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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441452/long-term-follow-up-of-the-effects-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-combination-with-soluble-dietary-fiber-as-a-therapeutic-regimen-in-slow-transit-constipation
#1
Xueying Zhang, Hongliang Tian, Lili Gu, Yongzhan Nie, Chao Ding, Xiaolong Ge, Bo Yang, Jianfeng Gong, Ning Li
As some studies have reported that strategies targeting the gut microbiota such as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) with or without other microecological therapy might have efficacy in treating slow transit constipation (STC), we conducted a single-center, open-label trial to study the long-term effect of FMT combined with soluble dietary fiber (pectin) on STC. Thirty-one adult patients with STC were enrolled into the trial. Patients received 6-day FMT procedures repeatedly for the first 3 months and soluble dietary fiber (pectin) daily during the follow-up...
February 6, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438346/sj%C3%A3-gren-like-lacrimal-keratoconjunctivitis-in-germ-free-mice
#2
Changjun Wang, Mahira Zaheer, Fang Bian, Darin Quach, Alton G Swennes, Robert A Britton, Stephen C Pflugfelder, Cintia S de Paiva
Commensal bacteria play an important role in the formation of the immune system but their role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis at the ocular surface and lacrimal gland remains poorly understood. This study investigated the eye and lacrimal gland phenotype in germ-free and conventional C57BL/6J mice. Our results showed that germ-free mice had significantly greater corneal barrier disruption, greater goblet cell loss, and greater total inflammatory cell and CD4⁺ T cell infiltration within the lacrimal gland compared to the conventionally housed group...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432297/should-fecal-microbial-transplantation-be-used-in-the-icu
#3
Stephen A McClave, Jayshil Patel, Neal Bhutiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maintaining gut barrier defenses, modulating immune responses, and supporting the role of commensal microbiota are major factors influencing outcome in critical illness. Of these, maintaining a commensal 'lifestyle' and preventing the emergence of a virulent pathobiome may be most important in reducing risk of infection and multiple organ failure. RECENT FINDINGS: The polymeric formulas utilized for enteral nutrition in the ICU are absorbed high in the gastrointestinal tract and may not reach the microbial burden in the cecum where their effect is most needed...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431777/flammulina-velutipes-polysaccharides-improve-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-mice-by-modulating-gut-microbiota-composition
#4
Anxiang Su, Wenjian Yang, Liyan Zhao, Fei Pei, Biao Yuan, Lei Zhong, Gaoxing Ma, Qiuhui Hu
Flammulina velutipes polysaccharides (FVP) have been proved to be effective in improving learning and memory impairment in mice. However, their underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between memory improvement and gut microbiota regulation of FVP. The results showed a significant decrease in the relative abundances of Clostridia and Bacilli but a significant increase in Bacteroidia, Erysipelotrichia and Actinobacteria in the FVP-treated group versus the control group...
February 12, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430228/routine-treatment-resistant-clostridium-difficile-infection-during-recovery-from-myxedema
#5
Jan K Adamski, Björn B Jäschke, Raija S Uusitalo-Seppälä, Kalle V J Moilanen, Antti V Pehkonen, Wojciech Weigl
Development of the extreme form of hypothyroidism defined as myxedema is very rare. Acute symptoms and their management have been described in detail previously. However, not much attention has been devoted to therapeutic challenges that are faced in the recovery phase of the treatment, especially pertaining to the gastrointestinal system. The link between myxedema and the appearance of severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has not been established so far. A 61-year-old woman with no significant medical record was admitted to hospital because of infected heel pressure and thyroid dysfunction...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428498/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#6
REVIEW
Michael Samarkos, Elpida Mastrogianni, Olga Kampouropoulou
Clostridium difficile infection has emerged as a major health problem. Because it is a spore-forming microorganism, C. difficile is difficult to eradicate and recurrences of the infection are frequent. The strong association of CDI with prior use of antibiotics led to the recognition that disturbances in the gut microbiota apparently plays a central role in CDI. Except for antibiotics, several other risk factors for CDI have been recognised, such as advanced age and use of proton pump inhibitors. The common characteristic of these factors is that they are associated with changes in the composition of gut microbiota...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427406/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-intestinal-transplant-recipients-during-the-first-year-post-transplant
#7
Luis Guzman, Fang Qiu, Andre C Kalil, David F Mercer, Alan Langnas, Diana F Florescu
BACKGROUND: C. difficile is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infectious diarrhea. Risk factors for C. difficile infections (CDI) in intestinal transplant recipients (ITR) are not well defined. The aim of our study was to assess specific risk factors for CDI in ITR. METHODS: This is a 1:3 case-control study that included 29 ITR who developed CDI (cases) and 87 ITR without CDI (controls) observed during the first year post transplantation. Wilcoxon rank sum and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare variables...
