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Plant based

David Knight, Andreas L Lopata, Natalie Nieuwenhuizen, Mohamed F Jeebhay
BACKGROUND: Cellulose is an insoluble plant polysaccharide produced from soft-wood pulp. Although chronic respiratory effects associated with high cellulose-based dust levels have been previously described, occupational asthma has not. A 37 year old machine operator in a sanitary pad production factory presented with new-onset work-related asthma symptoms for two years. METHODS: The worker underwent clinical, pulmonological and immunological (skin prick tests, serum specific IgE determinations) evaluation using standardised procedures...
September 19, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Rawi Ramautar, Govert W Somsen, Gerhardus J de Jong
In the field of metabolomics, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is now recognized as a strong analytical technique for the analysis of (highly) polar and charged metabolites in a wide range of biological samples. Over the past few years, significant attention has been paid to the design and improvement of CE-MS approaches for (large-scale) metabolic profiling studies and for establishing protocols in order to further expand the role of CE-MS in metabolomics. In this paper, which is a follow-up of a previous review paper covering the years 2014-2016 (Electrophoresis 2017, 38, 190-202), main advances in CE-MS approaches for metabolomics studies are outlined covering the literature from July 2016 to June 2018...
September 19, 2018: Electrophoresis
Zihao Qu, J Carson Meredith
Sporopollenin, the polymer comprising the exine (outer solid shell) of pollen, is recognized as one of the most chemically and mechanically stable naturally occurring organic substances. The elastic modulus of sporopollenin is of great importance to understanding the adhesion, transport and protective functions of pollen grains. In addition, this fundamental mechanical property is of significant interest in using pollen exine as a material for drug delivery, reinforcing fillers, sensors and adhesives. Yet, the literature reports of the elastic modulus of sporopollenin are very limited...
September 19, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Adam C Schneider, Harold Chun, Saša Stefanović, Bruce G Baldwin
Foundational studies of chloroplast genome (plastome) evolution in parasitic plants have focused on broad trends across large clades, particularly among the Orobanchaceae, a species-rich and ecologically diverse family of root parasites. However, the extent to which such patterns and processes of plastome evolution, such as stepwise gene loss following the complete loss of photosynthesis (shift to holoparasitism), are detectable at shallow evolutionary time scale is largely unknown. We used genome skimming to assemble eight chloroplast genomes representing complete taxonomic sampling of Aphyllon sect...
September 19, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Jie Wang, Laiqing Song, Qiqing Jiao, Shuke Yang, Rui Gao, Xingbo Lu, Guangfang Zhou
BACKGROUND: JWB phytoplasma is a kind of insect-transmitted and uncultivable bacterial plant pathogen causeing a destructive Jujube disease. To date, no genome information about JWB phytoplasma has been published, which hindered its characterization at genomic level. To understand its pathogenicity and ecology, the genome of a JWB phytoplasma isolate jwb-nky was sequenced and compared with other phytoplasmas enabled us to explore the mechanisms of genomic rearrangement. RESULTS: The complete genome sequence of JWB phytoplasma (jwb-nky) was determined, which consisting of one circular chromosome of 750,803 bp with a GC content of 23...
September 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
Yuki Fukuda, Tomonori Hirao, Kentaro Mishima, Mineko Ohira, Yuichiro Hiraoka, Makoto Takahashi, Atsushi Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Adventitious root formation is an essential physiological process for successful propagation of cuttings in various plant species. Because coniferous species are highly heterozygous, propagation of cuttings is of great practical use in breeding. Although various factors influence adventitious root formation, little is known of the associated regulatory mechanisms. Whereas adventitious roots generally form from the base of cuttings, this process is accompanied by physiological changes in leaves, which supply assimilates and metabolites...
September 19, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Chuanying Fang, Jie Luo
Plants have served as sources providing the human with metabolites for food and nutrition, biomaterials for the living, and treatment of pain and disease. Plants produce a huge array of metabolites, with immense diversity at both the population and individual levels. Dissection of the genetic bases for metabolic diversity has attracted increasing research attention. The concept of genome-wide association study (GWAS) was extended to the studies on the diversity of plant metabolome, beneficial from the development of mass-spectrometry-based analytical systems and genome sequencing technologies...
