provides a comprehensive characterization of spatial vision and a sensitive test for many physiological and pathological processes. A precise CSF measurement tool for the aging population is of great theoretical and practical importance. In the current study, we tested whether the assumptions of the newly developed quick CSF method were valid and whether it can rapidly, reliably, and effectively evaluate CSFs in the aging population...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685161/behavioral-effects-of-a-chemorepellent-receptor-knockout-mutation-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#6
Dianxiong Zou, Todd M Hennessey
A conditioned supernatant from Tetrahymena thermophila contains a powerful chemorepellent for wild-type cells, and a gene called G37 is required for this response. This is the first genomic identification of a chemorepellent receptor in any eukaryotic unicellular organism. This conditioned supernatant factor (CSF) is small (<1 kDa), and its repellent effect is resistant to boiling, protease treatment, and nuclease digestion. External BAPTA eliminated the CSF response, suggesting that Ca(2+) entry is required for the classical avoiding reactions (AR) used for chemorepulsion...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673007/cytokine-induced-killer-cell-therapy-for-modulating-regulatory-t-cells-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
Baodan Yu, Junli Wang, Chen He, Wei Wang, Jianli Tang, Runhui Zheng, Chengzhi Zhou, Huanhuan Zhang, Zhiping Fu, Qiasheng Li, Jun Xu
Previous studies have reported that regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are physiologically engaged in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance, have a critical role in the regulation of the antitumor immune response. Targeting Tregs has the potential to augment cancer vaccine approaches. The current study therefore aimed to evaluate the role of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell infusion in modulating Tregs in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 15 patients with advanced NSCLC were treated by an infusion of CIK cells derived from autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671588/implications-of-neuroinvasive-bacterial-peptides-on-rodents-behaviour-and-neurotransmission
#8
Aneela Taj, Nusrat Jamil
Neuroinvasive microbes are capable of applying their influences on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of the host followed by the involvement of central nervous system (CNS) by releasing extracellular metabolites that may cause alterations in the biochemical and neurophysiological environment. Consequently synaptic, neuroendocrine, peripheral immune, neuro-immune, and behavioural responses of the host facilitate the progression of infection. The present study was designed to extrapolate the effects of crude and purified extracellular peptides of neuropathogenic bacteria on behavioural responses and neurotransmission of Sprague Dawley (SD) models...
July 2, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660395/comparison-of-anti-siphon-devices-how-do-they-affect-csf-dynamics-in-supine-and-upright-posture
#9
Manuel Gehlen, Anders Eklund, Vartan Kurtcuoglu, Jan Malm, Marianne Schmid Daners
BACKGROUND: Three different types of anti-siphon devices (ASDs) have been developed to counteract siphoning-induced overdrainage in upright posture. However, it is not known how the different ASDs affect CSF dynamics under the complex pressure environment seen in clinic due to postural changes. We investigated which ASDs can avoid overdrainage in upright posture best without leading to CSF accumulation. METHODS: Three shunts each of the types Codman Hakim with SiphonGuard (flow-regulated), Miethke miniNAV with proSA (gravitational), and Medtronic Delta (membrane controlled) were tested...
August 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615302/ccr2-dependent-monocyte-derived-macrophages-resolve-inflammation-and-restore-gut-motility-in-postoperative-ileus
#10
Giovanna Farro, Michelle Stakenborg, Pedro J Gomez-Pinilla, Evelien Labeeuw, Gera Goverse, Martina Di Giovangiulio, Nathalie Stakenborg, Elisa Meroni, Francesca D'Errico, Yvon Elkrim, Damya Laoui, Zofia M Lisowski, Kristin A Sauter, David A Hume, Jo A Van Ginderachter, Guy E Boeckxstaens, Gianluca Matteoli
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative ileus (POI) is assumed to result from myeloid cells infiltrating the intestinal muscularis externa (ME) in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. In the current study, we investigated the role of infiltrating monocytes in a murine model of intestinal manipulation (IM)-induced POI in order to clarify whether monocytes mediate tissue damage and intestinal dysfunction or they are rather involved in the recovery of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. DESIGN: IM was performed in mice with defective monocyte migration to tissues (C-C motif chemokine receptor 2, Ccr2(-/ (-)) mice) and wild-type (WT) mice to study the role of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MΦs) during onset and resolution of ME inflammation...
June 14, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614970/effect-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-drainage-on-brain-tissue-oxygenation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Omar S Akbik, Mark Krasberg, Edwin M Nemoto, Howard Yonas
The effectiveness of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage in lowering high intracranial pressure (ICP) is well established in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, recently the use of external ventricular drains and intracranial pressure monitors in traumatic brain injury has come under question. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the effect of CSF drainage on brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2). Using a multimodality monitoring system, we continuously monitored brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2) and parenchymal ICP during CSF drainage events via a ventriculostomy in 40 patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610607/resveratrol-distinctively-modulates-the-inflammatory-profiles-of-immune-and-endothelial-cells
#12
Joseph Schwager, Nathalie Richard, Franziska Widmer, Daniel Raederstorff
BACKGROUND: The phenolic substance resveratrol (RES) is a plant metabolite known to modulate numerous physiological functions and to exert beneficial effects as a cancer-chemopreventing agent and on neurological, hepatic, and cardiovascular systems. Since the compound affects the lifespan of yeast and flies it might be an anti-aging substance. Mechanistically, RES is involved in down regulating the inflammatory response. The pleiotropic effects of RES in cells of the immune and endothelial system were examined in this study...
