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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823069/current-status-of-cattle-production-system-in-nyagatare-district-rwanda
#1
Eugene Mazimpaka, Francis Mbuza, Tukei Michael, Eugene N Gatari, E M Bukenya, Okwee-Acai James
A study was conducted to characterize the cattle production systems in Nyagatare District, Eastern Province of Rwanda using pre-tested questionnaires, interviews with key informants as well as focus group discussions in a period of 2 months. The respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling at sector and cell levels. Based on the procedure of Krejcie and Morgan (Educational and Psychological Measurement 30:607-610, 1970) to determine the overall sample size, the result indicated that the majority (98.3%) of farms were privately owned by large families of five to seven members, and most farmers (53...
August 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823039/hydroponic-screening-of-fast-growing-tree-species-for-lead-phytoremediation-potential
#2
Jiraporn Yongpisanphop, Sandhya Babel, Maleeya Kruatrachue, Prayad Pokethitiyook
Using trees as phytoremediators has become a powerful tool to remediate lead from contaminated environments. This study aims to identify potential candidates among fast-growing trees by comparing their ability to tolerate and accumulate Pb. Cuttings from Acacia mangium, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Senna siamea were cultured in 25% modified Hoagland's solutions supplemented with 10, 30, and 50 mg/L Pb for 15 days. Lead concentrations were determined by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer...
August 20, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822911/maullinia-braseltonii-sp-nov-rhizaria-phytomyxea-phagomyxida-a-cyst-forming-parasite-of-the-bull-kelp-durvillaea-spp-stramenopila-phaeophyceae-fucales
#3
Pedro Murúa, Franz Goecke, Renato Westermeier, Pieter van West, Frithjof C Küpper, Sigrid Neuhauser
Phytomyxea are obligate endoparasites of angiosperm plants and Stramenopiles characterised by a complex life cycle. Here Maullinia braseltonii sp. nov., an obligate parasite infecting the bull kelp Durvillaea (Phaeophyceae, Fucales) from the South-Eastern Pacific (Central Chile and Chiloe Island) and South-Western Atlantic (Falkland Islands, UK) is described. M. braseltonii causes distinct hypertrophies (galls) on the host thalli making it easily identifiable in the field. Sequence comparisons based on the partial 18S and the partial 18S-5...
July 13, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822185/-terpenoids-isolated-from-viburnum-ternatum
#4
Jiang Hu, Xia Mao, Nian-Hua Jing, Jun-You Shi, Hui-Qing Liu
Four iridoids (1-4), five iridoid glucosides (5-9), and three triterpenoids (10-12) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of 70% Me2CO extract of the aerial parts of Viburnum ternatum through various column chromatographies over silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and MCI. Their structures were elucidated as ternatumin A (1), 2,9-dioxatricyclo[4.3.1.03,7]decanes (2), 7,10,2'-triacetylsuspensolide F (3), 7,10,2',3'-tetraacetylsuspensolide F (4), viburtinoside IV (5), viburtinoside II (6), viburtinoside B (7), luzonoside A (8), luzonoside B (9), 2α,3β,24-trihydroxy-12-ursen-28-oic acid (10), 6-hydroxy-20(29)-lupen-3-one (11), and pomalic acid (12) based on the their chromatographic properties, chemical and physicochemical methods, and spectroscopic data...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822171/-analysis-of-historical-origin-and-standardization-system-construction-of-citri-grandis-exocarpium
#5
Yi-Ping Yuan, Hua-Qiang Zhai, Zhao-Juan Guo, Li-Ting Kong, Xiao-Yu Jia, Ning-Ning Wang, Ying Dai, Pin-Hao Yu
To understand the history development and changes of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and initially establish its standard system after exploring the historical origins and modern development of Citri Grandis Exocarpium. In CNKI, Wanfang database and other academic search platforms were searched for literature on Citri Grandis Exocarpium and Chinese medicine standard system; the books related to its modern cultivation techniques and processing technology were also accessed, and after combining with the actual situation analysis, the prospective design of the standard system of Citri Grandis Exocarpium was finally established with research conclusion...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822142/-prospects-of-molecular-breeding-in-medical-plants
#6
REVIEW
Xiao-Jun Ma, Chang-Ming Mo
The molecular-assisted breeding, transgenic breeding and molecular designing breeding are three development directions of plant molecular breeding. Base on these three development directions, this paper summarizes developing status and new tendency of research field of genetic linkage mapping, QTL mapping, association mapping, molecular-assisted selections, pollen-mediated transformations, agrobacterium-mediated transformations, particle gun-mediated transformations, genome editing technologies, whole-genome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing, proteome sequencing and varietal molecular designing...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822136/investigating-the-role-of-the-photorespiratory-pathway-in-non-photosynthetic-tissues
#7
Alisdair R Fernie, Hermann Bauwe, Lee J Sweetlove
Whilst photorespiration represents one of the dominant pathway fluxes in photosynthetic tissues there are hints from publically available gene expression data such as that housed in the bioarray resource (BAR; www.bar.utoronto.ca) that several of the constituent enzymes are present in roots and other heterotrophic tissues. Here we describe a protocol based on modification of the gaseous environment surrounding individual tissues of mutant and wild type Arabidopsis and evaluation of the consequences. This method could additionally easily be used for larger plants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822133/isotopically-nonstationary-metabolic-flux-analysis-inst-mfa-of-photosynthesis-and-photorespiration-in-plants
#8
Fangfang Ma, Lara J Jazmin, Jamey D Young, Doug K Allen
