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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232626/targeted-isolation-and-identification-of-bioactive-compounds-lowering-cholesterol-in-the-crude-extracts-of-crabapples-using-uplc-dad-ms-spe-nmr-based-on-pharmacology-guided-pls-da
#1
Chao Wen, Dongshan Wang, Xing Li, Tao Huang, Cheng Huang, Kaifeng Hu
The anti-hyperlipidemic effects of crude crabapple extracts derived from Malus 'Red jade', Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. and Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. were evaluated on high-fat diet induced obese (HF DIO) mice. The results revealed that some of these extracts could lower serum cholesterol levels in HF DIO mice. The same extracts were also parallelly analyzed by LC-MS in both positive and negative ionization modes. Based on the pharmacological results, 22 LC-MS variables were identified to be correlated with the anti-hyperlipidemic effects using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and independent samples t-test...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232615/a-wind-tunnel-study-on-the-effect-of-trees-on-pm2-5-distribution-around-buildings
#2
Wenjing Ji, Bin Zhao
Vegetation, especially trees, is effective in reducing the concentration of particulate matter. Trees can efficiently capture particles, improve urban air quality, and may further decrease the introduction of outdoor particles to indoor air. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of trees on particle distribution and removal around buildings using wind tunnel experiments. The wind tunnel is 18m long, 12m wide, and 3.5m high. Trees were modeled using real cypress branches to mimic trees planted around buildings...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232614/evaluation-of-carbon-nanotube-based-copper-nanoparticle-composite-for-the-efficient-detection-of-agroviruses
#3
Muhammad Ali Tahir, Sadia Z Bajwa, Shahid Mansoor, Rob W Briddon, Waheed S Khan, Brian E Scheffler, Imran Amin
We report a biosensor that combines the construction of a three-dimensional nanocomposite with electrochemical methods for the detection of viruses in plants. This is the first report, where carbon nanotubes are used as a conductive frame to anchor highly electrolytic agglomerates of copper nanoparticles to detect agroviruses. Morphological analysis of nanocomposite revealed the presence of carbon nanotubes having a diameter of 50-100nm with copper nanoparticles of 20-100nm, attached in the form of bunches...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232612/aliphatic-hydrocarbons-recovered-in-vegetables-from-soils-based-on-their-in-situ-distribution-in-various-soil-humus-fractions-using-a-successive-extraction-method
#4
Juan Zhang, Shu-Kai Fan, Ming-Hua Zhang, Michael L Grieneisen, Jian-Feng Zhang
Aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) are major petroleum contaminants in the environment. In this study, the AHs bound to various soil endogenetic humus fractions were separated through successive extraction. Most of the AHs (46.1%) in soils were adsorbed onto/into humic acids (HA) and a small quantity of AHs (9.6%) were organic solvent extractable. AHs in B. chinensis were also analyzed since their potential risks to the residents through ingestion. AHs from C21 to C34, so called high molecular weight AHs (HMWAHs), were dominant AHs in B...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232012/the-genetics-underlying-natural-variation-of-plant-plant-interactions-a-beloved-but-forgotten-member-of-the-family-of-biotic-interactions
#5
Harihar Jaishree Subrahmaniam, Cyril Libourel, Etienne-Pascal Journet, Jean-Benoît Morel, Stéphane Muños, Andreas Niebel, Sylvain Raffaele, Fabrice Roux
Despite the importance of plant-plant interactions on crop yield and plant community dynamics, our understanding of the genetic and molecular bases underlying natural variation of plant-plant interactions is largely limited in comparison to other types of biotic interactions. By listing 63 QTL mapping and global gene expression studies based on plants directly challenged by other plants, we explored whether the genetic architecture and the function of the candidate genes underlying natural plant-plant interactions depend on the type of interactions between two plants (competition vs commensalism vs reciprocal helping vs asymmetry)...
December 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231965/mapping-multi-scale-vascular-plant-richness-in-a-forest-landscape-with-integrated-lidar-and-hyperspectral-remote-sensing
#6
C R Hakkenberg, K Zhu, R K Peet, C Song
The central role of floristic diversity in maintaining habitat integrity and ecosystem function has propelled efforts to map and monitor its distribution across forest landscapes. While biodiversity studies have traditionally relied largely on ground-based observations, the immensity of the task of generating accurate, repeatable, and spatially-continuous data on biodiversity patterns at large scales has stimulated the development of remote-sensing methods for scaling up from field plot measurements. One such approach is through integrated LiDAR and hyperspectral remote-sensing...
December 12, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231944/stability-of-plant-virus-based-nanocarriers-in-gastrointestinal-fluids
#7
Alberto Berardi, David J Evans, Francesca Baldelli Bombelli, George P Lomonossoff
Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a plant virus which is being extensively investigated as a drug delivery and vaccine nanocarrier for parenteral administration. However, to date little is known about the suitability of plant-based nanocarriers for oral delivery. In this study, the colloidal (i.e. aggregation), physical (i.e. denaturation) and chemical (i.e. digestion of the polypeptides) stability of CPMV and its empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) in conditions resembling the gastrointestinal fluids were evaluated...
