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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434198/eukaryotic-diversity-in-late-pleistocene-marine-sediments-around-a-shallow-methane-hydrate-deposit-in-the-japan-sea
#1
M Kouduka, A S Tanabe, S Yamamoto, K Yanagawa, Y Nakamura, F Akiba, H Tomaru, H Toju, Y Suzuki
Marine sediments contain eukaryotic DNA deposited from overlying water columns. However, a large proportion of deposited eukaryotic DNA is aerobically biodegraded in shallow marine sediments. Cold seep sediments are often anaerobic near the sediment-water interface, so eukaryotic DNA in such sediments is expected to be preserved. We investigated deeply buried marine sediments in the Japan Sea, where a methane hydrate deposit is associated with cold seeps. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed the reproducible recovery of eukaryotic DNA in marine sediments at depths up to 31...
April 23, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433819/environmentally-and-economically-efficient-utilization-of-coal-processing-waste
#2
Margarita A Dmitrienko, Pavel A Strizhak
High concentrations of hazardous anthropogenic emissions (sulfur, nitrogen and carbon oxides) from solid fuel combustion in coal burning plants cause environmental problems that have been especially pressing over the last 20-30 years. A promising solution to these problems is a switch from conventional pulverized coal combustion to coal-water slurry fuel. In this paper, we pay special attention to the environmental indicators characterizing the combustion of different coal ranks (gas, flame, coking, low-caking, and nonbaking coals) and coal-water slurry fuels based on the coal processing waste - filter cakes...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433767/temporal-dynamics-of-human-excreted-pollutants-in-wastewater-treatment-plant-influents-toward-a-better-knowledge-of-mass-load-fluctuations
#3
Thomas Thiebault, Laëtitia Fougère, Emilie Destandau, Maxime Réty, Jérémy Jacob
The occurrence of 25 drug target residues (illicit drugs or pharmaceutically active compounds) was investigated during 85 consecutive days in the influents of a wastewater treatment plant in the Region Centre-Val de Loire, France. This long tracking period allowed a better understanding of the patterns affecting the occurrence of this type of contaminants. Among them, 2 were never detected (i.e. heroin and amphetamine). Concerning illicit drugs two patterns were found. Cocaine and ecstasy median loads varied considerably between weekdays and weekend days (i...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433643/green-light-for-lipid-fingerprinting
#4
Richard P Haslam, Ivo Feussner
The use of targeted lipidomic approaches for the analysis of plant lipids has steadily increased during recent years. We review recent developments of these methods and suggest the introduction of discovery lipidomics as additional approach through a new workflow, lipid fingerprinting, that integrates the advantages of shotgun lipidomics (quantitative data) with LC-MS-based strategies (higher resolution and/or coverage). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled:BBALIP_Lipidomics Opinion Articles edited by Sepp Kohlwein...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433639/optimization-of-atrazine-and-imidacloprid-removal-from-water-using-biochars-designing-single-or-multi-staged-batch-adsorption-systems
#5
Abhishek Mandal, Neera Singh
BACKGROUND: Contamination of surface and ground water by pesticides from agricultural runoff and industrial discharge is one of the main causes of aqueous contaminations world over. Biochar, agricultural waste derived highly aromatic substance produced after pyrolysis and carbonification of biomass have exhibited good adsorption capacity for pesticides and can be used to develop on-site bio-purification systems for organic contaminant removal from polluted waters. However, high amounts of adsorbent required in single stage-batch sorption plant increases the cost of water treatment; therefore, multistage plant systems were investigated...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433145/influence-of-the-radial-stem-composition-on-the-thermal-behaviour-of-miscanthus-and-sorghum-genotypes
#6
Lucie Chupin, Dieter de Ridder, Anne Clément-Vidal, Armelle Soutiras, Emilie Gineau, Grégory Mouille, Stéphanie Arnoult, Maryse Brancourt-Hulmel, Catherine Lapierre, David Pot, Luc Vincent, Alice Mija, Patrick Navard
The hypothesis made is that thermal resistance of sorghum and miscanthus stem pieces taken at well-defined positions of the stem is simply related to their biochemical composition. For miscanthus, two different genotypes and two internode levels were selected. For each region, the stem was divided into three radial layers. For sorghum, two different genotypes were selected and the stem was divided into the same three radial layers. The results show that the thermal analysis is only sensitive to very large variations of compositions...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433003/the-plastid-outer-membrane-localized-lptd1-is-important-for-glycerolipid-remodeling-under-phosphate-starvation
#7
Yi-Ching Hsueh, Christian Ehmann, Nadine Flinner, Roman Ladig, Enrico Schleiff
Glycerolipid synthesis in plants is coordinated between plastids and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A central step within the glycerolipid synthesis is the transport of phosphatidic acid from ER to chloroplasts. The chloroplast outer envelope protein TGD4 belongs to the LptD family conserved in bacteria and plants and selectively binds and may transports phosphatidic acid. We describe a second LptD-family protein in A. thaliana (atLPTD1; At2g44640) characterized by a barrel domain with an amino acid signature typical for cyanobacterial LptDs...
