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cholinergic anti inflammatory pathway

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331768/the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-an-innovative-treatment-strategy-for-respiratory-diseases-and-their-comorbidities
#1
REVIEW
Mitsuhiro Yamada, Masakazu Ichinose
Over the past few decades, it has been clarified that the nervous system and immune system have overlapping distributions and their interactions are critical in the regulation of immunological and inflammatory responses. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, including the parasympathetic nerve systems and humoral factors orchestrate the immune responses to protect the body during infection and tissue injury. Recent investigations have attempted to clarify how the parasympathetic nerve systems attenuate the systemic inflammatory responses and identified the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) as a crucial target for attenuating the release of inflammatory cytokines from inflammatory cells including macrophages and dendritic cells...
January 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298542/the-role-of-alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-involvement-of-different-cellular-pathways
#2
Mohammad Seyedabadi, Reza Rahimian, Jean-Eric Ghia
Autonomic imbalance plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The central nervous system (CNS) cooperates dynamically with the immune system to regulate inflammation through humoral and neural pathways. In particular, acetylcholine (Ach), the main neurotransmitter in the vagus nerve, decreases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through a mechanism dependent on the α7 nicotinic Ach receptors (α7nAChRs). Areas covered: Here, we review the evidence for involvement of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) in IBD...
January 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218102/dexmedetomidine-alleviates-lps-induced-septic-cardiomyopathy-via-the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-in-mice
#3
Weilan Kong, Kai Kang, Yang Gao, Haitao Liu, Xianglin Meng, Songliu Yang, Kaijiang Yu, Mingyan Zhao
This study was conducted to investigate the role of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in LPS-induced septic cardiomyopathy in mice. C57BL/6 mice were used to construct septic cardiomyopathy models. The optimal duration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment was determined by HE staining and TUNEL assay. Blank controls were intraperitoneally injected with saline and models were injected with LPS (10 mg/kg) (LPS), α-bungarotoxin (BT-LPS), BT and dexmedetomidine (BT-DEX-LPS). The pathological examinations were performed on HE- stained myocardium tissues, apoptosis was determined using TUNEL assay, mRNA expression of NF-κB p65, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Bcl-2, Bax, p53 and α7nACh was quantified using qRT-PCR, protein levels of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) were analyzed using Western blot analysis...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208493/almond-hazelnut-and-walnut-three-nuts-for-neuroprotection-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-neuropharmacological-review-of-their-bioactive-constituents
#4
REVIEW
Narjes Gorji, Reihaneh Moeini, Zahra Memariani
An increase in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder is an almost obvious issue in the world. Researches on natural products for finding effective drugs to prevent the disease are in progress. There is special attention to the three types of nuts including almond, hazelnut and walnut in manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine (PM) as the preventive agents against brainatrophy and memory loss. The purpose of this study is a pharmacological review of their bioactive constituents and introducing the value of these nuts as the effective supplements and natural medicinal foods in AD patients...
December 5, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197398/pharmacologic-activation-of-cholinergic-alpha7-nicotinic-receptors-mitigates-depressive-like-behavior-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-stress
#5
Dan Zhao, Xulin Xu, Linna Pan, Wei Zhu, Xiaopei Fu, Lianjun Guo, Qing Lu, Jian Wang
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that chronic stress-induced depression is associated with exaggerated inflammatory response in the brain. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) regulate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, but the role of cholinergic signaling and α7nAChR in chronic stress has not yet been examined. METHODS: In this study, we used a well-documented model of depression in which mice were exposed to 6 h of restraint stress for 21 consecutive days...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197233/cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-inhibits-neointimal-hyperplasia-by-suppressing-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#6
Dong-Jie Li, Hui Fu, Jie Tong, Yong-Hua Li, Le-Feng Qu, Pei Wang, Fu-Ming Shen
Neointimal hyperplasia as a consequence of vascular injury is aggravated by inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is a orchestrator of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP), which refers to a physiological neuro-immune mechanism that restricts inflammation. Here, we investigated the potential role of CAP in neointimal hyperplasia using α7nAChR knockout (KO) mice. Male α7nAChR-KO mice and their wild-type control mice (WT) were subjected to wire injury in left common carotid artery...