September 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Renato Gerdol, Paola Iacumin, Rita Tonin
Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) in plant leaves generally decreases with increasing altitude in mountains. Lower foliar Δ13C at high elevation usually is associated with higher leaf mass per area (LMA) in thicker leaves. However, it is unclear if lower foliar Δ13C in high-altitude plants is caused by improved photosynthetic capacity as an effect of higher nutrient, especially nitrogen, content in thicker leaves. We investigated trends of foliar Δ13C in four species, each belonging to a different plant functional type (PFT), across two altitudinal gradients, each on a different bedrock type (carbonate and silicate bedrock, respectively) in a region of the southern Alps (Italy) where the foliar Δ13C was not affected by water limitation...
2018: PloS One
Yadira Arnet Fernández, Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno, Fariza Abrão, Thayná de Souza Silva, Amanda de Lima Pizi Cândido, Nathalia Ferreira Fregonezi, Flavia Aparecida Resende, Salvador Boccaletti Ramos, Sergio Ricardo Ambrosio, Rodrigo Cassio Sola Veneziani, Jairo Knupp Bastos, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins
Foodborne diseases (FBDs) are a serious public health concern worldwide. In this scenario, preservatives based on natural products, especially plants, have attracted researchers' attention because they offer potential antimicrobial action as well as reduced health impact. The genus Copaifera spp., which is native of tropical South America and West Africa, contains several species for which pharmacological activities, including antibacterial effects, have been described. On the basis of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), antibiofilm activity (inhibition and eradication), preservative capacity, and Ames test, we evaluated the antibacterial, preservative, and mutagenic potential of Copaifera spp...
September 19, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Mahmoud Nasrollahzadeh, Fatemeh Ghorbannezhad, Zahra Issaabadi, S Mohammad Sajadi
Copper nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the most commercialized nanomaterials. From the standpoint of nanotechnology copper-based nanostructured materials have many applications in biological process, folk medicine, electronics, and industrial fields. With growing concern regarding the energy crisis and problems of chemical and physical procedures to prepare the metal nanoparticles, efforts for alternative traditional chemistry attracted particular considerations. A widespread of researches have studied on biological methods which do not generate hazardous waste and therefore, don't need the purification processes...
September 19, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Clemens Schaber, Agnieszka Kreitschitz, Stanislav N Gorb
A specific feature of fibrous surfaces is the dependence of their mechanical properties on the alignment of the fibers. Vertically aligned fibers enhance friction and adhesion, whereas horizontal fibers are known to act as lubricant reducing friction. Many plants form a specific fibrous mucilage cover around their seeds upon hydration. This mucilage consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and strongly hydrophilic pectins. We show that controlled critical point drying of hydrated seed mucilage of three exemplary seed mucilage-rich plant species results in exposure of free-standing cellulose nanofibers with very high aspect ratio and anchored to the seed surface...
September 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Rong Huang, Ming Gao, Jia-Cheng Li, Guo-Xin Xu, Sheng Lü, Mei Luo
Greenhouse gases mainly come from farmland soils. Re-spreading chaff (straw returning) is an effective ecological management in China. Quantitative analysis of straw residues together with reduced fertilization rates can provide a scientific basis for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A field experiment with six different fertilizer amounts combined with straw residues was carried out in a vegetable field (lettuce-cabbage-chili rotation), including the control (CK), conventional fertilizing (F), straw returning with 100% conventional fertilizing (100FS), straw returning with 70% conventional fertilizing (70FS), straw returning with 60% conventional fertilizing (60FS),and straw returning with 50% conventional fertilizing (50FS)...
October 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Pâmela Becalli Vilela, Amanda Dalalibera, Eduardo Costa Duminelli, Valter Antonio Becegato, Alexandre Tadeu Paulino
The aim of this work was to study the adsorption and removal of chromium (VI) ions contained in aqueous solutions using a chitosan-based hydrogel synthesized via chemical crosslinking of radical chitosan, polyacrylic acid, and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the hydrogel synthesis and presence of reactive functional groups for the adsorption of chromium (VI) ions. The chromium (VI) adsorption mechanism was evaluated using non-linear Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Sips isotherms, with the best fit found by the non-linear Redlich-Peterson isotherm...
September 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Justyna B Startek, Thomas Voets, Karel Talavera
The interactions between plants and their herbivores are highly complex systems generating on one side an extraordinary diversity of plant protection mechanisms and on the other side sophisticated consumer feeding strategies. Herbivores have evolved complex, integrative sensory systems that allow them to distinguish between food sources having mere bad flavors from the actually toxic ones. These systems are based on the senses of taste, olfaction and somatosensation in the oral and nasal cavities, and on post-ingestive chemosensory mechanisms...
