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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329030/protective-factors-in-the-intestinal-microbiome-against-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-recipients-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#1
Yeon Joo Lee, Esther P Arguello, Robert R Jenq, Eric Littmann, Grace J Kim, Liza C Miller, Lilan Ling, Cesar Figueroa, Elizabeth Robilotti, Miguel-Angel Perales, Juliet N Barker, Sergio Giralt, Marcel R M van den Brink, Eric G Pamer, Ying Taur
Background.: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a frequent complication in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), who receive intensive treatments that significantly disrupt the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we examined the microbiota composition of allo-HSCT recipients to identify bacterial colonizers that confer protection against CDI following engraftment. Methods.: Feces collected from adult recipients allo-HSCT at engraftment were analyzed; 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and analyzed from each sample...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323128/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-fmt-could-reverse-the-severity-of-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis-nec-via-oxidative-stress-modulation
#2
Xiaomei Li, Xiaowen Li, Qingjuan Shang, Zongwei Gao, Fabao Hao, Hongjie Guo, Chunbao Guo
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used successfully to treat a variety of gastroenterological diseases. The alterations of microbiota in mouse models of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) as well as in patients suggested the possibility of treating NEC with FMT. Here we show that FMT caused an improvement in the histopathology and symptoms of NEC in WT mice, but not Grx1-/- mice. FMT eliminated O2(•)- production and promoted NO production in experimental NEC mice though the modulation of S-glutathionylation of eNOS (eNOS-SSG)...
March 16, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318396/commentary-a-proposed-definition-of-microbiota-transplantation-for-regulatory-purposes
#3
Diane E Hoffmann, Francis B Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Virginia Rowthorn, Erik von Rosenvinge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318210/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-clostridium-difficile-infection-evidence-and-indications
#4
Aasma Shaukat, Andrew R Reinink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315032/novel-indications-for-fecal-microbial-transplantation-update-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Nathaniel Aviv Cohen, Nitsan Maharshak
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is an established successful treatment modality for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The safety profile and potential therapeutic advantages of FMT for diseases associated with dysbiosis and immune dysfunction have led to many publications, mainly case series, and while many studies and reviews have been published on the use of FMT for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), its potential use for other disease conditions has not been thoroughly reviewed...
March 17, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296584/intestinal-microbiota-and-relapse-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#6
Jonathan U Peled, Sean M Devlin, Anna Staffas, Melissa Lumish, Raya Khanin, Eric R Littmann, Lilan Ling, Satyajit Kosuri, Molly Maloy, John B Slingerland, Katya F Ahr, Kori A Porosnicu Rodriguez, Yusuke Shono, Ann E Slingerland, Melissa D Docampo, Anthony D Sung, Daniela Weber, Amin M Alousi, Boglarka Gyurkocza, Doris M Ponce, Juliet N Barker, Miguel-Angel Perales, Sergio A Giralt, Ying Taur, Eric G Pamer, Robert R Jenq, Marcel R M van den Brink
Purpose The major causes of mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation (allo-HCT) are relapse, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and infection. We have reported previously that alterations in the intestinal flora are associated with GVHD, bacteremia, and reduced overall survival after allo-HCT. Because intestinal bacteria are potent modulators of systemic immune responses, including antitumor effects, we hypothesized that components of the intestinal flora could be associated with relapse after allo-HCT...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293937/gut-microbiota-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-update
#7
Grainne Holleran, Loris R Lopetuso, Gianluca Ianiro, Silvia Pecere, Marco Pizzoferrato, Valentina Petito, Cristina Graziani, Deirdre Mc Namara, Antonio Gasbarrini, Franco Scaldaferri
Major advances have occurred in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) over the last decade, and perhaps the most major, and clinically advantageous of these advances has been the discovery of the microbiome as a key multifaceted component of inflammation. The Gut microbiome is the largest known group of cells in the body, and is now recognised as an organ in its own right. Initial studies looking at a possible role of bacterial manipulation of the immune system in IBD, looked at identifying a specific bacterial species, and were not representative of a feasible model of inflammation in IBD overall...
March 14, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293920/the-intriguing-link-between-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Giuseppe Lippi, Elisa Danese, Camilla Mattiuzzi, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Human microbiota is a term conventionally used to define the normal flora of microbes living in all of us, most of which are resident in the gastrointestinal tract. Despite it having been known for some time that the vast majority of intestinal bacteria exert a strong influence on human life, recent technologic breakthroughs have made it possible to more accurately characterize the host microbial communities and explore their relationship with many human diseases. Notably, the evidence accumulated over the past 10 years suggests that a reasonable relationship can now be established between gut microbiota composition and the risk of cardiovascular disease...
