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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033027/anhedonia-following-early-life-adversity-involves-aberrant-interaction-of-reward-and-anxiety-circuits-and-is-reversed-by-partial-silencing-of-amygdala-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-gene
#1
Jessica L Bolton, Jenny Molet, Limor Regev, Yuncai Chen, Neggy Rismanchi, Elizabeth Haddad, Derek Z Yang, Andre Obenaus, Tallie Z Baram
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is an important dimensional entity linked to depression, schizophrenia, and other emotional disorders, but its origins and mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously identified anhedonia, manifest as decreased sucrose preference and social play, in adolescent male rats that experienced chronic early-life adversity/stress (CES). Here we probed the molecular, cellular, and circuit processes underlying CES-induced anhedonia and tested them mechanistically...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993710/dose-dependent-expression-of-claudin-5-is-a-modifying-factor-in-schizophrenia
#2
C Greene, J Kealy, M M Humphries, Y Gong, J Hou, N Hudson, L M Cassidy, R Martiniano, V Shashi, S R Hooper, G A Grant, P F Kenna, K Norris, C K Callaghan, M dN Islam, S M O'Mara, Z Najda, S G Campbell, J S Pachter, J Thomas, N M Williams, P Humphries, K C Murphy, M Campbell
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects up to 1% of the general population. Various genes show associations with schizophrenia and a very weak nominal association with the tight junction protein, claudin-5, has previously been identified. Claudin-5 is expressed in endothelial cells forming part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Furthermore, schizophrenia occurs in 30% of individuals with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a population who are haploinsufficient for the claudin-5 gene. Here, we show that a variant in the claudin-5 gene is weakly associated with schizophrenia in 22q11DS, leading to 75% less claudin-5 being expressed in endothelial cells...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990258/baseline-connectome-modular-abnormalities-in-the-childhood-phase-of-a-longitudinal-study-on-individuals-with-chromosome-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#3
Liang Zhan, Lisanne M Jenkins, Aifeng Zhang, Giorgio Conte, Angus Forbes, Danielle Harvey, Kathleen Angkustsiri, Naomi J Goodrich-Hunsaker, Courtney Durdle, Aaron Lee, Cyndi Schumann, Owen Carmichael, Kristopher Kalish, Alex D Leow, Tony J Simon
Occurring in at least 1 in 3,000 live births, chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) produces a complex phenotype that includes a constellation of medical complications such as congenital cardiac defects, immune deficiency, velopharyngeal dysfunction, and characteristic facial dysmorphic features. There is also an increased incidence of psychiatric diagnosis, especially intellectual disability and ADHD in childhood, lifelong anxiety, and a strikingly high rate of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, which occur in around 30% of adults with 22q11DS...
October 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989099/astroglial-correlates-of-neuropsychiatric-disease-from-astrocytopathy-to-astrogliosis
#4
REVIEW
Ronald Kim, Kati L Healey, Marian T Sepulveda-Orengo, Kathryn J Reissner
Complex roles for astrocytes in health and disease continue to emerge, highlighting this class of cells as integral to function and dysfunction of the nervous system. In particular, escalating evidence strongly implicates a range of changes in astrocyte structure and function associated with neuropsychiatric diseases including major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and addiction. These changes can range from astrocytopathy, degeneration, and loss of function, to astrogliosis and hypertrophy, and can be either adaptive or maladaptive...
October 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985876/the-readability-of-psychosocial-wellness-patient-resources-improving-surgical-outcomes
#5
Meredith A Kugar, Adam C Cohen, William Wooden, Sunil S Tholpady, Michael W Chu
BACKGROUND: Patient education is increasingly accessed with online resources and is essential for patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes. The average American adult reads at a seventh grade level, and the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA) recommend that information be written at a sixth-grade reading level. Health literacy plays an important role in the disease course and outcomes of all patients, including those with depression and likely other psychiatric disorders, although this is an area in need of further study...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953820/study-on-the-prescribing-patterns-of-antipsychotic-medication-in-a-rural-england-community-mental-health-team
#6
Madhavan Seshadri, Ahmed Elsemary, Madhusudan Deepak Thalitaya, Lawrence Chikodzore, Priya Nagalingam
INTRODUCTION: Providing comprehensive services for about 400 patients in the South Herefordshire area, the community mental health team manages cases of varying severity and complexity, ranging from Schizophrenia, to neuroses and disorders of adult personality. Antipsychotic medication remains a mainstay of treatment and management for patients under the team case load; hence a need exists for a detailed look into the prescription patterns of such medications. AIM: The aim of this study was to look into the prescribing patterns of antipsychotics for a sample of 50 patients in the South Herefordshire community team during the year of 2016 (from Jan 2016 to Dec 2016), as well as investigate whether these antipsychotics were licensed to be used for the corresponding diagnoses of these patients...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953788/benzodiazepines-in-combination-with-antipsychotic-drugs-for-schizophrenia-gaba-ergic-targeted-therapy
#7
Adam Włodarczyk, Joanna Szarmach, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała, Mariusz Stanisław Wiglusz
Antipsychotics are a key intervention strategy in pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia. However, benzodiazepines are often prescribed to control sleep disturbances, anxiety or behavioural disinhibition. There is clinical evidence for the beneficial effect of the combined treatment of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines resulting in more favorable treatment outcome in schizophrenia with regard to positive and negative symptoms. This clinical phenomenon seems to be associated with the GABA-ergic activit ythat is believed to be disrupted in the schizophrenia and direct benzodiazepines effect on GABA-A receptors...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937973/oral-and-dental-health-issues-in-people-with-mental-disorders
#8
Julio Torales, Iván Barrios, Israel González
Patients with mental disorders are subject to a greater number of risk factors for oral and dental disease than the general population. This is mostly caused by the side effects of the medications that they receive, lack of self-care, difficulty to access health services, a negative attitude towards healthcare providers, and patients’ lack of cooperation in dental treatments. The most common psychiatric disorders in our population are depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dementia...
