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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052237/the-taxonomic-composition-of-the-donor-intestinal-microbiota-is-a-major-factor-influencing-the-efficacy-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-therapy-refractory-ulcerative-colitis
#1
P Kump, P Wurm, H P Gröchenig, H Wenzl, W Petritsch, B Halwachs, M Wagner, V Stadlbauer, A Eherer, K M Hoffmann, A Deutschmann, G Reicht, L Reiter, P Slawitsch, G Gorkiewicz, C Högenauer
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation is an experimental approach for the treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. Although there is growing evidence that faecal microbiota transplantation is effective in this disease, factors affecting its response are unknown. AIMS: To establish a faecal microbiota transplantation treatment protocol in ulcerative colitis patients, and to investigate which patient or donor factors are responsible for the treatment success...
October 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052181/probiotic-strains-and-mechanistic-insights-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Christiane S Hampe, Christian L Roth
INTRODUCTION: The intestinal microbial composition appears to differ between healthy controls and individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This observation has led to the hypothesis that perturbations of the intestinal microbiota may contribute to the development of T2D. Manipulations of the intestinal microbiota may therefore provide a novel approach in the prevention and treatment of T2D. Indeed, fecal transplants have shown promising results in both animal models for obesity and T2D and in human clinical trials...
October 19, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045252/altered-gut-microbiome-composition-in-hiv-infection-causes-effects-and-potential-intervention
#3
Alessandra Bandera, Ilaria De Benedetto, Giorgio Bozzi, Andrea Gori
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aim of this review is to summarize the alterations occurring in gut microbiome composition after HIV infection, and to underline how intestinal dysbiosis can affect immune homeostasis, immune recovery, and persisting immune activation under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many interventions have been suggested, mostly with inconclusive results. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence showed that gut microbiota from HIV-infected patients harbor reproducible differences compared to uninfected individuals...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040661/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#4
Hira Bluestone, Matthew P Kronman, David L Suskind
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035948/hiv-and-aging-role-of-the-microbiome
#5
Seema N Desai, Alan L Landay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review age-associated alterations in microbiota composition, diversity and functional features in context of immune senescence, chronic inflammation and comorbidities associated with HIV infection. The overall goal is to assess whether modulating the microbiome will likely improve resilience of the immune system and augment return to health. RECENT FINDINGS: Alteration in the gut microbiota composition diversity and function occur in HIV and aging...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034981/review-article-the-gut-microbiome-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-avenues-for-microbial-management
#6
REVIEW
J McIlroy, G Ianiro, I Mukhopadhya, R Hansen, G L Hold
BACKGROUND: The concept of an altered collective gut microbiota rather than identification of a single culprit is possibly the most significant development in inflammatory bowel disease research. We have entered the "omics" era, which now allows us to undertake large-scale/high-throughput microbiota analysis which may well define how we approach diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the future, with a strong steer towards personalised therapeutics. AIM: To assess current epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence of the current status of knowledge relating to the gut microbiome, and its role in IBD, with emphasis on reviewing the evidence relating to microbial therapeutics and future microbiome modulating therapeutics...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033923/emerging-trends-in-smart-probiotics-functional-consideration-for-the-development-of-novel-health-and-industrial-applications
#7
REVIEW
Racha El Hage, Emma Hernandez-Sanabria, Tom Van de Wiele
The link between gut microbiota and human health is well-recognized and described. This ultimate impact on the host has contributed to explain the mutual dependence between humans and their gut bacteria. Gut microbiota can be manipulated through passive or active strategies. The former includes diet, lifestyle, and environment, while the latter comprise antibiotics, pre- and probiotics. Historically, conventional probiotic strategies included a phylogenetically limited diversity of bacteria and some yeast strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026445/viral-communities-of-the-human-gut-metagenomic-analysis-of-composition-and-dynamics
#8
REVIEW
Varun Aggarwala, Guanxiang Liang, Frederic D Bushman
BACKGROUND: The numerically most abundant biological entities on Earth are viruses. Vast populations prey on the cellular microbiota in all habitats, including the human gut. MAIN BODY: Here we review approaches for studying the human virome, and some recent results on movement of viral sequences between bacterial cells and eukaryotic hosts. We first overview biochemical and bioinformatic methods, emphasizing that specific choices in the methods used can have strong effects on the results obtained...
2017: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024803/graft-derived-reconstitution-of-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#9
Abir Bhattacharyya, Laïla-Aïcha Hanafi, Alyssa Sheih, Jonathan L Golob, Sujatha Srinivasan, Michael J Boeckh, Steven A Pergam, Sajid Mahmood, Kelsey K Baker, Ted A Gooley, Filippo Milano, David N Fredricks, Stanley R Riddell, Cameron J Turtle
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express a semi-invariant Vα7.2(+) T cell receptor (TCR) that recognizes ligands from distinct bacterial and fungal species. In neonates, MAIT cells proliferate coincident with gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial colonization. In contrast, under non-inflammatory conditions adult MAIT cells remain quiescent due to acquired regulation of TCR signaling. Effects of inflammation and the altered GI microbiota after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on MAIT cell reconstitution have not been described...