December 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231869/functional-characterization-of-the-versatile-myb-gene-family-uncovered-their-important-roles-in-plant-development-and-responses-to-drought-and-waterlogging-in-sesame
#8
Marie Ali Mmadi, Komivi Dossa, Linhai Wang, Rong Zhou, Yanyan Wang, Ndiaga Cisse, Mame Oureye Sy, Xiurong Zhang
The MYB gene family constitutes one of the largest transcription factors (TFs) modulating various biological processes in plants. Although genome-wide analysis of this gene family has been carried out in some species, only three MYB members have been functionally characterized heretofore in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Here, we identified a relatively high number (287) of sesame MYB genes (SIMYBs) with an uncommon overrepresentation of the 1R-subfamily. A total of 95% of SIMYBs was mapped unevenly onto the 16 linkage groups of the sesame genome with 55 SIMYBs tandemly duplicated...
December 12, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231845/maillard-proteomics-opening-new-pages
#9
REVIEW
Alena Soboleva, Rico Schmidt, Maria Vikhnina, Tatiana Grishina, Andrej Frolov
Protein glycation is a ubiquitous non-enzymatic post-translational modification, formed by reaction of protein amino and guanidino groups with carbonyl compounds, presumably reducing sugars and α-dicarbonyls. Resulting advanced glycation end products (AGEs) represent a highly heterogeneous group of compounds, deleterious in mammals due to their pro-inflammatory effect, and impact in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and ageing. The body of information on the mechanisms and pathways of AGE formation, acquired during the last decades, clearly indicates a certain site-specificity of glycation...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231777/de-novo-transcriptome-study-identifies-candidate-genes-involved-in-resistance-to-austropuccinia-psidii-myrtle-rust-in-syzygium-luehmannnii-riberry
#10
Peri Ann Tobias, David Guest, Carsten Külheim, Robert F Park
Austropuccinia psidii, causal agent of myrtle rust, was discovered in Australia in 2010 and has since become established on a wide range of species within the Myrtaceae. Syzygium luehmannii, endemic to Australia, is an increasingly valuable berry crop. Plants were screened for responses to A. psidii inoculation and specific resistance, in the form of localised necrosis, was determined in 29% of individuals. To understand the molecular basis underlying this response, mRNA was sequenced from leaf samples taken pre-inoculation, and at 24 and 48 hours post inoculation, from four resistant and four susceptible plants...
December 12, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231255/the-structural-and-functional-reliability-of-circulins-of-chassalia-parvifolia-for-peptide-therapeutic-scaffolding
#11
B Senthilkumar, R Rajasekaran
Computational methods have refined the mode of peptide drug designing to a new plateau recently. Circulin, a 30 residue natural plant polypeptide acts as a plant defensive peptide. Additional to its antimicrobial activity it also possesses an inhibitory cytopathic effect on the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Stable Circulin can be a functionally able template for scaffolding peptide based drugs. Hence, structural stability of Chassalia parvifolia, Circulin A (1BH4) and Circulin B (2ERI) was computationally investigated...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231241/population-based-incidence-and-melanoma-specific-survival-of-cutaneous-malignant-melanoma-in-a-colombian-population-2000-2009
#12
Evy Reyes, Claudia Uribe, Esther de Vries
BACKGROUND: Demographic, clinical, and morphological characteristics of cutaneous melanoma are unknown for the Colombian population. We aim to provide these characteristics as well as population-based incidence and survival data. METHODS: All patients with an invasive cutaneous melanoma diagnosed in the period 2000-2009 registered in the population-based cancer registry of the metropolitan area of Bucaramanga were included for analysis (n = 169). Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated and melanoma-specific and overall survival estimated with follow-up until June 9, 2016, using Kaplan-Meier methodology, stratifying for gender, anatomical localization, and type of affiliation to the social security system...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231157/plant-produced-subunit-vaccine-candidates-against-yellow-fever-induce-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-and-confer-protection-against-viral-challenge-in-animal-models
#13
Stephen Tottey, Yoko Shoji, R Mark Jones, Jessica A Chichester, Brian J Green, Konstantin Musiychuk, Huaxin Si, Slobodanka Manceva, Amy Rhee, Moneim Shamloul, Joey Norikane, Rosane C Guimarães, Elena Caride, Andrea N M R Silva, Marisol Simões, Patricia C C Neves, Renato Marchevsky, Marcos S Freire, Stephen J Streatfield, Vidadi Yusibov
Yellow fever (YF) is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes and endemic mostly in South America and Africa with 20-50% fatality. All current licensed YF vaccines, including YF-Vax® (Sanofi-Pasteur, France) and 17DD-YFV (Bio-Manguinhos, Brazil), are based on live attenuated virus produced in hens' eggs and have been widely used. The YF vaccines are considered safe and highly effective. However, a recent increase in demand for YF vaccines and reports of rare cases of YF vaccine-associated fatal adverse events have provoked interest in developing a safer YF vaccine that can be easily scaled up to meet this increased global demand...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231134/plant-made-antibodies-properties-and-therapeutic-applications
#14
Tatianamsu Ru V Komarova, Ekaterina V Sheshukova, Yuri L Dorokhov
A cost-effective plant platform for therapeutic monoclonal antibody production is both flexible and scalable. In addition, plant-made antibodies (PMAbs) could be advantageous compared to those produced in animal cells due to the absence of a risk of contamination from nucleic acids or proteins of animal origin. In this review, the various platforms of PMAbs production are described, and the widely used transient expression system based on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of genetic material into plant cells is discussed in detail...