April 22, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432851/fungal-production-of-the-polysaccharide-pullulan-from-a-plant-hydrolysate
#8
Thomas P West
The ability of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans ATCC 42023 to produce pullulan from hydrolysates of the native grass known as prairie cordgrass was investigated and examined relative to polysaccharide and cell biomass production, yield, and pullulan content of the polysaccharide. A pullulan concentration of 9.7 g l-1 and yield of 0.78 g g-1 was produced by ATCC 42023 when grown for 168 h at 30°C on a phosphate-buffered hydrolysate. The highest biomass level of 7.7 g l-1 was produced by ATCC 42023 after 168 h on a hydrolysate-containing complete medium...
April 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432509/assessment-of-cadmium-content-of-potato-grown-in-weining-county-guizhou-province-china
#9
Yuping Zhang, Yu E Wu, Anming Yang, Jun Wang, Kankan Zhang, Deyu Hu
A total of 54 soil and 54 potato samples have been collected from Weining County to evaluate the accumulation of cadmium in potatoes. The concentrations of the total Cd and the available Cd in the soil samples have been detected. The total concentrations of Cd were from 0.41 to 10.0 mg/kg with an average value of 2.60 mg/kg in soil. The concentrations of available Cd in the soil were 0.07 to 3.47 mg/kg with an average value of 0.59 mg/kg. The concentration of the available Cd showed a good linear positive correlation with the total Cd content in the soil...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432338/crispr-cas9-mediated-inactivation-of-argonaute-2-reveals-its-differential-involvement-in-antiviral-responses
#10
Márta Ludman, József Burgyán, Károly Fátyol
RNA silencing constitutes an important antiviral mechanism in plants. Small RNA guided Argonaute proteins fulfill essential role in this process by acting as executors of viral restriction. Plants encode multiple Argonaute proteins of which several exhibit antiviral activities. A recent addition to this group is AGO2. Its involvement in antiviral responses is established predominantly by studies employing mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. In the virological model plant, Nicotiana benthamiana, the contribution of AGO2 to antiviral immunity is much less certain due to the lack of appropriate genetic mutants...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432294/genome-wide-identification-characterization-of-the-mads-box-gene-family-in-chinese-jujube-and-their-involvement-in-flower-development
#11
Liman Zhang, Jin Zhao, Chunfang Feng, Mengjun Liu, Jiurui Wang, Yafei Hu
MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are involved in plant development control (particularly in floral organogenesis) and signal transduction pathways, though a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box family proteins in Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is still missing. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Chinese jujube. Based on phylogenetic analyses, 52 jujube MADS-box genes were classified into 25 MIKC(C)-type, 3 MIKC(*)-type, 16 Mα, 5 Mβ and 3 Mγ genes. 37 genes were randomly distributed across all 12 putative chromosomes...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432102/two-distinct-%C3%AE-l-arabinofuranosidases-in-caldicellulosiruptor-species-drive-degradation-of-arabinose-based-polysaccharides
#12
Md Abu Saleh, Wen-Jie Han, Ming Lu, Bing Wang, Huayue Li, Robert M Kelly, Fu-Li Li
Species in the extremely thermophilic genus Caldicellulosiruptor can degrade unpretreated plant biomass through the action of multi-modular glycoside hydrolases. To date, most focus with these bacteria has been on hydrolysis of glucans and xylans, while biodegradation mechanism for arabinose-based polysaccharides remains unclear. Here, putative α-L-arabinofuranosidases (AbFs) were identified in Caldicellulosiruptor species by homology to less thermophilic versions of these enzymes. From this screen, an extracellular XynF was determined to be a key factor in hydrolyzing α-1,2-, α-1,3-, and α-1,5-L-arabinofuranosyl residues of arabinose-based polysaccharides...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431803/reutilization-of-discarded-biomass-for-preparing-functional-polymer-materials
#13
REVIEW
Jianfeng Wang, Wenzhen Qian, Yufeng He, Yubing Xiong, Pengfei Song, Rong-Min Wang
Biomass is abundant and recyclable on the earth, which has been assigned numerous roles to human beings. However, over the past decades, accompanying with the rapid expansion of man-made materials, such as alloy, plastic, synthetic rubber and fiber, a great number of natural materials had been neglected and abandoned, such as straw, which cause a waste of resource and environmental pollution. In this review, based on introducing sources of discarded biomass, the main composition and polymer chains in discarded biomass materials, the traditional treatment and novel approach for reutilization of discarded biomass were summarized...
