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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916761/chronic-interfacing-with-the-autonomic-nervous-system-using-carbon-nanotube-cnt-yarn-electrodes
#1
Grant A McCallum, Xiaohong Sui, Chen Qiu, Joseph Marmerstein, Yang Zheng, Thomas E Eggers, Chuangang Hu, Liming Dai, Dominique M Durand
The ability to reliably and safely communicate chronically with small diameter (100-300 µm) autonomic nerves could have a significant impact in fundamental biomedical research and clinical applications. However, this ability has remained elusive with existing neural interface technologies. Here we show a new chronic nerve interface using highly flexible materials with axon-like dimensions. The interface was implemented with carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn electrodes to chronically record neural activity from two separate autonomic nerves: the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913349/brain-computer-interface-for-clinical-purposes-cognitive-assessment-and-rehabilitation
#2
REVIEW
Laura Carelli, Federica Solca, Andrea Faini, Paolo Meriggi, Davide Sangalli, Pietro Cipresso, Giuseppe Riva, Nicola Ticozzi, Andrea Ciammola, Vincenzo Silani, Barbara Poletti
Alongside the best-known applications of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology for restoring communication abilities and controlling external devices, we present the state of the art of BCI use for cognitive assessment and training purposes. We first describe some preliminary attempts to develop verbal-motor free BCI-based tests for evaluating specific or multiple cognitive domains in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, disorders of consciousness, and other neurological diseases. Then we present the more heterogeneous and advanced field of BCI-based cognitive training, which has its roots in the context of neurofeedback therapy and addresses patients with neurological developmental disorders (autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), stroke patients, and elderly subjects...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904101/methodological-considerations-for-a-chronic-neural-interface-with-the-cuneate-nucleus-of-macaques
#3
Aneesha K Suresh, Jeremy Winberry, Christopher Versteeg, Raeed H Chowdhury, Tucker Tomlinson, Joshua M Rosenow, Lee E Miller, Sliman J Bensmaia
While the response properties of neurons in the somatosensory nerves and anterior parietal cortex have been extensively studied, little is known about the encoding of tactile and proprioceptive information in the cuneate nucleus (CN) or external cuneate nucleus (ECN), the first recipients of upper limb somatosensory afferent signals. The major challenge in characterizing neural coding in CN/ECN has been to record from these tiny, difficult to access brainstem structures. Most previous investigations of CN response properties have been carried out in decerebrate or anesthetized animals, thereby eliminating the well-documented top-down signals from cortex, which likely exert a strong influence on CN responses...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901588/graphene-in-the-design-and-engineering-of-next-generation-neural-interfaces
#4
REVIEW
Kostas Kostarelos, Melissa Vincent, Clement Hebert, Jose A Garrido
Neural interfaces are becoming a powerful toolkit for clinical interventions requiring stimulation and/or recording of the electrical activity of the nervous system. Active implantable devices offer a promising approach for the treatment of various diseases affecting the central or peripheral nervous systems by electrically stimulating different neuronal structures. All currently used neural interface devices are designed to perform a single function: either record activity or electrically stimulate tissue...
September 13, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899653/role-of-autophagy-in-zika-virus-infection-and-pathogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Abhilash I Chiramel, Sonja M Best
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular pathway that culminates in lysosomal degradation of selected substrates. Autophagy can serve dual roles in virus infection with either pro- or antiviral functions depending on the virus and the stage of the viral replication cycle. Recent studies have suggested a role for autophagy in Zika virus (ZIKV) replication by demonstrating the accumulation of autophagic vesicles following ZIKV infection in both in vitro and in vivo models. In human fetal neural stem cells, ZIKV inhibits Akt-mTOR signaling to induce autophagy, increase virus replication and impede neurogenesis...
September 9, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894826/functional-and-histological-effects-of-chronic-neural-electrode-implantation
#6
REVIEW
Ronald Sahyouni, David T Chang, Omid Moshtaghi, Amin Mahmoodi, Hamid R Djalilian, Harrison W Lin
OBJECTIVES: Permanent injury to the cranial nerves can often result in a substantial reduction in quality of life. Novel and innovative interventions can help restore form and function in nerve paralysis, with bioelectric interfaces among the more promising of these approaches. The foreign body response is an important consideration for any bioelectric device as it influences the function and effectiveness of the implant. The purpose of this review is to describe tissue and functional effects of chronic neural implantation among the different categories of neural implants and highlight advances in peripheral and cranial nerve stimulation...
