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cholinergic anti inflammatory pathway

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129819/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-%C3%AE-7-subunit-improves-energy-homeostasis-and-inhibits-inflammation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Dong-Jie Li, Jian Liu, Xia Hua, Hui Fu, Fang Huang, Yi-Bo Fei, Wen-Jie Lu, Fu-Ming Shen, Pei Wang
OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide; yet, the pathogenesis of the disorder is not completely understood. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit (α7nAChR) plays an indispensable role in the vagus nerve-regulated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the key role of α7nAChR in NAFLD development. Male wild-type (WT) and α7nAChR knockout (α7nAChR(-/-)) mice were fed a normal chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to induce NAFLD...
November 9, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126416/adjunctive-use-of-physostigmine-salicylate-anticholium%C3%A2-in-perioperative-sepsis-and-septic-shock-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-monocentric-trial-anticholium%C3%A2-per-se
#2
Johannes B Zimmermann, Nadine Pinder, Thomas Bruckner, Monika Lehmann, Johann Motsch, Thorsten Brenner, Torsten Hoppe-Tichy, Stefanie Swoboda, Markus A Weigand, Stefan Hofer
BACKGROUND: Severe sepsis and septic shock remain a major challenge, even in modern intensive care. In Germany, about 68,000 patients die annually because of septic diseases, characterized by a complex systemic inflammatory response. Causal treatment of the underlying infection is essential for successful management of sepsis, but the course can be positively influenced by supportive and adjuvant measures. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) represents a new approach to adjunctive therapy of septic diseases and can be pharmacologically activated by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine (Anticholium®)...
November 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118926/gts-21-attenuates-lps-induced-renal-injury-via-the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-in-mice
#3
Yang Gao, Kai Kang, Haitao Liu, Weilan Kong, Qiuyuan Han, Xing Zhang, Rui Huang, Jingdong Qu, Hongliang Wang, Sicong Wang, Ruijin Liu, Yansong Liu, Kaijiang Yu
This study aimed to investigate the role of GTS-21 in cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway-mediated protection of LPS-induced septic renal injury in mice. C57BL/6 mice were used to construct septic injury models. The optimal duration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment was determined using HE staining and TUNEL assay. Mice injected with saline were used as blank control and with LPS (10 mg/kg) as model, which were further treated with α-bungarotoxin (BT-LPS), GTS-21 (GTS-21-LPS) and BT and GTS-21 (BT-GTS-21-LPS)...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093707/add-on-pyridostigmine-enhances-cd4-t-cell-recovery-in-hiv-1-infected-immunological-non-responders-a-proof-of-concept-study
#4
Sergio I Valdés-Ferrer, José C Crispín, Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Carlos A Rodríguez-Osorio, Bernardo Cacho-Díaz, Jorge Alcocer-Varela, Carlos Cantú-Brito, Juan Sierra-Madero
Background: In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, persistent T-cell activation leads to rapid turnover and increased cell death, leading to immune exhaustion and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Stimulation of the vagus nerve increases acetylcholine (ACh) release and modulates inflammation in chronic inflammatory conditions, a neural mechanism known as the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP). Pyridostigmine (PDG), an ACh-esterase inhibitor, increases the half-life of endogenous ACh, therefore mimicking the CAP...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089979/therapeutic-potential-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-agonists-to-regulate-neuroinflammation-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Laura Foucault-Fruchard, Daniel Antier
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, are all characterized by a component of innate immunity called neuroinflammation. Neuronal loss and neuroinflammation are two phenomena closely linked. Hence, the neuroinflammation is a relevant target for the management of the neurodegenerative diseases given that, to date, there is no treatment to stop neuronal loss. Several studies have investigated the potential effects of activators of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080744/effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-rats-with-convulsive-status-epilepticus-and-association-with-activation-of-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway
#6
Kai-Liang Xu, Xin-Qiu Liu, Yu-Long Yao, Ming-Rong Ye, Yao-Guo Han, Tao Zhang, Gang Chen, Ming Lei
Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a neurological disease with contraction and extension of limbs, leading to damage of hippocampus and cognition. This study aimed to explore the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on the cognitive function and neuroinflammation in CSE rats. All rats were divided into control group, CSE group and DEX group. Morris water maze test was used to measure cognitive function. Acute hippocampal slices were made to detect long-term potentiation (LTP). Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)...
November 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057037/anti-inflammatory-silent-agonists
#7
EDITORIAL
Nicole A Horenstein, Roger L Papke
The traditional view of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is that they strictly exert their functions via their well-known ion channel activity. With the identification of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and the critical involvement of the α7 nAChR, an alternate modality of function has emerged for the receptor involving metabotropic-like activity. The new emerging pharmacology for the receptor includes ligands termed silent agonists, which exert little or no ionotropic activity, yet are capable of modulating cellular inflammatory responses...
