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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814811/the-3-d-structure-of-the-somma-vesuvius-volcanic-complex-italy-inferred-from-new-and-historic-gravimetric-data
#1
Niklas Linde, Tullio Ricci, Ludovic Baron, Alexis Shakas, Giovanna Berrino
Existing 3-D density models of the Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex (SVVC), Italy, largely disagree. Despite the scientific and socioeconomic importance of Vesuvius, there is no reliable 3-D density model of the SVVC. A considerable uncertainty prevails concerning the presence (or absence) of a dense body underlying the Vesuvius crater (1944 eruption) that is implied from extensive seismic investigations. We have acquired relative gravity measurements at 297 stations, including measurements in difficult-to-access areas (e...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814716/lithium-enrichment-in-intracontinental-rhyolite-magmas-leads-to-li-deposits-in-caldera-basins
#2
Thomas R Benson, Matthew A Coble, James J Rytuba, Gail A Mahood
The omnipresence of lithium-ion batteries in mobile electronics, and hybrid and electric vehicles necessitates discovery of new lithium resources to meet rising demand and to diversify the global lithium supply chain. Here we demonstrate that lake sediments preserved within intracontinental rhyolitic calderas formed on eruption and weathering of lithium-enriched magmas have the potential to host large lithium clay deposits. We compare lithium concentrations of magmas formed in a variety of tectonic settings using in situ trace-element measurements of quartz-hosted melt inclusions to demonstrate that moderate to extreme lithium enrichment occurs in magmas that incorporate felsic continental crust...
August 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812660/global-determinants-of-zoogeographical-boundaries
#3
Gentile Francesco Ficetola, Florent Mazel, Wilfried Thuiller
The distribution of living organisms on Earth is spatially structured. Early biogeographers identified the existence of multiple zoogeographical regions, characterized by faunas with homogeneous composition that are separated by biogeographical boundaries. Yet, no study has deciphered the factors shaping the distributions of terrestrial biogeographical boundaries at the global scale. Here, using spatial regression analyses, we show that tectonic movements, sharp changes in climatic conditions and orographic barriers determine extant biogeographical boundaries...
March 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798117/a-seismic-shift-in-continental-tectonic-plates
#4
Brian Savage
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782040/stress-drops-of-induced-and-tectonic-earthquakes-in-the-central-united-states-are-indistinguishable
#5
Yihe Huang, William L Ellsworth, Gregory C Beroza
Induced earthquakes currently pose a significant hazard in the central United States, but there is considerable uncertainty about the severity of their ground motions. We measure stress drops of 39 moderate-magnitude induced and tectonic earthquakes in the central United States and eastern North America. Induced earthquakes, more than half of which are shallower than 5 km, show a comparable median stress drop to tectonic earthquakes in the central United States that are dominantly strike-slip but a lower median stress drop than that of tectonic earthquakes in the eastern North America that are dominantly reverse-faulting...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770028/first-draft-genome-sequence-of-a-strain-from-the-genus-fusibacter-isolated-from-salar-de-ascot%C3%A3-n-in-northern-chile
#6
Antonio E Serrano, Lorena V Escudero, Cinthya Tebes-Cayo, Mauricio Acosta, Olga Encalada, Sebastián Fernández-Moroso, Cecilia Demergasso
Fusibacter sp. 3D3 (ATCC BAA-2418) is an arsenate-reducing halotolerant strain within the Firmicutes phylum, isolated from the Salar de Ascotán, a hypersaline salt flat in Northern Chile. This high-Andean closed basin is an athalassohaline environment located at the bottom of a tectonic basin surrounded by mountain range, including some active volcanoes. This landscape can be an advantageous system to explore the effect of salinity on microorganisms that mediate biogeochemical reactions. Since 2000, microbial reduction of arsenic has been evidenced in the system, and the phylogenetic analysis of the original community plus the culture enrichments has revealed the predominance of Firmicutes phylum...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765580/quantifying-crustal-thickness-in-continental-collisional-belts-global-perspective-and-a-geologic-application
#7
Fangyang Hu, Mihai N Ducea, Shuwen Liu, James B Chapman
We present compiled geochemical data of young (mostly Pliocene-present) intermediate magmatic rocks from continental collisional belts and correlations between their whole-rock Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios and modern crustal thickness. These correlations, which are similar to those obtained from subduction-related magmatic arcs, confirm that geochemistry can be used to track changes of crustal thickness changes in ancient collisional belts. Using these results, we investigate temporal variations of crustal thickness in the Qinling Orogenic Belt in mainland China...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761137/a-4d-view-on-the-evolution-of-metamorphic-dehydration-reactions