September 21, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928677/virtual-reality-objectifies-the-diagnosis-of-psychiatric-disorders-a-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
Martine J van Bennekom, Pelle P de Koning, Damiaan Denys
BACKGROUND: To date, a diagnosis in psychiatry is largely based on a clinical interview and questionnaires. The retrospective and subjective nature of these methods leads to recall and interviewer biases. Therefore, there is a clear need for more objective and standardized assessment methods to support the diagnostic process. The introduction of virtual reality (VR) creates the possibility to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, VR could contribute to the objectivity and reliability in the assessment of psychiatric disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919128/pregabalin-for-anxiety-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#10
Ole Schjerning, Per Damkier, Signe Engelhardt Lykkegaard, Klaus Damgaard Jakobsen, Jimmi Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety is frequent in patients with schizophrenia and poses a major impact on patients perceived quality of life, daily functioning and risk of suicide. Pregabalin has shown effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and has been suggested for the treatment of anxiety in patients with schizophrenia. As evidence is sparse regarding treatment of anxiety in this patient group, we aimed to investigate the use of pregabalin for anxiety in patients with schizophrenia...
September 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902457/the-role-of-clock-gene-in-psychiatric-disorders-evidence-from-human-and-animal-research
#11
REVIEW
Jaqueline B Schuch, Julia P Genro, Clarissa R Bastos, Gabriele Ghisleni, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues
The circadian clock system drives daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior in mammals. Molecular mechanisms of this system consist of multiple clock genes, with Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) as a core member that plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors. Alterations in the CLOCK gene are associated with common psychiatric disorders as well as with circadian disturbances comorbidities. This review addresses animal, molecular, and genetic studies evaluating the role of the CLOCK gene on many psychiatric conditions, namely autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899614/measuring-pathology-using-the-panss-across-diagnoses-inconsistency-of-the-positive-symptom-domain-across-schizophrenia-schizoaffective-and-bipolar-disorder
#12
Ariana E Anderson, Maxwell Mansolf, Steven P Reise, Adam Savitz, Giacomo Salvadore, Qingqin Li, Robert M Bilder
Although the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was developed for use in schizophrenia (SZ), antipsychotic drug trials use the PANSS to measure symptom change also for bipolar (BP) and schizoaffective (SA) disorder, extending beyond its original indications. If the dimensions measured by the PANSS are different across diagnoses, then the same score change for the same drug condition may have different meanings depending on which group is being studied. Here, we evaluated whether the factor structure in the PANSS was consistent across schizophrenia (n = 3647), bipolar disorder (n = 858), and schizoaffective disorder (n = 592)...
August 16, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871029/protocol-for-a-qualitative-study-exploring-perspectives-on-the-international-classification-of-diseases-11th-revision-using-lived-experience-to-improve-mental-health-diagnosis-in-nhs-england-include-study
#13
Corinna Hackmann, Amanda Green, Caitlin Notley, Amorette Perkins, Geoffrey M Reed, Joseph Ridler, Jon Wilson, Tom Shakespeare
INTRODUCTION: Developed in dialogue with WHO, this research aims to incorporate lived experience and views in the refinement of the International Classification of Diseases Mental and Behavioural Disorders 11th Revision (ICD-11). The validity and clinical utility of psychiatric diagnostic systems has been questioned by both service users and clinicians, as not all aspects reflect their lived experience or are user friendly. This is critical as evidence suggests that diagnosis can impact service user experience, identity, service use and outcomes...
