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csf physiology

Jenny Lundeberg, John R Feiner, Andrew Schober, Jeffrey W Sall, Helge Eilers, Philip E Bickler
Lundeberg, Jenny, John R. Feiner, Andrew Schober, Jeffrey W. Sall, Helge Eilers, and Philip E. Bickler. Increased cytokines at high altitude: lack of effect of ibuprofen on acute mountain sickness, physiological variables or cytokine levels. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus on the role of inflammation in high-altitude acclimatization. AIMS: To determine the effects of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ibuprofen 400 mg every 8 hours) on blood cytokines, acclimatization, acute mountain sickness (AMS, Lake Louise Score), and noninvasive oxygenation in brain and muscle in healthy volunteers...
June 20, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Elisabeth Hansson, Linda Block, Johan Forshammar, Christopher Lundborg, Björn Biber
Background Long-term or chronic pain represents a major health problem and is associated with significant socio-economic costs. During injury, pain can be dissociated from its normal physiological role. It can persist for a longer period of time, even after the primary noxious stimulus has more or less subsided. Analgesic drugs, with predominant neuronal sites of actions, seem to be relatively ineffective. Chronic pain is probably partly a consequence of ongoing neuroinflammation. The mechanisms behind these phenomena, and how the neuronal and non-neuronal activities evoked by painful stimuli and inflammation are processed in the brain and throughout the CNS, are not well understood...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
A Jonsson, A-L Lind, M Hallberg, F Nyberg, T Gordh
Aims Neuropathic pain is a complex and painful condition, which is difficult to treat and causes a lot of suffering. The substance P (SP) system is well known to be involved in nociceptive signaling and it has previously been shown that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of SP is decreased in neuropathic pain. In this study we analyzed CSF from chronic neuropathic pain patients for the levels of SP1-7, an N-terminal fragment of SP with the ability to alleviate thermal as well as mechanical hypersensitivity in different animal models of chronic neuropathic pain, e...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Yoshinobu Nakamura, Takeo Nakanishi, Hiroaki Shimada, Junya Shimizu, Rika Aotani, Shio Maruyama, Kei Higuchi, Takashi Okura, Yoshiharu Deguchi, Ikumi Tamai
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) in the hypothalamus is a principal mediator of the febrile response. However, the role of organic anion transporting polypeptide 2A1 (OATP2A1/ SLCO2A1 ), a prostaglandin transporter, in facilitating this response is unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of Slco2a1 deficiency on the body core temperature (Tc) and on the PGE2 concentration in hypothalamus interstitial fluid ( C isf ) and CSF ( C csf ) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg, i.p.)-treated mice of both sexes. Slco2a1 -/- mice did not develop a febrile response...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Laurence Black, Jeremie M Lever, Amie M Traylor, Bo Chen, Zhengqin Yang, Stephanie Esman, Yanlin Jiang, Gary Cutter, Ravindra Boddu, James George, Anupam Agarwal
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition with significant morbidity and mortality that affects 15% of adults in the United States. One cause of CKD is acute kidney injury (AKI), which commonly occurs secondary to sepsis, ischemic events, and drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Unilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury (UIRI) without contralateral nephrectomy (CLN) and repeated low dose cisplatin (RLDC) models of AKI to CKD demonstrate responses characteristic of the transition; however, previous studies have not effectively compared the pathogenesis...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Jorge Gallego-Valle, Verónica Astrid Pérez-Fernández, Rafael Correa-Rocha, Marjorie Pion
Regulatory B cells (Bregs) participate in auto-tolerance maintenance and immune homeostasis. Despite their impact on many diseases and due to the difficulty to define them, knowledge about their origin and their physiological inducers is still unclear. The incomplete understanding about the generation of Bregs and their limited numbers in periphery make it difficult to develop Breg-based therapy. Therefore, identifying factors that promote their development would allow their ex-vivo production in order to create new immunotherapy...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rebecca C Hendrickson, Murray A Raskind, Steven P Millard, Carl Sikkema, Garth E Terry, Kathleen F Pagulayan, Ge Li, Elaine R Peskind
Background: Increases in the quantity or impact of noradrenergic signaling have been implicated in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This increased signaling may result from increased norepinephrine (NE) release, from altered brain responses to NE, or from a combination of both factors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Veterans reporting a history of trauma exposure would show an increased association between brain NE and mental health symptoms commonly observed after trauma, as compared to Veterans who did not report a history of trauma exposure, consistent with the possibility of increased brain reactivity to NE after traumatic stress...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Claudia S Kielkopf, Jason K K Low, Yee-Foong Mok, Surabhi Bhatia, Tony Palasovski, Aaron J Oakley, Andrew E Whitten, Brett Garner, Simon H J Brown
