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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217301/-gut-microbiota-what-impact-on-colorectal-carcinogenesis-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Antoine Bruneau, Minh-Tam Baylatry, Anne Christine Joly, Harry Sokol
The gut microbiota, composed of 1014 microorganisms, is now considered as a "hidden organ", regarding to its digestive, metabolic and immune functions, which are helpful to its host. For the last 15 years, advances in molecular biology have highlighted the association of gut microbiota dysbiosis with several diseases, including colorectal cancer. An increased abundance of some bacteria (including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli) is associated with cancer, whereas others seem to be protective (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii)...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209564/leukotriene-b4-receptor-1-mediated-host-response-shapes-gut-microbiota-and-controls-colon-tumor-progression
#2
Venkatakrishna R Jala, Paramahamsa Maturu, Sobha R Bodduluri, Elangovan Krishnan, Steven Mathis, Krishnaprasad Subbarao, Min Wang, Alfred B Jenson, Mary L Proctor, Eric C Rouchka, Rob Knight, Bodduluri Haribabu
Inflammation and infection are key promoters of colon cancer but the molecular interplay between these events is largely unknown. Mice deficient in leukotriene B4 receptor1 (BLT1) are protected in inflammatory disease models of arthritis, asthma and atherosclerosis. In this study, we show that BLT1-/- mice when bred onto a spontaneous tumor (ApcMin/+) model displayed an increase in the rate of intestinal tumor development and mortality. A paradoxical increase in inflammation in the tumors from the BLT1-/-ApcMin/+ mice is coincidental with defective host response to infection...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208562/microbiological-factors-affecting-clostridium-difficile-recurrence
#3
REVIEW
C H Chilton, D S Pickering, J Freeman
BACKGROUND: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) places a huge economic and practical burden on healthcare facilities. Furthermore, rCDI may impact quality of life, leaving patients in a 'rCDI cycle', and dependant on antibiotic therapy. AIMS: This article discusses the importance of microbiological factors in the development of rCDI. SOURCES: Literature was drawn from a search of PubMed from 2000 onwards with the search term "recurrent Clostridium difficile infection"; and further references quoted within these articles...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198534/an-intragastric-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-program-for-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-in-children-is-efficacious-safe-and-inexpensive
#4
David E Brumbaugh, Edwin F De Zoeten, Amy Pyo-Twist, Sara Fidanza, Shannon Hughes, Susan A Dolan, Jason Child, Samuel R Dominguez
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety, efficacy, and relative expense of a nurse-led fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) program for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study design in children aged 1-18 years with recurrent CDI. The intervention was an intragastric FMT with stool derived from a donor stool bank. Primary outcome was resolution of diarrhea at 3 months post-transplantation. A secondary analysis compared charge data associated with FMT by intragastric delivery vs administration by colonoscopy or nasoduodenal tube...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193949/-case-series-of-clostridium-difficile-nap1-027-bi-with-novels-treatments
#5
Silvia Esmeralda Pérez-Topete, Tomás Miranda-Aquino, Juan Jacobo Ayala-Gaytan
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming bacterium, producing exotoxins, causing potentially fatal nosocomial diarrhea. They have recently reported outbreaks of C. difficile ribotype 027, which is characterized by a hypervirulent strain and high resistance to standard therapy. CLINICAL CASE: We present three cases of Clostridium difficile NAP1/027/BI associated infection, they were presented with different clinical manifestations. Two of the patients were successfully treated with the combination of vancomycin plus tigecycline...
