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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457695/functionalization-of-a-nanostructured-hydroxyapatite-with-copper-ii-compounds-as-pesticide-in-situ-tem-and-esem-observations-of-treated-vitis-vinifera-l-leaves
#1
Enrico Battiston, Maria C Salvatici, Alessandro Lavacchi, Antonietta Gatti, Stefano Di Marco, Laura Mugnai
BACKGROUND: The present study evaluates a biocompatible material for plant protection to reduce the amount of active substance applied. We used a synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) that has been studied extensively due its bioactivity and biocompatibility. Aggregation between HA nanoparticles and four copper(II) compounds applied in Vitis vinifera L. leaves as pesticide was studied. Formulations were characterised by XRD, DLS, electron microscopy and applied in planta to verify the particle aggregation and efficiency in controlling the pathogen, Plasmopara viticola...
February 19, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456811/-in-vivo-activity-assessment-of-some-tanacetum-species-used-as-traditional-wound-healer-along-with-identification-of-the-phytochemical-profile-by-a-new-validated-hplc-method
#2
Serkan Özbilgin, Esra Küpeli Akkol, Burçin Ergene Öz, Mert Ilhan, Gülçin Saltan, Özlem Bahadır Acıkara, Mehmet Tekin, Hikmet Keleş, Ipek Süntar
Objectives: Tanacetum species are traditionally used as insecticide, and externally wound healer as well as for anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic properties. The in vivo wound-healing and anti-inflammatory potential of four Tanacetum species, Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (TA) , Tanacetum heterotomum (Bornm.) Grierson (TH), Tanacetum densum (Lab.) Schultz Bip. subsp. sivasicum (TD), and Tanacetum vulgare L. (TV) was investigated. Materials and Methods: The chloroform (CHCl3 ) and methanol:water (80:20) extracts were prepared from the aerial parts of each plant...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456546/genome-wide-association-studies-and-comparison-of-models-and-cross-validation-strategies-for-genomic-prediction-of-quality-traits-in-advanced-winter-wheat-breeding-lines
#3
Peter S Kristensen, Ahmed Jahoor, Jeppe R Andersen, Fabio Cericola, Jihad Orabi, Luc L Janss, Just Jensen
The aim of the this study was to identify SNP markers associated with five important wheat quality traits (grain protein content, Zeleny sedimentation, test weight, thousand-kernel weight, and falling number), and to investigate the predictive abilities of GBLUP and Bayesian Power Lasso models for genomic prediction of these traits. In total, 635 winter wheat lines from two breeding cycles in the Danish plant breeding company Nordic Seed A/S were phenotyped for the quality traits and genotyped for 10,802 SNPs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456495/structural-variation-of-chondroitin-sulfate-chains-contributes-to-the-molecular-heterogeneity-of-perineuronal-nets
#4
Shinji Miyata, Satomi Nadanaka, Michihiro Igarashi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Aggrecan, a chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycan, forms lattice-like extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). Neocortical PNNs primarily ensheath parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (parvalbumin, PV cells) late in brain development. Emerging evidence indicates that PNNs promote the maturation of PV cells by enhancing the incorporation of homeobox protein Otx2 and regulating experience-dependent neural plasticity. Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), an N-acetylgalactosamine-specific plant lectin, binds to the CS chains of aggrecan and has been widely used to visualize PNNs...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456145/the-interrelationships-of-land-plants-and-the-nature-of-the-ancestral-embryophyte
#5
Mark N Puttick, Jennifer L Morris, Tom A Williams, Cymon J Cox, Dianne Edwards, Paul Kenrick, Silvia Pressel, Charles H Wellman, Harald Schneider, Davide Pisani, Philip C J Donoghue
The evolutionary emergence of land plant body plans transformed the planet. However, our understanding of this formative episode is mired in the uncertainty associated with the phylogenetic relationships among bryophytes (hornworts, liverworts, and mosses) and tracheophytes (vascular plants). Here we attempt to clarify this problem by analyzing a large transcriptomic dataset with models that allow for compositional heterogeneity between sites. Zygnematophyceae is resolved as sister to land plants, but we obtain several distinct relationships between bryophytes and tracheophytes...
February 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455350/analysing-the-accuracy-of-machine-learning-techniques-to-develop-an-integrated-influent-time-series-model-case-study-of-a-sewage-treatment-plant-malaysia
#6
Mozafar Ansari, Faridah Othman, Taher Abunama, Ahmed El-Shafie
The function of a sewage treatment plant is to treat the sewage to acceptable standards before being discharged into the receiving waters. To design and operate such plants, it is necessary to measure and predict the influent flow rate. In this research, the influent flow rate of a sewage treatment plant (STP) was modelled and predicted by autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), nonlinear autoregressive network (NAR) and support vector machine (SVM) regression time series algorithms. To evaluate the models' accuracy, the root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2 ) were calculated as initial assessment measures, while relative error (RE), peak flow criterion (PFC) and low flow criterion (LFC) were calculated as final evaluation measures to demonstrate the detailed accuracy of the selected models...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455240/taxonomic-structure-and-function-of-seed-inhabiting-bacterial-microbiota-from-common-reed-phragmites-australis-and-narrowleaf-cattail-typha-angustifolia-l
#7
Ting Gao, Xian-Yang Shi
The present study investigated the endophytic bacterial communities in the seeds of mature, natural common reed (Phragmites australis) and narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L.). Additionally, seed endophytic bacterial communities were compared with rhizospheric and root endophytic bacterial communities using Illumina-based sequencing. Seed endophytic bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria (reed, 41.24%; cattail, 45.51%), followed by Bacteroidetes (reed, 12.01%; cattail, 10.41%), Planctomycetes (reed, 10...
