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csf physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526764/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-severely-impairs-brain-parenchymal-cerebrospinal-fluid-circulation-in-nonhuman-primate
#1
Romain Goulay, Julien Flament, Maxime Gauberti, Michael Naveau, Nolwenn Pasquet, Clement Gakuba, Evelyne Emery, Philippe Hantraye, Denis Vivien, Romina Aron-Badin, Thomas Gaberel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of stroke with neurological outcomes dependent on the occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia. It has been shown in rodents that some of the mechanisms leading to delayed cerebral ischemia are related to a decreased circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain parenchyma. Here, we evaluated the cerebral circulation of the CSF in a nonhuman primate in physiological condition and after SAH. METHODS: We first evaluated in physiological condition the circulation of the brain CSF in Macaca facicularis, using magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal DOTA-Gd distribution after its injection into the CSF...
May 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526683/autoreactivity-to-sulfatide-by-human-invariant-nkt-cells
#2
Annelein M Stax, Jessica Tuengel, Enrico Girardi, Naoki Kitano, Lenka L Allan, Victor Liu, Dongjun Zheng, William J Panenka, Joren Guillaume, Chi-Huey Wong, Serge van Calenbergh, Dirk M Zajonc, Peter van den Elzen
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes that recognize lipid Ags presented by CD1d. The prototypical Ag, α-galactosylceramide, strongly activates human and mouse iNKT cells, leading to the assumption that iNKT cell physiology in human and mouse is similar. In this article, we report the surprising finding that human, but not mouse, iNKT cells directly recognize myelin-derived sulfatide presented by CD1d. We propose that sulfatide is recognized only by human iNKT cells because of the unique positioning of the 3-O-sulfated β-galactose headgroup...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521764/barrier-dysfunction-or-drainage-reduction-differentiating-causes-of-csf-protein-increase
#3
Mahdi Asgari, Diane A de Zélicourt, Vartan Kurtcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein analysis is an important element in the diagnostic chain for various central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Among multiple existing approaches to interpreting measured protein levels, the Reiber diagram is particularly robust with respect to physiologic inter-individual variability, as it uses multiple subject-specific anchoring values. Beyond reliable identification of abnormal protein levels, the Reiber diagram has the potential to elucidate their pathophysiologic origin...
May 18, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508365/neuroproteomic-profiling-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-by-multiplexed-affinity-arrays
#4
Anna Häggmark-Månberg, Peter Nilsson, Jochen M Schwenk
Protein profiling through affinity proteomic approaches represents a powerful strategy for the analysis of human body fluids. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), being the fluid proximal to the central nervous system, is commonly analyzed in the context of neurological diseases, and can offer novel insights into the physiological state of the brain. Ultimately, and by analyzing the presence of brain-derived proteins in larger sets of samples that represent different phenotypes, profiling of CSF may serve as an important source to discover and verify disease-associated markers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501996/application-of-hydrogel-nanoparticles-for-the-capture-concentration-and-preservation-of-low-abundance-biomarkers
#5
Ruben Magni, Alessandra Luchini
In the recent years, a lot of emphasis has been placed on the discovery and detection of clinically relevant biomarkers. Biomarkers are crucial for the early detection of several diseases, and they play an important role in the improvement of current treatments, thus reducing patient mortality rate. Because biofluids account to 60% of the body mass, they represent a goldmine of significant biomarkers. Unfortunately, because of their low concentration in body fluids, their lability, and the presence of high abundance proteins (i...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500302/different-polyubiquitinated-bodies-in-human-dendritic-cells-il-4-causes-pacs-during-differentiation-while-lps-or-ifn%C3%AE-induces-dalis-during-maturation
#6
Daniela Montagna, Patrizia Sommi, Vittorio Necchi, Agostina Vitali, Enrica Montini, Ilaria Turin, Daniela Ferraro, Vittorio Ricci, Enrico Solcia
Two types of polyubiquitin-reactive cytoplasmic bodies, particulate cytoplasmic structures (PaCS) and dendritic cell (DC) aggresome-like induced structures (DALIS), were analyzed by electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry in DC obtained from human blood monocytes incubated with GM-CSF plus IL-4 (IL4-DC), GM-CSF plus IFNα (IFN-DC), or GM-CSF alone (GM-DC), with or without LPS maturation. PaCS developed as monomorphic aggregates of proteasome-reactive barrel-like particles only in ribosomes-rich cytoplasmic areas of differentiating IL4-DC...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493076/extracellular-vesicles-regulate-the-human-osteoclastogenesis-divergent-roles-in-discrete-inflammatory-arthropathies
#7
Nikolett Marton, Orsolya Tünde Kovács, Eszter Baricza, Ágnes Kittel, Dávid Győri, Attila Mócsai, Florian M P Meier, Carl S Goodyear, Iain B McInnes, Edit I Buzás, György Nagy
OBJECTIVE: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are subcellular signalosomes. Although characteristic EV production is associated with numerous physiological and pathological conditions, the effect of blood-derived EVs on bone homeostasis is unknown. Herein we evaluated the role of circulating EVs on human osteoclastogenesis. METHODS: Blood samples from healthy volunteers, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients were collected. Size-based EV sub-fractions were isolated by gravity-driven filtration and differential centrifugation...
