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csf physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789587/light-on-a-sensory-interface-linking-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-to-motor-circuits-in-vertebrates
#1
Lydia Djenoune, Claire Wyart
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is circulating around the entire central nervous system (CNS). The main function of the CSF has been thought to insure the global homeostasis of the CNS. Recent evidence indicates that the CSF also dynamically conveys signals modulating the development and the activity of the nervous system. The later observation implies that cues from the CSF could act on neurons in the brain and the spinal cord via bordering receptor cells. Candidate neurons to enable such modulation are the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (CSF-cNs) that are located precisely at the interface between the CSF and neuronal circuits...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783041/27-hydroxycholesterol-induces-hematopoietic-stem-cell-mobilization-and-extramedullary-hematopoiesis-during-pregnancy
#2
Hideyuki Oguro, Jeffrey G McDonald, Zhiyu Zhao, Michihisa Umetani, Philip W Shaul, Sean J Morrison
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is induced during pregnancy to support rapid expansion of maternal blood volume. EMH activation requires hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) proliferation and mobilization, processes that depend upon estrogen receptor α (ERα) in HSCs. Here we show that treating mice with estradiol to model estradiol increases during pregnancy induced HSC proliferation in the bone marrow but not HSC mobilization. Treatment with the alternative ERα ligand 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) induced ERα-dependent HSC mobilization and EMH but not HSC division in the bone marrow...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782443/cerebral-a%C3%AE-40-and-systemic-hypertension
#3
Hannah M Tayler, Jennifer C Palmer, Taya L Thomas, Patrick G Kehoe, Julian Fr Paton, Seth Love
Mid-life hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion may be preclinical abnormalities in people who later develop Alzheimer's disease. Although accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease and is associated with upregulation of the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 within the brain, it is unclear how this affects systemic arterial pressure. We have investigated whether infusion of Aβ40 into ventricular cerebrospinal fluid modulates blood pressure in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780306/neuromedin-b-and-its-receptor-silencing-suppresses-osteoclast-generation-by-modulating-precursor-proliferation-via-m-csf-c-fms-d-type-cyclins
#4
Chae-Eun Yeo, Woo Youl Kang, Sook Jin Seong, Seungil Cho, Hae Won Lee, Young-Ran Yoon, Hyun-Ju Kim
Neuromedin B (NMB), a mammalian bombesin-like peptide, regulates diverse physiological processes, such as energy metabolism, memory and fear behavior, and cellular growth, through its cognate receptor, NMBR. In this study, we report that NMB expression was upregulated during osteoclast development and that silencing NMB or NMBR attenuated osteoclast generation mediated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). We found that knockdown of NMB or NMBR using a small hairpin RNA suppressed M-CSF-induced proliferation of osteoclast precursor cells without altering osteoclast differentiation...
August 2, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762893/overlapping-microrna-expression-in-saliva-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-accurately-identifies-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Steven Daniel Hicks, Jeremiah Johnson, Molly C Carney, Harry Bramley, Robert P Olympia, Andrea C Loeffert, Neal J Thomas
Objectives To assess the accuracy and physiologic relevance of circulating microRNA (miRNA) as a biomarker of pediatric concussion, we compared changes in salivary miRNA and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) miRNA following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). Study Design A case-cohort design was used to compare longitudinal miRNA concentrations in CSF of seven children with severe TBI against three controls without TBI. The miRNAs "altered" in CSF were interrogated in saliva of 60 children with mild TBI and compared with 18 age- and gender- matched controls...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746310/hypothalamic-stem-cells-control-ageing-speed-partly-through-exosomal-mirnas
#6
Yalin Zhang, Min Soo Kim, Baosen Jia, Jingqi Yan, Juan Pablo Zuniga-Hertz, Cheng Han, Dongsheng Cai
It has been proposed that the hypothalamus helps to control ageing, but the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Here we develop several mouse models in which hypothalamic stem/progenitor cells that co-express Sox2 and Bmi1 are ablated, as we observed that ageing in mice started with a substantial loss of these hypothalamic cells. Each mouse model consistently displayed acceleration of ageing-like physiological changes or a shortened lifespan. Conversely, ageing retardation and lifespan extension were achieved in mid-aged mice that were locally implanted with healthy hypothalamic stem/progenitor cells that had been genetically engineered to survive in the ageing-related hypothalamic inflammatory microenvironment...