April 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894412/recording-spikes-activity-in-cultured-hippocampal-neurons-using-flexible-or-transparent-graphene-transistors
#7
Farida Veliev, Zheng Han, Dipankar Kalita, Anne Briançon-Marjollet, Vincent Bouchiat, Cécile Delacour
The emergence of nanoelectronics applied to neural interfaces has started few decades ago, and aims to provide new tools for replacing or restoring disabled functions of the nervous systems as well as further understanding the evolution of such complex organization. As the same time, graphene and other 2D materials have offered new possibilities for integrating micro and nano-devices on flexible, transparent, and biocompatible substrates, promising for bio and neuro-electronics. In addition to many bio-suitable features of graphene interface, such as, chemical inertness and anti-corrosive properties, its optical transparency enables multimodal approach of neuronal based systems, the electrical layer being compatible with additional microfluidics and optical manipulation ports...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894171/separability-of-neural-responses-to-standardised-mechanical-stimulation-of-limbs
#8
Emma Brunton, Christoph W Blau, Kianoush Nazarpour
Considerable scientific and technological efforts are currently being made towards the development of neural prostheses. Understanding how the peripheral nervous system responds to electro-mechanical stimulation of the limb, will help to inform the design of prostheses that can restore function or accelerate recovery from injury to the sensory motor system. However, due to differences in experimental protocols, it is difficult, if not impossible, to make meaningful comparisons between different peripheral nerve interfaces...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891503/extracellular-matrix-and-its-role-in-conveying-glial-neural-interactions-in-health-and-disease
#9
Vera Maura Fernandes de Lima, Wolfgang Hanke
We review the concepts and findings that may be related to the occurrence of non-linear glial/neural dynamics involving interactions between polyelectrolytes of the extracellular matrix and the basement membranes that cover the endfeet of glia at CNS interfaces. Distortions of perception and blocking of learning expressed in functional syndromes are interpreted as macroscopic electrochemical patterns that emerge in grey matter through glial/neural interactions.
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887551/graphene-improves-the-biocompatibility-of-polyacrylamide-hydrogels-3d-polymeric-scaffolds-for-neuronal-growth
#10
Cristina Martín, Sonia Merino, Jose M González-Domínguez, Rossana Rauti, Laura Ballerini, Maurizio Prato, Ester Vázquez
In tissue engineering strategies, the design of scaffolds based on nanostructures is a subject undergoing intense research: nanomaterials may affect the scaffolds properties, including their ability to interact with cells favouring cell growth and improving tissue performance. Hydrogels are synthetic materials widely used to obtain realistic tissue constructs, as they resemble living tissues. Here, different hydrogels with varying content of graphene, are synthesised by in situ radical polymerization of acrylamide in aqueous graphene dispersions...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885187/a-review-on-mechanical-considerations-for-chronically-implanted-neural-probes
#11
Aziliz Lecomte, Emeline Descamps, Christian Bergaud
This review intends on presenting a comprehensive analysis of the mechanical considerations for chronically-implanted neural probes. Failure of neural electrical recordings or stimulation over time has shown to arise from foreign body reaction and device material stability. It seems that devices that match most closely the mechanical properties of the brain would more likely reduce the mechanical stress at the probe/tissue interface, thus improving body acceptance. The use of low Young's modulus polymers instead of hard substrates is a known way to enhance this mechanical mimetism, though compliance can be achieved through a variety of means...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883640/a-somatotopic-bidirectional-hand-prosthesis-with-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-based-sensory-feedback
#12
Edoardo D'Anna, Francesco M Petrini, Fiorenzo Artoni, Igor Popovic, Igor Simanić, Stanisa Raspopovic, Silvestro Micera
According to amputees, sensory feedback is amongst the most important features lacking from commercial prostheses. Although restoration of touch by means of implantable neural interfaces has been achieved, these approaches require surgical interventions, and their long-term usability still needs to be fully investigated. Here, we developed a non-invasive alternative which maintains some of the advantages of invasive approaches, such as a somatotopic sensory restitution scheme. We used transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to induce referred sensations to the phantom hand of amputees...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876356/a-versatile-upconversion-surface-evaluation-platform-for-bio-nano-surface-selection-for-the-nervous-system
#13
Libing Fu, Marco Morsch, Bingyang Shi, Guoying Wang, Albert Lee, Rowan Radford, Yiqing Lu, Dayong Jin, Roger Chung
There is considerable interest in developing diagnostic nanotools for early detection and delivery of various therapeutic agents for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, a key challenge remains in the selection of suitable surfaces to overcome the nano-bio interface issue, namely that many nanoparticle surfaces demonstrate instability when administered into biological environments and show substantial cytotoxicity to the central nervous system. In this study, we fabricated an evaluation platform for bio-nano surface selection based on the combination of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), cultured neural cells and zebra fish, and systemically demonstrated how it can evaluate the suitability of nanoparticle surfaces for applications in the central nervous system...
