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Plant based

Chang-Gui Pan, You-Sheng Liu, Guang-Guo Ying
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of chemicals with wide industrial and commercial applications, and have been received great attentions due to their persistence in the environment. The information about their presence in urban water cycle is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and removal efficiency of eighteen PFASs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and drinking water plants (DWTPs) with different treatment processes. The results showed that both perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant compounds in the water phase of WWTPs and DWTPs, while PFOS was dominant in dewatered sludge of WWTPs...
October 19, 2016: Water Research
Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nidhi Rawat, Michael O Pumphrey, Sixin Liu, Xiaofei Zhang, Vijay K Tiwari, Kaori Ando, Harold N Trick, William W Bockus, Eduard Akhunov, James A Anderson, Bikram S Gill
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat and barley that leads to reduced yield and mycotoxin contamination of grain, making it unfit for human consumption. FHB is a global problem, with outbreaks in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia and South America. In the United States alone, total direct and secondary economic losses from 1993 to 2001 owing to FHB were estimated at $7.67 billion. Fhb1 is the most consistently reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for FHB resistance breeding...
October 24, 2016: Nature Genetics
Araceli Oropeza-Aburto, Alfredo Cruz-Ramírez, Javier Mora-Macías, Luis Herrera-Estrella
Phosphate (Pi) deficient soils are a major limitant factor for crop production in many regions in the world. Despite that plants have innovated several developmental and biochemical strategies to deal with this stress, there are still massive extensions of land which combine several abiotic stresses, including phosphate starvation, that limit their use for plant growth and food production. In several plant species a genetic program underlies the biochemical and developmental responses of the organism to cope with low phosphate (Pi) availability...
October 24, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Qichao Zhang, Dongbin Zhao, Ding Wang
In this paper, the robust control problem for a class of continuous-time nonlinear system with unmatched uncertainties is investigated using an event-based control method. First, the robust control problem is transformed into a corresponding optimal control problem with an augmented control and an appropriate cost function. Under the event-based mechanism, we prove that the solution of the optimal control problem can asymptotically stabilize the uncertain system with an adaptive triggering condition. That is, the designed event-based controller is robust to the original uncertain system...
October 18, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Yu Lei, Meinan Wang, Anmin Wan, Chongjing Xia, Deven R See, Min Zhang, Xianming Chen
Puccinia striiformis causes stripe rust on wheat, barley, and grasses. Natural population studies have indicated that somatic recombination plays a possible role in P. striiformis variation. To determine if somatic recombination can occur, susceptible wheat or barley plants were inoculated with mixed urediniospores of paired isolates of P. striiformis. Progeny isolates were selected by passing through a series of inoculations of wheat or barley genotypes. Potential recombinant isolates were compared with the parental isolates on the set of 18 wheat and/or 12 barley genotypes that are used to differentiate races of P...
October 24, 2016: Phytopathology
Keiichi Mochida, Tetsuya Sakurai, Hikaru Seki, Takuhiro Yoshida, Kotaro Takahagi, Satoru Sawai, Hiroshi Uchiyama, Toshiya Muranaka, Kazuki Saito
Chinese liquorice/licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is a leguminous plant species whose roots and rhizomes have been widely used as a herbal medicine and natural sweetener. Whole-genome sequencing is essential for gene discovery studies and molecular breeding in liquorice. Here, we report a draft assembly of the approximately 379-Mb whole-genome sequence of strain 308-19 of G. uralensis; this assembly contains 34 445 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses suggested well-conserved genomic components and collinearity of gene loci (synteny) between the genome of liquorice and those of other legumes such as Medicago and chickpea...
October 24, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Le-Le Yang, Na Xiao, Xiao-Wei Li, Yong Fan, Raphael N Alolga, Xiao-Yue Sun, Shi-Lei Wang, Ping Li, Lian-Wen Qi
Quercetin is a natural flavonoid widely distributed in human diet and functional foods. Quercetin 3-O-β-glucuronide (Q3G) is present in wine and some medicinal plants. Quercetin and Q3G may be metabolized from each other in vivo. While quercetin has been the subject of many studies, the pharmacokinetic profiles of quercetin and Q3G (in animals) have not yet been compared. Herein, we prepared a column-based method for rapid isolation of Q3G from Nelumbo nucifera. Then, we developed an UHPLC-MS/MS method to compare the pharmacokinetics of quercetin and Q3G...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Himanshi Kapoor, Nalini Yadav, Madhu Chopra, Sushil Chandra Mahapatra, Veena Agrawal
Glioblastoma has been reckoned as the prime cause of death due to brain tumours, being most invasive and lethal. Available treatment options, i.e. surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapies are not effective in improving prognosis, so an alternate therapy is insistent. Plant based drugs are efficient due to their synergistic action, multi-targeted approach and least side effects. Present investigation reports the strong anti-tumorous potential of Nardostachys jatamansi rhizome extract (NJRE) on U87 MG glioblastoma cells...