August 3, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713245/multifaceted-roles-of-metzincins-in-cns-physiology-and-pathology-from-synaptic-plasticity-and-cognition-to-neurodegenerative-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Patrycja Brzdak, Daria Nowak, Grzegorz Wiera, Jerzy W Mozrzymas
The extracellular matrix (ECM) and membrane proteolysis play a key role in structural and functional synaptic plasticity associated with development and learning. A growing body of evidence underscores the multifaceted role of members of the metzincin superfamily, including metalloproteinases (MMPs), A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases (ADAMs), A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs (ADAMTSs) and astacins in physiological and pathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709498/targeting-fyn-kinase-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Haakon B Nygaard
The past decade has brought tremendous progress in unraveling the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While increasingly sophisticated immunotherapy targeting soluble and aggregated brain amyloid-beta (Aβ) continues to dominate clinical research in AD, a deeper understanding of Aβ physiology has led to the recognition of distinct neuronal signaling pathways linking Aβ to synaptotoxicity and neurodegeneration and to new targets for therapeutic intervention. Identifying specific signaling pathways involving Aβ has allowed for the development of more precise therapeutic interventions targeting the most relevant molecular mechanisms leading to AD...
June 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706505/cell-cell-interaction-proteins-gap-junctions-tight-junctions-and-desmosomes-and-water-transporter-aquaporin-4-in-meningothelial-cells-of-the-human-optic-nerve
#9
Thi Ngoc Co Zeleny, Corina Kohler, Albert Neutzner, Hanspeter E Killer, Peter Meyer
PURPOSE: Meningothelial cells (MECs) play a central role in the maintenance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis and in physiological and pathophysiological processes within the subarachnoid space (SAS) linking them to optic nerve (ON) pathologies. Still, not much is known about their structural properties that might enable MECs to perform specific functions within the ON microenvironment. METHODS: For closer characterization of the structural properties of the human MEC layer in the arachnoid, we performed immunohistological analyses to evaluate the presence of cell-cell interaction markers, namely, markers for tight junctions (JAM1, Occludin, and Claudin 5), gap junctions (Connexin 26 and 43), and desmosomes (Desmoplakin) as well as for water channel marker aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retrobulbar, midorbital, and intracanalicular human ON sections...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700706/spatial-distribution-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-1-cb1-in-normal-canine-central-and-peripheral-nervous-system
#10
Jessica Freundt-Revilla, Kristel Kegler, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Andrea Tipold
The endocannabinoid system is a regulatory pathway consisting of two main types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. The CB1 receptor is highly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems (PNS) in mammalians and is involved in neuromodulatory functions. Since endocannabinoids were shown to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of epileptic dogs, knowledge about the species specific CB receptor expression in the nervous system is required. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution of CB1 receptors in the normal canine CNS and PNS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698553/efficient-characterization-and-classification-of-contrast-sensitivity-functions-in-aging
#11
Fang-Fang Yan, Fang Hou, Zhong-Lin Lu, Xiaopeng Hu, Chang-Bing Huang
The contrast sensitivity function (CSF), delineating contrast sensitivity over a wide range of spatial frequencies, provides a comprehensive characterization of spatial vision and a sensitive test for many physiological and pathological processes. A precise CSF measurement tool for the aging population is of great theoretical and practical importance. In the current study, we tested whether the assumptions of the newly developed quick CSF method were valid and whether it can rapidly, reliably, and effectively evaluate CSFs in the aging population...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685161/behavioral-effects-of-a-chemorepellent-receptor-knockout-mutation-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#12
Dianxiong Zou, Todd M Hennessey
A conditioned supernatant from Tetrahymena thermophila contains a powerful chemorepellent for wild-type cells, and a gene called G37 is required for this response. This is the first genomic identification of a chemorepellent receptor in any eukaryotic unicellular organism. This conditioned supernatant factor (CSF) is small (<1 kDa), and its repellent effect is resistant to boiling, protease treatment, and nuclease digestion. External BAPTA eliminated the CSF response, suggesting that Ca(2+) entry is required for the classical avoiding reactions (AR) used for chemorepulsion...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673007/cytokine-induced-killer-cell-therapy-for-modulating-regulatory-t-cells-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
Baodan Yu, Junli Wang, Chen He, Wei Wang, Jianli Tang, Runhui Zheng, Chengzhi Zhou, Huanhuan Zhang, Zhiping Fu, Qiasheng Li, Jun Xu
Previous studies have reported that regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are physiologically engaged in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance, have a critical role in the regulation of the antitumor immune response. Targeting Tregs has the potential to augment cancer vaccine approaches. The current study therefore aimed to evaluate the role of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell infusion in modulating Tregs in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 15 patients with advanced NSCLC were treated by an infusion of CIK cells derived from autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671588/implications-of-neuroinvasive-bacterial-peptides-on-rodents-behaviour-and-neurotransmission
#14
Aneela Taj, Nusrat Jamil
Neuroinvasive microbes are capable of applying their influences on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of the host followed by the involvement of central nervous system (CNS) by releasing extracellular metabolites that may cause alterations in the biochemical and neurophysiological environment. Consequently synaptic, neuroendocrine, peripheral immune, neuro-immune, and behavioural responses of the host facilitate the progression of infection. The present study was designed to extrapolate the effects of crude and purified extracellular peptides of neuropathogenic bacteria on behavioural responses and neurotransmission of Sprague Dawley (SD) models...
