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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432580/corneal-melting-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-treated-with-a-tectonic-reinforcing-corneolimbal-graft-an-interventional-case-series
#1
Eitan Livny, Michael Mimouni, Irit Bahar, Yair Molad, Assaf Gershoni, Israel Kremer
PURPOSE: Corneal melting with perforation is a severe ophthalmic complication of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. It requires urgent medical management in order to maintain the integrity of the globe and preserve vision. Treating this complication by penetrating keratoplasty is problematic due to the high rate of recurrence of corneal melting as well as other complications. We describe the use of a tectonic fresh-tissue corneolimbal covering graft. METHODS: An interventional case series including three patients that presented to our tertiary center between 2000 and 2015 with corneal melting and perforation, secondary to rheumatoid arthritis...
April 21, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416729/the-fate-of-water-within-earth-and-super-earths-and-implications-for-plate-tectonics
#2
Sonia M Tikoo, Linda T Elkins-Tanton
The Earth is likely to have acquired most of its water during accretion. Internal heat of planetesimals by short-lived radioisotopes would have caused some water loss, but impacts into planetesimals were insufficiently energetic to produce further drying. Water is thought to be critical for the development of plate tectonics, because it lowers viscosities in the asthenosphere, enabling subduction. The following issue persists: if water is necessary for plate tectonics, but subduction itself hydrates the upper mantle, how is the upper mantle initially hydrated? The giant impacts of late accretion created magma lakes and oceans, which degassed during solidification to produce a heavy atmosphere...
May 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416728/global-water-cycle-and-the-coevolution-of-the-earth-s-interior-and-surface-environment
#3
Jun Korenaga, Noah J Planavsky, David A D Evans
The bulk Earth composition contains probably less than 0.3% of water, but this trace amount of water can affect the long-term evolution of the Earth in a number of different ways. The foremost issue is the occurrence of plate tectonics, which governs almost all aspects of the Earth system, and the presence of water could either promote or hinder the operation of plate tectonics, depending on where water resides. The global water cycle, which circulates surface water into the deep mantle and back to the surface again, could thus have played a critical role in the Earth's history...
May 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415221/dynamic-phases-of-active-matter-systems-with-quenched-disorder
#4
Cs Sándor, A Libál, C Reichhardt, C J Olson Reichhardt
Depinning and nonequilibrium transitions within sliding states in systems driven over quenched disorder arise across a wide spectrum of size scales ranging from atomic friction at the nanoscale, flux motion in type II superconductors at the mesoscale, colloidal motion in disordered media at the microscale, and plate tectonics at geological length scales. Here we show that active matter or self-propelled particles interacting with quenched disorder under an external drive represents a class of system that can also exhibit pinning-depinning phenomena, plastic flow phases, and nonequilibrium sliding transitions that are correlated with distinct morphologies and velocity-force curve signatures...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408598/imaging-the-distribution-of-transient-viscosity-after-the-2016-mw-7-1-kumamoto-earthquake
#5
James D P Moore, Hang Yu, Chi-Hsien Tang, Teng Wang, Sylvain Barbot, Dongju Peng, Sagar Masuti, Justin Dauwels, Ya-Ju Hsu, Valère Lambert, Priyamvada Nanjundiah, Shengji Wei, Eric Lindsey, Lujia Feng, Bunichiro Shibazaki
The deformation of mantle and crustal rocks in response to stress plays a crucial role in the distribution of seismic and volcanic hazards, controlling tectonic processes ranging from continental drift to earthquake triggering. However, the spatial variation of these dynamic properties is poorly understood as they are difficult to measure. We exploited the large stress perturbation incurred by the 2016 earthquake sequence in Kumamoto, Japan, to directly image localized and distributed deformation. The earthquakes illuminated distinct regions of low effective viscosity in the lower crust, notably beneath the Mount Aso and Mount Kuju volcanoes, surrounded by larger-scale variations of viscosity across the back-arc...
