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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098248/microbial-succession-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-dairy-cows-from-2-weeks-to-first-lactation
#1
Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Jacob D Breaker, Garret Suen
Development of the dairy calf gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and its associated microbiota are essential for survival and milk production, as this community is responsible for converting plant-based feeds into accessible nutrients. However, little is known regarding the establishment of microbes in the calf GIT. Here, we measured fecal-associated bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities of dairy cows from 2 weeks to the middle of first lactation (>2 years) as well as rumen-associated communities from weaning (8 weeks) to first lactation...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097059/the-complete-chloroplast-genome-sequence-of-an-endemic-monotypic-genus-hagenia-rosaceae-structural-comparative-analysis-gene-content-and-microsatellite-detection
#2
Andrew W Gichira, Zhizhong Li, Josphat K Saina, Zhicheng Long, Guangwan Hu, Robert W Gituru, Qingfeng Wang, Jinming Chen
Hagenia is an endangered monotypic genus endemic to the topical mountains of Africa. The only species, Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel, is an important medicinal plant producing bioactive compounds that have been traditionally used by African communities as a remedy for gastrointestinal ailments in both humans and animals. Complete chloroplast genomes have been applied in resolving phylogenetic relationships within plant families. We employed high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine the complete chloroplast genome sequence of H...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097050/microbial-communities-mediating-algal-detritus-turnover-under-anaerobic-conditions
#3
Jessica M Morrison, Chelsea L Murphy, Kristina Baker, Richard M Zamor, Steve J Nikolai, Shawn Wilder, Mostafa S Elshahed, Noha H Youssef
BACKGROUND: Algae encompass a wide array of photosynthetic organisms that are ubiquitously distributed in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Algal species often bloom in aquatic ecosystems, providing a significant autochthonous carbon input to the deeper anoxic layers in stratified water bodies. In addition, various algal species have been touted as promising candidates for anaerobic biogas production from biomass. Surprisingly, in spite of its ecological and economic relevance, the microbial community involved in algal detritus turnover under anaerobic conditions remains largely unexplored...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096957/cinnamon-effects-on-metabolic-syndrome-a-review-based-on-its-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Hamid Mollazadeh, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
OBJECTIVES: Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major risk factors of death globally. One of the most undeniable reasons of CVDs is metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS is defined as a complex of diseases including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, obesity, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The use of complementary medicine such as traditional herbal species can be effective in treatment of MetS's complications. Cinnamomum verum (family Lauraceae) is a medicinal global plant which has been used daily by people all over the world...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096391/network-based-integration-of-systems-genetics-data-reveals-pathways-associated-with-lignocellulosic-biomass-accumulation-and-processing
#5
Eshchar Mizrachi, Lieven Verbeke, Nanette Christie, Ana C Fierro, Shawn D Mansfield, Mark F Davis, Erica Gjersing, Gerald A Tuskan, Marc Van Montagu, Yves Van de Peer, Kathleen Marchal, Alexander A Myburg
As a consequence of their remarkable adaptability, fast growth, and superior wood properties, eucalypt tree plantations have emerged as key renewable feedstocks (over 20 million ha globally) for the production of pulp, paper, bioenergy, and other lignocellulosic products. However, most biomass properties such as growth, wood density, and wood chemistry are complex traits that are hard to improve in long-lived perennials. Systems genetics, a process of harnessing multiple levels of component trait information (e...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096192/integrated-physiological-proteomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-of-uv-stress-responses-and-adaptation-mechanisms-in-pinus-radiata
#6
Jesus Pascual, Maria Jesus Canal, Monica Escandon, Monica Meijon, Wolfram Weckwerth, Luis Valledor
Globally expected changes in environmental conditions, especially the increase of UV irradiation, necessitate extending our knowledge of the mechanisms mediating tree species adaptation to this stress. This is crucial for designing new strategies to maintain future forest productivity. Studies focused on environmentally realistic dosages of UV irradiation in forest species are scarce. Pinus sp. are commercially relevant trees and not much is known about their adaptation to UV. In this work, UV treatment and recovery of Pinus radiata plants with dosages mimicking future scenarios, based on current models of UV radiation, were performed in a time-dependent manner...
