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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719580/central-insulin-modulates-food-valuation-via-mesolimbic-pathways
#1
Lena J Tiedemann, Sebastian M Schmid, Judith Hettel, Katrin Giesen, Paul Francke, Christian Büchel, Stefanie Brassen
Central insulin is thought to act at the neural interface between metabolic and hedonic drives to eat. Here, using pharmacological fMRI, we show that intranasal insulin (INI) changes the value of food cues through modulation of mesolimbic pathways. Overnight fasted participants rated the palatability of food pictures and attractiveness of non-food items (control) after receiving INI or placebo. We report that INI reduces ratings of food palatability and value signals in mesolimbic regions in individuals with normal insulin sensitivity...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713811/reducing-the-impact-of-shoulder-abduction-loading-on-the-classification-of-hand-opening-and-grasping-in-individuals-with-poststroke-flexion-synergy
#2
Yiyun Lan, Jun Yao, Julius P A Dewald
Application of neural machine interface in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke is regarded as a great challenge, especially for classification of the hand opening and grasping during a functional upper extremity movement such as reach-to-grasp. The overall accuracy of classifying hand movements, while actively lifting the paretic arm, is subject to a significant reduction compared to the accuracy when the arm is fully supported. Such a reduction is believed to be due to the expression of flexion synergy, which couples shoulder abduction (SABD) with elbow/wrist and finger flexion, and is common in up to 60% of the stroke population...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713269/the-emerging-role-for-zinc-in-depression-and-psychosis
#3
REVIEW
Matthew A Petrilli, Thorsten M Kranz, Karine Kleinhaus, Peter Joe, Mara Getz, Porsha Johnson, Moses V Chao, Dolores Malaspina
Zinc participation is essential for all physiological systems, including neural functioning, where it participates in a myriad of cellular processes. Converging clinical, molecular, and genetic discoveries illuminate key roles for zinc homeostasis in association with clinical depression and psychosis which are not yet well appreciated at the clinical interface. Intracellular deficiency may arise from low circulating zinc levels due to dietary insufficiency, or impaired absorption from aging or medical conditions, including alcoholism...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713237/behavioral-and-neural-correlates-of-executive-function-interplay-between-inhibition-and-updating-processes
#4
Na Young Kim, Ellen Wittenberg, Chang S Nam
This study investigated the interaction between two executive function processes, inhibition and updating, through analyses of behavioral, neurophysiological, and effective connectivity metrics. Although, many studies have focused on behavioral effects of executive function processes individually, few studies have examined the dynamic causal interactions between these two functions. A total of twenty participants from a local university performed a dual task combing flanker and n-back experimental paradigms, and completed the Operation Span Task designed to measure working memory capacity...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713235/connecting-the-brain-to-itself-through-an-emulation
#5
Mijail D Serruya
Pilot clinical trials of human patients implanted with devices that can chronically record and stimulate ensembles of hundreds to thousands of individual neurons offer the possibility of expanding the substrate of cognition. Parallel trains of firing rate activity can be delivered in real-time to an array of intermediate external modules that in turn can trigger parallel trains of stimulation back into the brain. These modules may be built in software, VLSI firmware, or biological tissue as in vitro culture preparations or in vivo ectopic construct organoids...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711988/emotion-recognition-based-on-eeg-features-in-movie-clips-with-channel-selection
#6
Mehmet Siraç Özerdem, Hasan Polat
Emotion plays an important role in human interaction. People can explain their emotions in terms of word, voice intonation, facial expression, and body language. However, brain-computer interface (BCI) systems have not reached the desired level to interpret emotions. Automatic emotion recognition based on BCI systems has been a topic of great research in the last few decades. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are one of the most crucial resources for these systems. The main advantage of using EEG signals is that it reflects real emotion and can easily be processed by computer systems...
July 15, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704999/multilayer-poly-3-4-ethylenedioxythiophene-dexamethasone-and-poly-3-4-ethylenedioxythiophene-polystyrene-sulfonate-carbon-nanotubes-coatings-on-glassy-carbon-microelectrode-arrays-for-controlled-drug-release
#7
Elisa Castagnola, Stefano Carli, Maria Vomero, Alice Scarpellini, Mirko Prato, Noah Goshi, Luciano Fadiga, Sam Kassegne, Davide Ricci
The authors present an electrochemically controlled, drug releasing neural interface composed of a glassy carbon (GC) microelectrode array combined with a multilayer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coating. The system integrates the high stability of the GC electrode substrate, ideal for electrical stimulation and electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters, with the on-demand drug-releasing capabilities of PEDOT-dexamethasone compound, through a mechanically stable interlayer of PEDOT-polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)-carbon nanotubes (CNT)...