April 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396434/tectonic-controls-on-the-long-term-carbon-isotope-mass-balance
#6
Graham A Shields, Benjamin J W Mills
The long-term, steady-state marine carbon isotope record reflects changes to the proportional burial rate of organic carbon relative to total carbon on a global scale. For this reason, times of high δ(13)C are conventionally interpreted to be oxygenation events caused by excess organic burial. Here we show that the carbon isotope mass balance is also significantly affected by tectonic uplift and erosion via changes to the inorganic carbon cycle that are independent of changes to the isotopic composition of carbon input...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389635/contrasting-granite-metallogeny-through-the-zircon-record-a-case-study-from-myanmar
#7
Nicholas J Gardiner, Chris J Hawkesworth, Laurence J Robb, Martin J Whitehouse, Nick M W Roberts, Christopher L Kirkland, Noreen J Evans
Granitoid-hosted mineral deposits are major global sources of a number of economically important metals. The fundamental controls on magma metal fertility are tectonic setting, the nature of source rocks, and magma differentiation. A clearer understanding of these petrogenetic processes has been forged through the accessory mineral zircon, which has considerable potential in metallogenic studies. We present an integrated zircon isotope (U-Pb, Lu-Hf, O) and trace element dataset from the paired Cu-Au (copper) and Sn-W (tin) magmatic belts in Myanmar...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369142/phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-south-chinese-brown-frogs-ranidae-anura
#8
Yu Zhou, Sirui Wang, Hedan Zhu, Pipeng Li, Baotian Yang, Jianzhang Ma
Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping the patterns and processes of extant animal distributions in and around East Asia. In this study, we selected South Chinese brown frogs as a model to examine the phylogenetic and biogeographical consequences of Miocene tectonic events within South China and its margins. We used mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships among Chinese brown frogs using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368822/sculpting-mountains-interactive-terrain-modeling-based-on-subsurface-geology
#9
Guillaume Cordonnier, Marie-Paule Cani, Bedrich Benes, Jean Braun, Eric Galin
Most mountain ranges are formed by the compression and folding of colliding tectonic plates. Subduction of one plate causes large-scale asymmetry while their layered composition (or stratigraphy) explains the multi-scale folded strata observed on real terrains. We introduce a novel interactive modeling technique to generate visually plausible, large scale terrains that capture these phenomena. Our method draws on both geological knowledge for consistency and on sculpting systems for user interaction. The user is provided hands-on control on the shape and motion of tectonic plates, represented using a new geologically-inspired model for the Earth crust...
March 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362278/a-new-tecton-with-parallel-halogen-bond-donors-a-path-to-supramolecular-rectangles
#10
Tharanga K Wijethunga, Marijana Đaković, John Desper, Christer B Aakeröy
A new tecton, 1,8-diiodoethynylanthracene, with two halogen-bond donor sites was synthesized and characterized. This tecton is capable of forming two parallel halogen bonds at once, which makes it a useful building block for the construction of a variety of supramolecular squares and rectangles.
April 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357330/physiology-phylogeny-and-luca
#11
William F Martin, Madeline C Weiss, Sinje Neukirchen, Shijulal Nelson-Sathi, Filipa L Sousa
Genomes record their own history. But if we want to look all the way back to life's beginnings some 4 billion years ago, the record of microbial evolution that is preserved in prokaryotic genomes is not easy to read. Microbiology has a lot in common with geology in that regard. Geologists know that plate tectonics and erosion have erased much of the geological record, with ancient rocks being truly rare. The same is true of microbes. Lateral gene transfer (LGT) and sequence divergence have erased much of the evolutionary record that was once written in genomes, and it is not obvious which genes among sequenced genomes are genuinely ancient...
November 25, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352115/landscape-response-to-progressive-tectonic-and-climatic-forcing-in-nw-borneo-implications-for-geological-and-geomorphic-controls-on-flood-hazard
#12
David Menier, Manoj Mathew, Manuel Pubellier, François Sapin, Bernard Delcaillau, Numair Siddiqui, Mu Ramkumar, M Santosh
Empirical models have simulated the consequences of uplift and orographic-precipitation on the evolution of orogens whereas the effects of these forcings on ridgelines and consequent topography of natural landscapes remain equivocal. Here we demonstrate the feedback of a terrestrial landscape in NW Borneo subject to uplift and precipitation gradient owing to orographic effect, and leading to less-predictable flooding and irreversible damages to life and property. Disequilibrium in a large catchment recording the lowest rainfall rates in Borneo, and adjacent drainage basins as determined through χ, a proxy for steady-state channel elevation, is shown to result in dynamic migration of water divide from the windward-side of the orogen towards the leeward-side to attain equilibrium...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349926/contemporary-crustal-movement-of-southeastern-tibet-constraints-from-dense-gps-measurements
#13
Yuanjin Pan, Wen-Bin Shen
The ongoing collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate brings up N-S crustal shortening and thickening of the Tibet Plateau, but its dynamic mechanisms remain controversial yet. As one of the most tectonically active regions of the world, South-Eastern Tibet (SET) has been greatly paid attention to by many geoscientists. Here we present the latest three-dimensional GPS velocity field to constrain the present-day tectonic process of SET, which may highlight the complex vertical crustal deformation...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345044/continental-igneous-rock-composition-a-major-control-of-past-global-chemical-weathering
#14
Clément P Bataille, Amy Willis, Xiao Yang, Xiao-Ming Liu
The composition of igneous rocks in the continental crust has changed throughout Earth's history. However, the impact of these compositional variations on chemical weathering, and by extension on seawater and atmosphere evolution, is largely unknown. We use the strontium isotope ratio in seawater [((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater] as a proxy for chemical weathering, and we test the sensitivity of ((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater variations to the strontium isotopic composition ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in igneous rocks generated through time...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344912/the-topography-of-a-continental-indenter-the-interplay-between-crustal-deformation-erosion-and-base-level-changes-in-the-eastern-southern-alps
#15
J Robl, B Heberer, G Prasicek, F Neubauer, S Hergarten
The topography of the eastern Southern Alps (ESA) reflects indenter tectonics causing crustal shortening, surface uplift, and erosional response. Fluvial drainages were perturbed by Pleistocene glaciations that locally excavated alpine valleys. The Late Miocene desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea and the uplift of the northern Molasse Basin led to significant base level changes in the far field of the ESA and the Eastern Alps (EA), respectively. Among this multitude of mechanisms, the processes that dominate the current topographic evolution of the ESA and the ESA-EA drainage divide have not been identified...
