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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665699/characterizing-signals-within-lesions-and-mapping-brain-network-connectivity-after-traumatic-axonal-injury-a-7-tesla-resting-state-fmri-study
#1
Seul Lee, Jonathan R Polimeni, Collin M Price, Brian L Edlow, Jennifer A McNab
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-FMRI) has been widely used to map brain functional connectivity, but it is unclear how to probe connectivity within and around lesions. Here we characterize RS-FMRI signal time-course properties and evaluate different seed placements within and around hemorrhagic traumatic axonal injury lesions. RS-FMRI was performed on a 7 Tesla scanner in a patient who recovered consciousness after traumatic coma and in three healthy controls. Eleven lesions in the patient were characterized in terms of: 1) temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR); 2) physiological noise, through comparison of noise regressors derived from the white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and gray matter (GM); and 3) seed-based functional connectivity...
April 18, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665284/dual-functionalization-device-for-therapy-through-dopamine-release-and-monitoring
#2
Georgina Fabregat, Alessia Giménez, Angélica Díaz, Jordi Puiggalí, Carlos Alemán
A dual-functional device is fabricated to release progressively dopamine (DA) from a biohydrogel under real-time monitoring via electrochemical detection. For this purpose, a poly-γ-glutamic acid biohydrogel is assembled with a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) layer, previously deposited onto a screen printed electrode. The biohydrogel is formulated to achieve dimensional stability and maximum DA-loading capacity. Conditions for DA-loading are influenced by the oxidation of the neurotransmitter in acid environments and the poor resistance of PEDOT to the lyophilization...
April 17, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659087/robust-spinal-cord-resting-state-fmri-using-independent-component-analysis-based-nuisance-regression-noise-reduction
#3
Yong Hu, Richu Jin, Guangsheng Li, Keith Dk Luk, Ed X Wu
BACKGROUND: Physiological noise reduction plays a critical role in spinal cord (SC) resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI). PURPOSE: To reduce physiological noise and increase the robustness of SC rsfMRI by using an independent component analysis (ICA)-based nuisance regression (ICANR) method. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. SUBJECTS: Ten healthy subjects (female/male = 4/6, age = 27 ± 3 years, range 24-34 years). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3T/gradient-echo echo planar imaging (EPI)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652619/circulating-cytokine-chemokine-concentrations-respond-to-ionizing-radiation-doses-but-not-radiation-dose-rates-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-and-interleukin-18
#4
Juliann G Kiang, Joan T Smith, Sara R Hegge, Natalia I Ossetrova
Exposure to ionizing radiation is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological incidents. It is known that ionizing radiation affects cytokine/chemokine concentrations in the blood of B6D2F1 mice. It is not clear whether radiation dose rates would vary the physiological response. Therefore, in this study we utilized data from two experiments using B6D2F1 female mice exposed to six different dose rates ranging from low to high rates. In one experiment, mice received a total dose of 8 Gy (LD0/30 ) of 60 Co gamma radiation at four dose rates: 0...
April 13, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627843/spontaneous-ventriculostomy-into-the-subdural-space-in-a-neonate-with-congenital-hydrocephalus
#5
Mahesh Krishna Pillai, Rajeev Kariyattil, Linda Rubene, Rajinder Kumar, Venkatesh Govindaraju, Koshy Kochummen
We report a case of spontaneous temporary resolution of congenital hydrocephalus due to drainage into the subdural space, which is not a physiological space for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This is the first report of spontaneous drainage of CSF into the subdural space, and we term it "ventriculosubdurostomy." We highlight the fact that spontaneous resolution of hydrocephalus due to drainage into a nonphysiological CSF space is temporary.
