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Philippos Garefalakis, Fritz Schlunegger
Large sediment fluxes from mountain belts have the potential to cause megafans to prograde into the neighbouring sedimentary basins. These mechanisms have been documented based from numerical modelling and stratigraphic records. However, little attention has been focused on inferring temporal changes in the concentrations of supplied sediment from coarse-grained deposits. Here, we extract changes of this variable in the field from a Late Oligocene, c. 4 km-thick suite of fluvial conglomerates situated in the North Alpine foreland basin, which evolved in response to the tectonic and erosional history of the Alps...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rui Bao, Michael Strasser, Ann P McNichol, Negar Haghipour, Cameron McIntyre, Gerold Wefer, Timothy I Eglinton
Sediments in deep ocean trenches may contain crucial information on past earthquake history and constitute important sites of carbon burial. Here we present 14C data on bulk organic carbon (OC) and its thermal decomposition fractions produced by ramped pyrolysis/oxidation for a core retrieved from the >7.5 km-deep Japan Trench. High-resolution 14C measurements, coupled with distinctive thermogram characteristics of OC, reveal hemipelagic sedimentation interrupted by episodic deposition of pre-aged OC in the trench...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Isabel Blanco-Montenegro, Fuensanta G Montesinos, José Arnoso
The 3-D inverse modelling of a magnetic anomaly measured over the NW submarine edifice of the volcanic island of Gran Canaria revealed a large, reversely-magnetized, elongated structure following an ENE-WSW direction, which we interpreted as a sill-like magmatic intrusion emplaced during the submarine growth of this volcanic island, with a volume that could represent up to about 20% of the whole island. The elongated shape of this body suggests the existence of a major crustal fracture in the central part of the Canary Archipelago which would have favoured the rapid ascent and emplacement of magmas during a time span from 0...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
T I Riikilä, J I Pylväinen, J Åström
A shear fracture of brittle solids under compression undergoes a substantial evolution from the initial microcracking to a fully formed powder-filled shear zone. Experiments covering the entire process are relatively easy to conduct, but they are very difficult to investigate in detail. Numerically, the large strain limit has remained a challenge. An efficient simulation model and a custom-made experimental device are employed to test to what extent a shear fracture alone is sufficient to drive material to spontaneous self-lubrication...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Meilin He, Wenbin Shen, Yuanjin Pan, Ruizhi Chen, Hao Ding, Guangyi Guo
The solid Earth deforms elastically in response to variations of surface atmosphere, hydrology, and ice/glacier mass loads. Continuous geodetic observations by Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) record such deformations to estimate seasonal and secular mass changes. In this paper, we present the seasonal variation of the surface mass changes and the crustal vertical deformation in the South China Block (SCB) identified by GPS and GRACE observations with records spanning from 1999 to 2016...
December 31, 2017: Sensors
Boris Knyazer, Yonit Krakauer, Yael Baumfeld, Tova Lifshitz, Sabine Kling, Farhad Hafezi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of accelerated corneal cross-linking with photoactivated chromophore (PACK-CXL) as additional treatment for therapy-resistant infectious keratitis. METHODS: In this interventional cohort study, 20 patients (11 men and 9 women), aged 65.5 (interquartile range = 21.5-78.5) years, who were hospitalized for moderate-sized therapy-resistant bacterial corneal ulcers (11/20 microbiologically confirmed) were treated with hypoosmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution and Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation for 3 minutes at 30 mW/cm (5...
January 3, 2018: Cornea
Cory E Hauke, Amanda N Oldacre, Cressa Ria P Fulong, Alan E Friedman, Timothy R Cook
Ruthenium polypyridyl complexes are among the most studied molecular species for photochemical applications such as light-harvesting and photocatalysis, with [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) serving as an iconic example. We report the use of the [Ru(bpy)2]2+ fragment as a 90° acceptor tecton (M) in coordination-driven self-assembly to synthesize a M4L4 metallacycle (L = 4,4'-bipyridine) and a M6L4 truncated tetrahedral cage [L = 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine]. The M6L4 cage possesses emergent properties attributed to its unique electronic structure, which results in increased visible-light absorption and an emission band that decays biexponentially with times of 3 and 790 ns...