Apolipoprotein-D is a 25 kDa glycosylated member of the lipocalin family that folds into an eight-stranded β-barrel with a single adjacent α-helix. Apolipoprotein-D specifically binds a range of small hydrophobic ligands such as progesterone and arachidonic acid and has an antioxidant function that is in part due to the reduction of peroxidised lipids by methionine-93. Therefore, apolipoprotein-D plays multiple roles throughout the body and is protective in Alzheimer's disease, where apolipoprotein-D overexpression reduces the amyloid-β burden in Alzheimer's disease mouse models...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Annette B Steffensen, Eva K Oernbo, Anca Stoica, Niklas J Gerkau, Dagne Barbuskaite, Katerina Tritsaris, Christine R Rose, Nanna MacAulay
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production occurs at a rate of 500 ml per day in the adult human. Conventional osmotic forces do not suffice to support such production rate and the molecular mechanisms underlying this fluid production remain elusive. Using ex vivo choroid plexus live imaging and isotope flux in combination with in vivo CSF production determination in mice, we identify a key component in the CSF production machinery. The Na+ /K+ /2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1) expressed in the luminal membrane of choroid plexus contributes approximately half of the CSF production, via its unusual outward transport direction and its unique ability to directly couple water transport to ion translocation...
June 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Emily E Noble, Joel D Hahn, Vaibhav R Konanur, Ted M Hsu, Stephen J Page, Alyssa M Cortella, Clarissa M Liu, Monica Y Song, Andrea N Suarez, Caroline C Szujewski, Danielle Rider, Jamie E Clarke, Martin Darvas, Suzanne M Appleyard, Scott E Kanoski
Classical mechanisms through which brain-derived molecules influence behavior include neuronal synaptic communication and neuroendocrine signaling. Here we provide evidence for an alternative neural communication mechanism that is relevant for food intake control involving cerebroventricular volume transmission of the neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). Results reveal that the cerebral ventricles receive input from approximately one-third of MCH-producing neurons. Moreover, MCH cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels increase prior to nocturnal feeding and following chemogenetic activation of MCH-producing neurons...
May 15, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Palani Dinesh, MahaboobKhan Rasool
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic and chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder affecting multiple joints. Various cytokines, chemokines and growth factors synergistically modulate the joint physiology leading to bone erosion and cartilage degradation. Other than these conventional mediators that are well established in the past, the newly identified plasminogen activator (PA) family of proteins have been witnessed to possess a multifactorial approach in mediating RA pathogenesis. One such family of proteins comprises urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR)/soluble-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR)...
May 31, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Sanjay K Nigam, Vibha Bhatnagar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Uric acid homeostasis in the body is mediated by a number of SLC and ABC transporters in the kidney and intestine, including several multispecific 'drug' transporters (e.g., OAT1, OAT3, and ABCG2). Optimization of uric acid levels can be viewed as a 'systems biology' problem. Here, we consider uric acid transporters from a systems physiology perspective using the framework of the 'Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis.' This hypothesis explains how SLC and ABC 'drug' and other transporters mediate interorgan and interorganismal communication (e...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Sarah M Gray, Eugene J Barrett
While there is a growing consensus that insulin has diverse and important regulatory actions on the brain, seemingly important aspects of brain insulin physiology are poorly understood. Examples include: what is the insulin concentration within brain interstitial fluid under normal physiologic conditions; whether insulin is made in the brain and acts locally; does insulin from the circulation cross the blood-brain barrier or the blood-CSF barrier in a fashion that facilitates its signaling in brain; is insulin degraded within the brain; do privileged areas with a "leaky" blood-brain barrier serve as signaling nodes for transmitting peripheral insulin signaling; does insulin action in the brain include regulation of amyloid peptides; whether insulin resistance is a cause or consequence of processes involved in cognitive decline...