October 19, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
A Michalsen, O Eddin, A Salama
The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific composition of a traditional herbal preparation (DurrDerma) in adult patients with moderate to severe skin psoriasis. The preparation is a newly developed topical combination containing plant-based extracts traditionally used in skin disease as black cumin, olive oil, tea tree oil, cocoa butter completed by vitamin A and vitamin B12. We documented the effectiveness of the preparation in a first case series. A total of 12 patients (8 males and 4 females, 21-86 y) with manifest and treatment-resistant psoriasis were included and treated for 12 weeks...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
P Glynn Tillman, Ted E Cottrell
Chinavia hilaris (Say), Euschistus servus (Say), Euschistus tristigmus (Say), and Thyanta custator custator (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are serious pests of crops in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning their dispersal from noncrop hosts in woodlands into crops. This 2-yr study was conducted to investigate whether elderberry [Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli] in woodlands serves as a source of stink bugs dispersing into adjacent crops and to examine parasitism of C...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Le Zhang, Yunshan Zhao, Zhipeng A Wang, Kunhua Wei, Bin Qiu, Chunhong Zhang, QiYan Wang-Müller, Minhui Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: As a group of important medicine plants, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. et Schltdl) Fedtsch. and B. himalaica Thoms, which are the only two species in the genus Boschniakia (Orobanchaceae), have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for their multiple therapeutic uses related to enhanced renal function, erectile dysfunction, defaecate and hepatoprotective. Additionally, the two species are also used as dietary supplements in wine, cosmetics, and other healthy food...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Farid Chemat, Natacha Rombaut, Anne-Gaëlle Sicaire, Alice Meullemiestre, Anne-Sylvie Fabiano-Tixier, Maryline Abert-Vian
This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in food ingredients and products, nutraceutics, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and bioenergy applications. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about extraction by ultrasound, the techniques and their combinations, the mechanisms (fragmentation, erosion, capillarity, detexturation, and sonoporation), applications from laboratory to industry, security, and environmental impacts. In addition, the ultrasound extraction procedures and the important parameters influencing its performance are also included, together with the advantages and the drawbacks of each UAE techniques...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
O Lenz, J Přibylová, J Fránová, I Koloniuk, J Špak
The complete genomic sequence of a new virus from cherry trees was determined. Its genome is 5857 nt long and resembles that of members of the genus Luteovirus in its genomic organization and nucleotide sequence. Based on the species demarcation criteria for luteoviruses, the virus represents a new luteovirus species. Furthermore, a 47-nt-long inverted repeat was found at the 3' end of its genome. The virus has been provisionally named cherry-associated luteovirus (ChALV) and is the fourth member of the family Luteoviridae reported to naturally infect woody plants...
October 22, 2016: Archives of Virology
Yahui Wu, Lixin Luo, Likai Chen, Xingxing Tao, Ming Huang, Hui Wang, Zhiqiang Chen, Wuming Xiao
Genetic analysis revealed that narrow leaf, small panicle, thin and slender stems as well as low fertility rate of an Indica rice variety were recessive traits and controlled by a single gene. Applying map-based cloning strategy, a novel narrow leaf gene, which was named nal11 was delimited to an interval of 58.3 kb between the InDel markers N10 and InD5016. There are 9 genes in the mapping interval, and only a heat shock DNAJ protein encode gene (Os07g09450) has a specific G to T SNP, which was occurred at the last base of the second exon of Os07g09450 in ZYX...
October 19, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sampriti Kataki, Samarendra Hazarika, D C Baruah
Alternative fertilizer resources have drawn attention in recent times in order to cope up with ever increasing demand for fertilizer. By-products of bioenergy system are considered favourable as organic fertilizer due to their ability to recycle plant nutrients. Present study evaluates fertilizer suitability of by-products of two bioenergy systems viz. 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from local surplus biomass such as cowdung, Ipomoea carnea:cowdung (60:40) and ricestraw:green gram stover:cowdung (30:30:40) and one gasification by-product (biochar) from rice husk...
October 19, 2016: Waste Management
Noriko Hiraishi, Takahiro Maruno, Naoya Tochio, Ryohei Sono, Masayuki Otsuki, Tsutomu Takatsuka, Junji Tagami, Yuji Kobayashi
OBJECTIVE: Dentin collagen can be modified by some plant-derived flavonoids to improve properties of dentin organic matrix. Hesperidin (HPN), a hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside flavonoid, has a potential of dentin modification for being based on evidence that a treatment with HPN may resist collagenase degradation and arrest demineralization of human dentin. In this study, biophysical and molecular-level information on the interaction of HPN and collagen was investigated. METHODS: HPN is extracted from citrus fruits...
October 19, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Miklós Hegedűs, Edit Tóth-Bodrogi, Szabolcs Németh, János Somlai, Tibor Kovács
The raw materials of the phosphate fertilizer industry are the various apatite minerals. Some of these have high levels of natural radionuclides, and thus phosphate fertilizers contain significant amounts of U-238, K-40 and Ra-226. These can leach out of the fertilizers used in large quantities for resupplying essential nutrients in the soil and can then enter the food chain through plants, thereby increasing the internal dose of the affected population. In the current study, the radiological risk of eight commercially available phosphate fertilizers (superphosphate, NPK, PK) and their leaching behaviours were investigated using different techniques (gamma and alpha spectrometry), and the dose contributions of using these fertilizers were estimated...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
J Suriya, S Bharathiraja, M Krishnan, P Manivasagan, S-K Kim
Amylases are crucial enzymes which hydrolyze internal glycosidic linkages in starch and produce as primary products dextrins and oligosaccharides. Amylases are classified into α-amylase, β-amylase, and glucoamylase based on their three-dimensional structures, reaction mechanisms, and amino acid sequences. Amylases have innumerable applications in clinical, medical, and analytical chemistries as well as in food, detergent, textile, brewing, and distilling industries. Amylases can be produced from plants, animals, and microbial sources...
2016: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Campana Raffaella, Luca Casettari, Laura Fagioli, Marco Cespi, Giulia Bonacucina, Wally Baffone
Food safety is a fundamental concern for both consumers and the food industry, especially as the numbers of reported cases of food-associated infections continue to increase. Industrial surfaces can provide a suitable substrate for the development and persistence of bacterial organized in biofilms that represent a potential source of food contamination. The negative consumer perception of chemical disinfectants has shifted the attention to natural substances, such as plant extracts. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using the essential oils (EOs) in the fight against S...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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