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N-acyl or endocannnabanoid or NAPE

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815463/the-many-faces-and-phases-of-ceramide-and-sphingomyelin-i-single-lipids
#1
REVIEW
María Laura Fanani, Bruno Maggio
Ceramides, the simplest kind of two-chained sphingolipids, contain a single hydroxyl group in position 1 of the sphingoid base. Sphingomyelins further contain a phosphocholine group at the OH of position 1 of ceramide. Ceramides and sphingomyelins show a variety of species depending on the fatty acyl chain length, hydroxylation, and unsaturation. Because of the relatively high transition temperature of sphingomyelin compared to lecithin and, particularly, of ceramides with 16:0-18:0 saturated chains, a widespread idea on their functional importance refers to formation of rather solid domains enriched in sphingomyelin and ceramide...
August 16, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815215/structural-characterization-of-acidic-m17-leucine-aminopeptidases-from-the-tritryps-and-evaluation-of-their-role-in-nutrient-starvation-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#2
Jennifer Timm, Maria Valente, Daniel García-Caballero, Keith S Wilson, Dolores González-Pacanowska
Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is found in all kingdoms of life and catalyzes the metal-dependent hydrolysis of the N-terminal amino acid residue of peptide or amino acyl substrates. LAPs have been shown to participate in the N-terminal processing of certain proteins in mammalian cells and in homologous recombination and transcription regulation in bacteria, while in parasites, they are involved in host cell invasion and provision of essential amino acids for growth. The enzyme is essential for survival in Plasmodium falciparum, where its drug target potential has been suggested...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814545/metabolic-differentiation-of-early-lyme-disease-from-southern-tick-associated-rash-illness-stari
#3
Claudia R Molins, Laura V Ashton, Gary P Wormser, Barbara G Andre, Ann M Hess, Mark J Delorey, Mark A Pilgard, Barbara J Johnson, Kristofor Webb, M Nurul Islam, Adoracion Pegalajar-Jurado, Irida Molla, Mollie W Jewett, John T Belisle
Lyme disease, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States, results from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Early clinical diagnosis of this disease is largely based on the presence of an erythematous skin lesion for individuals in high-risk regions. This, however, can be confused with other illnesses including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), an illness that lacks a defined etiological agent or laboratory diagnostic test, and is coprevalent with Lyme disease in portions of the eastern United States...
August 16, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812898/enantioselective-n-heterocyclic-carbene-catalyzed-synthesis-of-functionalized-indenes
#4
Changhe Zhang, David W Lupton
An enantioselective NHC (N-heterocyclic carbene) catalyzed synthesis of indenes from bifunctional α,β-unsaturated acyl fluorides and TMS enol ethers has been discovered. The reaction has broad generality (31 examples) and proceeds with high levels of enantioselectivity (most >92:8 er). Mechanistically the reaction likely occurs via a Michael/β-lactonization/decarboxylation sequence. Derivatization studies and limitations are discussed.
