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Leon Lenchik, Robert D Boutin
As populations continue to age worldwide, the impact of sarcopenia on public health will continue to grow. The clinically relevant and increasingly common diagnosis of sarcopenia is at the confluence of three tectonic shifts in medicine: opportunistic imaging, precision medicine, and machine learning. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art imaging of sarcopenia and provides context for such imaging by discussing the epidemiology, pathophysiology, consequences, and future directions in the field of sarcopenia...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
Andrew J Rushby, Martin Johnson, Benjamin J W Mills, Andrew J Watson, Mark W Claire
The potential habitability of an exoplanet is traditionally assessed by determining whether its orbit falls within the circumstellar "habitable zone" of its star, defined as the distance at which water could be liquid on the surface of a planet (Kopparapu et al., 2013 ). Traditionally, these limits are determined by radiative-convective climate models, which are used to predict surface temperatures at user-specified levels of greenhouse gases. This approach ignores the vital question of the (bio)geochemical plausibility of the proposed chemical abundances...
May 2018: Astrobiology
Mike Blum, Kimberly Rogers, James Gleason, Yani Najman, Jarrett Cruz, Lyndsey Fox
The Himalayan-sourced Ganges-Brahmaputra river system and the deep-sea Bengal Fan represent Earth's largest sediment-dispersal system. Here we present detrital zircon U-Pb provenance data from Miocene to middle Pleistocene Bengal Fan turbidites, and evaluate the influence of allogenic forcing vs. autogenic processes on signal propagation from the Himalaya to the deep sea. Our data record the strong tectonic and climatic forcing characteristic of the Himalayan system: after up to 2500 km of river transport, and >1400 km of transport by turbidity currents, the U-Pb record faithfully represents Himalayan sources...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mark Webster
Morphological homeostasis limits the extent to which genetic and/or environmental variation is translated into phenotypic variation, providing generation-to-generation fitness advantage under a stabilizing selection regime. Depending on its lability, morphological homeostasis might also have a longer-term impact on evolution by restricting the variation-and thus the response to directional selection-of a trait. The fossil record offers an inviting opportunity to investigate whether and how morphological homeostasis constrained trait evolution in lineages or clades on long timescales (thousands to millions of years) that are not accessible to neontological studies...
May 19, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Massimo Zecchin, Flavio Accaino, Silvia Ceramicola, Dario Civile, Salvatore Critelli, Cristina Da Lio, Giacomo Mangano, Giacomo Prosser, Pietro Teatini, Luigi Tosi
Large-scale submarine gravitational land movements involving even more than 1,000 m thick sedimentary successions are known as megalandslides. We prove the existence of large-scale gravitational phenomena off the Crotone Basin, a forearc basin located on the Ionian side of Calabria (southern Italy), by seismic, morpho-bathymetric and well data. Our study reveals that the Crotone Megalandslide started moving between Late Zanclean and Early Piacenzian and was triggered by a contractional tectonic event leading to the basin inversion...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emmanuel F A Toussaint, Andrew Short
Beetles have colonized freshwater habitats multiple times throughout their evolutionary history. Some of these aquatic lineages are associated exclusively with waterfall-like habitats, often with modified morphologies to cope with their unusual way of life. The historical biogeography of such cascade beetle lineages has been shown to strongly reflect ancient tectonic events. We focus on the pantropical genus Oocyclus of which species dwell in waterfalls and associated habitats. We infer the first molecular phylogeny of Oocyclus using a dataset of seven gene fragments...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Lian-Feng Zhao, S Mostafa Mousavi
We perform Q Lg tomography for the northeastern part of North America. Vertical broadband seismograms of 473 crustal earthquakes recorded by 302 stations are processed to extract the Lg amplitude spectra. Tomographic inversions are independently conducted at 58 discrete frequencies distributed evenly in log space between 0.1 and 20.0 Hz. This relatively large dataset with good ray coverage allows us to image lateral variation of the crustal attenuation over the region. Obtained Q Lg maps at broadband and individual frequencies provide new insights into the crustal attenuation of the region and its relationship to geological structures and past tectonic activity in the area...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nils Suhr, Ronny Schoenberg, David Chew, Carolina Rosca, Mike Widdowson, Balz S Kamber
Zinc (Zn) is a micronutrient for organisms and essential for plant growth, therefore knowledge of its elemental cycling in the surface environment is important regarding wider aspects of human nutrition and health. To explore the nature of Zn cycling, we compared its weathering behaviour in a sub-recent regolith versus an ancient laterite profile of the Deccan Traps, India - an area of known soil Zn deficiency. We demonstrate that progressive breakdown of primary minerals and the associated formation of phyllosilicates and iron oxides leads to a depletion in Zn, ultimately resulting in a loss of 80% in lateritic residues...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Bin Wang, Yingying Zhang, Hongli Dong, Siyi Gong, Bin Wei, Man Luo, Hongyan Wang, Xiaohui Wu, Wei Liu, Xingshun Xu, Yufang Zheng, Miao Sun
Tctn3 belongs to the Tectonic (Tctn) family and is a single-pass membrane protein localized at the transition zone of primary cilia as an important component of ciliopathy-related protein complexes. Previous studies showed that mutations in Tctn1 and Tctn2, two members of the tectonic family, have been reported to disrupt neural tube development in humans and mice, but the functions of Tctn3 in brain development remain elusive. In this study, Tctn3 knockout (KO) mice were generated by utilizing the piggyBac (PB) transposon system...