June 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603123/determination-of-nitrate-in-biological-fluids-by-hplc
#13
Muhammad Ashraf, Bilal Ahmed Ghalloo, Muhammad Munawar Hayat, Jameel Rahman, Samina Ejaz, Muhammad Iqbal, Faizul Hassan -Nasim
Nitrate is the stable product of nitric oxide, which is physiologically active radical, an immunomodulator and a neuromodulator; its quantification in biological fluids is important to study the physiological and biochemical nature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify nitrate in different biological fluids like serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and ascetic fluid (ASF) using HPLC technique. A new HPLC method for the estimation of nitrate in serum, CSF and ASF was developed using the mobile phase of 1...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582842/chitotriosidase-a-marker-of-innate-immunity-is-elevated-in-patients-with-primary-breast-cancer
#14
Mya Sanda Thein, Anita Kohli, Rohit Ram, Maria Clara Ingaramo, Alka Jain, Neal S Fedarko
BACKGROUND: Cancer progression has been associated with altered immune cell function and activation. Neopterin, which is secreted by interferon-γ stimulated macrophages, exhibits an association with multiple cancer types and metastatic disease. Chitotriosidase, which is secreted by chronically activated macrophages and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulated neutrophils has not been studied in the setting of cancer. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this discovery study was to screen chitotriosidase for diagnostic capacity in detecting cancer and compare its operating characteristics with those of neopterin...
July 4, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582515/decreased-prostaglandin-d2-levels-in-major-depressive-disorder-are-associated-with-depression-like-behaviors
#15
Cuilin Chu, Hui Wei, Wanwan Zhu, Yan Shen, Qi Xu
Background: Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is the most abundant prostaglandin in the mammalian brain. The physiological and pharmacological actions of PGD2 in the central nervous system seem to be associated with some of the symptoms exhibited by patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Previous studies have found that PGD2 synthase was decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of MDD patients. We speculated that there may be a dysregulation of PGD2 levels in MDD. Methods: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a stable isotopic labeled internal standard was used to determine PGD2 levels in the plasma of MDD patients and in the brains of depressive mice...
June 3, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577333/mri-based-assessment-of-acute-effect-of-head-down-tilt-position-on-intracranial-hemodynamics-and-hydrodynamics
#16
Shota Ishida, Tosiaki Miyati, Naoki Ohno, Shinnosuke Hiratsuka, Noam Alperin, Mitsuhito Mase, Toshifumi Gabata
PURPOSE: To quantify the acute effect of the head-down tilt (HDT) posture on intracranial hemodynamics and hydrodynamics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the intracranial physiological parameters, blood flow-related parameters, and brain morphology in the HDT (-6° and -12°) and the horizontal supine (HS) positions. Seven and 15 healthy subjects were scanned for each position using 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging system. The peak-to-peak intracranial volume change, the peak-to-peak cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure gradient (PGp-p ), and the intracranial compliance index were calculated from the blood and CSF flow determined using a cine phase-contrast technique...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571112/a-translational-systems-pharmacology-model-for-a%C3%AE-kinetics-in-mouse-monkey-and-human
#17
Tatiana Karelina, Oleg Demin, Timothy Nicholas, Yasong Lu, Sridhar Duvvuri, Hugh A Barton
A mechanistic model of amyloid beta production, degradation and distribution has been constructed for mouse, monkey and human, calibrated and externally verified across multiple data sets. Simulations of single dose avagacestat treatment demonstrate that the Aβ42 brain inhibition may exceed that in CSF. The dose which achieves 50% CSF Aβ40 inhibition for humans (both healthy and with Alzheimer's disease (AD)) is about 1 mpk, one order of magnitude lower than for mouse (10 mpk), mainly because of differences in pharmacokinetics...
June 1, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560487/effect-of-venous-stenting-on-intracranial-pressure-in-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension
#18
Samir A Matloob, Ahmed K Toma, Simon D Thompson, Chee L Gan, Fergus Robertson, Lewis Thorne, Laurence D Watkins
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is characterised by an increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of any central nervous system disease or structural abnormality and by normal CSF composition. Management becomes complicated once surgical intervention is required. Venous sinus stenosis has been suggested as a possible aetiology for IIH. Venous sinus stenting has emerged as a possible interventional option. Evidence for venous sinus stenting is based on elimination of the venous pressure gradient and clinical response...
May 31, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526764/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-severely-impairs-brain-parenchymal-cerebrospinal-fluid-circulation-in-nonhuman-primate
#19
Romain Goulay, Julien Flament, Maxime Gauberti, Michael Naveau, Nolwenn Pasquet, Clement Gakuba, Evelyne Emery, Philippe Hantraye, Denis Vivien, Romina Aron-Badin, Thomas Gaberel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of stroke with neurological outcomes dependent on the occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia. It has been shown in rodents that some of the mechanisms leading to delayed cerebral ischemia are related to a decreased circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain parenchyma. Here, we evaluated the cerebral circulation of the CSF in a nonhuman primate in physiological condition and after SAH. METHODS: We first evaluated in physiological condition the circulation of the brain CSF in Macaca facicularis, using magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal DOTA-Gd distribution after its injection into the CSF...
May 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526683/autoreactivity-to-sulfatide-by-human-invariant-nkt-cells
#20
Annelein M Stax, Jessica Tuengel, Enrico Girardi, Naoki Kitano, Lenka L Allan, Victor Liu, Dongjun Zheng, William J Panenka, Joren Guillaume, Chi-Huey Wong, Serge van Calenbergh, Dirk M Zajonc, Peter van den Elzen
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes that recognize lipid Ags presented by CD1d. The prototypical Ag, α-galactosylceramide, strongly activates human and mouse iNKT cells, leading to the assumption that iNKT cell physiology in human and mouse is similar. In this article, we report the surprising finding that human, but not mouse, iNKT cells directly recognize myelin-derived sulfatide presented by CD1d. We propose that sulfatide is recognized only by human iNKT cells because of the unique positioning of the 3-O-sulfated β-galactose headgroup...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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