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Spinal injuries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935559/application-of-a-model-to-analyze-shoulder-biomechanics-in-adult-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-when-walking-with-crutches-in-two-different-gait-patterns
#1
Enrique Perez-Rizo, Fernando Trincado-Alonso, Soraya Pérez-Nombela, Antonio Del Ama-Espinosa, Fernando Jiménez-Díaz, Vicente Lozano-Berrio, Angel Gil-Agudo
BACKGROUND: Specific biomechanical models have been developed to study gait using crutches. Clinical application of these models is needed in adult spinal cord injury (SCI) population walking with different patterns of gait with crutches to prevent overuse shoulder injuries. OBJECTIVE: To apply a biomechanical model in a clinical environment to analyze shoulder in adult SCI patients walking with two different patterns of gait with crutches: two point reciprocal gait (RG) and swing-through gait (SG)...
December 8, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935448/diagnostic-accuracy-of-motor-evoked-potentials-to-detect-neurological-deficit-during-idiopathic-scoliosis-correction-a-systematic-review
#2
Parthasarathy D Thirumala, Donald J Crammond, Yoon K Loke, Hannah L Cheng, Jessie Huang, Jeffrey R Balzer
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative transcranial motor evoked potential (TcMEP) monitoring in predicting an impending neurological deficit during corrective spinal surgery for patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS). METHODS The authors searched the PubMed and Web of Science database for relevant lists of retrieved reports and/or experiments published from January 1950 through October 2014 for studies on TcMEP monitoring use during IS surgery. The primary analysis of this review fit the operating characteristic into a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve model to determine the efficacy of intraoperative TcMEP-predicted change...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935447/lateral-mass-screw-stimulation-thresholds-in-posterior-cervical-instrumentation-surgery-a-predictor-of-medial-deviation
#3
Bayard Wilson, Erik Curtis, Brian Hirshman, Ahmet Oygar, Karen Chen, Brandon C Gabel, Florin Vaida, David W Allison, Joseph D Ciacci
OBJECTIVE Normative data exists for stimulus-evoked pedicle screw electromyography (EMG) current thresholds in the lumbar spine, and is routinely referenced during spine surgeries to detect a screw breach, prevent injury of neural elements, and ensure the most biomechanically sound instrumentation construct. To date, similar normative data for cervical lateral mass screws is limited, thus the utility of lateral mass screw testing remains unclear. To address this disparity, in this study the authors describe cumulative lateral mass screw stimulation threshold data in patients undergoing posterior cervical instrumentation with lateral mass screws...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934789/a-3d-map-of-the-hindlimb-motor-representation-in-the-lumbar-spinal-cord-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#4
Jordan A Borrell, Shawn B Frost, Jeremy Peterson, Randolph J Nudo
OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological trauma with a prevalence of about 282 000 people living with an SCI in the United States in 2016. Advances in neuromodulatory devices hold promise for restoring function by incorporating the delivery of electrical current directly into the spinal cord grey matter via intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS). In such designs, detailed topographic maps of spinal cord outputs are needed to determine ISMS locations for eliciting hindlimb movements...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933357/bilateral-increases-in-erk-activation-at-the-spinomedullary-junction-region-by-acute-masseter-muscle-injury-during-temporomandibular-joint-inflammation-in-the-rats
#5
Masayuki Kurose, Hiroki Imbe, Yosuke Nakatani, Mana Hasegawa, Noritaka Fujii, Ritsuo Takagi, Kensuke Yamamura, Emiko Senba, Keiichiro Okamoto
We determined the role of persistent monoarthritis of temporomandibular joint region (TMJ) on bilateral masseter muscle (MM) nociception in male rats using orofacial nocifensive behaviors, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Fos induction at the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis/upper cervical spinal cord (Vc/C2) region in response to formalin injection to the MM region. TMJ inflammation was induced by local injection of CFA into the left TMJ region. Orofacial nocifensive behaviors evoked by formalin injection ipsilateral or contralateral to the TMJ inflammation appeared to be increased at 1-14 days or at 1, 10 and 14 days after induction of TMJ inflammation, respectively, while increases in behavioral duration were seen mainly in the late phase rather than the early phase...
December 8, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932680/trans-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-modulates-migration-and-proliferation-of-adult-newly-born-spinal-cells-in-mice
#6
Sreyashi Samaddar, Kizzy Vazquez, Dipen Ponika, Pedro Toruno, Karim Sahbani, Sultana Begum, Ahmed Abouelela, Wagdy Mekhael, Zaghloul Ahmed
Direct current electrical fields have been shown to be a major factor in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival, as well as in the maturation of dividing cells during development. During adulthood, spinal cord cells are continuously produced in both animals and humans, and they hold great potential for neural restoration following spinal cord injury. While the effects of direct current electrical fields on adult-born spinal cells cultured ex vivo have recently been reported, the effects of direct current electrical fields on adult-born spinal cells in vivo have not been characterized...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932310/loss-of-dopamine-d1-receptors-and-diminished-d1-5-receptor-mediated-erk-phosphorylation-in-the-periaqueductal-gray-after-spinal-cord-lesion
#7
Pamela J Voulalas, Yadong Ji, Li Jiang, Jamila Asgar, Jin Y Ro, Radi Masri
Neuropathic pain resulting from spinal cord injury is often accompanied by maladaptive plasticity of the central nervous system, including the opioid receptor-rich periaqueductal gray (PAG). Evidence suggests that sensory signaling via the PAG is robustly modulated by dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors, but the effect of damage to the spinal cord on D1 and D2 receptor protein expression and function in the PAG has not been examined. Here we show that 21 days after a T10 or C6 spinothalamic tract lesion, both mice and rats display a remarkable decline in the expression of D1 receptors in the PAG, revealed by western blot analysis...