August 16, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809492/a-mild-functional-group-tolerant-addition-of-organozinc-nucleophiles-to-n-activated-quinolines-and-isoquinolines
#5
Michael R Luzung, Darryl D Dixon, Adrian Ortiz, Carlos A Guerrero, Sloan Ayers, Jeanne Ho, Michael A Schmidt, Neil A Strotman, Martin D Eastgate
An addition of organozinc nucleophiles to N-acyl activated quinolines and isoquinolines is described. Simple transmetalla-tion with the corresponding Grignard reagents using ZnCl2 forms organozinc compounds which are functional group tolerant and stable to reactive acyl chloride reagents for extended periods. A wide variety of substrates which include reactive elec-tron-withdrawing groups are well tolerated to form 2-substituted dihydroquinolines and dihydroisoquinolines. This method-ology has been applied towards an improved synthetic route of uncialamycin and its analogs...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808371/efficacy-of-osteopathic-manipulative-treatment-approach-in-the-patient-with-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-critical-care-outpatient-department
#6
Manu Goyal, Kanu Goyal, Kanimozhi Narkeesh, Asir John Samuel, Narkeesh Arumugam, Subhasish Chatterjee, Sorabh Sharma
The purpose of the present case study was to explore the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) in patient with pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in the critical care outpatient department. Here, we present a 48-year-old male case with breathlessness, increased frequency of defecation, and pain in and around the nape of neck with diagnosed pulmonary fibrosis. He scored 3 on a patient-reported modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale. Osteopathic examination reveals multiple somatic findings across the chest and abdominal region and treated by OMT...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805227/landscape-of-the-structure-o-h-bond-dissociation-energy-relationship-of-oximes-and-hydroxylamines
#7
Rina Dao, Xinyu Wang, Kexian Chen, Chenxuan Zhao, Jia Yao, Haoran Li
The relationship between the homolytic O-H bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) and the structures of N-oxyl radical precursors (i.e. hydroxylamines and oximes) is important to predict their reactivity. Yet several crucial facts remain hidden to complete the picture such as the substituent electronic effects on the BDEs of oximes. In this work, the O-H BDEs of 120 hydroxylamines and 120 oximes have been calculated. It was found that the majority of the iminoxyl radicals are σ radicals, except for some π radicals...
August 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802136/the-role-of-sulfate-in-aerobic-granular-sludge-process-for-emerging-sulfate-laden-wastewater-treatment
#8
Weiqi Xue, Tianwei Hao, Hamish R Mackey, Xiling Li, Richard C Chan, Guanghao Chen
Sulfate-rich wastewaters pose a major threat to mainstream wastewater treatment due to the unpreventable production of sulfide and associated shift in functional bacteria. Aerobic granular sludge could mitigate these challenges in view of its high tolerance and resilience against changes in various environmental conditions. This study aims to confirm the feasibility of aerobic granular sludge in the treatment of sulfate containing wastewater, investigate the impact of sulfate on nutrient removal and granulation, and reveal metabolic relationships in the above processes...
August 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796890/an-involvement-of-phospholipase-a-acyltransferase-family-proteins-in-peroxisome-regulation-and-plasmalogen-metabolism
#9
REVIEW
Toru Uyama, Kazuhito Tsuboi, Natsuo Ueda
The HRAS-like suppressor (HRASLS) is a protein family consisting of five members in humans. Despite their discovery as tumor suppressors, we demonstrated that all these proteins are phospholipid-metabolizing enzymes, such as phospholipase A1 /A2 and acyltransferase. We thus proposed to rename HRASLS1-5 as phospholipase A/acyltransferase (PLAAT)-1-5. Notably, PLAATs exhibit N-acyltransferase activity to biosynthesize N-acylated ethanolamine phospholipids, including N-acyl-plasmalogen, which serve as precursors of bioactive N-acylethanolamines...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791530/synthesis-of-diverse-n-acyl-pyrazoles-via-cyclocondensation-of-hydrazides-with-formula-see-text-oxeketene-dithioacetal
#10
Bruna Á Pereira, Alcione V de Bastos, Wystan K O Teixeira, Sidnei Moura E Silva, Alex F C Flores, Darlene C Flores
An elegant, efficient, and highly regioselective approach for the synthesis of novel methyl 5-amino-3-(methylthio)-1-differently substituted-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylates is reported. The procedure involves the cyclocondensation of [Formula: see text]-oxeketene [Formula: see text]-dimethyl acetal building blocks with different alkyl, aryl, and heterocyclic acid hydrazides. The novel molecules were obtained in good yields and their identities confirmed by NMR and HRMS spectrometry.
