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Neural interface

Paul D Marasco, Jacqueline S Hebert, Jon W Sensinger, Courtney E Shell, Jonathon S Schofield, Zachary C Thumser, Raviraj Nataraj, Dylan T Beckler, Michael R Dawson, Dan H Blustein, Satinder Gill, Brett D Mensh, Rafael Granja-Vazquez, Madeline D Newcomb, Jason P Carey, Beth M Orzell
To effortlessly complete an intentional movement, the brain needs feedback from the body regarding the movement's progress. This largely nonconscious kinesthetic sense helps the brain to learn relationships between motor commands and outcomes to correct movement errors. Prosthetic systems for restoring function have predominantly focused on controlling motorized joint movement. Without the kinesthetic sense, however, these devices do not become intuitively controllable. We report a method for endowing human amputees with a kinesthetic perception of dexterous robotic hands...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Matthew D Golub, Patrick T Sadtler, Emily R Oby, Kristin M Quick, Stephen I Ryu, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Aaron P Batista, Steven M Chase, Byron M Yu
Behavior is driven by coordinated activity across a population of neurons. Learning requires the brain to change the neural population activity produced to achieve a given behavioral goal. How does population activity reorganize during learning? We studied intracortical population activity in the primary motor cortex of rhesus macaques during short-term learning in a brain-computer interface (BCI) task. In a BCI, the mapping between neural activity and behavior is exactly known, enabling us to rigorously define hypotheses about neural reorganization during learning...
March 12, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Wing-Kin Tam, Yang Zhi
BACKGROUND: Large-scale neural recordings provide detailed information on neuronal activities and can help elicit the underlying neural mechanisms of the brain. However, the computational burden is also formidable when we try to process the huge data stream generated by such recordings. NEW METHOD: In this study, we report the development of Neural Parallel Engine (NPE), a toolbox for massively parallel neural signal processing on graphical processing units (GPUs)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Alessandra Caggiano
Machining of titanium alloys is characterised by extremely rapid tool wear due to the high cutting temperature and the strong adhesion at the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface, caused by the low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity of Ti alloys. With the aim to monitor the tool conditions during dry turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, a machine learning procedure based on the acquisition and processing of cutting force, acoustic emission and vibration sensor signals during turning is implemented. A number of sensorial features are extracted from the acquired sensor signals in order to feed machine learning paradigms based on artificial neural networks...
March 9, 2018: Sensors
Zachariah J Sperry, Kyounghwan Na, Saman S Parizi, Hillel J Chiel, John Seymour, Euisik Yoon, Tim M Bruns
The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are promising nerve structures for sensory neural interfaces because they provide centralized access to primary afferent cell bodies and spinal reflex circuitry. In order to harness this potential, new electrode technologies are needed which take advantage of the unique properties of DRG, specifically the high density of neural cell bodies at the dorsal surface. Here we report initial <i>in vivo</i> results from the development of a flexible non-penetrating polyimide electrode array interfacing with the surface of ganglia...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Angelo Maravita, Daniele Romano
The ability to craft and use tools is a crucial skill of human beings, distinguishing humans from all other species. Humans show a unique capacity to create novel, technologically advanced devices and represent physical causality using tools. In the present chapter we review the effect of tool use in changing body-space multisensory integration and body representation and the fundamental contribution of the parietal lobe to the neural underpinnings of tool use. In the final section we briefly introduce the effect of parietal brain damage on tool use...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Nikhilesh Natraj, Karunesh Ganguly
Previous research has shown that mental rehearsal can improve performance. A new study by Vyas et al. (2018) reveals that direct modulation of neural dynamics using a brain-computer interface can also modify physical movements. The study further demonstrates that "mental practice" and physical movements share a common neural subspace.
March 7, 2018: Neuron
Jean-François Ghersi-Egea, Elodie Saudrais, Nathalie Strazielle
Drug bioavailability to the developing brain is a major concern in the treatment of neonates and infants as well as pregnant and breast-feeding women. Central adverse drug reactions can have dramatic consequences for brain development, leading to major neurological impairment. Factors setting the cerebral bioavailability of drugs include protein-unbound drug concentration in plasma, local cerebral blood flow, permeability across blood-brain interfaces, binding to neural cells, volume of cerebral fluid compartments, and cerebrospinal fluid secretion rate...
March 7, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Anastasia Giannakidou, Urtzi Etxeberria
This paper reviews a series of experimental studies that address what we call "interface judgment," which is the complex judgment involving integration from multiple levels of grammatical representation such as the syntax-semantics and prosody-semantics interface. We first discuss the results from the ERP literature connected to NPI licensing in different languages, paying particular attention to the N400 and the P600 as neural correlates of this specific phenomenon and focusing on the study by Xiang et al...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Maitreyee Wairagkar, Yoshikatsu Hayashi, Slawomir J Nasuto
Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a direct communication channel by using brain signals, enabling patients with motor impairments to interact with external devices. Motion intention detection is useful for intuitive movement-based BCI as movement is the fundamental mode of interaction with the environment. The aim of this paper is to investigate the temporal dynamics of brain processes using electroencephalography (EEG) to explore novel neural correlates of motion intention. We investigate the changes in temporal dependencies of the EEG by characterising the decay of autocorrelation during asynchronous voluntary finger tapping movement...
2018: PloS One
Ryan M Neely, Aaron C Koralek, Vivek R Athalye, Rui M Costa, Jose M Carmena
Animals acquire behaviors through instrumental conditioning. Brain-machine interfaces have used instrumental conditioning to reinforce patterns of neural activity directly, especially in frontal and motor cortices, which are a rich source of signals for voluntary action. However, evidence suggests that activity in primary sensory cortices may also reflect internally driven processes, instead of purely encoding antecedent stimuli. Here, we show that rats and mice can learn to produce arbitrary patterns of neural activity in their primary visual cortex to control an auditory cursor and obtain reward...