September 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189354/probiotics-for-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#6
John P Mills, Krishna Rao, Vincent B Young
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Probiotics may prevent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), a leading healthcare-associated infection in the United States. However, prior studies were limited by heterogeneity in products and patient populations. Recent clinical evidence and new approaches to probiotic development are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Probiotic use may reduce incident CDI in high-risk populations by as much as 50%, though prior clinical trials have yielded conflicting results...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188472/small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-should-screening-be-included-in-the-pre-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-evaluation
#7
Jessica R Allegretti, Zain Kassam, Walter W Chan
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is safe and effective for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) and often involves terminal ileal (TI) stool infusion. Patients report gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms post-FMT despite rCDI resolution. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) screening is not routinely performed pre-FMT. The effect of donor/recipient SIBO status on FMT outcomes and post-FMT GI symptoms is unclear. We aim to evaluate the value of pre-FMT SIBO screening on post-FMT outcomes and symptoms...
November 29, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185252/multidrug-resistant-or-antimicrobial-resistant-pathogens-alternatives-to-new-antibiotics
#8
Anne-Sophie Brunel, Benoit Guery
For the last few decades, multidrug resistance has become an increasing concern for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The number of new molecules has dramatically decreased and antibiotic resistance is now a priority in the international community. Facing this new threat, a large number of new as well as "old" solutions are now being discussed in the medical community to propose an alternative to antibiotic treatments. A first option is to potentiate the effect of existing molecules through combinations to circumvent the individual molecule resistance...
November 29, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183720/contemporary-applications-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-to-treat-intestinal-diseases-in-humans
#9
REVIEW
Christopher Staley, Alexander Khoruts, Michael J Sadowsky
The intestinal microbiota comprise an important organ that plays a vital role in host digestion, development, energy maintenance, hemostasis, and immunity. Disruption of the gut microbial community due to diet, lifestyle, or antibiotic exposure increases susceptibility to chronic infection and disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) involves the transfer of gut microbiota from a healthy donor to a patient in order to restore normal diversity and function of the microbial community. This method has become a well established alternative therapy for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection...
November 25, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183074/effect-of-oral-capsule-vs-colonoscopy-delivered-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-on-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Dina Kao, Brandi Roach, Marisela Silva, Paul Beck, Kevin Rioux, Gilaad G Kaplan, Hsiu-Ju Chang, Stephanie Coward, Karen J Goodman, Huiping Xu, Karen Madsen, Andrew Mason, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Juan Jovel, Jordan Patterson, Thomas Louie
Importance: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective in preventing recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). However, it is not known whether clinical efficacy differs by route of delivery. Objective: To determine whether FMT by oral capsule is noninferior to colonoscopy delivery in efficacy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Noninferiority, unblinded, randomized trial conducted in 3 academic centers in Alberta, Canada...
November 28, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183052/capsules-for-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-the-new-way-forward-or-a-tough-pill-to-swallow
#11
Krishna Rao, Vincent B Young, Preeti N Malani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179687/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-a-regulatory-hurdle
#12
Frederick Verbeke, Yorick Janssens, Evelien Wynendaele, Bart De Spiegeleer
During faecal microbiota transplantation, stool from a healthy donor is transplanted to treat a variety of dysbiosis-associated gut diseases. Competent authorities are faced with the challenge to provide adequate regulation. Currently, regulatory harmonization is completely lacking and authorities apply non-existing to most stringent requirements. A regulatory approach for faecal microbiota transplantation could be inserting faecal microbiota transplantation in the gene-, cell- and tissue regulations, including the hospital exemption system in the European Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products regulation, providing a pragmatic and efficacy-risk balanced approach and granting all patients as a matter of principle access to this therapy...
November 28, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179485/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
Ting Zhang, Jie Xiang, Bota Cui, Zhi He, Pan Li, Hai Chen, Lijuan Xu, Guozhong Ji, Yongzhan Nie, Kaichun Wu, Daiming Fan, Guangming Huang, Jianling Bai, Faming Zhang
There is a lack of health economics evidence on the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness before (with conventional therapy) and after introducing FMT for treating IBD. 104 patients with IBD received FMT were recruited. Health status was evaluated by European dimension health table (ED-5Q). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and net monetary benefit (NB) were calculated by different age groups, genders, smoking status, and disease subtypes...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173524/fecal-transplant-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
REVIEW
Alexander S Browne, Colleen R Kelly
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have differences in their gastrointestinal microbiome compared with healthy individuals, although it is unclear whether this is a cause or consequence of chronic inflammation. There is hope that manipulation of the gut microbiome through fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), commonly used to treat patients with Clostridium difficile infection, may also be an effective therapy in IBD. This article reviews the evidence supporting FMT in IBD, including case reports, case series, and randomized controlled trials...