July 13, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701540/a-novel-paraplegia-model-in-awake-behaving-macaques
#8
Max Ostrinsky Krucoff, Katie Zhuang, David B Macleod, Allen Yin, Yoon Woo Byun, Roberto Jose Manson, Dennis A Turner, Laura Oliveira, Mikhail A Lebedev
Lower limb paralysis from spinal cord injury (SCI) or neurological disease carries a poor prognosis for recovery and remains a large societal burden. Neurophysiological and neuroprosthetic research have the potential to improve quality of life for these patients; however, the lack of an ethical and sustainable non-human primate model for paraplegia hinders their advancement. Therefore, our multi-disciplinary team developed a way to induce temporary paralysis in awake behaving macaques by creating a fully implantable lumbar epidural catheter-subcutaneous port system that enables easy and reliable targeted drug delivery for sensorimotor blockade...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692290/top-down-atmospheric-ionization-mass-spectrometry-microscopy-combined-with-proteogenomics
#9
Cheng-Chih Hsu, Michael W Baker, Terry Gaasterland, Michael J Meehan, Eduardo R Macagno, Pieter C Dorrestein
Mass spectrometry-based protein analysis has become an important methodology for proteogenomic mapping by providing evidence for the existence of proteins predicted at the genomic level. However, screening and identification of proteins directly on tissue samples, where histological information is preserved, remain challenging. Here we demonstrate that the ambient ionization source, nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI), interfaced with light microscopy allows for protein profiling directly on animal tissues at the microscopic scale...
July 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691605/effects-of-lesions-to-the-left-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-on-task-specific-top-down-biases-and-response-strategies-in-blocked-cyclic-naming
#10
Eva Belke
Anders, Riès, van Maanen and Alario put forward evidence accumulation modelling of object naming times as an alternative to neural network models of lexical retrieval. The authors exemplify their approach using data from the blocked-cyclic naming paradigm, requiring speakers to repeatedly name small sets of related or unrelated objects. The effects observed with this paradigm are understood reasonably well within the tradition of neural network modelling. However, implemented neural network models do not specify interfaces for task-specific top-down influences and response strategies that are likely to play a role in the blocked-cyclic naming paradigm, distinguishing it from continuous, non-cyclic manipulations of the naming context...
February 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688489/a-pca-aided-cross-covariance-scheme-for-discriminative-feature-extraction-from-eeg-signals
#11
Roozbeh Zarei, Jing He, Siuly Siuly, Yanchun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Feature extraction of EEG signals plays a significant role in Brain-computer interface (BCI) as it can significantly affect the performance and the computational time of the system. The main aim of the current work is to introduce an innovative algorithm for acquiring reliable discriminating features from EEG signals to improve classification performances and to reduce the time complexity. METHODS: This study develops a robust feature extraction method combining the principal component analysis (PCA) and the cross-covariance technique (CCOV) for the extraction of discriminatory information from the mental states based on EEG signals in BCI applications...
July 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688070/long-term-performance-of-porous-platinum-coated-neural-electrodes
#12
M Leber, R Bhandari, J Mize, D J Warren, M M H Shandhi, F Solzbacher, S Negi
Over the last several years, there has been a growing interest in neural implants for the study and diagnostics of neurological disorders as well as for the symptomatic treatment of central nervous system related diseases. One of the major challenges is the trade-off between small electrode sizes for high selectivity between single neurons and large electrode-tissue interface areas for excellent stimulation and recording properties. This paper presents an approach of increasing the real surface area of the electrodes by creating a surface microstructure...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680906/neurofeedback-based-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-upregulates-motor-cortex-activity-in-imagined-motor-tasks
#13
Pawan Lapborisuth, Xian Zhang, Adam Noah, Joy Hirsch
Neurofeedback is a method for using neural activity displayed on a computer to regulate one's own brain function and has been shown to be a promising technique for training individuals to interact with brain-machine interface applications such as neuroprosthetic limbs. The goal of this study was to develop a user-friendly functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based neurofeedback system to upregulate neural activity associated with motor imagery, which is frequently used in neuroprosthetic applications...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674168/connectome-wide-phenotypical-and-genotypical-associations-in-focal-dystonia
#14
Stefan Fuertinger, Kristina Simonyan
Isolated focal dystonia is a debilitating movement disorder of unknown pathophysiology. Early studies in focal dystonias have pointed to segregated changes in brain activity and connectivity. Only recently, the notion that dystonia pathophysiology may lie in abnormalities of large-scale brain networks appeared in the literature. Here, we outline a novel concept of functional connectome-wide alterations that are linked to dystonia phenotype and genotype. Using a neural community detection strategy and graph theoretical analysis of functional fMRI data in human patients with the laryngeal form of dystonia (LD) and healthy controls (both males and females), we identified an abnormally widespread hub formation in dystonia, which particularly affected the primary sensorimotor and parietal cortices and thalamus...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671816/photopolymerizable-zwitterionic-polymer-patterns-control-cell-adhesion-and-guide-neural-growth
#15
Braden L Leigh, Elise Cheng, Linjing Xu, Corinne Andresen, Marlan R Hansen, C Allan Guymon
Developing materials that reduce or eliminate fibrosis encapsulation of neural prosthetic implants could significantly enhance implant fidelity by improving the tissue/electrode array interface. Here, we report on the photografting and patterning of two zwitterionic materials, sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) and carboxybetaine methacrylate (CBMA) for controlling the adhesion and directionality of cells relevant to neural prosthetics. CBMA and SBMA polymers were photopolymerized and grafted on glass surfaces then characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle, and protein adsorption...
