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Ross A Beyer, Francis Nimmo, William B McKinnon, Jeffrey M Moore, Richard P Binzel, Jack W Conrad, Andy Cheng, K Ennico, Tod R Lauer, C B Olkin, Stuart Robbins, Paul Schenk, Kelsi Singer, John R Spencer, S Alan Stern, H A Weaver, L A Young, Amanda M Zangari
New Horizons images of Pluto's companion Charon show a variety of terrains that display extensional tectonic features, with relief surprising for this relatively small world. These features suggest a global extensional areal strain of order 1% early in Charon's history. Such extension is consistent with the presence of an ancient global ocean, now frozen.
May 1, 2017: Icarus
Marino Domenico Barberio, Maurizio Barbieri, Andrea Billi, Carlo Doglioni, Marco Petitta
Seismic precursors are an as yet unattained frontier in earthquake studies. With the aim of making a step towards this frontier, we present a hydrogeochemical dataset associated with the 2016 Amatrice-Norcia seismic sequence (central Apennines, Italy), developed from August 24(th), with an Mw 6.0 event, and culminating on October 30(th), with an Mw 6.5 mainshock. The seismic sequence occurred during a seasonal depletion of hydrostructures, and the four strongest earthquakes (Mw ≥ 5.5) generated an abrupt uplift of the water level, recorded up to 100 km away from the mainshock area...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jaeseok Yi, Yucai Wang, Yuanwen Jiang, Il Woong Jung, Wenjun Liu, Vincent De Andrade, Ruqing Xu, Ramya Parameswaran, Ivo R Peters, Ralu Divan, Xianghui Xiao, Tao Sun, Youjin Lee, Won Il Park, Bozhi Tian
Scales are rooted in soft tissues, and are regenerated by specialized cells. The realization of dynamic synthetic analogues with inorganic materials has been a significant challenge, because the abiological regeneration sites that could yield deterministic growth behavior are hard to form. Here we overcome this fundamental hurdle by constructing a mutable and deformable array of three-dimensional calcite heterostructures that are partially locked in silicone. Individual calcite crystals exhibit asymmetrical dumbbell shapes and are prepared by a parallel tectonic approach under ambient conditions...
September 11, 2017: Nature Communications
G E Shephard, K J Matthews, K Hosseini, M Domeier
The geoscience community is increasingly utilizing seismic tomography to interpret mantle heterogeneity and its links to past tectonic and geodynamic processes. To assess the robustness and distribution of positive seismic anomalies, inferred as subducted slabs, we create a set of vote maps for the lower mantle with 14 global P-wave or S-wave tomography models. Based on a depth-dependent threshold metric, an average of 20% of any given tomography model depth is identified as a potential slab. However, upon combining the 14 models, the most consistent positive wavespeed features are identified by an increasing vote count...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Parisa Gholami Zadeh, Mohammad Hossein Adabi, Ken-Ichiro Hisada, Mahboubeh Hosseini-Barzi, Abbas Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza Ghassemi
Geoscientists have always considered the Neyriz region, located along the Zagros Suture Zone, an important area of interest because of the outcrops of Neotethys ophiolitic rocks. We carried out a modal analysis of the Cenozoic sandstones and geochemistry of the detrital Cr-spinels at Neyriz region in order to determine their provenance and tectonic evolution in the proximal part of Zagros Basin. Our data shows a clear change in provenance from the Late Cretaceous onwards. As from the Late Cretaceous to Eocene, lithic grains are mostly chert and serpentinite; and higher Cr# values of the detrital Cr-spinel compositions indicate that they originate from the fore-arc peridotites and deposited in an accretionary prism setting during this period...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Pia A Viglietti, Bruce S Rubidge, Roger M H Smith
Late Permian Karoo Basin tectonics in South Africa are reflected as two fining-upward megacycles in the Balfour and upper Teekloof formations. Foreland tectonics are used to explain the cyclic nature and distribution of sedimentation, caused by phases of loading and unloading in the southern source areas adjacent to the basin. New data supports this model, and identifies potential climatic effects on the tectonic regime. Diachronous second-order subaerial unconformities (SU) are identified at the base and top of the Balfour Formation...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jianyu Shi, Danian Shi, Yang Shen, Wenjin Zhao, Guangqi Xue, Heping Su, Yang Song