December 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230681/the-metagenomic-approach-to-characterization-of-the-microbial-community-shift-during-the-long-term-cultivation-of-anammox-enriched-granular-sludge
#15
Slawomir Ciesielski, Krzysztof Czerwionka, Dominika Sobotka, Tomasz Dulski, Jacek Makinia
A metagenomic approach was used to investigate how the microbial community composition changes when an anammox-based granular sludge reactor is seeded with nitritation-anammox biomass from a wastewater treatment plant. In the seed sample, the abundance of Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis was similar to Candidatus Jettenia caeni (12.63 vs. 11.68%). This biomass was typical in terms of microbial nitrogen conversion; both ammonia (Nitrosomonas sp.) and nitrite (Nitrospira sp.) oxidizing bacteria were detected...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230584/mapping-of-a-major-quantitative-trait-locus-for-bakanae-disease-resistance-in-rice-by-genome-resequencing
#16
Hyeonso Ji, Tae-Ho Kim, Gang-Seob Lee, Hyun-Ju Kang, Seung-Bum Lee, Seok Cheol Suh, Song Lim Kim, Inchan Choi, Jeongho Baek, Kyung-Hwan Kim
Bakanae disease (BD) has emerged as a serious threat in almost all rice cultivation regions worldwide. Nampyeong is a Korean japonica rice variety known to be resistant to BD. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed with F2 and F3 plants derived from a cross between the Nampyeong variety and a susceptible Korean japonica line, DongjinAD. First, resequencing of Nampyeong and DongjinAD was performed, which identified 171,035 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the two parental varieties...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230535/a-new-method-for-non-invasive-biomass-determination-based-on-stereo-photogrammetry
#17
Maria Syngelaki, Matthias Hardner, Patrick Oberthuer, Thomas Bley, Danilo Schneider, Felix Lenk
A novel, non-destructive method for the biomass estimation of biological samples on culture dishes was developed. To achieve this, a photogrammetric system, which consists of a digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR), an illuminated platform where the culture dishes are positioned and an Arduino board which controls the capturing process, was constructed. The camera was mounted on a holder which set the camera at different title angles and the platform rotated, to capture images from different directions. A software, based on stereo photogrammetry, was developed for the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the samples...
December 11, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230532/rna-mediated-transgenerational-inheritance-in-ciliates-and-plants
#18
REVIEW
Zachary T Neeb, Mariusz Nowacki
In the age of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and with the availability of whole sequenced genomes and epigenomes, some attention has shifted from purely sequence-based studies to those of heritable epigenetic modifications. Transgenerational inheritance can be defined as heritable changes to the state of DNA that may be passed on to subsequent generations without alterations to the underlying DNA sequence. Although this phenomenon has been extensively studied in many systems, studies of transgenerational inheritance in mammals and other higher-level eukaryotes may be complicated by the fact that many epigenetic marks are reprogrammed during sexual reproduction...
December 11, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230376/population-structure-and-phenotypic-variation-of-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum-from-dry-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-in-the-united-states
#19
Zhian N Kamvar, B Sajeewa Amaradasa, Rachana Jhala, Serena McCoy, James R Steadman, Sydney E Everhart
The ascomycete pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic pathogen on over 400 known host plants, and is the causal agent of white mold on dry bean. Currently, there are no known cultivars of dry bean with complete resistance to white mold. For more than 20 years, bean breeders have been using white mold screening nurseries (wmn) with natural populations of S. sclerotiorum to screen new cultivars for resistance. It is thus important to know if the genetic diversity in populations of S. sclerotiorum within these nurseries (a) reflect the genetic diversity of the populations in the surrounding region and (b) are stable over time...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230231/activation-of-the-lrr-receptor-like-kinase-psy1r-requires-transphosphorylation-of-residues-in-the-activation-loop
#20
Christian B Oehlenschlæger, Lotte B A Gersby, Nagib Ahsan, Jesper T Pedersen, Astrid Kristensen, Tsvetelina V Solakova, Jay J Thelen, Anja T Fuglsang
PSY1R is a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like kinase (RLK) previously shown to act as receptor for the plant peptide hormone PSY1 (peptide containing sulfated tyrosine 1) and to regulate cell expansion. PSY1R phosphorylates and thereby regulates the activity of plasma membrane-localized H+-ATPases. While this mechanism has been studied in detail, little is known about how PSY1R itself is activated. Here we studied the activation mechanism of PSY1R. We show that full-length PSY1R interacts with members of the SERK co-receptor family in planta...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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