February 10, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426057/inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-clostridium-difficile-infection-contrasting-views-of-international-clinical-professionals
#8
Andreas Stallmach, Veli-Jukka Anttila, Markus Hell, Simon Gwynn, Paloma Merino-Amador, Nicola Petrosillo, Zdenek Ráčil, Tim Warren, Christoph Wenisch, Mark Wilcox
INTRODUCTION:  In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a risk factor for both morbidity and mortality. Currently, appropriate management is unclear. Guidance on best practice in the diagnosis and treatment of CDI in IBD patients is therefore needed. METHODS:  A multidisciplinary group of clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with IBD and CDI developed 27 consensus statements. Respondents were asked to rate their agreement with each statement using a 4-point Likert scale...
February 9, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422809/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis
#9
Kosaku Nanki, Shinta Mizuno, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Keiko Ono, Shinya Sugimoto, Hiroki Kiyohara, Mari Arai, Moeko Nakashima, Kozue Takeshita, Keiichiro Saigusa, Mitsutoshi Senoh, Tadashi Fukuda, Makoto Naganuma, Haru Kato, Wataru Suda, Masahira Hattori, Takanori Kanai
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been reported as a safe and effective therapy in patients with refractory and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). FMT has also been reported as a promising therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Both, CDI and UC, are believed to be caused by dysbiosis, such as altered compositions or decreased diversity of the intestinal microbiota. This report describes a patient with UC in remission with a second recurrent episode of CDI, who was treated with FMT...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422802/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-adalimumab-biosimilar-exemptia-as-induction-therapy-in-moderate-to-severe-ulcerative-colitis
#10
Vandana Midha, Ramit Mahajan, Varun Mehta, Vikram Narang, Arshdeep Singh, Kirandeep Kaur, Ajit Sood
Background/Aims: Data on the efficacy and safety of the adalimumab biosimilar Exemptia are limited. Methods: Patients with moderate-to-severe active steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) treated at Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, India were offered cyclosporine A, biologicals or biosimilars, or surgery. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients who were treated with the adalimumab biosimilar, Exemptia. These patients were administered an induction dosing schedule of 160 mg Exemptia at week 0, 80 mg at week 2, and then 40 mg every other week from week 4 to 8...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411989/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-refractory-or-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-real-life-experience-in-a-non-academic-center
#11
Ana Ponte, Rolando Pinho, Margarida Mota, Joana Silva, Nuno Vieira, Rosa Oliveira, Jaime Rodrigues, Mafalda Sousa, Isabel Sousa, João Carvalho
AIM: this study aimed to describe the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for the treatment of refractory and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). METHODS: this was an observational study of patients with refractory or recurrent CDI treated with FMT between June 2014 and January 2017. Primary and secondary outcomes were the resolution of diarrhea without CDI recurrence within two months after one or more FMT. A descriptive analysis was performed...
February 7, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408609/microbiota-derived-metabolic-factors-reduce-campylobacteriosis-in-mice
#12
Xiaolun Sun, Kathryn Winglee, Raad Z Gharaibeh, Josee Gauthier, Zhen He, Prabhanshu Tripathi, Dorina Avram, Steven Bruner, Anthony Fodor, Christian Jobin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Campylobacter jejuni, a prevalent food-borne bacterial pathogen, exploits the host innate response to induce colitis. Little is known about the roles of microbiota in C jejuni-induced intestinal inflammation. We investigated interactions between microbiota and intestinal cells during C jejuni infection of mice. METHODS: Germ-free C57BL/6 Il10-/- mice were colonized with conventional microbiota and infected with a single dose of C jejuni (109 colony-forming units/mouse), via gavage...
January 31, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402332/the-efficacy-and-mechanism-evaluation-of-treating-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-with-the-addition-of-co-trimoxazole-eme-tipac-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Matthew Hammond, Allan B Clark, Anthony P Cahn, Edwin R Chilvers, William Duncan Fraser, David M Livermore, Toby M Maher, Helen Parfrey, Ann Marie Swart, Susan Stirling, David Thickett, Moira Whyte, Andrew Wilson
BACKGROUND: We hypothesise, based upon the findings from our previous trial, that the addition of co-trimoxazole to standard therapy is beneficial to patients with moderate to severe idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We aim to investigate this by assessing unplanned hospitalisation-free survival (defined as time from randomisation to first non-elective hospitalisation, lung transplant or death) and to determine whether any effect relates to changes in infection and/or markers of disease control and neutrophil activity...