October 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051105/nicotine-and-autoimmunity-the-lotus-flower-in-tobacco
#8
REVIEW
João Pedro Gomes, Abdulla Watad, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Nicotine, the major component of cigarettes, has demonstrated conflicting impact on the immune system: some authors suggest that increases pro-inflammatory cytokines and provokes cellular apoptosis of neutrophils, releasing intracellular components that act as auto-antigens; others claimed that nicotine has a protective and anti-inflammatory effects, especially by binding to α7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The cholinergic pathway contributes to an anti-inflammatory environment characterized by increasing T regulatory cells response, down-regulating of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a pro-inflammatory cells apoptosis...
October 16, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031072/recent-advances-in-discovery-and-development-of-natural-products-as%C3%A2-source-for-anti-parkinson-s-disease-lead-compounds
#9
REVIEW
Hongjia Zhang, Lan Bai, Jun He, Lei Zhong, Xingmei Duan, Liang Ouyang, Yuxuan Zhu, Ting Wang, Yiwen Zhang, Jianyou Shi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Although the cause remains unknown, several pathological processes and central factors such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial injury, inflammatory reactions, abnormal deposition of α-synuclein, and cell apoptosis have been reported. Currently, anti-PD drugs are classified into two major groups: drugs that affect dopaminergic neurons and anti-cholinergic drugs. Unfortunately, the existing conventional strategies against PD are with numerous side effects, and cannot fundamentally improve the degenerative process of dopaminergic neurons...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986583/effects-of-%C3%AE-conotoxin-imi-on-tnf-%C3%AE-il-8-and-tgf-%C3%AE-expression-by-human-macrophage-like-cells-derived-from-thp-1-pre-monocytic-leukemic-cells
#10
Alberto Padilla, Patricia Keating, James X Hartmann, Frank Marí
α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ubiquitous in the nervous system and ensure important neurophysiological functionality for many processes. However, they are also found in cells of the immune system, where their role has been less studied. Here we report the pro-inflammatory effect of ImI, a well characterized conotoxin that inhibits α7 nAChRs, on differentiated THP-1 pre-monocyte macrophages (MDM) obtained by phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA) treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) performed on supernatant fluids of LPS challenged MDM showed ImI-mediated upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in an ImI concentration-dependent manner from 0...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970585/targeting-neural-reflex-circuits-in-immunity-to-treat-kidney-disease
#11
REVIEW
Mark D Okusa, Diane L Rosin, Kevin J Tracey
Neural pathways regulate immunity and inflammation via the inflammatory reflex and specific molecular targets can be modulated by stimulating neurons. Neuroimmunomodulation by nonpharmacological methods is emerging as a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammatory diseases, including kidney diseases and hypertension. Electrical stimulation of vagus neurons or treatment with pulsed ultrasound activates the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) and protects mice from acute kidney injury (AKI). Direct innervation of the kidney, by afferent and efferent neurons, might have a role in modulating and responding to inflammation in various diseases, either locally or by providing feedback to regions of the central nervous system that are important in the inflammatory reflex pathway...
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963014/sympathetic-nerve-blocks-promote-anti-inflammatory-response-by-activating-the-jak2-stat3-mediated-signaling-cascade-in-rat-myocarditis-models-a-novel-mechanism-with-clinical-implications
#12
Hyelim Park, Hyewon Park, Dasom Mun, Michael Kim, Hui-Nam Pak, Moon-Hyoung Lee, Boyoung Joung
BACKGROUND: Left stellectomy has become an important therapeutic option for patients with potentially fatal arrhythmias. However, the antiarrhythmic mechanism of left stellectomy is not well known. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAIP) is a complex immune mechanism that regulates peripheral inflammatory responses. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of left stellectomy on CAIP using rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) models...
September 28, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940173/liquiritigenin-ameliorates-memory-and-cognitive-impairment-through-cholinergic-and-bdnf-pathways-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#13
Yong-Hyun Ko, Seung-Hwan Kwon, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Liquiritigenin (LQ), a flavonoid extracted from the radix of Glycyrrhiza, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. In this study, we evaluated the cognitive enhancing effects of LQ on learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a muscarinic antagonist, using the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and novel object recognition tests. A single administration of LQ significantly improved scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in these behavioral tests. In addition, LQ dramatically inhibited acetylcholinesterase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance activities in the hippocampus of scopolamine-induced mice in a dose-dependent manner...
