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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931479/corticosteroids-nutrition-pentoxifylline-or-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#1
Cyriac Abby Philips, Nikhil Phadke, Karthik Ganesan, Shatakshi Ranade, Philip Augustine
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol-induced intestinal dysbiosis is central to the development of the severe alcoholic liver disease. We present the first study to compare outcomes in patients of severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) on nutritional therapy, corticosteroids, pentoxifylline, and healthy donor fecal transplantation (FMT) and discuss distinct microbial community and microbiome metabolic functional changes after FMT. METHODS: Out of 1271 liver disease patients, 809 (63...
June 21, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929472/impact-of-nutrition-and-rotavirus-infection-on-the-infant-gut-microbiota-in-a-humanized-pig-model
#2
Anand Kumar, Anastasia N Vlasova, Loic Deblais, Huang-Chi Huang, Asela Wijeratne, Sukumar Kandasamy, David D Fischer, Stephanie N Langel, Francine Chimelo Paim, Moyasar A Alhamo, Lulu Shao, Linda J Saif, Gireesh Rajashekara
BACKGROUND: Human rotavirus (HRV) is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis in infants; particularly in developing countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Malnutrition perturbs the infant gut microbiota leading to sub-optimal functioning of the immune system and further predisposing infants to enteric infections. Therefore, we hypothesized that malnutrition exacerbates rotavirus disease severity in infants. METHODS: In the present study, we used a neonatal germ free (GF) piglets transplanted with a two-month-old human infant's fecal microbiota (HIFM) on protein deficient and sufficient diets...
June 22, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925845/host-genotype-specific-microbiota-do-not-influence-the-susceptibility-of-d-magna-to-a-bacterial-pathogen
#3
Marilou P Sison-Mangus, César M J A Metzger, Dieter Ebert
Host-associated microbiota have been claimed to play a role in hosts' responses to parasitic infections, often protecting the hosts from infection. We tested for such a role in the crustacean Daphnia and the parasitic bacterium Pasteuria ramosa, a widely used model system for host-parasite interactions. We first determined the infection phenotype (i.e., resistotype) of eight clonal D. magna genotypes against four strains of P. ramosa by attachment test, followed by 16 S rDNA amplicon sequencing to determine if their genotype or their parasite resistotype influences the composition of their microbiome...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925252/potential-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-als-a-systematic-review
#4
Michelle L Wright, Christina Fournier, Madelyn C Houser, Malú Tansey, Jonathan Glass, Vicki Stover Hertzberg
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) etiology and pathophysiology are not well understood. Recent data suggest that dysbiosis of gut microbiota may contribute to ALS etiology and progression. This review aims to explore evidence of associations between gut microbiota and ALS etiology and pathophysiology. Databases were searched for publications relevant to the gut microbiome in ALS. Three publications provided primary evidence of changes in microbiome profiles in ALS. An ALS mouse model revealed damaged tight junction structure and increased permeability in the intestine versus controls along with a shifted microbiome profile, including decreased levels of butyrate-producing bacteria...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920927/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-diarrhea-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#5
John Richard Lee, Matthew Magruder, Lisa Zhang, Lars F Westblade, Michael J Satlin, Amy Robertson, Emmanuel Edusei, Carl Crawford, Lilan Ling, Ying Taur, Jonas Schlueter, Michelle Lubetzky, Darshana Dadhania, Eric Pamer, Manikkam Suthanthiran
Post-transplant diarrhea is associated with kidney allograft failure and death but its etiology remains unknown in the majority of cases. Because altered gut microbial ecology is a potential basis for diarrhea, we investigated whether post-transplant diarrhea is associated with gut dysbiosis. We enrolled 71 kidney allograft recipients for serial fecal specimen collections in the first 3 months of transplantation and profiled the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene V4-V5 deep sequencing. The Shannon diversity index was significantly lower in 28 diarrheal fecal specimens from 25 recipients with post-transplant diarrhea than in 112 fecal specimens from 46 recipients without post-transplant diarrhea...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914912/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#6
Susy S Hota, Susan M Poutanen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912755/antibiotic-and-modulation-of-microbiota-a-new-paradigm
#7
Gianenrico Rizzatti, Gianluca Ianiro, Antonio Gasbarrini
Recently new insights on gut microbiota have revolutionized many concepts of the modern medicine. The alteration of microbiota, which is called dysbiosis, has been associated with an expanding list of diseases and conditions. The development of next-generation sequencing techniques allowed comprehensive analysis of gut microbiota composition without the limitations of classic culture methods. Furthermore, introduction of functional techniques such as metabolomics and proteomics allowed for integrated analysis thus obtaining more robust insights on microbiota functions in health and disease...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910564/early-results-of-fecal-microbial-transplantation-protocol-implementation-at-a-community-based-university-hospital
#8
Rodrigo Duarte-Chavez, Thomas R Wojda, Thomas B Zanders, Berhanu Geme, Gloria Fioravanti, Stanislaw P Stawicki
Introduction: Clostridium difficile (CD) is a serious and increasingly prevalent healthcare-associated infection. The pathogenesis of CD infection (CDI) involves the acquisition of CD with a concurrent disruption of the native gut flora. Antibiotics are a major risk although other contributing factors have also been identified. Clinical management combines discontinuation of the offending antibiotic, initiation of CD-specific antibiotic therapy, probiotic agent use, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and surgery as the "last resort" option...