March 14, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289858/donor-considerations-in-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#9
REVIEW
Danielle Barnes, K T Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tremendous acceleration has been made in understanding the gut microbiota in the past decade and, with it, further understanding of the pathologic role of dysbiosis and the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as therapy. FMT has been studied in many disease states including the most common indication of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), though many questions regarding stool donor selection remain. RECENT FINDINGS: Though traditionally, one donor has provided stool for one patient, research is underway to explore many donor selection considerations from the use of pooled donor stool to selection of a high diversity donor...
March 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287161/angiopoietin-like-4-mediates-colonic-inflammation-by-regulating-chemokine-transcript-stability-via-tristetraprolin
#10
Terri Phua, Ming Keat Sng, Eddie Han Pin Tan, Dickson Shao Liang Chee, Yinliang Li, Jonathan Wei Kiat Wee, Ziqiang Teo, Jeremy Soon Kiat Chan, Maegan Miang Kee Lim, Chek Kun Tan, Pengcheng Zhu, Velmurugesan Arulampalam, Nguan Soon Tan
Many gastrointestinal diseases exhibit a protracted and aggravated inflammatory response that can lead to hypercytokinaemia, culminating in extensive tissue damage. Recently, angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) has been implicated in many inflammation-associated diseases. However, how ANGPTL4 regulates colonic inflammation remains unclear. Herein, we show that ANGPTL4 deficiency in mice (ANGPTL4(-/-)) exacerbated colonic inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or stearic acid. Microbiota was similar between the two genotypes prior DSS challenge...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286571/we-are-not-alone-a-case-for-the-human-microbiome-in-extra-intestinal-diseases
#11
EDITORIAL
S Shivaji
BACKGROUND: "Dysbiosis" in the gut microbiome has been implicated in auto-immune diseases, in inflammatory diseases, in some cancers and mental disorders. The challenge is to unravel the cellular and molecular basis of dysbiosis so as to understand the disease manifestation. MAIN BODY: Next generation sequencing and genome enabled technologies have led to the establishment of the composition of gut microbiomes and established that "dysbiosis" is the cause of several diseases...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282270/community-dynamics-drive-punctuated-engraftment-of-the-fecal-microbiome-following-transplantation-using-freeze-dried-encapsulated-fecal-microbiota
#12
Christopher Staley, Byron P Vaughn, Carolyn T Graiziger, Stephanie Singroy, Matthew J Hamilton, Dan Yao, Chi Chen, Alexander Khoruts, Michael J Sadowsky
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment of recurrent and recalcitrant Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). In a recent study oral-delivery of encapsulated, freeze-dried donor material, resulted in comparable rates of cure to colonoscopic approaches. Here we characterize shifts in the fecal bacterial community structure of patients treated for rCDI using encapsulated donor material. Prior to FMT, patient fecal samples showed declines in diversity and abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, with concurrent increases in members of the Proteobacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae...
February 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280484/variable-colonization-after-reciprocal-fecal-microbiota-transfer-between-mice-with-low-and-high-richness-microbiota
#13
Aaron C Ericsson, Alexa R Personett, Giedre Turner, Rebecca A Dorfmeyer, Craig L Franklin
Several associations have been made between characteristics of the resident gut microbiota and human health and disease susceptibility. Animal models provide the means to test these correlations prospectively and evaluate causality. Experimental fecal microbiota transfer (FMT), or the intentional transplantation of gut microbes into recipient mice depleted of their autochthonous microbes with antibiotics, is a commonly used method of testing these relationships. The true completeness of microbial transfer through such procedures is poorly documented in the literature, particularly in the context of reciprocal transfer of microbes between recipient and donor mice harboring microbial populations of differing richness and diversity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275312/clinical-and-immunologic-effects-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-a-patient-with-collagenous-colitis
#14
Sezin Günaltay, Lech Rademacher, Elisabeth Hultgren Hörnquist, Johan Bohr
One to six percent of patients with microscopic colitis are refractory to medical treatment. The effect of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in active collagenous colitis (CC) has, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported before. Here, we report the effect of repeated FMT in a patient with CC. The patient presented with severe symptoms including profuse diarrhea and profound weight loss. Although she responded to budesonide in the beginning, she became gradually refractory to medical treatment, and was therefore treated with FMT...