May 3, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
L Géli, P Henry, C Grall, J-B Tary, A Lomax, E Batsi, V Riboulot, E Cros, C Gürbüz, S E Işık, A M C Sengör, X Le Pichon, L Ruffine, S Dupré, Y Thomas, D Kalafat, G Bayrakci, Q Coutellier, T Regnier, G Westbrook, H Saritas, G Çifçi, M N Çağatay, M S Özeren, N Görür, M Tryon, M Bohnhoff, L Gasperini, F Klingelhoefer, C Scalabrin, J-M Augustin, D Embriaco, G Marinaro, F Frugoni, S Monna, G Etiope, P Favali, A Bécel
Understanding micro-seismicity is a critical question for earthquake hazard assessment. Since the devastating earthquakes of Izmit and Duzce in 1999, the seismicity along the submerged section of North Anatolian Fault within the Sea of Marmara (comprising the "Istanbul seismic gap") has been extensively studied in order to infer its mechanical behaviour (creeping vs locked). So far, the seismicity has been interpreted only in terms of being tectonic-driven, although the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) is known to strike across multiple hydrocarbon gas sources...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bjørn Jamtveit, Yehuda Ben-Zion, François Renard, Håkon Austrheim
The structural and metamorphic evolution of the lower crust has direct effects on the lithospheric response to plate tectonic processes involved in orogeny, including subsidence of sedimentary basins, stability of deep mountain roots and extension of high-topography regions. Recent research shows that before orogeny most of the lower crust is dry, impermeable and mechanically strong 1 . During an orogenic event, the evolution of the lower crust is controlled by infiltration of fluids along localized shear or fracture zones...
April 2018: Nature
Dawn Ho, Charmaine Chai, Hazel Lin, Hla Myint Htoon, Anna Marie Tan, Ray Manotosh, Donald Tan
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to describe and compare corneal graft survival and optical outcomes following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) with penetrating keratoplasty (PK), and to document tectonic success of patch grafts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, non-randomised, comparative and descriptive cohort study. A total of 139 eyes that underwent primary keratoplasty between 2000 and 2016 were included, and the following data was extracted: demographics, clinical diagnosis and primary indication, pre- and intraoperative risk factors, postkeratoplasty outcomes, and complications...
March 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Perry G Beasley-Hall, Simon M Tierney, Phillip Weinstein, Andrew D Austin
Australian cave crickets are members of the subfamily Macropathinae (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae). The subfamily is thought to have originated prior to the tectonic separation of the supercontinent Gondwana based on distributions of extant lineages and molecular phylogenetic evidence, although the Australian fauna have been underrepresented in previous studies. The current study augments existing multigene data (using 12S, 16S, and 28S rRNA genes) to investigate the placement of the Australian representatives within the Macropathinae and to assess divergence dates of select clades...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Rosa Gabriela Beltrán-López, Omar Domínguez-Domínguez, Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez, Kyle Piller, Ignacio Doadrio
BACKGROUND: Volcanic and tectonic activities in conjunction with Quaternary climate are the main events that shaped the geographical distribution of genetic variation of many lineages. Poeciliopsis infans is the only poeciliid species that was able to colonize the temperate highlands of central Mexico. We inferred the phylogenetic relationships, biogeographic history, and historical demography in the widespread Neotropical species P. infans and correlated this with geological events and the Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate in the highlands of central Mexico, using the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome b and Cytochrome oxidase I and two nuclear loci, Rhodopsin and ribosomal protein S7...