July 3, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668578/computer-assisted-three-dimensional-tracking-of-sensory-innervation-in-the-murine-bladder-mucosa-with-two-photon-microscopy
#16
Anna Schueth, Bart Spronck, Marc A M J van Zandvoort, Gommert A van Koeveringe
A strong association between functional bladder disorders and bladder sensation is well-known, with a relationship between malfunctioning detrusor muscle and abnormal sensation arising from the sub-urothelium and the lamina propria (LP), has been suggested. However, the exact underlying pathophysiology of these bladder disorders is not completely understood. Therefore, it is important to gain knowledge on sensory innervation of the urinary bladder in order to understand the neural network function in healthy and diseased bladder...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656980/neurovascular-egfl7-regulates-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-subventricular-zone-and-thereby-affects-olfactory-perception
#17
Frank Bicker, Verica Vasic, Guilherme Horta, Felipe Ortega, Hendrik Nolte, Atria Kavyanifar, Stefanie Keller, Nevenka Dudvarski Stankovic, Patrick N Harter, Rui Benedito, Beat Lutz, Tobias Bäuerle, Jens Hartwig, Jan Baumgart, Marcus Krüger, Konstantin Radyushkin, Lavinia Alberi, Benedikt Berninger, Mirko H H Schmidt
Adult neural stem cells reside in a specialized niche in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Throughout life they give rise to adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB), thus contributing to neural plasticity and pattern discrimination. Here, we show that the neurovascular protein EGFL7 is secreted by endothelial cells and neural stem cells (NSCs) of the SVZ to shape the vascular stem-cell niche. Loss of EGFL7 causes an accumulation of activated NSCs, which display enhanced activity and re-entry into the cell cycle...
June 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651628/separability-of-motor-imagery-of-the-self-from-interpretation-of-motor-intentions-of-others-at-the-single-trial-level-an-eeg-study
#18
João Andrade, José Cecílio, Marco Simões, Francisco Sales, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the separability of the neural correlates of 2 types of motor imagery, self and third person (actions owned by the participant himself vs. another individual). If possible this would allow for the development of BCI interfaces to train disorders of action and intention understanding beyond simple imitation, such as autism. METHODS: We used EEG recordings from 20 healthy participants, as well as electrocorticography (ECoG) in one, based on a virtual reality setup...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648720/an-engineered-home-environment-for-untethered-data-telemetry-from-nonhuman-primates
#19
Marc P Powell, William R Britz, James S Harper, David A Borton
BACKGROUND: Wireless neural recording technologies now provide untethered access to large populations of neurons in the nonhuman primate brain. Such technologies enable long-term, continuous interrogation of neural circuits and importantly open the door for chronic neurorehabilitation platforms. For example, by providing continuous consistent closed loop feedback from a brain machine interface, the nervous system can leverage plasticity to integrate more effectively into the system than would be possible in short experimental sessions...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643185/keeping-disability-in-mind-a-case-study-in-implantable-brain-computer-interface-research
#20
Laura Specker Sullivan, Eran Klein, Tim Brown, Matthew Sample, Michelle Pham, Paul Tubig, Raney Folland, Anjali Truitt, Sara Goering
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research is an interdisciplinary area of study within Neural Engineering. Recent interest in end-user perspectives has led to an intersection with user-centered design (UCD). The goal of user-centered design is to reduce the translational gap between researchers and potential end users. However, while qualitative studies have been conducted with end users of BCI technology, little is known about individual BCI researchers' experience with and attitudes towards UCD. Given the scientific, financial, and ethical imperatives of UCD, we sought to gain a better understanding of practical and principled considerations for researchers who engage with end users...
June 22, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
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