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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674425/impact-of-gut-colonization-with-butyrate-producing-microbiota-on-respiratory-viral-infection-following-allo-hct
#1
Bastiaan W Haak, Eric R Littmann, Jean-Luc Chaubard, Amanda J Pickard, Emily Fontana, Fatima Adhi, Yangtsho Gyaltshen, Lilan Ling, Sejal M Morjaria, Jonathan U Peled, Marcel R van den Brink, Alexander I Geyer, Justin R Cross, Eric G Pamer, Ying Taur
Respiratory viral infections are frequent in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT), and can potentially progress to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The intestinal microbiota contributes to resistance against viral and bacterial pathogens in the lung. However, whether intestinal microbiota composition and associated changes in microbe-derived metabolites contribute to the risk of LRTI following upper respiratory tract viral infection remains unexplored in the setting of allo-HCT...
April 19, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674329/regional-variability-in-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-practices-a-survey-of-the-southern-ontario-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-movement
#2
Susy S Hota, Salman Surangiwala, Aimee S Paterson, Bryan Coburn, Susan M Poutanen
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, but little guidance exists for implementation of FMT programs. The objective of this study is to describe the program characteristics and protocols of 9 planned or operating FMT programs in the Southern Ontario Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (SOFT) Movement, to help guide future FMT program implementation. METHODS: A 59-item survey was administered electronically to clinical leads of the SOFT Movement on June 2, 2016...
April 18, 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670863/commentary-bacteriophage-transfer-during-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-clostridium-difficile-infection-is-associated-with-treatment-outcome
#3
COMMENT
Blessing O Anonye
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670798/anca-vasculitis-and-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-following-a-fecal-microbiota-transplant
#4
Adam Amlani, Amy Bromley, Aurore Fifi-Mah
A 69-year-old female with antisynthetase syndrome, a history of multiple recurrent infections, and documented previous negative titres for anti-neutrophil cystoplasmic antibody (ANCA) suddenly developed a de novo MPO-ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis three weeks after a fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. Six months following her FMT and less than two weeks following treatment for urosepsis, she developed severe cholestasis, a markedly elevated ferritin and hypertriglyceridemia...
2018: Case Reports in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670191/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-reverses-antibiotic-and-chemotherapy-induced-gut-dysbiosis-in-mice
#5
Quentin Le Bastard, Tonya Ward, Dimitri Sidiropoulos, Benjamin M Hillmann, Chan Lan Chun, Michael J Sadowsky, Dan Knights, Emmanuel Montassier
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is now widely used to treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, but has been less studied as a means to restore microbiome diversity and composition following antibiotic or chemotherapy treatments. The purpose of our study was to assess the efficacy of FMT to reverse antibiotic- and chemotherapy-induced gut dysbiosis in a mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were treated with ampicillin for 1 week and/or received a single intraperitoneal injection of 5-Fluorouracil. Fresh stool was collected and analyzed using shotgun metagenomics and the Illumina sequencing platform...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667487/pre-colonization-with-the-commensal-fungus-candida-albicans-reduces-murine-susceptibility-to-clostridium-difficile-infection
#6
Laura Markey, Lamyaa Shaban, Erin R Green, Katherine P Lemon, Joan Mecsas, Carol A Kumamoto
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for close to half a million infections and 27,000 deaths annually in the U.S. Preceding antibiotic treatment is a major risk factor for C. difficile infection (CDI) leading to recognition that commensal microbes play a key role in resistance to CDI. Current antibiotic treatment of CDI is only partially successful due to a high rate of relapse. As a result, there is interest in understanding the effects of microbes on CDI susceptibility to support treatment of patients with probiotic microbes or entire microbial communities (e...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667436/is-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-a-temporary-patch-for-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-or-a-new-frontier-of-therapeutics
#7
Alexander Khoruts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665102/antibiotic-associated-disruption-of-microbiota-composition-and-function-in-cirrhosis-is-restored-by-fecal-transplant
#8
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Genta Kakiyama, Tor Savidge, Hajime Takei, Zain A Kassam, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, William M Pandak, Hiroshi Nittono, Phillip B Hylemon, Prapaporn Boonma, Anthony Haag, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, Binu John, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet
Cirrhotic patients are often exposed to antibiotics that can lead to resistance and fungal overgrowth. The role of fecal microbial transplant (FMT) to restore gut microbial function is unclear in cirrhosis. In an FDA-monitored Phase 1 clinical safety trial, decompensated cirrhotic patients on standard therapies (lactulose and rifaximin) were randomized to standard-of-care (SOC, no antibiotics/FMT) or 5 days of broad-spectrum antibiotics followed by FMT from a donor enriched in Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae...