April 6, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624790/gene-therapy-for-glut1-deficient-mouse-using-an-adeno-associated-virus-vector-with-the-human-intrinsic-glut1-promoter
#6
Sachie Nakamura, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu, Naomi Takino, Mika Ito, Eriko F Jimbo, Kuniko Shimazaki, Tatsushi Onaka, Sumio Ohtsuki, Tetsuya Terasaki, Takanori Yamagata, Hitoshi Osaka
BACKGROUND: We generated an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector in which the human SLC2A1 gene, encoding glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1), was expressed under the human endogenous GLUT1 promoter (AAV-GLUT1). We examined whether AAV-GLUT1 administration could lead to functional improvement in GLUT1-deficient mice. METHODS: We extrapolated human endogenous GLUT1 promoter sequences from rat minimal Glut1 promoter sequences. We generated a tyrosine-mutant AAV9/3 vector in which human SLC2A1-myc-DDK was expressed under the human GLUT1 promoter (AAV-GLUT1)...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621595/extracellular-vesicles-as-potential-biomarkers-for-alcohol-and-drug-induced-liver-injury-and-their-therapeutic-applications
#7
REVIEW
Young-Eun Cho, Byoung-Joon Song, Mohammed Akbar, Moon-Chang Baek
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membranous vesicles originating from various cells and tissues, including the liver parenchymal hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells such as Kupffer and stellate cells. Recently, the pathophysiological role of EVs, such as exosomes and microvesicles, has been increasingly recognized based on intercellular communications. These EVs travel through the circulating blood and interact with specific cells and then deliver their cargos such as nucleic acids and proteins into recipient cells...
April 3, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618081/origin-of-syrinx-fluid-in-syringomyelia-a-physiological-study
#8
John D Heiss, Katie Jarvis, René K Smith, Eric Eskioglu, Mortimer Gierthmuehlen, Nicholas J Patronas, John A Butman, Davis P Argersinger, Russell R Lonser, Edward H Oldfield
BACKGROUND: The origin of syrinx fluid is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the mechanisms of syringomyelia associated with cerebrospinal fluid pathway obstruction and with intramedullary tumors, contrast transport from the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS) to syrinx was evaluated in syringomyelia patients. METHODS: We prospectively studied patients with syringomyelia: 22 with Chiari I malformation and 16 with SAS obstruction-related syringomyelia before and 1 wk after surgery, and 9 with tumor-related syringomyelia before surgery only...
March 30, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596569/interferon-gamma-inhibits-seminal-plasma-induction-of-colony-stimulating-factor-2-in-mouse-and-human-reproductive-tract-epithelial-cells
#9
David J Sharkey, Danielle J Glynn, John E Schjenken, Kelton P Tremellen, Sarah A Robertson
Seminal fluid interacts with the female reproductive tract to initiate a permissive immune response that facilitates embryo implantation and pregnancy success. The immune-regulatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFNG), which can be elevated in seminal plasma and is associated with reduced fertility. Here we investigated how IFNG influences the female immune response to seminal fluid. In human Ect1 cervical epithelial cells, IFNG added at physiologically relevant concentrations substantially impaired seminal plasma-induced synthesis of key cytokines colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) and interleukin-6 (IL6)...
March 27, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576738/functionalized-tio-2-nanoparticles-labelled-with-225-ac-for-targeted-alpha-radionuclide-therapy
#10
Edyta Cędrowska, Marek Pruszynski, Agnieszka Majkowska-Pilip, Sylwia Męczyńska-Wielgosz, Frank Bruchertseifer, Alfred Morgenstern, Aleksander Bilewicz
The225 Ac radioisotope exhibits very attractive nuclear properties for application in radionuclide therapy. Unfortunately, the major challenge for radioconjugates labelled with225 Ac is that traditional chelating moieties are unable to sequester the radioactive daughters in the bioconjugate which is critical to minimize toxicity to healthy, non-targeted tissues. In the present work, we propose to apply TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as carrier for225 Ac and its decay products. The surface of TiO2 nanoparticles with 25 nm diameter was modified with Substance P (5-11), a peptide fragment which targets NK1 receptors on the glioma cells, through the silan-PEG-NHS linker...