August 8, 2017: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790916/in-vivo-sub-chronic-treatment-with-dichlorvos-in-young-rats-promotes-synaptic-plasticity-and-learning-by-a-mechanism-that-involves-acylpeptide-hydrolase-instead-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibition-correlation-with-endogenous-%C3%AE-amyloid-levels
#11
Gonzalo García-Rojo, Fernando Gámiz, Estíbaliz Ampuero, Daniel Rojas-Espina, Rodrigo Sandoval, Carlos Rozas, Bernardo Morales, Ursula Wyneken, Floria Pancetti
Acylpeptide hydrolase (APEH) is a serine hydrolase that displays two catalytic activities, acting both as an exopeptidase toward short N-acylated peptides and as an endopeptidase toward oxidized peptides or proteins. It has been demonstrated that this enzyme can degrade monomers, dimers, and trimers of the Aβ1-40 peptide in the conditioned media of neuroblastoma cells. In a previous report, we showed that the specific inhibition of this enzyme by the organophosphate molecule dichlorvos (DDVP) triggers an enhancement of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal slices...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783338/experimental-and-computational-evidence-of-the-biradical-structure-and-reactivity-of-titanium-iv-enolates
#12
Carlos Heras, Alejandro Gómez-Palomino, Pedro Romea, Fèlix Urpí, Josep Maria Bofill, Ibério de P R Moreira
Quantum chemical calculations have unveiled the unexpected biradical character of titanium(IV) enolates from N-acyl oxazolidinones and thiazolidinethiones. The electronic structure of these species therefore involves a valence tautomerism consisting of an equilibrium between a closed shell (formally Ti(IV) enolates) and an open shell, biradical, singlet (formally Ti(III) enolates) electronic states, whose origin is to be basically found in changes of the Ti-O distance. Spectroscopic studies of the intermediate species lend support to such a model, which also turns out to be crucial for a better understanding of the overall reactivity of titanium(IV) enolates...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780591/revealing-strategies-of-quorum-sensing-in-azospirillum-brasilense-strains-ab-v5-and-ab-v6
#13
Josiane Fukami, Julia Laura Fernandes Abrantes, Pablo Del Cerro, Marco Antonio Nogueira, Francisco Javier Ollero, Manuel Megías, Mariangela Hungria
Azospirillum brasilense is an important plant-growth promoting bacterium (PGPB) that requires several critical steps for root colonization, including biofilm and exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis and cell motility. In several bacteria these mechanisms are mediated by quorum sensing (QS) systems that regulate the expression of specific genes mediated by the autoinducers N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). We investigated QS mechanisms in strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 of A. brasilense, which are broadly used in commercial inoculants in Brazil...
August 5, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774671/complete-genome-sequence-of-ruminococcaceae-bacterium-cpb6-a-newly-isolated-culture-for-efficient-n-caproic-acid-production-from-lactate
#14
Yong Tao, Xiaoyu Zhu, Han Wang, Yi Wang, Xiangzhen Li, Hong Jin, Junpeng Rui
n-caproic acid (CA) is a valuable chemical feedstock for various industrial applications. Biological production of CA from renewable carbon sources has attracted a lot of attentions recently. We lately reported the new culture Ruminococcaceae bacterium CPB6, which was isolated from a microbiome for efficient CA production from lactate. To further elucidate its metabolism, we sequenced the whole genome of the strain. The size of the complete genome is 2,069,994bp with 50.58% GC content; no plasmid was identified...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773811/synthesis-of-acylated-xylan-based-magnetic-fe%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-hydrogels-and-their-application-for-h%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-detection
#15
Qing-Qing Dai, Jun-Li Ren, Feng Peng, Xiao-Feng Chen, Cun-Dian Gao, Run-Cang Sun
Acylated xylan-based magnetic Fe₃O₄ nanocomposite hydrogels (ACX-MNP-gels) were prepared by fabricating Fe₃O₄ nanoctahedra in situ within a hydrogel matrix which was synthesized by the copolymerization of acylated xylan (ACX) with acrylamide and N-isopropylacrylamide under ultraviolet irradiation. The size of the Fe₃O₄ fabricated within the hydrogel matrix could be adjusted through controlling the crosslinking concentrations (C). The magnetic hydrogels showed desirable magnetic and mechanical properties, which were confirmed by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, physical property measurement system, SEM, TGA, and compression test...