July 2, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660395/comparison-of-anti-siphon-devices-how-do-they-affect-csf-dynamics-in-supine-and-upright-posture
#15
Manuel Gehlen, Anders Eklund, Vartan Kurtcuoglu, Jan Malm, Marianne Schmid Daners
BACKGROUND: Three different types of anti-siphon devices (ASDs) have been developed to counteract siphoning-induced overdrainage in upright posture. However, it is not known how the different ASDs affect CSF dynamics under the complex pressure environment seen in clinic due to postural changes. We investigated which ASDs can avoid overdrainage in upright posture best without leading to CSF accumulation. METHODS: Three shunts each of the types Codman Hakim with SiphonGuard (flow-regulated), Miethke miniNAV with proSA (gravitational), and Medtronic Delta (membrane controlled) were tested...
August 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615302/ccr2-dependent-monocyte-derived-macrophages-resolve-inflammation-and-restore-gut-motility-in-postoperative-ileus
#16
Giovanna Farro, Michelle Stakenborg, Pedro J Gomez-Pinilla, Evelien Labeeuw, Gera Goverse, Martina Di Giovangiulio, Nathalie Stakenborg, Elisa Meroni, Francesca D'Errico, Yvon Elkrim, Damya Laoui, Zofia M Lisowski, Kristin A Sauter, David A Hume, Jo A Van Ginderachter, Guy E Boeckxstaens, Gianluca Matteoli
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative ileus (POI) is assumed to result from myeloid cells infiltrating the intestinal muscularis externa (ME) in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. In the current study, we investigated the role of infiltrating monocytes in a murine model of intestinal manipulation (IM)-induced POI in order to clarify whether monocytes mediate tissue damage and intestinal dysfunction or they are rather involved in the recovery of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. DESIGN: IM was performed in mice with defective monocyte migration to tissues (C-C motif chemokine receptor 2, Ccr2(-/ (-)) mice) and wild-type (WT) mice to study the role of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MΦs) during onset and resolution of ME inflammation...
June 14, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614970/effect-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-drainage-on-brain-tissue-oxygenation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Omar S Akbik, Mark Krasberg, Edwin M Nemoto, Howard Yonas
The effectiveness of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage in lowering high intracranial pressure (ICP) is well established in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recently, however, the use of external ventricular drains (EVDs) and ICP monitors in TBI has come under question. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the effect of CSF drainage on brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2). Using a multi-modality monitoring system, we continuously monitored PbtO2 and parenchymal ICP during CSF drainage events via a ventriculostomy in 40 patients with severe TBI...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610607/resveratrol-distinctively-modulates-the-inflammatory-profiles-of-immune-and-endothelial-cells
#18
Joseph Schwager, Nathalie Richard, Franziska Widmer, Daniel Raederstorff
BACKGROUND: The phenolic substance resveratrol (RES) is a plant metabolite known to modulate numerous physiological functions and to exert beneficial effects as a cancer-chemopreventing agent and on neurological, hepatic, and cardiovascular systems. Since the compound affects the lifespan of yeast and flies it might be an anti-aging substance. Mechanistically, RES is involved in down regulating the inflammatory response. The pleiotropic effects of RES in cells of the immune and endothelial system were examined in this study...
June 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603123/determination-of-nitrate-in-biological-fluids-by-hplc
#19
Muhammad Ashraf, Bilal Ahmed Ghalloo, Muhammad Munawar Hayat, Jameel Rahman, Samina Ejaz, Muhammad Iqbal, Faizul Hassan -Nasim
Nitrate is the stable product of nitric oxide, which is physiologically active radical, an immunomodulator and a neuromodulator; its quantification in biological fluids is important to study the physiological and biochemical nature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify nitrate in different biological fluids like serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and ascetic fluid (ASF) using HPLC technique. A new HPLC method for the estimation of nitrate in serum, CSF and ASF was developed using the mobile phase of 1...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582842/chitotriosidase-a-marker-of-innate-immunity-is-elevated-in-patients-with-primary-breast-cancer
#20
Mya Sanda Thein, Anita Kohli, Rohit Ram, Maria Clara Ingaramo, Alka Jain, Neal S Fedarko
BACKGROUND: Cancer progression has been associated with altered immune cell function and activation. Neopterin, which is secreted by interferon-γ stimulated macrophages, exhibits an association with multiple cancer types and metastatic disease. Chitotriosidase, which is secreted by chronically activated macrophages and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulated neutrophils has not been studied in the setting of cancer. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this discovery study was to screen chitotriosidase for diagnostic capacity in detecting cancer and compare its operating characteristics with those of neopterin...
July 4, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
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