February 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267044/mutations-in-interleukin-10-receptor-and-clinical-phenotypes-in-patients-with-very-early-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-chinese-veo-ibd-collaboration-group-survey
#15
Zhiheng Huang, Kaiyue Peng, Xiaoqin Li, Ruiqin Zhao, Jieyu You, Xiuyong Cheng, Zhaoxia Wang, Ying Wang, Bingbing Wu, Huijun Wang, Huasong Zeng, Zhuowen Yu, Cuifang Zheng, Yuesheng Wang, Ying Huang
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-10 (IL10) signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) in children. However, little is known about the role of the IL10 axis in children with VEO-IBD in China. METHODS: The Chinese VEO-IBD Collaboration Group was created to collect clinical and genetic data from patients deficient in IL10 and the IL10 receptor. High-throughput sequencing was performed to identify mutations in these genes...
April 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261667/protein-malnutrition-modifies-innate-immunity-and-gene-expression-by-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-human-rotavirus-infection-in-neonatal-gnotobiotic-pigs
#16
Anastasia N Vlasova, Francine C Paim, Sukumar Kandasamy, Moyasar A Alhamo, David D Fischer, Stephanie N Langel, Loic Deblais, Anand Kumar, Juliet Chepngeno, Lulu Shao, Huang-Chi Huang, Rosario A Candelero-Rueda, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif
Malnutrition affects millions of children in developing countries, compromising immunity and contributing to increased rates of death from infectious diseases. Rotavirus is a major etiological agent of childhood diarrhea in developing countries, where malnutrition is prevalent. However, the interactions between the two and their combined effects on immune and intestinal functions are poorly understood. In this study, we used neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant (HIFM) and fed protein-deficient or -sufficient bovine milk diets...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251905/transplantation-of-fecal-microbiota-from-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-alters-gut-function-and-behavior-in-recipient-mice
#17
Giada De Palma, Michael D J Lynch, Jun Lu, Vi T Dang, Yikang Deng, Jennifer Jury, Genevieve Umeh, Pedro M Miranda, Marc Pigrau Pastor, Sacha Sidani, Maria Ines Pinto-Sanchez, Vivek Philip, Peter G McLean, Moreno-Gabriel Hagelsieb, Michael G Surette, Gabriela E Bergonzelli, Elena F Verdu, Philip Britz-McKibbin, Josh D Neufeld, Stephen M Collins, Premysl Bercik
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by altered gut function and often is accompanied by comorbid anxiety. Although changes in the gut microbiota have been documented, their relevance to the clinical expression of IBS is unknown. To evaluate a functional role for commensal gut bacteria in IBS, we colonized germ-free mice with the fecal microbiota from healthy control individuals or IBS patients with diarrhea (IBS-D), with or without anxiety, and monitored gut function and behavior in the transplanted mice...
March 1, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249379/clinical-usefulness-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#18
EDITORIAL
Jung Ho Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247264/new-paradigms-in-management-of-alcoholic-hepatitis-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Sandeep Singh Sidhu, Omesh Goyal, Harsh Kishore, Simran Sidhu
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is defined by modified Maddrey discriminant function ≥32 or Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) >21 and/or hepatic encephalopathy. It has a 3-month mortality rate ≥30-70 %. Patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis need combined, i.e., static (MELD score) and dynamic (Lille's score), prognostication. Systemic inflammation and poor regeneration are hallmarks of SAH, rather than intrahepatic inflammation. SAH is characterized by dysregulated and uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response followed by weak compensatory antiinflammatory response that leads to increased susceptibility to infection and multiple organ failure...
February 28, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242755/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-protects-against-radiation-induced-toxicity
#20
Ming Cui, Huiwen Xiao, Yuan Li, Lixin Zhou, Shuyi Zhao, Dan Luo, Qisheng Zheng, Jiali Dong, Yu Zhao, Xin Zhang, Junling Zhang, Lu Lu, Haichao Wang, Saijun Fan
Severe radiation exposure may cause acute radiation syndrome, a possibly fatal condition requiring effective therapy. Gut microbiota can be manipulated to fight against many diseases. We explored whether intestinal microbe transplantation could alleviate radiation-induced toxicity. High-throughput sequencing showed that gastrointestinal bacterial community composition differed between male and female mice and was associated with susceptibility to radiation toxicity. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) increased the survival rate of irradiated animals, elevated peripheral white blood cell counts and improved gastrointestinal tract function and intestinal epithelial integrity in irradiated male and female mice...
February 27, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
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