April 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910467/gut-microbiota-modulate-neurobehavior-through-changes-in-brain-insulin-sensitivity-and-metabolism
#9
Marion Soto, Clémence Herzog, Julian A Pacheco, Shiho Fujisaka, Kevin Bullock, Clary B Clish, C Ronald Kahn
Obesity and diabetes in humans are associated with increased rates of anxiety and depression. To understand the role of the gut microbiome and brain insulin resistance in these disorders, we evaluated behaviors and insulin action in brain of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) with and without antibiotic treatment. We find that DIO mice have behaviors reflective of increased anxiety and depression. This is associated with decreased insulin signaling and increased inflammation in in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909020/diet-modifies-colonic-microbiota-and-cd4-t-cell-repertoire-to-induce-flares-of-colitis-in-mice-with-myeloid-cell-expression-of-interleukin-23
#10
Lili Chen, Zhengxiang He, Alina Cornelia Iuga, Sebastião N Martins Filho, Jeremiah J Faith, Jose C Clemente, Madhura Deshpande, Anitha Jayaprakash, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Juan J Lafaille, Ravi Sachidanandam, Glaucia C Furtado, Sergio A Lira
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several studies have shown that signaling via the interleukin 23 (IL23) receptor is required for development of colitis. We studied the roles of IL23, dietary factors, alterations to the microbiota, and T cells in development and progression of colitis in mice. METHODS: All mice were maintained on lab diet 5053, unless otherwise noted. We generated mice that express IL23 in CX3CR1-positive myeloid cells (R23FR mice) upon cyclic administration of tamoxifen dissolved in diet 2019...
June 14, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904348/berberine-regulates-treg-th17-balance-to-treat-ulcerative-colitis-through-modulating-the-gut-microbiota-in-the-colon
#11
Huantian Cui, Yuzi Cai, Li Wang, Beitian Jia, Junchen Li, Shuwu Zhao, Xiaoqian Chu, Jin Lin, Xiaoyu Zhang, Yuhong Bian, Pengwei Zhuang
Berberine (BBR), an alkaloid isolated from Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellode , and Berberis , has been widely used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the mechanism of BBR on UC is unknown. In this study, we investigated the activities of T regulatory cell (Treg) and T helper 17 cell (Th17) in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC mouse model after BBR administration. We also investigated the changes of gut microbiota composition using 16S rRNA analysis. We also examined whether BBR could regulate the Treg/Th17 balance by modifying gut microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901551/intestinal-microbial-and-metabolic-alterations-following-successful-fecal-microbiota-transplant-for-d-lactic-acidosis
#12
Emily C Bulik-Sullivan, Sayanty Roy, Ryan J Elliott, Zain Kassam, Steven N Lichtman, Ian M Carroll, Ajay S Gulati
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) involves the transfer of stool from a healthy individual into the intestinal tract of a diseased recipient. Although used primarily for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, FMT is increasingly being attempted as an experimental therapy for other illnesses, including metabolic disorders. D-lactic acidosis (D-LA) is a metabolic disorder that may occur in individuals with short bowel syndrome when lactate-producing bacteria in the colon overproduce D-lactate. This results in elevated systemic levels of D-lactate, metabolic acidosis, and encephalopathy...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896165/evaluating-the-capacity-of-human-gut-microorganisms-to-colonize-the-zebrafish-larvae-danio-rerio
#13
Maria-Jose Valenzuela, Mario Caruffo, Yoani Herrera, Daniel A Medina, Maximo Coronado, Carmen G Feijóo, Salomé Muñoz, Daniel Garrido, Miriam Troncoso, Guillermo Figueroa, Magaly Toro, Angelica Reyes-Jara, Fabien Magne, Paola Navarrete
In this study we evaluated if zebrafish larvae can be colonized by human gut microorganisms. We tested two strategies: (1) through transplantation of a human fecal microbiota and (2) by successively transplanting aerotolerant anaerobic microorganisms, similar to the colonization in the human intestine during early life. We used conventionally raised zebrafish larvae harboring their own aerobic microbiota to improve the colonization of anaerobic microorganisms. The results showed with the fecal transplant, that some members of the human gut microbiota were transferred to larvae...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895255/gut-microbiome-gut-dysbiosis-arterial-hypertension-new-horizons
#14
Vasiliki Katsi, Matthaios Didagelos, Stamatios Skevofilax, Iakovos Armenis, Athanasios Kartalis, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Haralambos Karvounis, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Arterial hypertension is a progressive cardiovascular syndrome arising from complex and interrelated etiologies. The human microbiome refers to the community of microorganisms that live in or on the human body. They influence human physiology by interfering in several processes such as providing nutrients and vitamins and in Phase I and Phase II drug metabolism. The human gut microbiota is represented mainly by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and to a lesser degree by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, with each individual harbouring at least 160 such species...