February 17, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455130/structural-and-functional-characteristics-of-buffer-strip-vegetation-in-an-agricultural-landscape-high-potential-for-nutrient-removal-but-low-potential-for-plant-biodiversity
#8
Sandra Hille, Dagmar Kappel Andersen, Brian Kronvang, Annette Baattrup-Pedersen
Vegetated buffer strips constitute a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and provide several ecosystem services. Buffer strips are often applied as a mitigation measure against diffuse pollution in agricultural areas, primarily because they may retain nutrients and in this way help protect the aquatic environment. Additionally, they can improve biodiversity in an otherwise homogenous landscape and may therefore have a value in their own right. In the present study, we characterized the structural and functional features of the vegetation in Danish buffer strips using a nationwide dataset to explore: i) their floristic quality in terms of species diversity and conservation value and ii) based on their functional characteristics, their potential to retain nutrients...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455087/isolation-and-characterization-of-biochar-derived-organic-matter-fractions-and-their-phenanthrene-sorption
#9
Jie Jin, Ke Sun, Wei Liu, Shiwei Li, Xianqiang Peng, Yan Yang, Lanfang Han, Ziwen Du, Xiangke Wang
Chemical composition and pollutant sorption of biochar-derived organic matter fractions (BDOMs) are critical for understanding the long-term environmental significance of biochar. Phenanthrene (PHE) sorption by the humic acid-like (HAL) fractions isolated from plant straw- (PLABs) and animal manure-based (ANIBs) biochars, and the residue materials (RES) after HAL extraction was investigated. The HAL fraction comprised approximately 50% of organic carbon (OC) of the original biochars. Results of XPS and13 C NMR demonstrated that the biochar-derived HAL fractions mainly consisted of aromatic clusters substituted by carboxylic groups...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454893/deciphering-the-growth-pattern-and-phytohormonal-content-in-saskatoon-berry-amelanchier-alnifolia-in-response-to-in-vitro-cytokinin-application
#10
Mack Moyo, Adeyemi O Aremu, Lenka Plačková, Lucie Plíhalová, Aleš Pěnčík, Ondřej Novák, Jan Holub, Karel Doležal, Johannes Van Staden
Clonal propagation plays a critical integral role in the growth and success of a global multi-billion dollar horticulture industry through a constant supply of healthy stock plants. The supply chain depends on continuously improving the micropropagation process, thus, understanding the physiology of in vitro plants remains a core component. We evaluated the influence of exogenously applied cytokinins (CKs, N6 -benzyladenine = BA, isopentenyladenine = iP, meta-topolin = mT, 6-(3-hydroxybenzylamino)-9-(tetrahydropyran-2-yl)purine = mTTHP) in Murashige and Skoog (MS)-supplemented media on organogenic response and accumulation of endogenous CK and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) metabolites...
February 15, 2018: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454879/application-of-genetically-encoded-redox-biosensors-to-measure-dynamic-changes-in-the-glutathione-bacillithiol-and-mycothiol-redox-potentials-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#11
REVIEW
Quach Ngoc Tung, Nico Linzner, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann
Gram-negative bacteria utilize glutathione (GSH) as their major LMW thiol. However, most Gram-positive bacteria do not encode enzymes for GSH biosynthesis and produce instead alternative LMW thiols, such as bacillithiol (BSH) and mycothiol (MSH). BSH is utilized by Firmicutes and MSH is the major LMW thiol of Actinomycetes. LMW thiols are required to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm, but are also involved in virulence mechanisms in human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica subsp...
February 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454339/a-structural-preview-of-aquaporin-8-via-homology-modeling-of-seven-vertebrate-isoforms
#12
Andreas Kirscht, Yonathan Sonntag, Per Kjellbom, Urban Johanson
BACKGROUND: Aquaporins (AQPs) facilitate the passage of small neutral polar molecules across membranes of the cell. In animals there are four distinct AQP subfamilies, whereof AQP8 homologues constitute one of the smallest subfamilies with just one member in man. AQP8 conducts water, ammonia, urea, glycerol and H2 O2 through various membranes of animal cells. This passive channel has been connected to a number of phenomena, such as volume change of mitochondria, ammonia neurotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction related to oxidative stress...