December 26, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
C A Gunawardana, M Đaković, C B Aakeröy
The reactions between a tetrahedrally-shaped tecton, tetrakis(4-(iodoethynyl)phenyl)methane, and tetraphenylphosphonium halides readily afford interpenetrated and densely packed diamondoid architectures sustained by C-IX- (X- = chloride, bromide, iodide) interactions. In all these halogen-bonded networks, the halide anions act as four-connecting nodes, while the tetraphenylphosphonium cations provide essential templating information and structural support.
December 20, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Konstantinos Droutsas, Dimitrios Papaconstantinou, Ilias Georgalas, Georgios Kymionis, Konstantinos Andreanos, Elli Stamou, Nikolaos Mamas
PURPOSE: To describe the use of equine pericardium as an off-label temporary emergency treatment of scleral and corneal perforations. METHODS: Three eyes of two male patients aged 34 and 38 years were included, i.e. a case with a history of severe bilateral thermal burn undergoing phacoemulsification complicated by tearing of the main port causing iris exposure and a patient with bilateral corneal perforation secondary to non-infectious corneal melt due to presumed ocular non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug abuse...
December 19, 2017: International Ophthalmology
Timothy J Craig, Kristel Chanard, Eric Calais
The degree to which short-term non-tectonic processes, either natural and anthropogenic, influence the occurrence of earthquakes in active tectonic settings or 'stable' plate interiors, remains a subject of debate. Recent work in plate-boundary regions demonstrates the capacity for long-wavelength changes in continental water storage to produce observable surface deformation, induce crustal stresses and modulate seismicity rates. Here we show that a significant variation in the rate of microearthquakes in the intraplate New Madrid Seismic Zone at annual and multi-annual timescales coincides with hydrological loading in the upper Mississippi embayment...
December 15, 2017: Nature Communications
Yougui Song
This article presents magnetic data of a 300-m-thick Mio-Pliocene red clay and Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence near Chaona town in the Central Chinese Loess Plateau. Detailed magnetostratigraphy shows that the aeolian red clay began to accumulate at ca. 8.1 Ma. Here, we presented a high-resolution rock magnetic data at 20-40 cm intervals within 4.5-8 ka span per sample of this section, which has been published in Song et al. (2014) [1] and (2017) [2]. The dataset including the following magnetic parameters: mass magnetic susceptibility (χ), frequency-dependent susceptibility (χfd), saturation magnetization (Ms), saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs), coercive force (Bc), remanent coercivity (Bcr), saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) and S-ratio...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Ivana Buj, Zoran Marčić, Marko Ćaleta, Radek Šanda, Matthias F Geiger, Jörg Freyhof, Annie Machordom, Jasna Vukić
In order to better understand the complex geologic history of the Mediterranean area, we have analysed evolutionary history, phylogeographic structure and molecular diversity of freshwater fishes belonging to the genus Telestes. As primary freshwater fishes distributed largely in the Mediterranean basin, this genus represents a suitable model system for investigating the historical biogeography of freshwater drainage systems in southern Europe. In this investigation we have included samples representing all Telestes species and based our analyses on one mitochondrial and one nuclear gene...
2017: PloS One
Alexandra Z Crawford, Thiyagaraj Krishnan, Susan E Ormonde, Dipika V Patel, Charles N McGhee
PURPOSE: To quantify all minor/major adverse events in a large cohort of consecutive corneal transplants, particularly in respect to penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). METHODS: All corneal transplants in the Auckland region over a 10-year period (2000-2009) were identified through the New Zealand National Eye Bank. Relevant clinical records were assessed for this period and 2 years after. All intraoperative or postoperative adverse events/complications, visual acuity, and graft outcomes were recorded...
December 8, 2017: Cornea
Soosan Jacob, Smita Narasimhan, Amar Agarwal, Athiya Agarwal, Saijimol Ai
We describe a technique of small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE)-assisted sutureless corneal resurfacing with interface tattooing for superficial limbal dermoids. After excision at a plane minimally below surrounding normal cornea and sclera, a corneal tattoo powder is carefully applied within an inked circular outline of the intended corneal margin. Circularity and cosmesis are assessed in natural light with the microscope light off. Fibrin glue-assisted corneal resurfacing is performed with the lenticule...