January 17, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095877/deciphering-composition-and-function-of-the-root-microbiome-of-a-legume-plant
#7
Kyle Hartman, Marcel Ga van der Heijden, Valexia Roussely-Provent, Jean-Claude Walser, Klaus Schlaeppi
BACKGROUND: Diverse assemblages of microbes colonize plant roots and collectively function as a microbiome. Earlier work has characterized the root microbiomes of numerous plant species, but little information is available for legumes despite their key role in numerous ecosystems including agricultural systems. Legumes form a root nodule symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobia bacteria and thereby account for large, natural nitrogen inputs into soils. Here, we describe the root bacteria microbiome of the legume Trifolium pratense combining culture-dependent and independent methods...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095598/evaluating-the-cost-safety-and-proliferation-risks-of-small-floating-nuclear-reactors
#8
Michael J Ford, Ahmed Abdulla, M Granger Morgan
It is hard to see how our energy system can be decarbonized if the world abandons nuclear power, but equally hard to introduce the technology in nonnuclear energy states. This is especially true in countries with limited technical, institutional, and regulatory capabilities, where safety and proliferation concerns are acute. Given the need to achieve serious emissions mitigation by mid-century, and the multidecadal effort required to develop robust nuclear governance institutions, we must look to other models that might facilitate nuclear plant deployment while mitigating the technology's risks...
January 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095286/the-relations-between-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-exposure-and-1-ohp-levels-as-a-biomarker-of-the-exposure
#9
Zuzana Klöslová, Marek Drímal, Karol Balog, Kvetoslava Koppová, Jarmila Dubajová
BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the products of incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of various organic materials. Their ubiquity in the environment leads to measurable levels of exposure. However, the exposure varies strongly between different regions in Europe. Some PAHs with four or more rings are suspected to be human carcinogens. Therefore, the occupational and/or environmental exposure to PAHs may cause a significant health risk. The aim of investigation is to evaluate current levels of PAH exposure in defined groups of workers...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095124/mlo-based-resistance-an-apparently-universal-weapon-to-defeat-powdery-mildew-disease
#10
Stefan Kusch, Ralph Panstruga
Loss-of-function mutations of the appropriate Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo) gene(s) are an apparently reliable "weapon" to protect plants from infection by powdery mildew fungi, as they confer durable broad-spectrum resistance. Originally detected as a natural mutation in an Ethiopian barley landrace, this so-called mlo-based resistance has been successfully employed in European barley agriculture for more than four decades. More recently, mlo-mediated resistance was discovered to be inducible in virtually every plant species of economical or scientific relevance...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094975/endoribonuclease-based-two-component-repressor-systems-for-tight-gene-expression-control-in-plants
#11
Yan Liang, Sarah M Richardson, Jingwei Yan, Veronica T Benites, Clarabelle Cheng-Yue, Thu Tran, Jenny Mortimer, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Jay D Keasling, Dominique Loque
Tight control and multifactorial regulation of gene expression are important challenges in genetic engineering and are critical for the development of regulatory circuits. Meeting these challenges will facilitate transgene expression regulation and support fine-tuning of metabolic pathways to avoid the accumulation of undesired intermediates. By employing the endoribonuclease Csy4 and its recognition sequence from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and manipulating 5'UTR of mRNA, we developed a two-component expression-repression system to tightly control synthesis of transgene products...
January 17, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094539/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-castor-ricinus-communis-l-germplasm-within-the-us-collection-assessed-with-est-ssr-markers
#12
M L Wang, M Dzievit, Z Chen, J B Morris, J E Norris, N A Barkley, B Tonnis, G A Pederson, J Yu
Castor is an important oilseed crop and although its oil is inedible, it has multiple industrial and pharmaceutical applications. The entire US castor germplasm collection was previously screened for oil content and fatty acid composition, but its genetic diversity and population structure has not been determined. Based on the screening results of oil content, fatty acid composition, and country origins, 574 accessions were selected and genotyped with 22 polymorphic EST-SSR markers. The results from cluster analysis, population structure, and principal component analysis were consistent, and partitioned accessions into four subpopulations...
October 14, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094255/specific-and-sensitive-isothermal-electrochemical-biosensor-for-plant-pathogen-dna-detection-with-colloidal-gold-nanoparticles-as-probes
#13
Han Yih Lau, Haoqi Wu, Eugene J H Wee, Matt Trau, Yuling Wang, Jose R Botella
Developing quick and sensitive molecular diagnostics for plant pathogen detection is challenging. Herein, a nanoparticle based electrochemical biosensor was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of plant pathogen DNA on disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes. This 60 min assay relied on the rapid isothermal amplification of target pathogen DNA sequences by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) followed by gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical assessment with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV)...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093983/an-approach-towards-structure-based-antimicrobial-peptide-design-for-use-in-development-of-transgenic-plants-a-strategy-for-plant-disease-management
#14
Humaira Ilyas, Aritreyee Datta, Anirban Bhunia
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host defense peptides (HDPs), are ubiquitous and vital components of innate defense response that present themselves as potential candidates for drug design, aimed to control plant and animal diseases. Though their application for plant disease management has long been studied with natural AMPs, cytotoxicity and stability related shortcomings for the development of transgenic plants limits their usage. Newer technologies like molecular modelling, NMR spectroscopy and combinatorial chemistry allow screening for potent candidates and provide new avenues for the generation of rationally designed synthetic AMPs with multiple biological functions...