August 11, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772175/fats-and-function-protein-lipid-modifications-in-plant-cell-signalling
#16
REVIEW
Dionne Turnbull, Piers A Hemsley
The post-translational lipid modifications N-myristoylation, prenylation and S-acylation are traditionally associated with increasing protein membrane affinity and localisation. However this is an over-simplification, with evidence now implicating these modifications in a variety of roles such as membrane microdomain partitioning, protein trafficking, protein complex assembly and polarity maintenance. Evidence for a regulatory role is also emerging, with changes or manipulation of lipid modifications offering a means of directly controlling various aspects of protein function...
July 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770378/comprehensive-quantitation-using-two-stable-isotopically-labeled-species-and-direct-detection-of-n-acyl-moiety-of-sphingomyelin
#17
Kotaro Hama, Yuko Fujiwara, Hidetsugu Tabata, Hideyo Takahashi, Kazuaki Yokoyama
Sphingomyelin (ceramide-phosphocholine, CerPCho) is a common sphingolipid in mammalian cells and is composed of phosphorylcholine and ceramide as polar and hydrophobic components, respectively. In this study, a qualitative liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS/MS) analysis is proposed in which CerPCho structures were assigned based on product ion spectra corresponding to sphingosylphosphorylcholine and N-acyl moieties. From MS/MS/MS analysis of CerPCho, we observed product ion spectra of the N-acyl fatty acids as [RCO2](-) ions as well as sphingosylphosphorylcholine...
August 2, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769121/acute-effects-of-exercise-on-appetite-ad-libitum-energy-intake-and-appetite-regulatory-hormones-in-lean-and-overweight-obese-men-and-women
#18
J A Douglas, J A King, D J Clayton, A P Jackson, J A Sargeant, A E Thackray, M J Davies, D J Stensel
BACKGROUND: Acute exercise does not elicit compensatory changes in appetite parameters in lean individuals; however, less is known about responses in overweight individuals. This study compared the acute effects of moderate-intensity exercise on appetite, energy intake and appetite-regulatory hormones in lean and overweight/obese individuals. METHODS: Forty-seven healthy lean (n=22, 11 females; mean(s.d.) 37.5(15.2) years; 22.4(1.5) kg·m(-2)) and overweight/obese (n=25, 11 females; 45...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765541/in-silico-analyses-of-conservational-functional-and-phylogenetic-distribution-of-the-luxi-and-luxr-homologs-in-gram-positive-bacteria
#19
Akanksha Rajput, Manoj Kumar
LuxI and LuxR are key factors that drive quorum sensing (QS) in bacteria through secretion and perception of the signaling molecules e.g. N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). The role of these proteins is well established in Gram-negative bacteria for intercellular communication but remain under-explored in Gram-positive bacteria where QS peptides are majorly responsible for cell-to-cell communication. Therefore, in the present study, we explored conservation, potential function, topological arrangements and evolutionarily aspects of these proteins in Gram-positive bacteria...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762063/the-first-report-on-listeria-monocytogenes-producing-siderophores-and-responds-positively-to-n-acyl-homoserine-lactone-ahl-molecules-by-enhanced-biofilm-formation
#20
Milind Mohan Naik, Purva Bhangui, Chinmay Bhat
Listeria monocytogenes are Gram-positive well-known emerging food-borne pathogens causing listeriosis in humans. In the present study, we have isolated biofilm-forming Listeria sp. from utensils used by a local milk collection dairy society at Usgao Goa, which collects milk for Goa dairy. Through biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the bacterium was confirmed to be L. monocytogenes and designated as strain BN3, having GenBank accession number MF095110. We report for the first time Gram-positive L...
July 31, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
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