September 22, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937230/vagal-immune-interactions-involved-in-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway
#14
I Zila, D Mokra, J Kopincova, M Kolomaznik, M Javorka, A Calkovska
Inflammation and other immune responses are involved in the variety of diseases and disorders. The acute response to endotoxemia includes activation of innate immune mechanisms as well as changes in autonomic nervous activity. The autonomic nervous system and the inflammatory response are intimately linked and sympathetic and vagal nerves are thought to have anti-inflammation functions. The basic functional circuit between vagus nerve and inflammatory response was identified and the neuroimmunomodulation loop was called cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932225/expression-and-function-of-the-cholinergic-system-in-immune-cells
#15
REVIEW
Takeshi Fujii, Masato Mashimo, Yasuhiro Moriwaki, Hidemi Misawa, Shiro Ono, Kazuhide Horiguchi, Koichiro Kawashima
T and B cells express most cholinergic system components-e.g., acetylcholine (ACh), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase, and both muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs, respectively). Using ChAT(BAC)-eGFP transgenic mice, ChAT expression has been confirmed in T and B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. Moreover, T cell activation via T-cell receptor/CD3-mediated pathways upregulates ChAT mRNA expression and ACh synthesis, suggesting that this lymphocytic cholinergic system contributes to the regulation of immune function...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928157/alteration-of-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-in-rat-with-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-modified-electrophysiological-function-of-heart
#16
Shu-Jie Wu, Yue-Chun Li, Zhe-Wei Shi, Zhong-Hao Lin, Zhi-Heng Rao, Si-Chao Tai, Mao-Ping Chu, Lei Li, Jia-Feng Lin
BACKGROUND: With chronic ischemia after myocardial infarction, the resulting scar tissue result in electrical and structural remodeling vulnerable to an arrhythmogenic substrate. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway elicited by vagal nerve via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChR) can modulate local and systemic inflammatory responses. Here, we aimed to clarify a novel mechanism for the antiarrhythmogenic properties of vagal nerve during the ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923914/new-ultrasound-techniques-promise-further-advances-in-aki-and-ckd
#17
REVIEW
Travis D Hull, Anupam Agarwal, Kenneth Hoyt
AKI and CKD are important clinical problems because they affect many patients and the associated diagnostic and treatment paradigms are imperfect. Ultrasound is a cost-effective, noninvasive, and simple imaging modality that offers a multitude of means to improve the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of both AKI and CKD, especially considering recent advances in this technique. Ultrasound alone can attenuate AKI and prevent CKD by stimulating the splenic cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Additionally, microbubble contrast agents are improving the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for diagnosing kidney disease, especially when these agents are conjugated to ligand-specific mAbs or peptides, which make the dynamic assessment of disease progression and response to treatment possible...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912862/astragalus-polysaccharides-combined-with-ibuprofen-exhibit-a-therapeutic-effect-on-septic-rats-via-an-anti-inflammatory-cholinergic-pathway
#18
Li Liu, Shibiao Chen, Xiaoyun Xu, Benchao Hou, Fei Mo
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) in combination with ibuprofen (IBU) in the treatment of sepsis and the underlying mechanism. The combined drug treatment was evaluated in a rat model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and acetylcholine (ACh) were determined. Nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) α7 receptor expression and histopathological changes in the lung tissue were also observed...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878260/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-signaling-modulates-the-inflammatory-phenotype-of-fetal-brain-microglia-first-evidence-of-interference-by-iron-homeostasis
#19
M Cortes, M Cao, H L Liu, C S Moore, L D Durosier, P Burns, G Fecteau, A Desrochers, L B Barreiro, J P Antel, M G Frasch
Neuroinflammation in utero may result in life-long neurological disabilities. Microglia play a pivotal role, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. No early postnatal treatment strategies exist to enhance neuroprotective potential of microglia. We hypothesized that agonism on α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) in fetal microglia will augment their neuroprotective transcriptome profile, while the antagonistic stimulation of α7nAChR will achieve the opposite. Using an in vivo - in vitro model of developmental programming of neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we validated this hypothesis in primary fetal sheep microglia cultures re-exposed to LPS in presence of a selective α7nAChR agonist or antagonist...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854504/the-natural-product-curcumin-as-a-potential-coadjuvant-in-alzheimer-s-treatment
#20
Inelia Morales, Cristóbal Cerda-Troncoso, Víctor Andrade, Ricardo B Maccioni
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive cognitive impairment of patients, affecting around 12% of people older than 65 years old. WHO estimated that over 48.6 million all over the world suffer this disease. On the basis of cumulative results on our research, we have postulated the neuroimmunomodulation hypothesis that appears to provide a reasonable explanation of both the preclinical and clinical observations. In this context, the long-term activation of the innate immune system triggers an anomalous cascade of molecular signals, finally leading to tau oligomerization in the pathway to neuronal degeneration...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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