December 5, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931505/phase-iii-clinical-trial-assessing-safety-and-efficacy-of-umbilical-cord-blood-mononuclear-cell-transplant-therapy-of-chronic-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Hui Zhu, Waisang Poon, Yansheng Liu, Gilberto Ka-Kit Leung, Yatwa Wong, Yaping Feng, Stephanie C P Ng, Kam Sze Tsang, David T F Sun, David K Yeung, Caihong Shen, Fang Niu, Zhexi Xu, Pengju Tan, Shaofeng Tang, Hongkun Gao, Yun Cha, Kwok-Fai So, Robert Fleischaker, Dongming Sun, John Chen, Jan Lai, Wendy Cheng, Wise Young
Umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cell (UCB-MNC) transplants improve recovery in animal spinal cord injury (SCI) models. We transplanted UCB-MNCs into 28 patients with chronic complete SCI in Hong Kong (HK) and Kunming (KM). Stemcyte Inc. donated UCB-MNCs isolated from human leukocyte antigen (HLA 4:6)-matched UCB units. In HK, four patients received four 4-l injections (1.6 million cells) into dorsal entry zones above and below the injury site, and another four received 8-l injections (3.2 million cells)...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931169/a-mouse-model-of-bilateral-cervical-contusion-compression-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Nicole Forgione, Mahmood Chamankhah, Michael Fehlings
Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) occurs in over half of all cases of traumatic SCI, yet we lack therapies that can generate significant functional recovery in these patients. The development of animal models of cSCI will aid in the pre-clinical assessment of therapies and in understanding basic pathophysiological mechanisms. Here we describe a clinically relevant model of cervical contusion-compression injury in the mouse. Using a modified aneurism clip we generated a bilateral, incomplete injury that mimics contusion-compression injuries most commonly seen in humans...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930890/within-session-responses-to-high-intensity-interval-training-in-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Todd Anthony Astorino, Jacob S Thum
AIM: Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake and health status, yet its feasibility in persons with spinal cord injury is unknown. PURPOSE: To compare changes in cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables between two interval training regimes and moderate intensity exercise. METHOD: Nine adults with spinal cord injury (duration = 6.8 ± 6.2 year) initially underwent determination of peak oxygen uptake...
December 8, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930853/association-between-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-and-deep-vein-thrombosis-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injuries
#11
Xuan Cheng, Lu Zhang, Nan-Chang Xie, Hong-Liang Xu, Ya-Jun Lian
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal dysfunction and vein thrombosis are well-known acute complications after spinal cord injuries (SCI). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with SCI. METHODS: A total of 377 consecutive eligible patients with SCI tested for SIBO using glucose hydrogen (H2)/methane(CH4) breath test from January 2011 to December 2015 and who also had venous ultrasound study for suspected DVT were evaluated within 3 months after admission...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930507/thoracic-spinal-epidural-abscess-caused-by-fishbone-perforation-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#12
Jian-Min Chen, Zhi-Yong Wang, Guo-Xin Ni
RATIONALE: Ingestion of a fishbone is a common cause of esophageal injury, but spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare condition due to the esophageal penetration by a swallowed fishbone. Prompt diagnosis can be seldom made owing to incomplete patient history taking and difficulties in imaging evidence identification. PATIENT CONCERNS: We describe the case of a 62-year-old woman who was stuck in her throat by a fishbone, and complained of back pain, paresis of the lower limbs and fever, successively...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930320/unexpected-central-role-of-the-androgen-receptor-in-the-spontaneous-regeneration-of-myelin
#13
Bartosz Bielecki, Claudia Mattern, Abdel M Ghoumari, Sumaira Javaid, Kaja Smietanka, Charly Abi Ghanem, Sakina Mhaouty-Kodja, M Said Ghandour, Etienne-Emile Baulieu, Robin J M Franklin, Michael Schumacher, Elisabeth Traiffort
Lost myelin can be replaced after injury or during demyelinating diseases in a regenerative process called remyelination. In the central nervous system (CNS), the myelin sheaths, which protect axons and allow the fast propagation of electrical impulses, are produced by oligodendrocytes. The abundance and widespread distribution of oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPs) within the adult CNS account for this remarkable regenerative potential. Here, we report a key role for the male gonad, testosterone, and androgen receptor (AR) in CNS remyelination...