#8
John Bedford, Florian Fusseis, Henri Leclère, John Wheeler, Daniel Faulkner
Metamorphic reactions influence the evolution of the Earth's crust in a range of tectonic settings. For example hydrous mineral dehydration in a subducting slab can produce fluid overpressures which may trigger seismicity. During reaction the mechanisms of chemical transport, including water expulsion, will dictate the rate of transformation and hence the evolution of physical properties such as fluid pressure. Despite the importance of such processes, direct observation of mineral changes due to chemical transport during metamorphism has been previously impossible both in nature and in experiment...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754976/constraining-shifts-in-north-atlantic-plate-motions-during-the-palaeocene-by-u-pb-dating-of-svalbard-tephra-layers
#9
Morgan T Jones, Lars E Augland, Grace E Shephard, Seth D Burgess, Gauti T Eliassen, Malte M Jochmann, Bjarki Friis, Dougal A Jerram, Sverre Planke, Henrik H Svensen
Radioisotopic dating of volcanic minerals is a powerful method for establishing absolute time constraints in sedimentary basins, which improves our understanding of the chronostratigraphy and evolution of basin processes. The relative plate motions of Greenland, North America, and Eurasia changed several times during the Palaeogene. However, the timing of a key part of this sequence, namely the initiation of compression between Greenland and Svalbard, is currently poorly constrained. The formation of the Central Basin in Spitsbergen is inherently linked to changes in regional plate motions, so an improved chronostratigraphy of the sedimentary sequence is warranted...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729808/paleoseismic-study-of-the-kamishiro-fault-on-the-northern-segment-of-the-itoigawa-shizuoka-tectonic-line-japan
#10
Aiming Lin, Mikako Sano, Maomao Wang, Bing Yan, Di Bian, Ryoji Fueta, Takashi Hosoya
The Mw 6.2 (Mj 6.8) Nagano (Japan) earthquake of 22 November 2014 produced a 9.3-km long surface rupture zone with a thrust-dominated displacement of up to 1.5 m, which duplicated the pre-existing Kamishiro Fault along the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL), the plate-boundary between the Eurasian and North American plates, northern Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. To characterize the activity of the seismogenic fault zone, we conducted a paleoseismic study of the Kamishiro Fault. Field investigations and trench excavations revealed that seven morphogenic paleohistorical earthquakes (E2-E8) prior to the 2014 Mw 6...
2017: Journal of Seismology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724812/use-of-glycerol-preserved-corneas-for-corneal-transplants
#11
Neeti Gupta, Prerna Upadhyay
PURPOSE: This study was carried out to see the results of glycerol-preserved cornea (GPC) in emergency situation when fresh corneal tissue was not available. The aim was to study the outcome of corneal transplantation using GPC. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. The medical records of all the patients were reviewed, who underwent keratoplasty using "GPC" during the period from October 2011 to December 2015. The indication of keratoplasty, duration of preservation of the GPC, and its outcome were analyzed...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720760/exploring-spatial-and-temporal-trends-in-the-soundscape-of-an-ecologically-significant-embayment
#12
R L Putland, R Constantine, C A Radford
The Hauraki Gulf, a shallow embayment in north-eastern New Zealand, provides an interesting environment for ecological soundscape research. It is situated on a tectonic plate boundary, contains one of the busiest ports in the southern hemisphere and is home to a diverse range of soniferous animals. The underwater soundscape was monitored for spatial and temporal trends at six different listening stations using passive acoustic recorders. The RMS sound pressure level of ambient sound (50-24,000 Hz) at the six listening stations was similar, ranging from 90-110 dB re 1 μPa throughout the recording period...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700221/transuranic-hybrid-materials-crystallographic-and-computational-metrics-of-supramolecular-assembly
#13
Robert G Surbella, Lucas C Ducati, Kristi L Pellegrini, Bruce K McNamara, Jochen Autschbach, Jon M Schwantes, Christopher L Cahill
Assembly of a family of 12 supramolecular compounds containing [AnO2Cl4](2-) (An = U, Np, Pu), via hydrogen and halogen bonds donated by substituted 4-X-pyridinium cations (X = H, Cl, Br, I), is reported. These materials were prepared from a room-temperature synthesis wherein crystallization of unhydrolyzed and valence-pure [An(VI)O2Cl4](2-) (An = U, Np, Pu) tectons is the norm. We present a hierarchy of assembly criteria based on crystallographic observations and subsequently quantify the strengths of the non-covalent interactions using Kohn-Sham density functional calculations...