January 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093828/a-systematic-review-on-ethnomedicines-of-anti-cancer-plants
#15
REVIEW
Akash Tariq, Sehrish Sadia, Kaiwen Pan, Ihteram Ullah, Sakina Mussarat, Feng Sun, Olatunji Olusanya Abiodun, Altanzagas Batbaatar, Zilong Li, Dagang Song, Qinli Xiong, Riaz Ullah, Suliman Khan, Buddha Bahadur Basnet, Brawin Kumar, Rabiul Islam, Muhammad Adnan
Cancer is a serious health problem and the second leading cause of death around the globe. Present review is an attempt to provide utmost information based on ethno-pharmacological and toxicological aspects of anti-cancer plants of the world. A total of 276 articles published in English journals and containing maximum ethnomedicinal information were reviewed using several data sources such as; Google scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and floras of different countries. A total of 199 anti-cancer plants were recorded in present review and results indicated that traditional medicines are mostly being use in developing countries for cancer treatment...
January 17, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093652/structural-basis-for-the-isotype-specific-interactions-of-ferredoxin-and-ferredoxin-nadp-oxidoreductase-an-evolutionary-switch-between-photosynthetic-and-heterotrophic-assimilation
#16
Fumio Shinohara, Genji Kurisu, Guy Hanke, Caroline Bowsher, Toshiharu Hase, Yoko Kimata-Ariga
In higher plants, ferredoxin (Fd) and ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) are each present as distinct isoproteins of photosynthetic type (leaf type) and non-photosynthetic type (root type). Root-type Fd and FNR are considered to facilitate the electron transfer from NADPH to Fd in the direction opposite to that occurring in the photosynthetic processes. We previously reported the crystal structure of the electron transfer complex between maize leaf FNR and Fd (leaf FNR:Fd complex), providing insights into the molecular interactions of the two proteins...
January 16, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093313/knockdown-of-nuclease-activity-in-the-gut-enhances-rnai-efficiency-in-the-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-but-not-in-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#17
Jornt Spit, Annelies Philips, Niels Wynant, Dulce Santos, Geert Plaetinck, Jozef Vanden Broeck
The responsiveness towards orally delivered dsRNA and the potency of a subsequent environmental RNA interference (RNAi) response strongly differs between different insect species. While some species are very sensitive to dsRNA delivery through the diet, others are not. The underlying reasons for this may vary, but degradation of dsRNA by nucleases in the gut lumen is believed to play a crucial role. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, is a voracious defoliator of potato crops worldwide, and is currently under investigation for novel control methods based on dsRNA treatments...
January 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093120/elucidating-rhizosphere-processes-by-mass-spectrometry-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Ariana Rugova, Markus Puschenreiter, Gunda Koellensperger, Stephan Hann
The presented review discusses state-of-the-art mass spectrometric methods, which have been developed and applied for investigation of chemical processes in the soil-root interface, the so-called rhizosphere. Rhizosphere soil's physical and chemical characteristics are to a great extent influenced by a complex mixture of compounds released from plant roots, i.e. root exudates, which have a high impact on nutrient and trace element dynamics in the soil-root interface as well as on microbial activities or soil physico-chemical characteristics...
March 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092571/machine-learned-replacement-of-n-labels-for-basecalled-sequences-in-dna-barcoding
#19
Eddie Ma, Sujeevan Ratnasingham, Stefan Kremer
This study presents a machine learning method that increases the number of identified bases in Sanger Sequencing. The system post-processes a KB basecalled chromatogram. It selects a recoverable subset of N-labels in the KB-called chromatogram to replace with basecalls (A,C,G,T). An N-label correction is defined given an additional read of the same sequence, and a human finished sequence. Corrections are added to the dataset when an alignment determines the additional read and human agree on the identity of the N-label...
August 11, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092385/visual-detection-of-multiple-genetically-modified-organisms-in-a-capillary-array
#20
Ning Shao, Jianwei Chen, Jiaying Hu, Rong Li, Dabing Zhang, Shujuan Guo, Junhou Hui, Peng Liu, Litao Yang, Sheng-Ce Tao
There is an urgent need for rapid, low-cost multiplex methodologies for the monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Here, we report a C[combining low line]apillary A[combining low line]rray-based L[combining low line]oop-mediated isothermal amplification for M[combining low line]ultiplex visual detection of nucleic acids (CALM) platform for the simple and rapid monitoring of GMOs. In CALM, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primer sets are pre-fixed to the inner surface of capillaries...
January 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
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