September 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867419/increased-incidence-of-psychiatric-disorders-in-immune-mediated-inflammatory-disease
#14
Ruth Ann Marrie, Randy Walld, James M Bolton, Jitender Sareen, John R Walker, Scott B Patten, Alexander Singer, Lisa M Lix, Carol A Hitchon, Renée El-Gabalawy, Alan Katz, John D Fisk, Charles N Bernstein
OBJECTIVE: Although psychiatric comorbidity is known to be more prevalent in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) than in the general population, the incidence of psychiatric comorbidity in IMID is less understood, yet incidence is more relevant for understanding etiology. METHODS: Using population-based administrative (health) data, we conducted a retrospective cohort study over the period 1989-2012 in Manitoba, Canada. We identified 19,572 incident cases of IMID including 6119 persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 3514 persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), 10,206 persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 97,727 age-, sex- and geographically-matched controls...
October 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866711/icd-11-draft-diagnostic-guidelines-for-mental-disorders-a-report-for-wpa-membership
#15
REVIEW
Gaia Sampogna
The 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is scheduled for approval by the World Health Assembly in May 2018. The chapter on mental disorders is currently under development. A draft of the clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines for all the disorders has been produced by the relevant Working Groups. A simplified version of the diagnostic guidelines for some disorders (i.e., schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, disorders specifically associated with stress, and feeding and eating disorders) has been made available for use in the field studies of the classification...
June 18, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851803/mediating-effects-of-self-stigma-on-the-relationship-between-perceived-stigma-and-psychosocial-outcomes-among-psychiatric-outpatients-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-singapore
#16
Louisa Picco, Ying Wen Lau, Shirlene Pang, Edimansyah Abdin, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether self-stigma mediates the relationship between perceived stigma and quality of life, self-esteem and general functioning among outpatients with depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Outpatient clinics at a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. PARTICIPANTS: 280 outpatients with a primary clinical diagnosis of either schizophrenia, depression, anxiety or OCD...
August 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846022/buspirone-in-children-and-adolescents-with-anxiety-a-review-and-bayesian-analysis-of-abandoned-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Jeffrey R Strawn, Jeffrey A Mills, Gary J Cornwall, Sarah A Mossman, Sara T Varney, Brooks R Keeshin, Paul E Croarkin
OBJECTIVES: An increasing number of abandoned clinical trials have forestalled efforts to advance the evidence base for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. With this in mind, we sought to present and validate a Bayesian approach for the reanalysis of summary data in abandoned clinical trials and to review and re-evaluate available pharmacokinetic, tolerability, and efficacy data from two large, randomized controlled trials of buspirone in pediatric patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837932/quality-of-life-in-individuals-with-attenuated-psychotic-symptoms-possible-role-of-anxiety-depressive-symptoms-and-socio-cognitive-impairments
#18
Tsutomu Takahashi, Yuko Higuchi, Yuko Komori, Shimako Nishiyama, Mihoko Nakamura, Daiki Sasabayashi, Yumiko Nishikawa, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Michio Suzuki
Individuals with Clinical High-Risk state for Psychosis (CHR-P) are reported to exhibit impaired quality of life (QOL) similar to that observed in schizophrenia, but its determinants remain unclear. We investigated the QOL of 33 subjects with CHR-P, 45 patients with schizophrenia, and 63 healthy subjects using the Quality of Life Scale (QLS). The CHR-P and schizophrenia groups were administered the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS), and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) for socio-cognitive functions; and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for clinical symptoms...
August 16, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831672/update-on-mental-health-of-infants-and-children-of-parents-affected-with-mental-health-issues
#19
REVIEW
Gisèle Apter, Anne Bobin, Marie-Camille Genet, Maya Gratier, Emmanuel Devouche
This paper highlights the most recent publications, in the field of psychiatry, on offspring of patients with psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and then summarizes what we know about the progeny of adults with mood disorders, the most prevalent of parental disorders. Studies examining personality disorders and contextual factors such as stress and trauma are examined with a focus on the crucial question of development and attachment status in children. Findings converge to reveal that offspring of parents (generally mothers) with most major psychiatric disorders present a higher risk for all mental disorders, and a wide range of disorders are also found in children, adolescent, and finally adult offspring of mothers with mood and anxiety disorders...
August 23, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831256/comorbidity-of-schizophrenia-and-social-phobia-impact-on-quality-of-life-hope-and-personality-traits-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Kristyna Vrbova, Jan Prasko, Marie Ociskova, Michaela Holubova
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to explore whether the comorbidity of social phobia affects symptoms severity, positive and negative symptoms, self-stigma, hope, and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in which all participants completed the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS), Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised (TCI-R), and the demographic questionnaire...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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