February 5, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397863/-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-review
#14
Li Wang, Rui Gao, Shu-Feng Liu, Chun-Ji Gao
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infection are the frequently encountered complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), which influence the outcome and limit the widespread application of HSCT. Intestinal microbiota plays an important role in maintaining intestinal immune balance. The diverse levels of intestinal microbiota associated with the incidences of GVHD, infection and the prognosis of HSCT, thus remodeling intestinal microbiota can alleviate GVHD and infection after HSCT. Herein, the recent research progress about the role and the involved mechanisms of intestinal microbiota in HSCT, and the novel manipulation strategies of intestinal microbiota are systematically reviewed...
February 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397391/gut-microbiome-and-depression-what-we-know-and-what-we-need-to-know
#15
Gal Winter, Robert A Hart, Richard P G Charlesworth, Christopher F Sharpley
Gut microbiome diversity has been strongly associated with mood-relating behaviours, including major depressive disorder (MDD). This association stems from the recently characterised bi-directional communication system between the gut and the brain, mediated by neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and sensory neural pathways. While the link between gut microbiome and depression is well supported by research, a major question needing to be addressed is the causality in the connection between the two, which will support the understanding of the role that the gut microbiota play in depression...
February 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391279/gut-microbiota-modulates-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-anxiety-in-mice
#16
Hui-Wen Xiao, Chang Ge, Guo-Xing Feng, Yuan Li, Dan Luo, Jia-Li Dong, Hang Li, Haichao Wang, Ming Cui, Sai-Jun Fan
Excessive alcohol consumption remains a major public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Accumulative experimental evidence has suggested an important involvement of gut microbiota in the modulation of host's immunological and neurological functions. However, it is previously unknown whether enteric microbiota is implicated in the formation of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety. Using a murine model of chronic alcoholism and withdrawal, we examined the impact of alcohol consumption on the possible alterations of gut microbiota as well as alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety and behavior changes...
January 29, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388040/microbial-treatment-in-chronic-constipation
#17
REVIEW
Linsheng Huang, Qi Zhu, Xiao Qu, Huanlong Qin
Chronic functional constipation is a kind of common intestinal disease that occurs in children, adults and elderly people. This disease not only causes great influence to physiological function, but also results in varying degrees of psychological barriers. At present, constipation treatments continue to rely on traditional methods such as purgative therapy and surgery. However, these approaches can disrupt intestinal function. Recent research between intestinal diseases and gut microbiota has gradually revealed a connection between constipation and intestinal flora disturbance, providing a theoretical basis for microbial treatment in chronic constipation...
January 23, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385143/longitudinal-microbiome-analysis-of-single-donor-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-and-or-ulcerative-colitis
#18
Michael Mintz, Shanawaj Khair, Suman Grewal, Joseph F LaComb, Jiyhe Park, Breana Channer, Ramona Rajapakse, Juan Carlos Bucobo, Jonathan M Buscaglia, Farah Monzur, Anupama Chawla, Jie Yang, Charlie E Robertson, Daniel N Frank, Ellen Li
BACKGROUND: Studies of colonoscopic fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in patients with recurrent CDI, indicate that this is a very effective treatment for preventing further relapses. In order to provide this service at Stony Brook University Hospital, we initiated an open-label prospective study of single colonoscopic FMT among patients with ≥ 2 recurrences of CDI, with the intention of monitoring microbial composition in the recipient before and after FMT, as compared with their respective donor...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383670/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-as-emerging-treatment-in-european-countries
#19
Marcello Maida, James Mcilroy, Gianluca Ianiro, Giovanni Cammarota
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections in the world and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients.Although several antibiotics effectively treat CDI, some individuals do not respond to these drugs and may be cured by transplanting stool from healthy donors. This procedure, termed Faecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT), has demonstrated remarkable efficacy as a treatment for recurrent CDI.FMT has also been investigated in other diseases and disorders where perturbations to the gut microbiota have been theorized to play a causative role in pathogenesis and severity, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383667/european-practice-for-cdi-treatment
#20
Fidelma Fitzpatrick, Mairead Skally, Melissa Brady, Karen Burns, Christopher Rooney, Mark H Wilcox
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Historically, two antibiotics (metronidazole and vancomycin) and a recent third (fidaxomicin) have been used routinely for CDI treatment; convincing data are now available showing that metronidazole is the least efficacious agent. The European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases CDI treatment guidelines outline the treatment options for a variety of CDI clinical scenarios, including use of the more traditional anti-CDI therapies (e...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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