February 17, 2018: BMC Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454024/development-of-an-in-vitro-screening-method-of-acute-cytotoxicity-of-the-pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-lasiocarpine-in-human-and-rodent-hepatic-cell-lines-by-increasing-susceptibility
#13
Kristina Forsch, Verena Schöning, Lucia Disch, Beate Siewert, Matthias Unger, Jürgen Drewe
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary plant ingredients formed in many plant species to protect against predators. PAs are generally considered acutely hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Up to now, only few in vitro and in vivo investigations were performed to evaluate their relative toxic potential. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim was to develop an in vitro screening method of their cytotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human and rodent hepatocyte cell lines (HepG2 and H-4-II-E) were used to assess cytotoxicity of the PA lasiocarpine...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453936/a-new-method-for-the-rapid-characterization-of-root-growth-and-distribution-using-digital-image-correlation
#14
Tan Bao, Garrett W Melenka, Megan K Ljubotina, Jason P Carey, James F Cahill
Rapidly determining root growth patterns is biologically important and technically challenging. Current methods focus on direct observation of roots and require destructive excavations or time-consuming root tracing. We developed a novel methodology based on analyzing soil particle displacement, rather than direct observation of roots. This inferred root growth method uses digital image correlation (DIC) analysis, an established and high-throughput method used in many engineering and science disciplines. By applying DIC analyses to repeated images of plants grown in clear window boxes, we produced visually intuitive and quantifiable strain maps, indicating the magnitude and direction of soil movement...
February 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453803/competition-for-nutrients-and-light-testing-advances-in-resource-competition-with-a-natural-phytoplankton-community
#15
Amanda Burson, Maayke Stomp, Emma Greenwell, Julia Grosse, Jef Huisman
A key challenge in ecology is to understand how nutrients and light affect the biodiversity and community structure of phytoplankton and plant communities. According to resource competition models, ratios of limiting nutrients are major determinants of the species composition. At high nutrient levels, however, species interactions may shift to competition for light, which might make nutrient ratios less relevant. The "nutrient-load hypothesis" merges these two perspectives, by extending the classic model of competition for two nutrients to include competition for light...
February 17, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453672/the-effect-of-n-3-pufas-on-circulating-adiponectin-and-leptin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
Azam Rezaei Farimani, Mitra Hariri, Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad, Abasalt Borji, Sadegh Zarei, Elham Hooshmand
AIM: N-3 PUFAs can potentially influence levels of inflammatory and non-inflammatory adipokines. Given the contradictory effects of n-3 PUFAs on serum levels of adipokines in type 2 diabetes, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis study of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that examined the effects of n-3 PUFAs on serum levels of leptin and adiponectin in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The electronic databases, without regard to language restrictions including PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, SCOPUS and ISI Web of Science until August 2017, were used to identify randomized controlled trials that assessed the effect of n-3 PUFAs on serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations in type 2 diabetes...
February 16, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453665/klaus-apel-1942-2017-a-pioneer-of-photosynthesis-research
#17
Jean-David Rochaix, Chanhong Kim, Wiebke Apel
We present here a Tribute to Klaus Apel (1942-2017), a photosynthesis pioneer-an authority on plant molecular genetics-in five parts. The first section is a prologue. The second section deals with a chronological discussion of Apel's research life, prepared by the editor Govindjee; it is based on a website article at the Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) by Patricia Waldron ( https://btiscience.org/explore-bti/news/post/bti-says-goodbye-klaus-apel/ ), as approved for use here by Keith C. Hannon and David Stern of BTI...
February 16, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453432/validation-of-house-keeping-genes-for-normalization-of-gene-expression-data-during-diurnal-circadian-studies-in-rice-by-rt-qpcr
#18
Nitin Jain, Satyam Vergish, Jitendra P Khurana
The circadian clock in plants is the intrinsic rhythmic expression of thousands of genes in a 24 h period, which is set by the day-night cycles in the environment. The study of the circadian clock often requires expression profiling of genes over a large number of samples for which RT-qPCR is invariably used. Reliability of the results depends largely on the house-keeping genes, which serve as control and thus should be chosen carefully to prevent erroneous results. In this study, ten house-keeping genes were chosen from rice for stability analysis with 48 tissue samples harvested from plants subjected to diurnal/circadian cycles...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453082/potential-roles-for-transposable-elements-in-creating-imprinted-expression
#19
REVIEW
Sarah N Anderson, Nathan M Springer
Changes in gene expression can have profound effects on phenotype. Nature has provided many complex patterns of gene regulation such as imprinting. Imprinted genes exhibit differences in the expression of the maternal and paternal alleles, even though they reside in the same nucleus with access to the same trans-acting factors. Significant attention has been focused on the potential reasons that imprinted expression could be beneficial and stabilized by selection. However, less attention has focused on understanding how imprinted expression might arise or decay...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452844/fungal-effectors-at-the-crossroads-of-phytohormone-signaling
#20
REVIEW
Qing Shen, Yingyao Liu, Naweed I Naqvi
Phytohormone networks are crucial for maintaining the delicate balance between growth and biotic stress responses in plants. Jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene, and the associated signaling crosstalk are important for pathogen defense; whereas gibberellin and cytokinin function in growth and development in plants. Plant pathogenic fungi have evolved remarkable strategies to manipulate and/or hijack such phytohormone signaling cascades for their own benefit, thus leading to susceptibility and disease in host plants...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
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