September 18, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Fahad Al-Juhaimi, Kashif Ghafoor, Mehmet Musa Özcan, M H A Jahurul, Elfadil E Babiker, S Jinap, F Sahena, M S Sharifudin, I S M Zaidul
Bioactive compounds from plant sources are generally categorized as natural antioxidants with well-known health benefits. The health-promoting characteristics of natural antioxidants include anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and hepatic effects as well as free radical scavenging. Herein, a comprehensive and comparative review are presented about the effects of conventional (thermal and mechanical) and relatively new (non-thermal) processing methods on phytochemicals and discussed the importance of implementing the use of those methods that could be of very helpful retaining the quality of the bioactive compounds in plant-based foods...
October 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
James D Kubicki, Hui Yang, Daisuke Sawada, Hugh O'Neill, Daniel Oehme, Daniel Cosgrove
Determining the shape of plant cellulose microfibrils is critical for understanding plant cell wall molecular architecture and conversion of cellulose into biofuels. Only recently has it been determined that these cellulose microfibrils are composed of 18 cellulose chains rather than 36 polymers arranged in a diamond-shaped pattern. This study uses density functional theory calculations to model three possible habits for the 18-chain microfibril and compares the calculated energies, structures, 13 C NMR chemical shifts and WAXS diffractograms of each to evaluate which shape is most probable...
September 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Catalin Voiniciuc, Kristen A Engle, Markus Günl, Sabine Dieluweit, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm Schmidt, Jeong-Yeh Yang, Kelley W Moremen, Debra Mohnen, Bjoern Usadel
Pectin is a vital component of the plant cell wall, and provides the molecular glue that maintains cell-cell adhesion, among other functions. As the most complex wall polysaccharide, pectin is composed of several covalently-linked domains, such as homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I). Pectin has widespread uses in the food industry and has emerging biomedical applications, but its synthesis remains poorly understood. For instance, the enzymes that catalyze RG I elongation remain unknown. Recently, a co-expression and sequence-based MUCILAGE-RELATED (MUCI) reverse genetic screen uncovered hemicellulose biosynthetic enzymes in the Arabidopsis thaliana seed coat...
September 18, 2018: Plant Physiology
Keni Cota-Ruiz, José A Hernández-Viezcas, Armando Varela-Ramírez, Carolina Valdés, José A Núñez-Gastélum, Alejandro Martínez-Martínez, Marcos Delgado-Rios, Jose R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
Bulk Cu compounds such as Cu(OH)2 are extensively used as pesticides in agriculture. Recent investigations suggest that Cu-based nanomaterials can replace bulk materials reducing the environmental impacts of Cu. In this study, stress responses of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings to Cu(OH)2 nanoparticle or compounds were evaluated. Seeds were immersed in suspension/solutions of a Cu(OH)2 nanoform, bulk Cu(OH)2 , CuSO4 , and Cu(NO3 )2  at 25 and 75 mg/L. Six days later, the germination, seedling growth, and the physiological and biochemical responses of sprouts were evaluated...
September 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Kaikai Zhu, Hui Liu, Xinlu Chen, Qunkang Cheng, Zong-Ming Max Cheng
BACKGROUND: Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants use water 20-80% more efficiently by shifting stomata opening and primary CO2 uptake and fixation to the nighttime. Protein kinases (PKs) play pivotal roles in this biological process. However, few PKs have been functionally analyzed precisely due to their abundance and potential functional redundancy (caused by numerous gene duplications). RESULTS: In this study, we systematically identified a total of 758 predicted PK genes in the genome of a CAM plant, pineapple (Ananas comosus)...
September 18, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Ângela Guerra, Maria Fatima Duarte, Iola F Duarte
Recognition of neoplasic metabolic reprogramming as one of cancer's hallmarks has paved the way for developing novel metabolism-targeted therapeutic approaches. The use of plant-derived natural bioactive compounds for this endeavor is especially promising, due to their diversiform structures and multiple targets. Hence, over the last decade, a growing number of studies have assessed the impact of phytochemicals on tumor cell metabolism, aiming at improving current knowledge on their mechanisms of action and, at the same time, at evaluating their potential as anticancer metabolic modulators...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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