June 12, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890556/-management-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-at-german-intensive-care-units-results-from-a-survey-among-intensivists
#15
Jan Bruensing, Lukas Buendgens, Christoph Jochum, Ulf Herbers, Ali Canbay, Georg Braun, Christian Trautwein, Wolfgang Huber, Alexander Koch, Frank Tacke
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile associated colitis is a frequent cause of nosocomial diarrhea at the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with poor prognosis in critically ill patients. Few studies have evaluated the efficacy of treatment options or adherence to guideline recommendations of Clostridium difficile infections at the ICU. METHODS: Therefore, on behalf of the Gastroenterology Intensive Care Medicine working group of the DGVS, we have conducted an online-based survey among leading intensivists in Germany...
June 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886457/abnormal-gut-microbiota-composition-contributes-to-cognitive-dysfunction-in-samp8-mice
#16
Gaofeng Zhan, Ning Yang, Shan Li, Niannian Huang, Xi Fang, Jie Zhang, Bin Zhu, Ling Yang, Chun Yang, Ailin Luo
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by cognitive dysfunction and aging is an important predisposing factor; however, the pathological and therapeutic mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, the role of gut microbiota in Alzheimer's disease has received increasing attention. The cognitive function in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice was significantly decreased and the Chao 1 and Shannon indices, principal coordinates analysis, and principal component analysis results were notably abnormal compared with that of those in senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice...
June 10, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884929/correction-to-scaling-safe-access-to-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-past-present-and-future
#17
Pratik Panchal, Shrish Budree, Alex Scheeler, Geraldine Medina, Monica Seng, Wing Fei Wong, Ryan Elliott, Thomas Mitchell, Zain Kassam, Jessica R Allegretti, Majdi Osman
In the original version of this article, author Ryan Elliott's name was misspelled as Ryan Eliott. The correct spelling of the name is Ryan Elliott.
June 8, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884232/huddling-remodels-gut-microbiota-to-reduce-energy-requirements-in-a-small-mammal-species-during-cold-exposure
#18
Xue-Ying Zhang, Gansukh Sukhchuluun, Ting-Bei Bo, Qing-Sheng Chi, Jun-Jie Yang, Bin Chen, Lei Zhang, De-Hua Wang
BACKGROUND: Huddling is highly evolved as a cooperative behavioral strategy for social mammals to maximize their fitness in harsh environments. Huddling behavior can change psychological and physiological responses. The coevolution of mammals with their microbial communities confers fitness benefits to both partners. The gut microbiome is a key regulator of host immune and metabolic functions. We hypothesized that huddling behavior altered energetics and thermoregulation by shaping caecal microbiota in small herbivores...
June 8, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881810/facilitation-of-kindling-epileptogenesis-by-chronic-stress-may-be-mediated-by-intestinal-microbiome
#19
Jesús-Servando Medel-Matus, Don Shin, Edward Dorfman, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
There has been growing interest in the role of intestinal microbiome in brain disorders. We examined whether dysbiosis can predispose to epilepsy. The study was performed in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats. To induce dysbiosis, the rats were subjected to chronic restraint stress (two 2-h long sessions per day, over 2 weeks). Cecal content from stressed and sham-stressed donors was transplanted via oral gavage to recipients, in which commensal microbiota had been depleted by the antibiotics. The study included the following groups: (1) Sham stress, no microbiota transplant; (2) Stress, no microbiota transplant; (3) Sham-stressed recipients transplanted with microbiota from sham-stressed donors; (4) Stressed recipients transplanted with microbiota from sham-stressed donors; (5) Sham-stressed recipients transplanted with microbiota from stressed donors; and (6) Stressed recipients transplanted with microbiota from stressed donors...
June 2018: Epilepsia open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880353/exploration-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-the-treatment-of-refractory-diarrhea-after-renal-transplantation
#20
B Gu, G Z Bo, C Ke
OBJECTIVE: Exploration of fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of refractory diarrhea after renal transplantation. METHODS: Summarize the etiology of 120 cases with diarrhea after renal transplantation from 2014 to 2017 in our hospital. There were 4 recipients of refractory diarrhea who accepted fecal microbiota transplantation with informed consent, and we collected clinical data of stool and bacterial culture, gut microbiota analysis, graft function, electrolytes, immunosuppressant concentrations of prognostic evaluation of patients with fecal transplantation...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
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