April 20, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Khushwant Singh, Ankit Gangrade, Sourav Bhowmick, Achintya Jana, Biman B Mandal, Neeladri Das
A unique irregular hexagon was self-assembled using an organic donor clip (bearing terminal pyridyl units) and a complementary organometallic acceptor clip. The resulting metallamacrocycle was characterized by multinuclear NMR, mass spectrometry, and elemental analyses. Molecular modeling confirmed hexagonal shaped cavity for this metallamacrocycle which is a unique example of a discrete hexagonal framework self-assembled from only two building blocks. Cytotoxicity of the Pt-based acceptor tecton and the self-assembled PtII -based macrocycle was evaluated using three cancer cell lines and results were compared with cisplatin...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Paul J Morris, Graeme T Swindles, Paul J Valdes, Ruza F Ivanovic, Lauren J Gregoire, Mark W Smith, Lev Tarasov, Alan M Haywood, Karen L Bacon
Widespread establishment of peatlands since the Last Glacial Maximum represents the activation of a globally important carbon sink, but the drivers of peat initiation are unclear. The role of climate in peat initiation is particularly poorly understood. We used a general circulation model to simulate local changes in climate during the initiation of 1,097 peatlands around the world. We find that peat initiation in deglaciated landscapes in both hemispheres was driven primarily by warming growing seasons, likely through enhanced plant productivity, rather than by any increase in effective precipitation...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Om Prakash Pant, Ji-Long Hao, Dan-Dan Zhou, Fan Wang, Cheng-Wei Lu
Small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) is a minimally invasive, safe and flapless femtosecond laser technique used mainly to correct myopia through extraction of a corneal lenticule. Lenticules obtained in this way are transparent and of high quality, and thus, can be used to treat other corneal diseases. A 65-year-old male patient presented with recurrent pterygium complicated by thin cornea. The patient was treated surgically using a SMILE-extracted lenticule to avoid further complications and to maintain eyeball integrity...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Todd J Widhelm, Francesca R Bertoletti, Matt J Asztalos, Joel A Mercado-Díaz, Jen-Pan Huang, Bibiana Moncada, Robert Lücking, Nicolas Magain, Emmanuël Sérusiaux, Bernard Goffinet, Nicholas Crouch, Roberta Mason-Gamer, H Thorsten Lumbsch
A major challenge to evolutionary biologists is to understand how biodiversity is distributed through space and time and across the tree of life. Diversification of organisms is influenced by many factors that act at different times and geographic locations but it is still not clear which have a significant impact and how drivers interact. To study diversification, we chose the lichen genus Sticta, by sampling through most of the global range and producing a time tree. We estimate that Sticta originated about 30 million years ago, but biogoegraphic analysis was unclear in estimating the origin of the genus...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
João P Morais-Silva, Alessandra V de Oliveira, Thomaz M C Fabrin, Nathália Alves Diamante, Sônia M A P Prioli, Augusto Frota, Weferson J da Graça, Alberto J Prioli
The current analysis investigates whether the uplift of the Serra da Esperança and the Ponta Grossa Arch in the Serra Geral resulted in ichthyofaunistic changes in adjacent basins. For this, we describe the phylogeographic structure among populations of Trichomycterus collected in hydrographic basins in southern Brazil by using partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit I. Analyses revealed that the nomenclature Trichomycterus davisi fails to contain the whole genetic diversity range found in the collected specimens and indicates at least six genetic lineages in Trichomycterus...
March 13, 2018: Zebrafish
Tristan Salles, Xuesong Ding, Gilles Brocard
Understanding Earth surface responses in terms of sediment dynamics to climatic variability and tectonics forcing is hindered by limited ability of current models to simulate long-term evolution of sediment transfer and associated morphological changes. This paper presents pyBadlands, an open-source python-based framework which computes over geological time (1) sediment transport from landmasses to coasts, (2) reworking of marine sediments by longshore currents and (3) development of coral reef systems. pyBadlands is cross-platform, distributed under the GPLv3 license and available on GitHub (http://github...
2018: PloS One
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