November 16, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190774/activation-of-the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-by-gts-21-attenuates-cisplatin-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-mice
#7
Prodyot K Chatterjee, Michael M Yeboah, Malvika H Solanki, Gopal Kumar, Xiangying Xue, Valentin A Pavlov, Yousef Al-Abed, Christine N Metz
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common side effect of cisplatin, a widely used chemotherapy drug. Although AKI occurs in up to one third of cancer patients receiving cisplatin, effective renal protective strategies are lacking. Cisplatin targets renal proximal tubular epithelial cells leading to inflammation, reactive oxygen species, tubular cell injury, and eventually cell death. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is a vagus nerve-mediated reflex that suppresses inflammation via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185370/effect-of-nicotine-on-placental-ischemia-induced-complement-activation-and-hypertension-in-the-rat
#8
Connor F Laule, Cameron R Wing, Evan J Odean, Jacob A Wilcox, Jeffrey S Gilbert, Jean F Regal
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition manifested by new-onset maternal hypertension with systemic inflammation, including increased innate immune system complement activation. While exact pathophysiology is unknown, evidence suggests that inadequate spiral artery invasion and resulting utero-placental insufficiency is the initiating event. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy decreases the risk of preeclampsia. Nicotine, a major component of cigarettes, stimulates the efferent cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway through peripherally expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and is known to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury in kidney and liver...
December 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167670/the-cholinergic-system-modulates-memory-and-hippocampal-plasticity-via-its-interactions-with-non-neuronal-cells
#9
REVIEW
Sara V Maurer, Christina L Williams
Degeneration of central cholinergic neurons impairs memory, and enhancement of cholinergic synapses improves cognitive processes. Cholinergic signaling is also anti-inflammatory, and neuroinflammation is increasingly linked to adverse memory, especially in Alzheimer's disease. Much of the evidence surrounding cholinergic impacts on the neuroimmune system focuses on the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor, as stimulation of this receptor prevents many of the effects of immune activation. Microglia and astrocytes both express this receptor, so it is possible that some cholinergic effects may be via these non-neuronal cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167641/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-agonist-ar-r17779-protects-mice-against-2-4-6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid-induced-colitis-in-a-spleen-dependent-way
#10
Andrea Grandi, Irene Zini, Lisa Flammini, Anna M Cantoni, Valentina Vivo, Vigilio Ballabeni, Elisabetta Barocelli, Simona Bertoni
The existence of a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway negatively modulating the inflammatory and immune responses in various clinical conditions and experimental models has long been postulated. In particular, the protective involvement of the vagus nerve and of nicotinic Ach receptors (nAChRs) has been proposed in intestinal inflammation and repeatedly investigated in DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis. However, the role of α7 nAChRs stimulation is still controversial and the potential contribution of α4β2 nAChRs has never been explored in this experimental condition...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163522/the-vagus-nerve-in-the-neuro-immune-axis-implications-in-the-pathology-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#11
REVIEW
Bruno Bonaz, Valérie Sinniger, Sonia Pellissier
The vagus nerve (VN) is the longest nerve of the organism and a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system which constitutes the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with the sympathetic nervous system. There is classically an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems which is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis. An imbalance of the ANS is observed in various pathologic conditions. The VN, a mixed nerve with 4/5 afferent and 1/5 efferent fibers, is a key component of the neuro-immune and brain-gut axes through a bidirectional communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129819/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-%C3%AE-7-subunit-improves-energy-homeostasis-and-inhibits-inflammation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
Dong-Jie Li, Jian Liu, Xia Hua, Hui Fu, Fang Huang, Yi-Bo Fei, Wen-Jie Lu, Fu-Ming Shen, Pei Wang
OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide; yet, the pathogenesis of the disorder is not completely understood. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit (α7nAChR) plays an indispensable role in the vagus nerve-regulated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the key role of α7nAChR in NAFLD development. Male wild-type (WT) and α7nAChR knockout (α7nAChR(-/-)) mice were fed a normal chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to induce NAFLD...
November 9, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126416/adjunctive-use-of-physostigmine-salicylate-anticholium%C3%A2-in-perioperative-sepsis-and-septic-shock-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-monocentric-trial-anticholium%C3%A2-per-se
#13
Johannes B Zimmermann, Nadine Pinder, Thomas Bruckner, Monika Lehmann, Johann Motsch, Thorsten Brenner, Torsten Hoppe-Tichy, Stefanie Swoboda, Markus A Weigand, Stefan Hofer
BACKGROUND: Severe sepsis and septic shock remain a major challenge, even in modern intensive care. In Germany, about 68,000 patients die annually because of septic diseases, characterized by a complex systemic inflammatory response. Causal treatment of the underlying infection is essential for successful management of sepsis, but the course can be positively influenced by supportive and adjuvant measures. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) represents a new approach to adjunctive therapy of septic diseases and can be pharmacologically activated by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine (Anticholium®)...