Photorespiration is a central component of photosynthesis; however to better understand its role it should be viewed in the context of an integrated metabolic network rather than a series of individual reactions that operate independently. Isotopically nonstationary (13)C metabolic flux analysis (INST-MFA), which is based on transient labeling studies at metabolic steady state, offers a comprehensive platform to quantify plant central metabolism. In this chapter, we describe the application of INST-MFA to investigate metabolism in leaves...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822128/quantification-of-photorespiratory-intermediates-by-mass-spectrometry-based-approaches
#9
Stéphanie Arrivault, Toshihiro Obata
Photorespiration is an essential metabolic process in plants occurring via the oxygenase reaction of RuBisCO. In order to understand this process, it is essential to determine the amounts of intermediates involved. For this purpose we combined mass spectrometry-based approaches and the use of authentic standards for the quantification of photorespiratory intermediates. Here we describe protocols for the extraction and quantification of 2-phosphoglycolate (2PG) by LC-MS/MS and serine, glycine, glycolate, hydroxypyruvate, glyoxylate, and glycerate by GC-MS...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822126/dimethyl-labeling-based-quantification-of-the-lysine-acetylome-and-proteome-of-plants
#10
Ines Lassowskat, Markus Hartl, Fabian Hosp, Paul J Boersema, Matthias Mann, Iris Finkemeier
Photorespiratory enzymes in different cellular compartments have been reported to be posttranslational modified by phosphorylation, disulfide formation, S-nitrosylation, glutathionylation, and lysine acetylation. However, not much is known yet about the function of these modifications to regulate the activities, localizations, or interactions of the proteins in this metabolic pathway. Hence, it will be of great importance to study these modifications and their temporal and conditional occurrence in more detail...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822035/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-a-p-coumaroyl-coa-2-hydroxylase-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-coumarin-skeleton-from-peucedanum-praeruptorum-dunn
#11
Ruolan Yao, Yucheng Zhao, Tingting Liu, Chuanlong Huang, Sheng Xu, Ziwei Sui, Jun Luo, Lingyi Kong
A p-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase responsible for the formation of coumarin lactone ring was identified from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn and functionally characterized in vitro. Coumarins are important plant secondary metabolites with a variety of biological activities. Ortho-hydroxylation of cinnamates leads to the formation of coumarin lactone ring and is generally thought to be a key step in coumarin biosynthesis. However, ortho-hydroxylases, especially p-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase (C2'H) responsible for the biosynthesis of the most common coumarin skeleton, have received insufficient attention...
August 18, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821838/biogeography-shaped-the-metabolome-of-the-genus-espeletia-a-phytochemical-perspective-on-an-andean-adaptive-radiation
#12
Guillermo F Padilla-González, Mauricio Diazgranados, Fernando B Da Costa
The páramo ecosystem has the highest rate of diversification across plant lineages on earth, of which the genus Espeletia (Asteraceae) is a prime example. The current distribution and molecular phylogeny of Espeletia suggest the influence of Andean geography and past climatic fluctuations on the diversification of this genus. However, molecular markers have failed to reveal subtle biogeographical trends in Espeletia diversification, and metabolomic evidence for allopatric segregation in plants has never been reported...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821768/real-time-monitoring-of-water-level-and-temperature-in-storage-fuel-pools-through-optical-fibre-sensors
#13
S Rizzolo, J Périsse, A Boukenter, Y Ouerdane, E Marin, J-R Macé, M Cannas, S Girard
We present an innovative architecture of a Rayleigh-based optical fibre sensor for the monitoring of water level and temperature inside storage nuclear fuel pools. This sensor, able to withstand the harsh constraints encountered under accidental conditions such as those pointed-out during the Fukushima-Daiichi event (temperature up to 100 °C and radiation dose level up to ~20 kGy), exploits the Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry technique to remotely monitor a radiation resistant silica-based optical fibre i...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821733/three-recombinantly-expressed-apple-tyrosinases-suggest-the-amino-acids-responsible-for-mono-versus-diphenolase-activity-in-plant-polyphenol-oxidases
#14
Ioannis Kampatsikas, Aleksandar Bijelic, Matthias Pretzler, Annette Rompel
Tyrosinases and catechol oxidases belong to the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme family, which is mainly responsible for the browning of fruits. Three cDNAs encoding PPO pro-enzymes have been cloned from leaves of Malus domestica (apple, MdPPO). The three pro-enzymes MdPPO1-3 were heterologously expressed in E. coli yielding substantial amounts of protein and have been characterized with regard to their optimum of activity resulting from SDS, acidic and proteolytic activation. Significant differences were found in the kinetic characterization of MdPPO1-3 when applying different mono- and diphenolic substrates...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821593/light-sheet-microscopy-imaging-of-light-absorption-and-photosynthesis-distribution-in-plant-tissue
#15
Mads Lichtenberg, Erik Christian Løvbjerg Trampe, Thomas Craig Vogelmann, Michael Kühl
In vivo variable-chlorophyll-fluorescence measurements of PSII quantum yields in optically dense systems are complicated by steep tissue light gradients due to scattering and absorption. Consequently, externally measured effective PSII quantum yields may be composed of signals derived from cells differentially exposed to actinic light, where cells located deeper inside tissues receive lower irradiance than cells closer to the surface, and can display distinct photophysiological status. We demonstrate how measured distributions of PSII quantum yields in plant tissue change under natural tissue light gradients as compared to conventionally measured quantum yields with even exposure to actinic light...