September 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869690/highly-stretchable-compliant-polymeric-microelectrode-arrays-for-in-vivo-electrophysiological-interfacing
#14
Dianpeng Qi, Zhiyuan Liu, Yan Liu, Ying Jiang, Wan Ru Leow, Mayank Pal, Shaowu Pan, Hui Yang, Yu Wang, Xiaoqian Zhang, Jiancan Yu, Bin Li, Zhe Yu, Wei Wang, Xiaodong Chen
Polymeric microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are emerging as a new generation of biointegrated microelectrodes to transduce original electrochemical signals in living tissues to external electrical circuits, and vice versa. So far, the challenge of stretchable polymeric MEAs lies in the competition between high stretchability and good electrode-substrate adhesion. The larger the stretchability, the easier the delamination of electrodes from the substrate due to the mismatch in their Young's modulus. In this work, polypyrrole (PPy) electrode materials are designed, with PPy nanowires integrated on the high conductive PPy electrode arrays...
September 4, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869537/an-adaptive-classification-strategy-for-reliable-locomotion-mode-recognition
#15
Ming Liu, Fan Zhang, He Helen Huang
Algorithms for locomotion mode recognition (LMR) based on surface electromyography and mechanical sensors have recently been developed and could be used for the neural control of powered prosthetic legs. However, the variations in input signals, caused by physical changes at the sensor interface and human physiological changes, may threaten the reliability of these algorithms. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of applying adaptive pattern classifiers for LMR. Three adaptive classifiers, i.e...
September 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861464/organic-electronics-for-high-resolution-electrocorticography-of-the-human-brain
#16
Dion Khodagholy, Jennifer N Gelinas, Zifang Zhao, Malcolm Yeh, Michael Long, Jeremy D Greenlee, Werner Doyle, Orrin Devinsky, György Buzsáki
Localizing neuronal patterns that generate pathological brain signals may assist with tissue resection and intervention strategies in patients with neurological diseases. Precise localization requires high spatiotemporal recording from populations of neurons while minimizing invasiveness and adverse events. We describe a large-scale, high-density, organic material-based, conformable neural interface device ("NeuroGrid") capable of simultaneously recording local field potentials (LFPs) and action potentials from the cortical surface...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860986/classification-of-movement-and-inhibition-using-a-hybrid-bci
#17
Jennifer Chmura, Joshua Rosing, Steven Collazos, Shikha J Goodwin
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are an emerging technology that are capable of turning brain electrical activity into commands for an external device. Motor imagery (MI)-when a person imagines a motion without executing it-is widely employed in BCI devices for motor control because of the endogenous origin of its neural control mechanisms, and the similarity in brain activation to actual movements. Challenges with translating a MI-BCI into a practical device used outside laboratories include the extensive training required, often due to poor user engagement and visual feedback response delays; poor user flexibility/freedom to time the execution/inhibition of their movements, and to control the movement type (right arm vs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854522/an-investigation-on-effects-of-amputee-s-physiological-parameters-on-maximum-pressure-developed-at-the-prosthetic-socket-interface-using-artificial-neural-network
#18
Chitresh Nayak, Amit Singh, Himanshu Chaudhary, Deepak Rajendra Unune
Technological advances in prosthetics have attracted the curiosity of researchers in monitoring design and developments of the sockets to sustain maximum pressure without any soft tissue damage, skin breakdown, and painful sores. Numerous studies have been reported in the area of pressure measurement at the limb/socket interface, though, the relation between amputee's physiological parameters and the pressure developed at the limb/socket interface is still not studied. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of patient-specific physiological parameters viz...
August 1, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843838/parsing-learning-in-networks-using-brain-machine-interfaces
#19
REVIEW
Amy L Orsborn, Bijan Pesaran
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) define new ways to interact with our environment and hold great promise for clinical therapies. Motor BMIs, for instance, re-route neural activity to control movements of a new effector and could restore movement to people with paralysis. Increasing experience shows that interfacing with the brain inevitably changes the brain. BMIs engage and depend on a wide array of innate learning mechanisms to produce meaningful behavior. BMIs precisely define the information streams into and out of the brain, but engage wide-spread learning...
August 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842779/polymer-based-interconnection-cables-to-integrate-with-flexible-penetrating-microelectrode-arrays
#20
Keonghwan Oh, Donghak Byun, Sohee Kim
There have been various types of interconnection methods for neural interfacing electrodes, such as silicon ribbon cables, wire bonding and polymer-based cables. In this study, interconnection cables were developed for integration with a Flexible Penetrating Microelectrode Array (FPMA) that was previously developed for neural signal recording or stimulation. Polyimide and parylene C were selected as base materials for the interconnection cables as both materials can preserve the flexibility of the FPMA better than other interconnection methods such as silicon ribbon cable or wire bonding...
August 25, 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
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