November 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Jie Deng, Kanani K M Lee
Convection provides the mechanism behind plate tectonics, which allows oceanic lithosphere to be subducted into the mantle as "slabs" and new rock to be generated by volcanism. Stagnation of subducting slabs and deflection of rising plumes in Earth's shallow lower mantle have been suggested to result from a viscosity increase at those depths. However, the mechanism for this increase remains elusive. Here, we examine the melting behavior in the MgO-FeO binary system at high pressures using the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell and show that the liquidus and solidus of (Mg x Fe1-x )O ferropericlase (x = ~0...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
David Cano-Rodriguez, Susanna Campagnoli, Alberto Grandi, Matteo Parri, Elisa De Camilli, Chaojun Song, Boquan Jin, Aurelien Lacombe, Andrea Pierleoni, Mauro Bombaci, Chiara Cordiglieri, Marcel Hj Ruiters, Giuseppe Viale, Luigi Terracciano, Paolo Sarmientos, Sergio Abrignani, Guido Grandi, Piero Pileri, Marianne G Rots, Renata Grifantini
Tectonic family member 2 (TCTN2) encodes a transmembrane protein that belongs to the tectonic family, which is involved in ciliary functions. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of tectonics in regulating a variety of signaling pathways at the transition zone of cilia. However, the role of tectonics in cancer is still unclear. Here we identify that TCTN2 is overexpressed in colorectal, lung and ovary cancers. We show that different cancer cell lines express the protein that localizes at the plasma membrane, facing the intracellular milieu...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Anselme F E Borgeaud, Kenji Kawai, Kensuke Konishi, Robert J Geller
D″ (Dee double prime), the lowermost layer of the Earth's mantle, is the thermal boundary layer (TBL) of mantle convection immediately above the Earth's liquid outer core. As the origin of upwelling of hot material and the destination of paleoslabs (downwelling cold slab remnants), D″ plays a major role in the Earth's evolution. D″ beneath Central America and the Caribbean is of particular geodynamical interest, because the paleo- and present Pacific plates have been subducting beneath the western margin of Pangaea since ~250 million years ago, which implies that paleoslabs could have reached the lowermost mantle...
November 2017: Science Advances
Yingfeng Ji, Shoichi Yoshioka, Vlad C Manea, Marina Manea
Dual subduction represents an unusual case of subduction where one oceanic plate subducts on top of another, creating a highly complex tectonic setting. Because of the complex interaction between the two subducted plates, the origin of seismicity in such region is still not fully understood. Here we investigate the thermal structure of dual subduction beneath Kanto, central Japan formed as a consequence of a unique case of triple trench junction. Using high-resolution three-dimensional thermo-mechanical models tailored for the specific dual subduction settings beneath Kanto, we show that, compared with single-plate subduction systems, subduction of double slabs produces a strong variation of mantle flow, thermal and fluid release pattern that strongly controls the regional seismicity distribution...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Matt J Ikari, Achim J Kopf
The near-surface areas of major faults commonly contain weak, phyllosilicate minerals, which, based on laboratory friction measurements, are assumed to creep stably. However, it is now known that shallow faults can experience tens of meters of earthquake slip and also host slow and transient slip events. Laboratory experiments are generally performed at least two orders of magnitude faster than plate tectonic speeds, which are the natural driving conditions for major faults; the absence of experimental data for natural driving rates represents a critical knowledge gap...
November 2017: Science Advances
Susan E Hough, Victor C Tsai, Robert Walker, Fred Aminzadeh
Several recent studies have presented evidence that significant induced earthquakes occurred in a number of oil-producing regions during the early and mid-twentieth century related to either production or wastewater injection. We consider whether the 21 July 1952 Mw 7.5 Kern County earthquake might have been induced by production in the Wheeler Ridge oil field. The mainshock, which was not preceded by any significant foreshocks, occurred 98 days after the initial production of oil in Eocene strata at depths reaching 3 km, within ~1 km of the White Wolf fault (WWF)...
2017: Journal of Seismology
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