April 17, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653191/microbiota-transplantation-and-or-crispr-cas-in-the-battle-against-antimicrobial-resistance
#9
EDITORIAL
Jordi Vila
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651860/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-baranya-county-southern-hungary
#10
Szabolcs Vigvári, Dávid Sipos, Ágnes Kappéter, Zsófia Feiszt, Beáta Kovács, Zoltán Péterfi
In the past decade, Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) have become a major public health challenge. Their epidemiology has radically changed with a significant rise in the number of cases and an increase in severe episodes. Recurrence and failure of conventional treatments are very common. Furthermore, a spread of CDI has emerged in general population without the usual risk factors (unexposed to antibiotic treatment, young people, etc.). The conventional treatments (metronidazole and vancomycin) are still effective and are the first-line antibiotics with new recommendations...
April 13, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649435/food-for-gut-microbiota-fuels-immune-reconstitution-after-bmt
#11
Tiffany R Simms-Waldrip, Andrew Y Koh
The host factors that modulate hematopoietic reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation are poorly understood. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Staffas et al. (2018) demonstrate that gut microbiota play a critical role in immune reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation, partly through dietary energy harvest and uptake.
April 11, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644994/autoimmune-hepatitis
#12
REVIEW
Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Diego Vergani, Albert J Czaja, Michael P Manns, Edward L Krawitt, John M Vierling, Ansgar W Lohse, Aldo J Montano-Loza
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a severe liver disease that affects children and adults worldwide. The diagnosis of AIH relies on increased serum transaminase and immunoglobulin G levels, presence of autoantibodies and interface hepatitis on liver histology. AIH arises in genetically predisposed individuals when a trigger, such as exposure to a virus, leads to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed against liver autoantigens; this immune response is permitted by inadequate regulatory immune control leading to a loss of tolerance...
April 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644492/update-on-the-therapeutic-management-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#13
REVIEW
Linda Skibsted Kornerup, Lise Lotte Gluud, Hendrik Vilstrup, Gitte Dam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common and devastating complication to chronic liver disease. In this paper, we summarize the latest research and evidence of both conventional and up-coming treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analyses report beneficial effects of lactulose, branched-chain amino acids, rifaximin, and to some degree L-ornithine L-aspartate on the manifestations of HE in patients with cirrhosis, and generally the numbers needed to treat are low...