2018: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567591/protective-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg1-on-splenocytes-and-thymocytes-in-an-aging-rat-model-induced-by-d-galactose
#11
Jiazheng Sun, Liheng Zhang, Jing Zhang, Ruitu Ran, Yue Shao, Jing Li, Daoyong Jia, Yanyan Zhang, Mengsi Zhang, Lu Wang, Yaping Wang
Physiological aging is associated with a range of medical problems. However, the treatment of aging-associated diseases and prolonging human life are vital to our current aging societies. Panax ginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to have anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. In the current study, aging rats induced by d-galactose were administered ginsenoside Rg1, then splenocytes and thymocytes were extracted and changes in activity were detected. The results demonstrated that compared with the d-gal group, the level of advanced glycation end products (AGE), the ratio of splenocytes and thymocytes in G0 phase (%), and apoptosis (%) of splenocytes and thymocytes, the ratio (%) of SA-gal positive splenocytes and thymocytes, the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), the ratio of glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and senescence-associated protein expression were significantly decreased and the index of the spleen and thymus, the proportion of white pulp in the spleen, the proportion of cortex in the thymus, the content of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the proliferative capacity of splenocytes and thymocytes were increased in the Rg1+ d-gal group...
March 19, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565824/real-time-tau-protein-detection-by-sandwich-based-piezoelectric-biosensing-exploring-tubulin-as-a-mass-enhancer
#12
Dujuan Li, Simona Scarano, Samuele Lisi, Pasquale Palladino, Maria Minunni
Human tau protein is one of the most advanced and accepted biomarkers for AD and tauopathies diagnosis in general. In this work, a quartz crystal balance (QCM) immunosensor was developed for the detection of human tau protein in buffer and artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), through both direct and sandwich assays. Starting from a conventional immuno-based sandwich strategy, two monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes of tau protein were used, achieving a detection limit for the direct assay in nanomolar range both in HBES-EP and aCSF...
March 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551976/haploinsufficient-tnap-mice-display-decreased-extracellular-atp-levels-and-expression-of-pannexin-1-channels
#13
Álvaro Sebastián-Serrano, Laura de Diego-García, David C Henshall, Tobías Engel, Miguel Díaz-Hernández
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare heritable metabolic bone disease caused by hypomorphic mutations in the ALPL (in human) or Akp2 (in mouse) gene, encoding the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) enzyme. In addition to skeletal and dental malformations, severe forms of HPP are also characterized by the presence of spontaneous seizures. Initially, these seizures were attributed to an impairment of GABAergic neurotransmission caused by altered vitamin B6 metabolism. However, recent work by our group using knockout mice null for TNAP (TNAP-/-), a well-described model of infantile HPP, has revealed a deregulation of purinergic signaling contributing to the seizure phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547143/walter-edward-dandy-1886-1946-the-epitome-of-adroitness-and-dexterity-in-neurosurgery
#14
Kalyan B Bhattacharyya
Walter Edward Dandy did pioneering work in Neurosurgery in the early part of the 19th century. He worked all his life at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in USA and contributed extensively to research in hydrocephalus, the physiology of the cerebrospinal fluid and devised the technique of pneumoencephalography, apart from performing the first clipping operation in cerebral aneurysm and the division of the trigeminal nerve in neuralgic pain. This article summarizes his immense contributions in the field of Neurosurgery...