December 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173517/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-strategies-for-therapeutic-gut-microbiota-modulation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-their-next-generation-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Abigail R Basson, Minh Lam, Fabio Cominelli
The human gut microbiome exerts a major impact on human health and disease, and therapeutic gut microbiota modulation is now a well-advocated strategy in the management of many diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Scientific and clinical evidence in support of complementary and alternative medicine, in targeting intestinal dysbiosis among patients with IBD, or other disorders, has increased dramatically over the past years. Delivery of "artificial" stool replacements for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could provide an effective, safer alternative to that of human donor stool...
December 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161082/gut-microbiome-and-obesity-how-to-prove-causality
#16
Philippe Gérard
In recent years, the gut microbiota (the microorganisms that live in our digestive tract) has become an area of great interest. Indeed, this intestinal microbial community performs essential functions in maintaining our health, and has been proven to influence host physiology and metabolism. Thereby, dysregulation of this gut microbiota may be implicated in the development of various diseases, including obesity. However, studies rarely assess causality, which requires the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158082/successful-treatment-by-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-japanese-patients-with-refractory-clostridium-difficile-infection-a%C3%A2-prospective-case-series
#17
Shigeki Bamba, Atsushi Nishida, Hirotsugu Imaeda, Osamu Inatomi, Masaya Sasaki, Mitsushige Sugimoto, Akira Andoh
We prospectively enrolled four Japanese patients with refractory Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and were treated with a single fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The average age of the patients was 83.7 years. All patients had a successful clinical course for up to 3 months without any adverse events.
November 5, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157127/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-by-metformin-improves-metabolic-profiles-in-aged-obese-mice
#18
Heetae Lee, Youngjoo Lee, Jiyeon Kim, Jinho An, Sungwon Lee, Hyunseok Kong, Youngcheon Song, Chong-Kil Lee, Kyungjae Kim
The gut microbiota is a contributing factor in obesity-related metabolic disorders. The effect of metformin on the gut microbiota has been reported; however, the relationship between the gut microbiota and the mechanism of action of metformin in elderly individuals is unclear. In this study, the effect of metformin on the gut microbiota was investigated in aged obese mice. The abundance of the genera Akkermansia, Bacteroides, Butyricimonas, and Parabacteroides was significantly increased by metformin in mice fed a high-fat diet...
November 20, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152407/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-against-irritable-bowel-syndrome-rigorous-randomized-clinical-trials-are-required
#19
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
Halkjær et al searched systematically nine articles including 48 patients, and concluded that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can be an ideal treatment option for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subjects. Regardless of the few successes in current traditional therapies (change in diet, herbal medicine and antibiotics) in IBS, a sharp increase in interests in the FMT option has been reported in the current century. However, there is a long list of unclear issues concerning the application of FMT for the treatment of IBS...
November 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151571/host-genotype-dependent-gut-microbiota-drives-zooplankton-tolerance-to-toxic-cyanobacteria
#20
Emilie Macke, Martijn Callens, Luc De Meester, Ellen Decaestecker
The gut microbiota impacts many aspects of its host's biology, and is increasingly considered as a key factor mediating performance of host individuals in continuously changing environments. Here we use gut microbiota transplants to show that both host genotype and gut microbiota mediate tolerance to toxic cyanobacteria in the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. Interclonal variation in tolerance to cyanobacteria disappears when Daphnia are made germ-free and inoculated with an identical microbial inoculum...
November 20, 2017: Nature Communications
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