November 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118926/gts-21-attenuates-lps-induced-renal-injury-via-the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-in-mice
#14
Yang Gao, Kai Kang, Haitao Liu, Weilan Kong, Qiuyuan Han, Xing Zhang, Rui Huang, Jingdong Qu, Hongliang Wang, Sicong Wang, Ruijin Liu, Yansong Liu, Kaijiang Yu
This study aimed to investigate the role of GTS-21 in cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway-mediated protection of LPS-induced septic renal injury in mice. C57BL/6 mice were used to construct septic injury models. The optimal duration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment was determined using HE staining and TUNEL assay. Mice injected with saline were used as blank control and with LPS (10 mg/kg) as model, which were further treated with α-bungarotoxin (BT-LPS), GTS-21 (GTS-21-LPS) and BT and GTS-21 (BT-GTS-21-LPS)...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093707/add-on-pyridostigmine-enhances-cd4-t-cell-recovery-in-hiv-1-infected-immunological-non-responders-a-proof-of-concept-study
#15
Sergio I Valdés-Ferrer, José C Crispín, Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Carlos A Rodríguez-Osorio, Bernardo Cacho-Díaz, Jorge Alcocer-Varela, Carlos Cantú-Brito, Juan Sierra-Madero
Background: In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, persistent T-cell activation leads to rapid turnover and increased cell death, leading to immune exhaustion and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Stimulation of the vagus nerve increases acetylcholine (ACh) release and modulates inflammation in chronic inflammatory conditions, a neural mechanism known as the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP). Pyridostigmine (PDG), an ACh-esterase inhibitor, increases the half-life of endogenous ACh, therefore mimicking the CAP...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089979/therapeutic-potential-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-agonists-to-regulate-neuroinflammation-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Laura Foucault-Fruchard, Daniel Antier
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, are all characterized by a component of innate immunity called neuroinflammation. Neuronal loss and neuroinflammation are two phenomena closely linked. Hence, the neuroinflammation is a relevant target for the management of the neurodegenerative diseases given that, to date, there is no treatment to stop neuronal loss. Several studies have investigated the potential effects of activators of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080744/effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-rats-with-convulsive-status-epilepticus-and-association-with-activation-of-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway
#17
Kai-Liang Xu, Xin-Qiu Liu, Yu-Long Yao, Ming-Rong Ye, Yao-Guo Han, Tao Zhang, Gang Chen, Ming Lei
Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a neurological disease with contraction and extension of limbs, leading to damage of hippocampus and cognition. This study aimed to explore the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on the cognitive function and neuroinflammation in CSE rats. All rats were divided into control group, CSE group and DEX group. Morris water maze test was used to measure cognitive function. Acute hippocampal slices were made to detect long-term potentiation (LTP). Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)...
November 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057037/anti-inflammatory-silent-agonists
#18
EDITORIAL
Nicole A Horenstein, Roger L Papke
The traditional view of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is that they strictly exert their functions via their well-known ion channel activity. With the identification of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and the critical involvement of the α7 nAChR, an alternate modality of function has emerged for the receptor involving metabotropic-like activity. The new emerging pharmacology for the receptor includes ligands termed silent agonists, which exert little or no ionotropic activity, yet are capable of modulating cellular inflammatory responses...
October 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051105/nicotine-and-autoimmunity-the-lotus-flower-in-tobacco
#19
REVIEW
João Pedro Gomes, Abdulla Watad, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Nicotine, the major component of cigarettes, has demonstrated conflicting impact on the immune system: some authors suggest that increases pro-inflammatory cytokines and provokes cellular apoptosis of neutrophils, releasing intracellular components that act as auto-antigens; others claimed that nicotine has a protective and anti-inflammatory effects, especially by binding to α7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The cholinergic pathway contributes to an anti-inflammatory environment characterized by increasing T regulatory cells response, down-regulating of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a pro-inflammatory cells apoptosis...
October 16, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031072/recent-advances-in-discovery-and-development-of-natural-products-as%C3%A2-source-for-anti-parkinson-s-disease-lead-compounds
#20
REVIEW
Hongjia Zhang, Lan Bai, Jun He, Lei Zhong, Xingmei Duan, Liang Ouyang, Yuxuan Zhu, Ting Wang, Yiwen Zhang, Jianyou Shi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Although the cause remains unknown, several pathological processes and central factors such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial injury, inflammatory reactions, abnormal deposition of α-synuclein, and cell apoptosis have been reported. Currently, anti-PD drugs are classified into two major groups: drugs that affect dopaminergic neurons and anti-cholinergic drugs. Unfortunately, the existing conventional strategies against PD are with numerous side effects, and cannot fundamentally improve the degenerative process of dopaminergic neurons...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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