March 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533975/the-role-of-macrophages-in-neuroinflammatory-and-neurodegenerative-pathways-of-alzheimer-s-disease-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-multiple-sclerosis-pathogenetic-cellular-effectors-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#15
REVIEW
Santa Mammana, Paolo Fagone, Eugenio Cavalli, Maria Sofia Basile, Maria Cristina Petralia, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
In physiological conditions, different types of macrophages can be found within the central nervous system (CNS), i.e., microglia, meningeal macrophages, and perivascular (blood-brain barrier) and choroid plexus (blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier) macrophages. Microglia and tissue-resident macrophages, as well as blood-borne monocytes, have different origins, as the former derive from yolk sac erythromyeloid precursors and the latter from the fetal liver or bone marrow. Accordingly, specific phenotypic patterns characterize each population...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527688/delivery-of-an-anti-ttr-nanobody-to-the-brain-through-intranasal-administration-reveals-ttr-expression-and-secretion-by-motor-neurons
#16
João R Gomes, Inês Cabrito, Hugo R Soares, Susete Costelha, Anabela Teixeira, Angela Wittelsberger, Catelijne Stortelers, Peter Vanlandschoot, Maria J Saraiva
Transthyretin (TTR) is a transport protein of retinol and thyroxine in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is mainly secreted in liver and choroid plexus, and in smaller amounts in other cells throughout the body. The exact role of TTR and its specific expression in Central Nervous System (CNS) remains understudied. We investigated TTR expression and metabolism in CNS, through the intranasal and intracerebroventricular delivery of a specific anti-TTR Nanobody to the brain, unveiling Nanobody pharmacokinetics to the CNS...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523182/cerebrospinal-fluid-stem-cell-interactions-may-pave-the-path-for-cell-based-therapy-in-neurological-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Chao Ren, Peiyuan Yin, Neng Ren, Zhe Wang, Jiahui Wang, Caiyi Zhang, Wei Ge, Deqin Geng, Xiaotong Wang
Recent studies have suggested that the regulation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) or transplanting of exogenous nerve cells are the newest and most promising methods for the treatment of dementia and other neurological diseases. The special location and limited number of endogenous NSCs, however, restrict their clinical application. The success in directional differentiation of exogenous stem cells from other tissue sources into neural cells has provided a novel source for NSCs. Study on the relative mechanisms is still at the preliminary stage...
March 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510378/physiological-and-molecular-effects-of-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-mild-skin-barrier-disruption
#18
Eva K B Pfannes, Lina Weiss, Sabrina Hadam, Jessica Gonnet, Béhazine Combardière, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Annika Vogt
The success of topically applied treatments on skin relies on the efficacy of skin penetration. In order to increase particle or product penetration, mild skin barrier disruption methods can be used. We previously described cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping as an efficient method to open hair follicles, enhance particle penetration, and activate Langerhans cells. We conducted ex vivo and in vivo measurements on human skin to characterize the biological effect and quantify barrier disruption-related inflammation on a molecular level...
March 7, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497178/in-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-spinal-cord-motion-is-focally-increased-at-the-level-of-stenosis-a-controlled-cross-sectional-study
#19
Katharina Wolf, Markus Hupp, Susanne Friedl, Reto Sutter, Markus Klarhöfer, Patrick Grabher, Patrick Freund, Armin Curt
STUDY DESIGN: Level-, age-, and gender-matched controlled cross-sectional cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate alterations of spinal cord (SC) motion within cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) across the cervical spinal segments and its relation to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-flow, anatomic conditions, and clinical parameters. SETTING: University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich, Switzerland. METHODS: Overall, 12 patients suffering from CSM at level C5 and 12 controls underwent cardiac-gated 2D phase-contrast-MRI at level C2 and C5 and standard MRI sequences...
March 1, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496890/neuroimmune-axes-of-the-blood-brain-barriers-and-blood-brain-interfaces-bases-for-physiological-regulation-disease-states-and-pharmacological-interventions
#20
REVIEW
Michelle A Erickson, William A Banks
Central nervous system (CNS) barriers predominantly mediate the immune-privileged status of the brain, and are also important regulators of neuroimmune communication. It is increasingly appreciated that communication between the brain and immune system contributes to physiologic processes, adaptive responses, and disease states. In this review, we discuss the highly specialized features of brain barriers that regulate neuroimmune communication in health and disease. In section I , we discuss the concept of immune privilege, provide working definitions of brain barriers, and outline the historical work that contributed to the understanding of CNS barrier functions...
April 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
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