October 9, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020328/early-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-improves-survival-in-severe-clostridium-difficile-infections
#10
Marie Hocquart, Jean Christophe Lagier, Nadim Cassir, Nadia Saidani, Carole Eldin, Jad Kerbaj, Marion Delord, Camille Valles, Philippe Brouqui, Didier Raoult, Matthieu Million
Background: Severe Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are associated with a high mortality rate despite medical and/or surgical treatment. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) prevents recurrences, but its effect on survival has been shown only in O27 ribotype CDI patients. Here, we investigated whether early FMT could improve survival in hospitalized CDI patients, particularly those with severe infection. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study between May 2013 and April 2016 at the infectious diseases department of the North University Hospital of Marseille, France...
August 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020255/mini-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-mini-fmt-for-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-proctitis-following-total-colectomy
#11
Robert Orenstein, Kara King, Roberto L Patron, John K DiBaise, David Etzioni
Rarely, in fulminant Clostridium difficile infection, the rectal stump is persistently infected following total abdominal colectomy. We report cure of a septic patient with proctitis by fecal microbiota transplant via rectal swabs (mini-FMT). This novel procedure offers a management option for recurrent CDI following total abdominal colectomy.
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020240/too-early-to-recommend-early-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-fmt-in-patients-with-severe-clostridium-difficile-infections-cdi-or-not-too-early
#12
Antoine Andremont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020225/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-urinary-tract-infection-an-interesting-approach
#13
B Davido, A Dinh, L Deconinck, P de Truchis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020222/antimicrobial-resistance-gene-acquisition-and-depletion-following-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-fmt-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#14
Victor Leung, Caroline Vincent, Thaddeus Edens, Mark Miller, Amee R Manges
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be a novel approach to eliminate multidrug-resistant bacteria from the gut and to prevent future infections. Using whole metagenome sequencing data from eight FMT donor-recipient pairs, we identified 37 and 95 antimicrobial resistance genes that were acquired by or removed from FMT recipients, respectively.
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020210/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-reduces-recurrent-urinary-tract-infection-frequency
#15
Raseen Tariq, Darrell S Pardi, Pritish K Tosh, Randall C Walker, Raymund R Razonable, Sahil Khanna
Broad-spectrum antibiotics for recurrent multidrug-resistant urinary tract infections (UTIs) disrupt the gut microbiome and promote antibiotic resistance. Fecal microbiota transplantation led to resolution of recurrent Clostridium difficile, significantly decreased recurrent UTI frequency, and improved antibiotic susceptibility profile of UTI-causing organisms.
July 18, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020185/the-stool-microbiota-at-neutrophil-recovery-is-predictive-for-severe-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#16
Jonathan L Golob, Steven A Pergam, Sujatha Srinivasan, Tina L Fiedler, Congzhou Liu, Kristina Garcia, Marco Mielcarek, Daisy Ko, Sarah Aker, Sara Marquis, Tillie Loeffelholz, Anna Plantinga, Michael C Wu, Kevin Celustka, Alex Morrison, Maresa Woodfield, David N Fredricks
Background: Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) is common after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Risk for death from GVHD has been associated with low bacterial diversity in the stool microbiota early after transplant, but the specific species associated with GVHD risk remain poorly defined. Methods: We prospectively collected serial weekly stool samples from 66 patients undergoing HCT, starting pre-transplantation and continuing weekly until 100 days post-transplant, a total of 694 observations in HCT recipients...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020157/early-antibiotic-use-post-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-increases-the-risk-of-treatment-failure
#17
Jessica R Allegretti, Dina Kao, Jessica Sitko, Monika Fischer, Zain Kassam
Antibiotic use within the first 8 weeks post fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may disrupt microbial engraftment and limit FMT effectiveness. We aimed to assess the burden of antibiotic use with 8 weeks of FMT its impact on FMT efficacy.
August 2, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993208/intestinal-microbiota-impact-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy-via-the-vagus-nerve
#18
Suyan Li, Jian Lv, Jianguo Li, Zhaolong Zhao, Hui Guo, Yanni Zhang, Shichao Cheng, Jianbin Sun, Hongming Pan, Shaopeng Fan, Zhongxin Li
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) remains poorly understood. Vagus nerve plays an important role in gut-microbiota-brain axis. This study aimed to investigate whether vague nerve is a key mediator of the impact of intestinal microbiota on SAE. METHODS: Male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=20): SHAM (SH) group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) +LPS group, and vagotomy (VGX)+LPS+FMT group...
October 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990516/gut-microbiota-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-metabolic-disorders
#19
Hirofumi Okubo, Yusuke Nakatsu, Akifumi Kushiyama, Takeshi Yamamotoya, Yasuka Matsunaga, Masa-Ki Inoue, Midori Fujishiro, Hideaki Sakoda, Haruya Ohno, Masayasu Yoneda, Hiraku Ono, Tomoichiro Asano
The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been rising worldwide, making the identification of factors affecting metabolic control more important than ever. Gut microbiota play a vital role not only in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, but also in homeostatic maintenance of host immunity, metabolism and the gut barrier. It was recently suggested that gut microbiota alterations contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
October 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987073/human-microbiome-as-an-approach-to-personalized-medicine
#20
Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Shirin Hasani-Ranjbar, Bagher Larijani
Personalized medicine is an approach for medical decisions, practices, and interventions that considers individual variations in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person. Regarding complex metabolic patterns associated with different diseases, characterizing unique metabolic patterns of each patient seems like a practical approach. We can imagine a future in which routinely analyzing the microbiome allows us to predict individualized responses to different foods and drugs. Microbiome analysis of individuals may be added to future routine personalized medicine protocols after comparing the costs and benefits of microbiome-sequencing technology...
October 2, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
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