August 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821150/functionalized-alginate-with-liquid-like-behaviors-and-its-application-in-wet-spinning
#16
Zhen Sang, Wenqian Zhang, Zhiyuan Zhou, Huakang Fu, Yeqiang Tan, Kunyan Sui, Yanzhi Xia
Alginate is a kind of marine-derived plant polysaccharide with useful properties including inherent flame-retardancy and biocompatibility, yet poor flowability and low processing efficiency induced by high viscosity impede its further industrial applications. In this study, PEG-substituted tertiary amines were adapted to functionalize alginate with different molecular weight via acid-base reaction to improve the flowability. Based on alginate with low molecular weight, alginate fluids exhibited excellent flowability at room temperature in the absence of solvent...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820998/photosynthesis-of-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-in-response-to-landfill-leachate-contamination
#17
Lie Yang, Tiantian Sun, Yanli Liu, Houqing Guo, Lixin Lv, Jie Zhang, Chang Liu
Thousands of unlined landfills and open dumpsites have put great threat on the security of soil and ground water due to leachate leakage. Alfalfa is believed potential as a phytoremediation plant for leachate contamination based on strong root system and the excellent capacity of removing various kinds of pollutants. A lab-scale investigation was conducted to figure out the sensitiveness of alfalfa photosynthesis in response to leachate contamination. The results demonstrated that both of the maximum photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) were slightly inhibited in the high-dosage group...
August 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820899/two-disjunct-pleistocene-populations-and-anisotropic-postglacial-expansion-shaped-the-current-genetic-structure-of-the-relict-plant-amborella-trichopoda
#18
Rémi Tournebize, Stéphanie Manel, Yves Vigouroux, François Munoz, Alexandre de Kochko, Valérie Poncet
Past climate fluctuations shaped the population dynamics of organisms in space and time, and have impacted their present intra-specific genetic structure. Demo-genetic modelling allows inferring the way past demographic and migration dynamics have determined this structure. Amborella trichopoda is an emblematic relict plant endemic to New Caledonia, widely distributed in the understory of non-ultramafic rainforests. We assessed the influence of the last glacial climates on the demographic history and the paleo-distribution of 12 Amborella populations covering the whole current distribution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820568/enhanced-drug-delivery-into-cell-cytosol-via-glycoprotein-h-derived-peptide-conjugated-nanoemulsions
#19
Teresa Fotticchia, Raffaele Vecchione, Pasqualina Liana Scognamiglio, Daniela Guarnieri, Vincenzo Calcagno, Concetta Di Natale, Chiara Attanasio, Maria De Gregorio, Chiara Di Cicco, Vincenzo Quagliariello, Nicola Maurea, Antonio Barbieri, Luca Raiola, Rosario Vincenzo Iaffaioli, Paolo Antonio Netti
The key role of nanocarriers in improving the pharmacological properties of commonly used drugs is recognized worldwide. It is also known that in the development of new effective nanocarriers the use of targeting moieties integrated on their surface is essential. Herein, we propose a nanocarrier based on an oil in water nanoemulsion coated with a membranotropic peptide derived from the glycoprotein H of Herpes simplex virus 1, known as gH625, in order to reduce endo-lysosomal accumulation and to enhance cytosolic localization...
August 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820115/six-key-traits-of-fungi-their-evolutionary-origins-and-genetic-bases
#20
László G Nagy, Renáta Tóth, Enikő Kiss, Jason Slot, Attila Gácser, Gábor M Kovács
The fungal lineage is one of the three large eukaryotic lineages that dominate terrestrial ecosystems. They share a common ancestor with animals in the eukaryotic supergroup Opisthokonta and have a deeper common ancestry with plants, yet several phenotypes, such as morphological, physiological, or nutritional traits, make them unique among all living organisms. This article provides an overview of some of the most important fungal traits, how they evolve, and what major genes and gene families contribute to their development...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
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