In classic orogenic models, the mountain range is underlain by a deep crustal root. Here we present the crustal and upper mantle structures along two receiver function profiles across Qilian, an orogen experiencing recent growth at the northern margin of the Tibetan plateau. Opposite to an expected crustal root beneath the orogen, the Moho beneath Qilian is arch-like, shallower beneath the center and deepens by up to 10 km beneath its southern and northern boundaries. Additional velocity interfaces sub-parallel to the Moho are observed in the lower crust of the basins south of Qilian, which we interpret as the top of a mechanically strong lower crust thrusting several tens of kilometers underneath Qilian...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Antonio Avallone, Antonella Cirella, Daniele Cheloni, Cristiano Tolomei, Nikos Theodoulidis, Alessio Piatanesi, Pierre Briole, Athanassios Ganas
The 2015/11/17 Lefkada (Greece) earthquake ruptured a segment of the Cephalonia Transform Fault (CTF) where probably the penultimate major event was in 1948. Using near-source strong motion and high sampling rate GPS data and Sentinel-1A SAR images on two tracks, we performed the inversion for the geometry, slip distribution and rupture history of the causative fault with a three-step self-consistent procedure, in which every step provided input parameters for the next one. Our preferred model results in a ~70° ESE-dipping and ~13° N-striking fault plane, with a strike-slip mechanism (rake ~169°) in agreement with the CTF tectonic regime...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
K Gribovszki, K Kovács, P Mónus, G Bokelmann, P Konecny, M Lednická, G Moseley, C Spötl, R L Edwards, M Bednárik, L Brimich, L Tóth
Earthquakes hit urban centres in Europe infrequently, but occasionally with disastrous effects. Obtaining an unbiased view of seismic hazard (and risk) is therefore very important. In principle, the best way to test probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs) is to compare them with observations that are entirely independent of the procedure used to produce PSHA models. Arguably, the most valuable information in this context should be information on long-term hazard, namely maximum intensities (or magnitudes) occurring over time intervals that are at least as long as a seismic cycle...
2017: Journal of Seismology
Susan E Humphris, Frieder Klein
Over the last four decades, more than 500 sites of seafloor hydrothermal venting have been identified in a range of tectonic environments. These vents represent the seafloor manifestation of hydrothermal convection of seawater through the permeable oceanic basement that is driven by a subsurface heat source. Hydrothermal circulation has fundamental effects on the transfer of heat and mass from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, the composition of seawater, the physical and chemical properties of the oceanic basement, and vent ecosystems at and below the seafloor...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
Sourav Bhowmick, Achintya Jana, Khushwant Singh, Prerak Gupta, Ankit Gangrade, Biman B Mandal, Neeladri Das
Two new irregular hexagons (6 and 7) were synthesized from a pyrazine motif containing an organometallic acceptor clip [bearing platinum(II) centers] and different neutral donor ligands (4,4'-bipyridine or pyrazine) using a coordination-driven self-assembly protocol. The two-dimensional supramolecules were characterized by multinuclear NMR, mass spectrometry, and elemental analyses. Additionally, one of the macrocycles (6) was characterized by single-crystal X-ray analyses. Macrocycles are unique examples of [2 + 2] self-assembled ensembles that are hexagonal but irregular in shape...
August 25, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Bertrand Bénazéraf, Mathias Beaupeux, Martin Tchernookov, Allison Wallingford, Tasha Salisbury, Amelia Shirtz, Andrew Shirtz, David Huss, Olivier Pourquié, Paul François, Rusty Lansford
Embryonic axis elongation is a complex multi-tissue morphogenetic process responsible for the formation of the posterior part of the amniote body. How movements and growth are coordinated between the different posterior tissues (e.g. neural tube, axial and paraxial mesoderm, lateral plate, ectoderm, endoderm) to drive axis morphogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we use quail embryos to quantify cell behavior and tissue movements during elongation. We quantify the tissue-specific contribution to axis elongation by using 3D volumetric techniques, then quantify tissue-specific parameters such as cell density and proliferation...