May 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489417/a-semiquantitative-ct-grading-system-for-evaluating-therapeutic-response-in-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis
#8
Sayoko Tokura, Masanori Akira, Tomohisa Okuma, Ryushi Tazawa, Toru Arai, Chikatoshi Sugimoto, Akiko Matsumuro, Masaki Hirose, Toshinori Takada, Koh Nakata, Haruyuki Ishii, Yasunori Kasahara, Masayuki Hojo, Shinya Ohkouchi, Yoshiko Tsuchihashi, Masanori Yokoba, Ryosuke Eda, Hideaki Nakayama, Takahito Nei, Konosuke Morimoto, Yasuyuki Nasuhara, Masahito Ebina, Toshio Ichiwata, Koichiro Tatsumi, Etsuro Yamaguchi, Yoshikazu Inoue
RATIONALE: A useful semi-quantitative method of using CT images to evaluate therapeutic response in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) has not been established, although the extent score or grading score of ground-glass opacities has been used. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to establish a semi-quantitative method for evaluating therapeutic response in PAP. METHODS: CT scans obtained within one month before and after the therapy from 32 patients with PAP who participated in a multicenter phase 2 trial of GM-CSF inhalation therapy were evaluated by two chest radiologists independently...
May 10, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487367/insights-into-the-mechanism-of-cystatin-c-oligomer-and-amyloid-formation-and-its-interaction-with-beta-amyloid
#9
Tyler J Perlenfein, Jacob D Mehlhoff, Regina M Murphy
Cystatin C (CysC) is a versatile and ubiquitously-expressed member of the cysteine protease inhibitor family that is present at notably high concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. Under mildly denaturing conditions, CysC forms inactive domain-swapped dimers. A destabilizing mutation, L68Q, increases the rate of domain-swapping and causes a fatal amyloid disease, Hereditary Cystatin C Amyloid Angiopathy. Wild-type (wt) CysC will also aggregate into amyloid fibrils under some conditions. Propagated domain swapping has been proposed as the mechanism by which CysC fibrils grow...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479719/caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-cape-prevents-development-of-stz-icv-induced-dementia-in-rats
#10
Manish Kumar, Devinder Kaur, Nitin Bansal
BACKGROUND: Chronic oxidative stress and inflammation severely affect the normal physiology of neurons and lead to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Polyphenols proved a boon in the prevention of dementia due to their antioxidant and neuroprotective potential. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a natural polyphenolic compound attributed with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective properties. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the effect of CAPE on experimental dementia in rats...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466758/the-glymphatic-pathway
#11
Helene Benveniste, Hedok Lee, Nora D Volkow
The overall premise of this review is that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is transported within a dedicated peri-vascular network facilitating metabolic waste clearance from the central nervous system while we sleep. The anatomical profile of the network is complex and has been defined as a peri-arterial CSF influx pathway and peri-venous clearance routes, which are functionally coupled by interstitial bulk flow supported by astrocytic aquaporin 4 water channels. The role of the newly discovered system in the brain is equivalent to the lymphatic system present in other body organs and has been termed the "glymphatic pathway" or "(g)lymphatics" because of its dependence on glial cells...
January 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456718/role-of-choroid-plexus-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-hydrodynamics
#12
REVIEW
Darko Orešković, Milan Radoš, Marijan Klarica
The classic hypothesis presents the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as the "third circulation," which flows from the brain ventricles through the entire CSF system to the cortical subarachnoid space to eventually be passively absorbed into the superior sagittal sinus through arachnoid granulations. The choroid plexus (CP) represents a key organ in the classic CSF physiology and a powerful biological pump, which exclusively secretes CSF. Thereby, the CP is considered to be responsible for CSF pressure regulation and hydrocephalus development...