April 11, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629900/recipient-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-control-gvhd-within-the-colon
#14
Antiopi Varelias, Mark D Bunting, Kate L Ormerod, Motoko Koyama, Stuart D Olver, Jasmin Straube, Rachel D Kuns, Renee J Robb, Andrea S Henden, Leanne Cooper, Nancy Lachner, Kate H Gartlan, Olivier Lantz, Lars Kjer-Nielsen, Jeffrey Yw Mak, David P Fairlie, Andrew D Clouston, James McCluskey, Jamie Rossjohn, Steven W Lane, Philip Hugenholtz, Geoffrey R Hill
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a unique innate-like T cell subset that responds to a wide array of bacteria and yeast through recognition of riboflavin metabolites presented by the MHC class I-like molecule MR1. Here, we demonstrate using MR1 tetramers that recipient MAIT cells are present in small but definable numbers in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) target organs and protect from acute GVHD in the colon following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Consistent with their preferential juxtaposition to microbial signals in the colon, recipient MAIT cells generate large amounts of IL-17A, promote gastrointestinal tract integrity, and limit the donor alloantigen presentation that in turn drives donor Th1 and Th17 expansion specifically in the colon after BMT...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626003/probable-fidaxomicin-induced-pancytopenia
#15
Samantha Axtell, Aisha Shokoya, Christine Yocum
PURPOSE: A case of pancytopenia in a patient receiving treatment with fidaxomicin for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is described. SUMMARY: A 33-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital with a chief complaint of loose stools occurring approximately 7 times a day; she also reported fever, nausea, diffuse abdominal pain, and fatigue. The patient had a history of recurrent CDI, recurrent urinary tract infections, nephrolithiasis, chronic hepatitis C, and endometriosis...
April 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619403/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-associated-with-10-years-of-stability-in-a-patient-with-spms
#16
Seraj Makkawi, Carlos Camara-Lemarroy, Luanne Metz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617178/recruitment-of-feces-donors-among-blood-donors-results-from-an-observational-cohort-study
#17
Simon Mark Dahl Jørgensen, Christian Erikstrup, Khoa Manh Dinh, Lars Erik Lemming, Jens Frederik Dahlerup, Christian Lodberg Hvas
As the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained momentum, an increasing need for continuous access to healthy feces donors has developed. Blood donors constitute a healthy subset of the general population and may serve as an appropriate group for recruitment. In this study, we investigated the suitability of blood donors as feces donors. In a prospective cohort study, we recruited blood donors onsite at a public Danish blood bank. Following their consent, the blood donors underwent a stepwise screening process: First, blood donors completed an electronic pre-screening questionnaire to rule out predisposing risk factors...
April 4, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607440/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-its-potential-therapeutic-uses-in-gastrointestinal-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Ryan D Heath, Courtney Cockerell, Ravinder Mankoo, Jamal A Ibdah, Veysel Tahan
Typical human gut flora has been well characterized in previous studies and has been noted to have significant differences when compared with the typical microbiome of various disease states involving the gastrointestinal tract. Such diseases include Clostridium difficile colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, functional bowel syndromes, and various states of liver disease. A growing number of studies have investigated the use of a fecal microbiota transplant as a potential therapy for these disease states.
2018: Northern Clinics of Istanbul
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606940/successful-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-a-patient-with-severe-complicated-clostridium-difficile-infection-after-liver-transplantation
#19
REVIEW
Kai Markus Schneider, Theresa H Wirtz, Daniela Kroy, Stefanie Albers, Ulf Peter Neumann, Till Strowig, Gernot Sellge, Christian Trautwein
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents one of the most common healthcare-associated infections. Due to increasing numbers of recurrences and therapy failures, CDI has become a major disease burden. Studies have shown that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can both be a safe and highly efficacious therapy for patients with therapy-refractory CDI. However, patients undergoing solid organ transplantation are at high risk for CDI due to long-term immunosuppression, previous antibiotic therapy, and proton pump inhibitor use...
January 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606255/recent-advances-in-the-physiopathology-of-iga-nephropathy
#20
Renato C Monteiro
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy or Berger's disease is the most common type of primary glomerulonephritis, which is characterized by IgA1-containing immune-deposits in the glomerular mesangium. Microscopic haematuria and proteinuria are the most common presentations. Mesangial cell proliferation with IgA deposition is found on renal biopsy. Mechanims of the disease implicate at least four key molecules have been implicated in immune complex formation: galactose-deficient IgA1, autoantibodies anti-galactose-deficient-IgA1, soluble CD89 (Fc receptor for IgA) and the CD71 mesangial IgA receptor (transferrin receptor)...
April 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
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