December 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927932/ethical-clinical-translation-of-stem-cell-interventions-for-neurologic-disease
#14
David J Cote, Annelien L Bredenoord, Timothy R Smith, Mario Ammirati, Jannick Brennum, Ivar Mendez, Ahmed S Ammar, Naci Balak, Gene Bolles, Ignatius Ngene Esene, Tiit Mathiesen, Marike L Broekman
The application of stem cell transplants in clinical practice has increased in frequency in recent years. Many of the stem cell transplants in neurologic diseases, including stroke, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury, and demyelinating diseases, are unproven-they have not been tested in prospective, controlled clinical trials and have not become accepted therapies. Stem cell transplant procedures currently being carried out have therapeutic aims, but are frequently experimental and unregulated, and could potentially put patients at risk...
December 7, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927784/adenosine-dependent-phrenic-motor-facilitation-is-inflammation-resistant
#15
Ibis M Agosto-Marlin, Nicole L Nichols, Gordon S Mitchell
Phrenic motor facilitation (pMF) can be elicited by acute intermittent hypoxia (ie. phrenic long-term facilitation, or pLTF), or direct application of pharmacological agonists to the cervical spinal cord. Moderate acute intermittent hypoxia (mAIH, 3X5 min episodes of 35-50 mmHg arterial PO2, 5 min normoxic intervals) induces pLTF by a serotonin-dependent mechanism; mAIH-induced pLTF is abolished by even low levels of systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100ug/kg i.p.). In contrast, severe AIH (sAIH, 3X5 min episodes of 25-30mmHg arterial PO2, 5 min intervals) elicits pLTF by a distinct, adenosine-dependent mechanism...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927661/differences-among-primary-care-patients-with-different-mechanical-patterns-of-low-back-pain-a-cross-sectional-investigation
#16
Lauren S Della Mora, Anthony V Perruccio, Elizabeth M Badley, Y Raja Rampersaud
OBJECTIVES: To characterise and compare a persistent low back pain (LBP) population based on 4 clinical pain patterns. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of patient-reported data. SETTING: Patients from 220 primary care practitioners in 3 cities in Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 1020 individuals seeking LBP care. INCLUSION CRITERIA: LBP symptoms lasting 1½-12 months, or unmanageable recurrent symptoms; ages 18+years...
December 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927549/deep-spine-infection-after-acupuncture-in-the-setting-of-spinal-instrumentation
#17
Alexandra K Callan, Jennifer M Bauer, Jeffrey E Martus
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture can be used to manage chronic pain. The most common complications related to acupuncture include pain, bruising, bleeding, or symptom exacerbation. Rarely, more serious adverse events occur, including infection, pneumothorax, septic arthritis, and peripheral nerve injury. To our knowledge, there are no reports of complications associated with acupuncture following spinal instrumentation. PURPOSE: To report a case of deep infection as a rare complication of acupuncture following posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis...
March 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927497/acute-renal-infarction-after-lateral-lumbar-interbody-spinal-fusion-for%C3%A2-kyphoscoliosis
#18
Sanjeev J Suratwala, MaryAnne Cronin, Katelyn Kondra, Vincent Leone
STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVES: Case report of acute renal infarction following lateral interbody fusion with posterior instrumentation for adult lumbar kyphoscoliosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: This is the first reported renal infarction following minimally invasive lateral interbody fusion and posterior spinal instrumentation. METHODS: We report a case of acute renal infarction in a 72-year-old woman following direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF) with percutaneous pedicle screw and rod fixation from L1 to L5 for correction of kyphoscoliosis...
September 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927055/improving-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-neural-progenitor-cell-transplantation-following-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Michael A Lane, Angelo C Lepore, Itzhak Fischer
There have been a wide range of preclinical studies testing cellular therapies to repair the injured spinal cord, yet they remain a challenge to translate because of inconsistencies in efficacy, difficulties in obtaining reliable and safe sources of donor cells, limited number of patients with acute/subacute SCI and the high costs of clinical trials. Area covered: This paper focusses on the therapeutic potential of neural precursor cells (NPCs) because they can provide the cellular components capable of promoting repair and enhancing functional improvement following spinal cord injury (SCI)...
December 7, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926876/potentiation-of-synaptic-glun2b-nmdar-currents-by-fyn-kinase-is-gated-through-bdnf-mediated-disinhibition-in-spinal-pain-processing
#20
Michael E Hildebrand, Jian Xu, Annemarie Dedek, Yi Li, Ameet S Sengar, Simon Beggs, Paul J Lombroso, Michael W Salter
In chronic pain states, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transforms the output of lamina I spinal neurons by decreasing synaptic inhibition. Pain hypersensitivity also depends on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and Src-family kinases, but the locus of NMDAR dysregulation remains unknown. Here, we show that NMDAR-mediated currents at lamina I synapses are potentiated in a peripheral nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. We find that BDNF mediates NMDAR potentiation through activation of TrkB and phosphorylation of the GluN2B subunit by the Src-family kinase Fyn...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
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