July 26, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694472/the-pawnee-earthquake-as-a-result-of-the-interplay-among-injection-faults-and-foreshocks
#14
Xiaowei Chen, Nori Nakata, Colin Pennington, Jackson Haffener, Jefferson C Chang, Xiaohui He, Zhongwen Zhan, Sidao Ni, Jacob I Walter
The Pawnee M5.8 earthquake is the largest event in Oklahoma instrument recorded history. It occurred near the edge of active seismic zones, similar to other M5+ earthquakes since 2011. It ruptured a previously unmapped fault and triggered aftershocks along a complex conjugate fault system. With a high-resolution earthquake catalog, we observe propagating foreshocks leading to the mainshock within 0.5 km distance, suggesting existence of precursory aseismic slip. At approximately 100 days before the mainshock, two M ≥ 3...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691714/dehydration-of-subducting-slow-spread-oceanic-lithosphere-in-the-lesser-antilles
#15
Michele Paulatto, Mireille Laigle, Audrey Galve, Philippe Charvis, Martine Sapin, Gaye Bayrakci, Mikael Evain, Heidrun Kopp
Subducting slabs carry water into the mantle and are a major gateway in the global geochemical water cycle. Fluid transport and release can be constrained with seismological data. Here we use joint active-source/local-earthquake seismic tomography to derive unprecedented constraints on multi-stage fluid release from subducting slow-spread oceanic lithosphere. We image the low P-wave velocity crustal layer on the slab top and show that it disappears beneath 60-100 km depth, marking the depth of dehydration metamorphism and eclogitization...
July 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688026/indications-and-graft-survival-analysis-in-optical-penetrating-keratoplasty-in-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-india-a-5-year-study
#16
Sudesh Kumar Arya, Amit Raj, Ravi Kant Bamotra, Anubha Bhatti, Jyoti Deswal, Meenakshi Sindhu
PURPOSE: To study the indications and variables correlating with graft survival in optical penetrating keratoplasty in a tertiary care hospital in north India. PARTICIPANTS: All patients who underwent optical keratoplasty, except those undergoing lamellar grafts, tectonic grafts transplants and penetrating keratoplasty done for therapeutic purposes were included in the study. Patients with follow-up less than 2 years were excluded from the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained by reviewing the records of 101 patients who underwent optical penetrating keratoplasty from 2008 to 2013 for various indications...
July 7, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686248/chalcogen-bonding-in-synthesis-catalysis-and-design-of-materials
#17
Kamran T Mahmudov, Maximilian N Kopylovich, M Fátima C Guedes da Silva, Armando J L Pombeiro
Chalcogen bonding is a type of noncovalent interaction in which a covalently bonded chalcogen atom (O, S, Se or Te) acts as an electrophilic species towards a nucleophilic (negative) region(s) in another or in the same molecule. In general, this interaction is strengthened by the presence of an electron-withdrawing group on the electron-acceptor chalcogen atom and upon moving down in the periodic table of elements, from O to Te. Following a short discussion of the phenomenon of chalcogen bonding, this Perspective presents some demonstrative experimental observations in which this bonding is crucial for synthetic transformations, crystal engineering, catalysis and design of materials as synthons/tectons...
July 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682337/episodic-kinematics-in-continental-rifts-modulated-by-changes-in-mantle-melt-fraction
#18
Simon Lamb, James D P Moore, Euan Smith, Tim Stern
Oceanic crust is created by the extraction of molten rock from underlying mantle at the seafloor 'spreading centres' found between diverging tectonic plates. Modelling studies have suggested that mantle melting can occur through decompression as the mantle flows upwards beneath spreading centres, but direct observation of this process is difficult beneath the oceans. Continental rifts, however-which are also associated with mantle melt production-are amenable to detailed measurements of their short-term kinematics using geodetic techniques...
July 5, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678774/the-pyrite-type-high-pressure-form-of-feooh
#19
Masayuki Nishi, Yasuhiro Kuwayama, Jun Tsuchiya, Taku Tsuchiya
Water transported into Earth's interior by subduction strongly influences dynamics such as volcanism and plate tectonics. Several recent studies have reported hydrous minerals to be stable at pressure and temperature conditions representative of Earth's deep interior, implying that surface water may be transported as far as the core-mantle boundary. However, the hydrous mineral goethite, α-FeOOH, was recently reported to decompose under the conditions of the middle region of the lower mantle to form FeO2 and release H2, suggesting the upward migration of hydrogen and large fluctuations in the oxygen distribution within the Earth system...
July 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675207/spectrally-resolved-third-harmonic-generation-and-the-fundamental-role-of-o-hcl-hydrogen-bonding-in-oh-td-cobalt-ii-tetraphenylmethane-based-coordination-polymers
#20
J K Zaręba, J Janczak, M Samoć, M Nyk
The reaction of a phosphonate-diester tetraphenylmethane-based tecton, tetrakis[4-(diethoxyphosphoryl)phenyl]methane, (L) with cobalt(ii) chloride afforded a centrosymmetric coordination polymer (CP), [L·2Co(H2O)4(2+)·2CoCl4(2-)]n, 2-Cl, possessing simultaneously octahedral (Oh) and tetrahedral (Td) metal centers. This material served as a model compound for the demonstration of factors influencing the spectral dependence of one of the nonlinear optical (NLO) phenomena, the third-harmonic generation (THG)...
July 25, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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