February 22, 2018: Neuron
Steven M Wellman, Takashi D Y Kozai
Neural interface technology provides direct sampling and analysis of electrical and chemical events in the brain in order to better understand neuronal function and treat neurodegenerative disease. However, intracortical electrodes experience inflammatory reactions that reduce long-term stability and functionality and are understood to be facilitated by activated microglia and astrocytes. Emerging studies have identified another cell type that participates in the formation of a high-impedance glial scar following brain injury; the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC)...
February 20, 2018: Biomaterials
Keum-Shik Hong, Nida Aziz, Usman Ghafoor
During the last few decades, substantial scientific and technological efforts have been focused on the development of neuroprostheses. The major emphasis has been on techniques for connecting the human nervous system with a robotic prosthesis via natural-feeling interfaces. The peripheral nerves provide access to highly processed and segregated neural command signals from the brain that can in principle be used to determine user intent and control muscles. If these signals could be used, they might allow near-natural and intuitive control of prosthetic limbs with multiple degrees of freedom...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Yawei Zhao, Jiabei Tang, Yong Cao, Xuejun Jiao, Minpeng Xu, Peng Zhou, Dong Ming, Hongzhi Qi
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), independent of the brain's normal output pathways, are attracting an increasing amount of attention as devices that extract neural information. As a typical type of BCI system, the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCIs possess a high signal-to-noise ratio and information transfer rate. However, the current high speed SSVEP-BCIs were implemented with subjects concentrating on stimuli, and intentionally avoided additional tasks as distractors. This paper aimed to investigate how a distracting simultaneous task, a verbal n-back task with different mental workload, would affect the performance of SSVEP-BCI...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Klas Tybrandt, Dion Khodagholy, Bernd Dielacher, Flurin Stauffer, Aline F Renz, György Buzsáki, János Vörös
Electrical interfacing with neural tissue is key to advancing diagnosis and therapies for neurological disorders, as well as providing detailed information about neural signals. A challenge for creating long-term stable interfaces between electronics and neural tissue is the huge mechanical mismatch between the systems. So far, materials and fabrication processes have restricted the development of soft electrode grids able to combine high performance, long-term stability, and high electrode density, aspects all essential for neural interfacing...
February 28, 2018: Advanced Materials
Meng-Chen Lo, Shuwu Wang, Sagar Singh, Vinod B Damodaran, Ijaz Ahmed, Kevin Coffey, David Barker, Kshitij Saste, Karanvir Kals, Hilton M Kaplan, Joachim Kohn, David I Shreiber, Jeffrey D Zahn
OBJECTIVE: Despite the feasibility of short-term neural recordings using implantable microelectrodes, attaining reliable, chronic recordings remains a challenge. Most neural recording devices suffer from a long-term tissue response, including gliosis, at the device-tissue interface. It was hypothesized that smaller, more flexible intracortical probes would limit gliosis by providing a better mechanical match with surrounding tissue. APPROACH: This paper describes the in vivo evaluation of flexible parylene microprobes designed to improve the interface with the adjacent neural tissue to limit gliosis and thereby allow for improved recording longevity...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Jose L Contreras-Vidal, Magdo Bortole, Fangshi Zhu, Kevin Nathan, Anusha Venkatakrishnan, Gerard E Francisco, Rogelio Soto, Jose L Pons
OBJECTIVE: Advancements in robot-assisted gait rehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces (BMI) may enhance stroke physiotherapy by engaging patients while providing information about robot-induced cortical adaptations. We investigate the feasibility of decoding walking from brain activity in stroke survivors during therapy using a powered exoskeleton integrated with an electroencephalography (EEG)-based BMI. DESIGN: The H2 powered exoskeleton was designed for overground gait training with actuated hip, knee and ankle joints...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Ranu Jung, James J Abbas, Sathyakumar Kuntaegowdanahalli, Anil K Thota
The network of peripheral nerves presents extraordinary potential for modulating and/or monitoring the functioning of internal organs or the brain. The degree to which these pathways can be used to influence or observe neural activity patterns will depend greatly on the quality and specificity of the bionic interface. The anatomical organization, which consists of multiple nerve fibers clustered into fascicles within a nerve bundle, presents opportunities and challenges that may necessitate insertion of electrodes into individual fascicles to achieve the specificity that may be required for many clinical applications...
January 2018: Bioelectron Med (Lond)
Richárd Fiáth, Katharina T Hofer, Vivien Csikós, Domonkos Horváth, Tibor Nánási, Kinga Tóth, Frederick Pothof, Christian Böhler, Maria Asplund, Patrick Ruther, István Ulbert
Stereo-electroencephalography depth electrodes, regularly implanted into drug-resistant patients with focal epilepsy to localize the epileptic focus, have a low channel count (6-12 macro- or microelectrodes), limited spatial resolution (0.5-1 cm) and large contact area of the recording sites (~mm2). Thus, they are not suited for high-density local field potential and multiunit recordings. In this paper, we evaluated the long-term electrophysiological recording performance and histocompatibility of a neural interface consisting of 32 microelectrodes providing a physical shape similar to clinical devices...
February 26, 2018: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
Gordon J Berman
The need for high-throughput, precise, and meaningful methods for measuring behavior has been amplified by our recent successes in measuring and manipulating neural circuitry. The largest challenges associated with moving in this direction, however, are not technical but are instead conceptual: what numbers should one put on the movements an animal is performing (or not performing)? In this review, I will describe how theoretical and data analytical ideas are interfacing with recently-developed computational and experimental methodologies to answer these questions across a variety of contexts, length scales, and time scales...
February 23, 2018: BMC Biology
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