August 23, 2017: Development
Kevin M Ward, Jonathan R Delph, George Zandt, Susan L Beck, Mihai N Ducea
The role of magmatic processes as a significant mechanism for the generation of voluminous silicic crust and the development of Cordilleran plateaus remains a lingering question in part because of the inherent difficulty in quantifying plutonic volumes. Despite this difficulty, a growing body of independently measured plutonic-to-volcanic ratios suggests the volume of plutonic material in the crust related to Cordilleran magmatic systems is much larger than is previously expected. To better examine the role of crustal magmatic processes and its relationship to erupted material in Cordilleran systems, we present a continuous high-resolution crustal seismic velocity model for an ~800 km section of the active South American Cordillera (Puna Plateau)...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Francesco E Maesano, Mara M Tiberti, Roberto Basili
The Calabrian Arc is a one-of-a-kind subduction zone, featuring one of the shortest slab segments (<150 km), one of the thickest accretionary wedges, and one of the oldest oceanic crust in the world. Despite a convergence rate of up to 5 mm/y and well-known intraslab seismicity below 40 km, its shallow interface shows little signs of seismic activity. Nonetheless, it has been attributed as generating historical large earthquakes and tsunamis. To gain insights into this subduction zone, we first made a geological reconstruction of the shallower slab interface (<20 km) and its overlying accretionary wedge by interpreting a grid of 54 seismic reflection lines (8,658 km) with 438 intersections within an area of 10(5 )km(2)...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Niklas Linde, Tullio Ricci, Ludovic Baron, Alexis Shakas, Giovanna Berrino
Existing 3-D density models of the Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex (SVVC), Italy, largely disagree. Despite the scientific and socioeconomic importance of Vesuvius, there is no reliable 3-D density model of the SVVC. A considerable uncertainty prevails concerning the presence (or absence) of a dense body underlying the Vesuvius crater (1944 eruption) that is implied from extensive seismic investigations. We have acquired relative gravity measurements at 297 stations, including measurements in difficult-to-access areas (e...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Thomas R Benson, Matthew A Coble, James J Rytuba, Gail A Mahood
The omnipresence of lithium-ion batteries in mobile electronics, and hybrid and electric vehicles necessitates discovery of new lithium resources to meet rising demand and to diversify the global lithium supply chain. Here we demonstrate that lake sediments preserved within intracontinental rhyolitic calderas formed on eruption and weathering of lithium-enriched magmas have the potential to host large lithium clay deposits. We compare lithium concentrations of magmas formed in a variety of tectonic settings using in situ trace-element measurements of quartz-hosted melt inclusions to demonstrate that moderate to extreme lithium enrichment occurs in magmas that incorporate felsic continental crust...
August 16, 2017: Nature Communications
Gentile Francesco Ficetola, Florent Mazel, Wilfried Thuiller
The distribution of living organisms on Earth is spatially structured. Early biogeographers identified the existence of multiple zoogeographical regions, characterized by faunas with homogeneous composition that are separated by biogeographical boundaries. Yet, no study has deciphered the factors shaping the distributions of terrestrial biogeographical boundaries at the global scale. Here, using spatial regression analyses, we show that tectonic movements, sharp changes in climatic conditions and orographic barriers determine extant biogeographical boundaries...
March 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Brian Savage
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: Science
Yihe Huang, William L Ellsworth, Gregory C Beroza
Induced earthquakes currently pose a significant hazard in the central United States, but there is considerable uncertainty about the severity of their ground motions. We measure stress drops of 39 moderate-magnitude induced and tectonic earthquakes in the central United States and eastern North America. Induced earthquakes, more than half of which are shallower than 5 km, show a comparable median stress drop to tectonic earthquakes in the central United States that are dominantly strike-slip but a lower median stress drop than that of tectonic earthquakes in the eastern North America that are dominantly reverse-faulting...
August 2017: Science Advances
Antonio E Serrano, Lorena V Escudero, Cinthya Tebes-Cayo, Mauricio Acosta, Olga Encalada, Sebastián Fernández-Moroso, Cecilia Demergasso
Fusibacter sp. 3D3 (ATCC BAA-2418) is an arsenate-reducing halotolerant strain within the Firmicutes phylum, isolated from the Salar de Ascotán, a hypersaline salt flat in Northern Chile. This high-Andean closed basin is an athalassohaline environment located at the bottom of a tectonic basin surrounded by mountain range, including some active volcanoes. This landscape can be an advantageous system to explore the effect of salinity on microorganisms that mediate biogeochemical reactions. Since 2000, microbial reduction of arsenic has been evidenced in the system, and the phylogenetic analysis of the original community plus the culture enrichments has revealed the predominance of Firmicutes phylum...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
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