April 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431570/a-relative-quantitative-methylation-sensitive-amplified-polymorphism-msap-method-for-the-analysis-of-abiotic-stress
#14
Piotr T Bednarek, Renata Orłowska, Agnieszka Niedziela
BACKGROUND: We present a new methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) approach for the evaluation of relative quantitative characteristics such as demethylation, de novo methylation, and preservation of methylation status of CCGG sequences, which are recognized by the isoschizomers HpaII and MspI. We applied the technique to analyze aluminum (Al)-tolerant and non-tolerant control and Al-stressed inbred triticale lines. The approach is based on detailed analysis of events affecting HpaII and MspI restriction sites in control and stressed samples, and takes advantage of molecular marker profiles generated by EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI MSAP platforms...
April 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431513/functional-characterization-of-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l-clade-v-mlo-genes
#15
Jeroen A Berg, Michela Appiano, Gerard Bijsterbosch, Richard G F Visser, Henk J Schouten, Yuling Bai
BACKGROUND: Powdery mildew (PM) causing fungi are well-known pathogens, infecting over 10.000 plant species, including the economically important crop cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Loss-of-function mutations in clade V MLO genes have previously been shown to lead to recessively inherited broad-spectrum resistance to PM in several species. In cucumber, one clade V MLO homolog (CsaMLO8) was previously identified as being a susceptibility factor to PM. Two other closely related homologs (CsaMLO1 and CsaMLO11) were found, but their function was not yet unravelled...
April 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431385/a-method-for-evaluating-the-pharmaceutical-deconjugation-potential-in-river-water-environments
#16
Takashi Azuma, Mao Ishida, Kanae Hisamatsu, Ayami Yunoki, Kana Otomo, Mari Kunitou, Mai Shimizu, Kaori Hosomaru, Shiori Mikata, Yoshiki Mino
A new enzymatic assay method that uses deconjugation enzymes was developed to evaluate the presence and extent of conjugated pharmaceuticals in the form of glucuronide conjugates or sulphate conjugates in river environments. First, acetaminophen glucuronide (Ace Glu) and acetaminophen sulphate (Ace Sul) were used as model conjugated pharmaceuticals to determine the appropriate combination of deconjugation enzymes and reaction conditions, including temperature, duration and pH. Next, we applied the defined method to 19 pharmaceuticals grouped into nine therapeutic classes that were chosen based on previously detected levels and frequencies in sewage and river water...
April 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431310/characterization-of-bacterial-communities-of-donkey-milk-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#17
Maria de Los Dolores Soto Del Rio, Alessandra Dalmasso, Tiziana Civera, Maria Teresa Bottero
The interest in donkey milk (DM) is growing because of its functional properties and nutritional value, especially for children with allergies and food intolerances. However, most of the available reports of DM microbiota are based on culture-dependent methods to investigate food safety issues and the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The aim of this study was to determine the composition of DM bacterial communities using a high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approach. Bulk milk samples from Italian donkey dairy farms from two consecutive years were analysed using the MiSeq Illumina platform...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431093/interactions-between-cassava-mosaic-geminiviruses-and-their-vector-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae
#18
Simon B Boni, Costancia P Rugumamu, Dan Gerling, K Sagary Nokoe, James P Legg
The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is the vector of the cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) that cause cassava mosaic disease (CMD). Synergistic interactions between B. tabaci and CMGs have been hypothesized as a cause of whitefly "super-abundance," which has been a key factor behind the spread of the severe CMD pandemic through East and Central Africa. The current study investigated this hypothesis by conducting experiments with CMD-susceptible cassava varieties infected with different CMGs in both the north-western Lake Zone region (pandemic affected) and the eastern Coast Zone where CMD is less severe...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430986/field-trial-performance-of-herculex-xtra-cry34ab1-cry35ab1-and-smartstax-cry34ab1-cry35ab1-cry3bb1-hybrids-and-soil-insecticides-against-western-and-northern-corn-rootworms-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#19
K D Johnson, L A Campbell, M D Lepping, D M Rule
Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are important insect pests in corn, Zea mays L. For more than a decade, growers have been using transgenic plants expressing proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to protect corn roots from feeding. In 2011, western corn rootworm populations were reported to have developed resistance to Bt hybrids expressing Cry3Bb1 and later found to be cross-resistant to hybrids expressing mCry3A and eCry3...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430944/plant-microbial-diversity-is-suggested-as-the-key-to-future-biocontrol-and-health-trends
#20
Gabriele Berg, Martina Köberl, Daria Rybakova, Henry Müller, Rita Grosch, Kornelia Smalla
The microbiome of plants plays a crucial role in both plant and ecosystem health. Rapid advances in multi-omics tools are dramatically increasing access to the plant microbiome and consequently to the identification of its links with diseases and to the control of those diseases. Recent insights reveal a close, often symbiotic relationship between microorganisms and plants. Microorganisms can stimulate germination and plant growth, prevent diseases, and promote stress resistance and general fitness. Plants and their associated microorganisms form a holo-biont and have to be considered as co-evolved species assemblages consisting of bacterial, archaeal, and diverse eukaryotic species...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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