April 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446518/glutaminyl-cyclase-inhibitor-pq912-improves-cognition-in-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-studies-on-relation-to-effective-target-occupancy
#13
Torsten Hoffmann, Antje Meyer, Ulrich Heiser, Stephan Kurat, Livia Bohme, Martin Kleinschmidt, Karl-Ulrich Buhring, Birgit Hutter-Paier, Martina Farcher, Hans-Ulrich Demuth, Inge Lues, Stephan Schilling
Numerous studies suggest that the majority of Aβ peptides deposited in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is truncated and post-translationally modified at the N-terminus. Among these modified species, pyroglutamyl-Aβ (pE-Aβ including N3pE-Aβ42) has been identified as particularly neurotoxic. The N-terminal modification renders the peptide hydrophobic, accelerates formation of oligomers and reduces degradation by peptidases leading ultimately to the accumulation of the peptide and progression of AD. It has been shown, that the formation of pyroglutamyl residues is catalysed by glutaminyl cyclase (QC)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445178/familial-hemiplegic-migraine-with-asymmetric-encephalopathy-secondary-to-atp1a2-mutation-a-case-series
#14
Olwen C Murphy, Aine Merwick, Olivia OʼMahony, Aisling M Ryan, Brian McNamara
INTRODUCTION: Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a genetic disease with a variable clinical phenotype. The imaging and electroencephalogram (EEG) correlates of FHM are not well described. CASE SERIES: We describe a case series of five young women aged 12 to 32 years. Each case presented with headache, encephalopathy, and hemiparesis of varying severity. One patient developed seizures. All patients improved spontaneously. INVESTIGATIONS: Asymmetric slow-wave activity was seen on electroencephalogram in each case...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440309/glypican-2-levels-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-predict-the-status-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#15
S Lugert, T Kremer, R Jagasia, A Herrmann, S Aigner, C Giachino, I Mendez-David, A M Gardier, J P Carralot, H Meistermann, A Augustin, M D Saxe, J Lamerz, G Duran-Pacheco, A Ducret, V Taylor, D J David, C Czech
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a remarkable form of brain plasticity through which new neurons are generated throughout life. Despite its important roles in cognition and emotion and its modulation in various preclinical disease models, the functional importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in human health has not been revealed because of a lack of tools for monitoring adult neurogenesis in vivo. Therefore, we performed an unbiased proteomics screen to identify novel proteins expressed during neuronal differentiation using a human neural stem cell model, and we identified the proteoglycan Glypican-2 (Gpc2) as a putative secreted marker of immature neurons...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427941/elongation-affinity-activation-barrier-and-stability-of-a%C3%AE-42-oligomers-fibrils-in-physiological-saline
#16
Roberto A Rodriguez, Liao Y Chen, Germán Plascencia-Villa, George Perry
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, Aβ40 and the more neurotoxic Aβ42, have been the subject of many research efforts for Alzheimer's disease. In two recent independent investigations, the atomistic structure of Aβ42 fibril has been clearly established in the S-shaped conformation consisting of three β-sheets stabilized by salt bridges formed between the Lys28 sidechain and the C-terminus of Ala42. This structure distinctively differs from the long-known structure of Aβ40 in the β-hairpin shaped conformation consisting of two β-sheets...
May 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403108/analyses-and-treatments-of-postoperative-nasal-complications-after-endonasal-transsphenoidal-resection-of-pituitary-neoplasms
#17
You Cheng, Fei Xue, Tian-You Wang, Jun-Feng Ji, Wei Chen, Zhi-Yi Wang, Li Xu, Chun-Hua Hang, Xin-Feng Liu
In this study, we analyze and discuss the treatments of postoperative nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary neoplasms (PNs). We performed 129 endonasal transsphenoidal resections of PNs and analyzed and treated cases with nasal complications. After endonasal transsphenoidal resection of PNs, there were 26 cases of postoperative nasal complications (20.1%), including nasal hemorrhage (4.8%), cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea (6.9%), sphenoid sinusitis (2.3%), atrophic rhinitis (1...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380662/involvement-of-intracellular-zn-2-signaling-in-ltp-at-perforant-pathway-ca1-pyramidal-cell-synapse
#18
Haruna Tamano, Ryusuke Nishio, Atsushi Takeda
Physiological significance of synaptic Zn(2+) signaling was examined at perforant pathway-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses. In vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) at perforant pathway-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses was induced using a recording electrode attached to a microdialysis probe and the recording region was locally perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) via the microdialysis probe. Perforant pathway LTP was not attenuated under perfusion with CaEDTA (10 mM), an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator, but attenuated under perfusion with ZnAF-2DA (50 μM), an intracellular Zn(2+) chelator, suggesting that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling is required for perforant pathway LTP...
April 5, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370852/prospective-study-of-the-use-of-intraoperative-neuromonitoring-in-determining-post-operative-energy-requirements-and-physiologic-midline-in-spinal-cord-stimulation
#19
Claire Collison, Julia Prusik, Steven Paniccioli, Michael Briotte, Rachael Grey, Paul Feustel, Julie G Pilitsis
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) through electromyography (EMG) studies has been shown to be a safe, effective way to determine the laterality of the spinal cord and guide electrode placement during spinal cord stimulation (SCS). However, the use of IONM to predict post-operative energy requirements and midline has not been examined and offers a new avenue to streamline programming and device selection. Further, the impact of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) thickness on intraoperative and post-operative amplitudes is understood but has not been explicitly characterized...
March 28, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365894/gene-expression-analysis-and-microdialysis-suggest-hypothalamic-triiodothyronine-t3-gates-daily-torpor-in-djungarian-hamsters-phodopus-sungorus
#20
Jonathan H H Bank, Ceyda Cubuk, Dana Wilson, Eddy Rijntjes, Julia Kemmling, Hanna Markovsky, Perry Barrett, Annika Herwig
Thyroid hormones play an important role in regulating seasonal adaptations of mammals. Several studies suggested that reduced availability of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) in the hypothalamus is required for the physiological adaptation to winter in Djungarian hamsters. We have previously shown that T3 is involved in the regulation of daily torpor, but it remains unclear, whether T3 affects torpor by central or peripheral mechanisms. To determine the effect of T3 concentrations within the hypothalamus in regulating daily torpor, we tested the hypothesis that low hypothalamic T3 metabolism would favour torpor and high T3 concentrations would not...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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