May 30, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Wadim Vodovozov, Justus Schneider, Shehabeldin Elzoheiry, Jan-Oliver Hollnagel, Andrea Lewen, Oliver Kann
Gamma oscillations (30-100 Hz) represent a physiological fast brain rhythm that occurs in many cortex areas in awake mammals, including humans. They associate with sensory perception, voluntary movement, and memory formation and require precise synaptic transmission between excitatory glutamatergic neurons and inhibitory GABAergic interneurons such as parvalbumin-positive basket cells. Notably, gamma oscillations are exquisitely sensitive to shortage in glucose and oxygen supply (metabolic stress), with devastating consequences for higher cognitive functions...
May 28, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Michael A Bohl, Nikolay L Martirosyan, Zachary W Killeen, Evgenii Belykh, Joseph M Zabramski, Robert F Spetzler, Mark C Preul
Despite an overwhelming history demonstrating the potential of hypothermia to rescue and preserve the brain and spinal cord after injury or disease, clinical trials from the last 50 years have failed to show a convincing benefit. This comprehensive review provides the historical context needed to consider the current status of clinical hypothermia research and a view toward the future direction for this field. For millennia, accounts of hypothermic patients surviving typically fatal circumstances have piqued the interest of physicians and prompted many of the early investigations into hypothermic physiology...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Sudhanshu P Raikwar, Sachin M Bhagavan, Swathi Beladakere Ramaswamy, Ramasamy Thangavel, Iuliia Dubova, Govindhasamy Pushpavathi Selvakumar, Mohammad Ejaz Ahmed, Duraisamy Kempuraj, Smita Zaheer, Shankar Iyer, Asgar Zaheer
Tanycytes are highly specialized bipolar ependymal cells that line the ventrolateral wall and the floor of the third ventricle in the brain and form a blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier at the level of the median eminence. They play a pivotal role in regulating metabolic networks that control body weight and energy homeostasis. Due to the glucosensing function of tanycytes, they could be considered as a critical player in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Genetic fate mapping studies have established the role of tanycytes for the newly detected adult hypothalamic neurogenesis with important implications for metabolism as well as pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative diseases...
May 24, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Maria Belen Poretti, Camila Frautschi, Eugenia Mercedes Luque, Santiago Bianconi, Ana Carolina Martini, Graciela Stutz, Laura Maria Vincenti, María Emilia Santillán, Marina Flavia Ponzio, Helgi Schiöth, Marta Haydee Fiol De Cuneo, Valeria Paola Carlini
It has been demonstrated that food intake and reproductive physiology are both simultaneously modulated to optimize reproductive success under fluctuating metabolic conditions. Ghrelin (Ghr) is an orexigenic peptide identified as the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor that is being investigated for its potential role on reproduction. Considering that data available so far are still limited and characterization of Ghr action mechanism on the reproductive system has not been fully elucidated, we studied the hypothalamus participation in Ghr effects on sperm functional activity, plasma levels of gonodotropins and histological morphology in mice testes after hypothalamic infusion of 0...
May 23, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Evan L Pannkuk, Evagelia C Laiakis, Albert J Fornace, Oluseyi O Fatanmi, Vijay K Singh
The search for and development of radiation countermeasures to treat acute lethal radiation injury has been underway for the past six decades, resulting in the identification of multiple classes of radiation countermeasures. However, to date only granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (Neupogen) and PEGylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (Neulasta) have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. Gamma-tocotrienol has demonstrated radioprotective efficacy in murine and nonhuman primate models...
July 2018: Health Physics
Matthew Shew, Athanasia Warnecke, Thomas Lenarz, Heike Schmitt, Sumedha Gunewardena, Hinrich Staecker
Hearing loss is common and caused by a wide range of molecular and cellular pathologies. Current diagnosis of hearing loss depends on a combination of physiologic testing, patient history, and in some cases genetic testing. Currently, no biopsy or equivalent procedure exists to diagnose inner ear disorders. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short ribonucleic acids that regulate a variety of cellular processes. They have been found to be reliable markers for a variety of disease processes. In particular, a variety of miRNAs that are markers for neurodegenerative disease have been identified in cerebrospinal fluid...
May 17, 2018: Neuroreport
Norman R Saunders, Katarzyna M Dziegielewska, Kjeld Møllgård, Mark D Habgood
Properties of the local internal environment of the adult brain are tightly controlled providing a stable milieu essential for its normal function. The mechanisms involved in this complex control are structural, molecular and physiological (influx and efflux transporters) frequently referred to as the "blood-brain barrier". These mechanisms include regulation of ion levels in brain interstitial fluid essential for normal neuronal function, supply of nutrients, removal of metabolic products and prevention of entry or elimination of toxic agents...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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