January 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Earth Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341833/large-scale-crustal-block-extrusion-during-late-alpine-collision
#16
Marco Herwegh, Alfons Berger, Roland Baumberger, Philip Wehrens, Edi Kissling
The crustal-scale geometry of the European Alps has been explained by a classical subduction-scenario comprising thrust-and-fold-related compressional wedge tectonics and isostatic rebound. However, massive blocks of crystalline basement (External Crystalline Massifs) vertically disrupt the upper-crustal wedge. In the case of the Aar massif, top basement vertically rises for >12 km and peak metamorphic temperatures increase along an orogen-perpendicular direction from 250 °C-450 °C over horizontal distances of only <15 km (Innertkirchen-Grimselpass), suggesting exhumation of midcrustal rocks with increasing uplift component along steep vertical shear zones...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336610/vertically-extensive-and-unstable-magmatic-systems-a-unified-view-of-igneous-processes
#17
REVIEW
Katharine V Cashman, R Stephen J Sparks, Jonathan D Blundy
Volcanoes are an expression of their underlying magmatic systems. Over the past three decades, the classical focus on upper crustal magma chambers has expanded to consider magmatic processes throughout the crust. A transcrustal perspective must balance slow (plate tectonic) rates of melt generation and segregation in the lower crust with new evidence for rapid melt accumulation in the upper crust before many volcanic eruptions. Reconciling these observations is engendering active debate about the physical state, spatial distribution, and longevity of melt in the crust...
March 24, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325937/discriminating-between-natural-and-anthropogenic-earthquakes-insights-from-the-emilia-romagna-italy-2012-seismic-sequence
#18
Matteo Albano, Salvatore Barba, Gabriele Tarabusi, Michele Saroli, Salvatore Stramondo
The potential for oilfield activities to trigger earthquakes in seismogenic areas has been hotly debated. Our model compares the stress changes from remote water injection and a natural earthquake, both of which occurred in northern Italy in recent years, and their potential effects on a nearby Mw 5.9 earthquake that occurred in 2012. First, we calculate the Coulomb stress from 20 years of fluid injection in a nearby oilfield by using a poroelastic model. Then, we compute the stress changes for a 2011 Mw 4...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324685/monitoring-and-descriptive-analysis-of-radon-in-relation-to-seismic-activity-of-northern-pakistan
#19
Zeeshan Jilani, Tahir Mehmood, Aftab Alam, Muhammad Awais, Talat Iqbal
Earthquakes are one of the major causes of natural disasters and its forecasting is challenging task. Some precursory phenomenon exists in theory in relation to earthquakes occurrence. The emission of radioactive gas named 'radon' before the earthquakes is a potential earthquake precursory candidate. The study aims to monitor and to analyze the radon in relation to seismic activity in Northern Pakistan. For this purpose RTM-2200 has been used to monitor the changes in radon concentration from August 01, 2014 to January 31, 2015 in Northern Pakistan...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316505/from-nappe-stacking-to-exhumation-cretaceous-tectonics-in-the-apuseni-mountains-romania
#20
Martin Kaspar Reiser, Ralf Schuster, Richard Spikings, Peter Tropper, Bernhard Fügenschuh
New Ar-Ar muscovite and Rb-Sr biotite age data in combination with structural analyses from the Apuseni Mountains provide new constraints on the timing and kinematics of deformation during the Cretaceous. Time-temperature paths from the structurally highest basement nappe of the Apuseni Mountains in combination with sedimentary data indicate exhumation and a position close to the surface after the Late Jurassic emplacement of the South Apuseni Ophiolites. Early Cretaceous Ar-Ar muscovite ages from structurally lower parts in the Biharia Nappe System (Dacia Mega-Unit) show cooling from medium-grade conditions...
2017: International Journal of Earth Sciences: Geologische Rundschau
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