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Neural interface

Lulu Wang, Kang Huang, Cheng Zhong, Liping Wang, Yi Lu
<AbstractText Label="Abstract" NlmCategory="UNASSIGNED">Recent advances in optogenetics have established a precisely timed and cell-specific methodology for understanding the functions of brain circuits and the mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the fabrication of optrodes, a key functional element in optogenetics, remains a great challenge. Here, we report reliable and efficient fabrication strategies for chronically implantable optrode arrays. To improve the performance of the fabricated optrode arrays, surfaces of the recording sites were modified using optimized electrochemical processes...
2018: Biophysics Reports
Bradley J Edelman, Jianjun Meng, Nicholas Gulachek, Christopher C Cline, Bin He
EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) technology creates non-biological pathways for conveying a user's mental intent solely through noninvasively measured neural signals. While optimizing the performance of a single task has long been the focus of BCI research, in order to translate this technology into everyday life, realistic situations, in which multiple tasks are performed simultaneously, must be investigated. In this paper, we explore the concept of cognitive flexibility, or multitasking, within the BCI framework by utilizing a 2-D cursor control task, using sensorimotor rhythms (SMRs), and a four-target visual attention task, using steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), both individually and simultaneously...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Pantaleo Romanelli, Marco Piangerelli, David Ratel, Christophe Gaude, Thomas Costecalde, Cosimo Puttilli, Mauro Picciafuoco, Alim Benabid, Napoleon Torres
OBJECTIVE Wireless technology is a novel tool for the transmission of cortical signals. Wireless electrocorticography (ECoG) aims to improve the safety and diagnostic gain of procedures requiring invasive localization of seizure foci and also to provide long-term recording of brain activity for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). However, no wireless devices aimed at these clinical applications are currently available. The authors present the application of a fully implantable and externally rechargeable neural prosthesis providing wireless ECoG recording and direct cortical stimulation (DCS)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Julia Brasch, Phinikoula S Katsamba, Oliver J Harrison, Göran Ahlsén, Regina B Troyanovsky, Indrajyoti Indra, Anna Kaczynska, Benjamin Kaeser, Sergey Troyanovsky, Barry Honig, Lawrence Shapiro
Type II cadherins are cell-cell adhesion proteins critical for tissue patterning and neuronal targeting but whose molecular binding code remains poorly understood. Here, we delineate binding preferences for type II cadherin cell-adhesive regions, revealing extensive heterophilic interactions between specific pairs, in addition to homophilic interactions. Three distinct specificity groups emerge from our analysis with members that share highly similar heterophilic binding patterns and favor binding to one another...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
Imali T Hettiarachchi, Toktam Babaei, Thanh Nguyen, Chee P Lim, Saeid Nahavandi
BACKGROUND: Artificial neural networks (ANN) is one of the widely used classifiers in the brain computer interface (BCI) systems-based on noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Among the different ANN architectures, the most commonly applied for BCI classifiers is the multilayer perceptron (MLP). When appropriately designed with optimal number of neuron layers and number of neurons per layer, the ANN can act as a universal approximator. However, due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of EEG signal data, overtraining problem may become an inherent issue, causing these universal approximators to fail in real-time applications...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Eyal Abraham, Ruth Feldman
Allomothering, the caregiving to offspring by adults other than the biological mother including fathers and other group members, has characterized human societies throughout hominin evolution. Allomothering is common across the animal kingdom and carries long-term fitness benefits to offspring. Guided by our biobehavioral synchrony conceptual frame, we present research from our lab and others addressing the behavioral, hormonal, and neural systems that underpin human allomaternal care by fathers and studies on the coparental bond...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Jee Woong Lee, Hongki Kang, Yoonkey Nam
In recent years, photothermal stimulation methods using plasmonic metal nanoparticles have emerged as non-genetic optical techniques in neuromodulation. Although nanoparticle-based photothermal stimulation shows great potential in the excitation and the inhibition of neural activity, the complex synthesis processes of the nanoparticles and the lack of large-area deposition methods can be limiting factors for the development of photothermal neural devices. In this paper, we propose a plasmonic gold nanofilm, fabricated by a standard thermal evaporation process, as a simple and mass-producible photothermal neural interface layer for microelectrode array (MEA) chips...
May 4, 2018: Nanoscale
Rohit Abraham John, Fucai Liu, Nguyen Anh Chien, Mohit R Kulkarni, Chao Zhu, Qundong Fu, Arindam Basu, Zheng Liu, Nripan Mathews
Emulation of brain-like signal processing with thin-film devices can lay the foundation for building artificially intelligent learning circuitry in future. Encompassing higher functionalities into single artificial neural elements will allow the development of robust neuromorphic circuitry emulating biological adaptation mechanisms with drastically lesser neural elements, mitigating strict process challenges and high circuit density requirements necessary to match the computational complexity of the human brain...
May 4, 2018: Advanced Materials
Jason Omedes, Andreas Schwarz, Gernot R Müller-Putz, Luis Montesano
This paper presents a hybrid BCI combining neural correlates of natural movements and interaction error-related potentials (ErrP) to perform a 3D reaching task. It focuses on the impact that design factors of such a hybrid BCI have on the ErrP signatures and in their classification.&#13; &#13; Approach. Users attempted to control a 3D virtual interface that simulated their own hand, to reach and grasp two different objects.&#13; Three factors of interest were modulated during the experimentation: (1) execution speed of the grasping, (2) type of grasping and (3) motor commands generated by motor imagery or real motion...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Alan R Mardinly, Ian Antón Oldenburg, Nicolas C Pégard, Savitha Sridharan, Evan H Lyall, Kirill Chesnov, Stephen G Brohawn, Laura Waller, Hillel Adesnik
Understanding brain function requires technologies that can control the activity of large populations of neurons with high fidelity in space and time. We developed a multiphoton holographic approach to activate or suppress the activity of ensembles of cortical neurons with cellular resolution and sub-millisecond precision. Since existing opsins were inadequate, we engineered new soma-targeted (ST) optogenetic tools, ST-ChroME and IRES-ST-eGtACR1, optimized for multiphoton activation and suppression. Employing a three-dimensional all-optical read-write interface, we demonstrate the ability to simultaneously photostimulate up to 50 neurons distributed in three dimensions in a 550 × 550 × 100-µm3 volume of brain tissue...
April 30, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Hailong Yu, Xueli Fan, Lebin Zhao, Xiaoyang Guo
Hand gesture recognition is getting more and more important in the area of rehabilitation and human machine interface (HMI). However, most current approaches are difficult to achieve practical application because of an excess of sensors. In this work, we proposed a method to recognize six common hand gestures and establish the optimal relationship between hand gesture and muscle by utilizing only two channels of surface electromyography (sEMG). We proposed an integrated approach to process the sEMG data including filtering, endpoint detection, feature extraction, and classifier...
April 14, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Hyunjun Jung, Jintae Kim, Yoonkey Nam
BACKGROUND: Neural responses to electrical stimulation provide valuable information to probe and study the network function. Especially, recording neural responses from the stimulated site provides improved neural interfacing method. However, it is difficult to measure short-delayed responses at the stimulated electrode due to the saturation of the amplifier after stimulation which is called "stimulus artifact". Despite the advances in handling stimulation artifacts, it is still very challenging to deal with the artifacts if one tries to stimulate and recording from the same electrode...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Roozbeh Behroozmand, Stacey Sangtian
The present study used event-related potential (ERP) recordings to investigate the neural mechanisms of sensorimotor adaptation in response to altered auditory feedback (AAF) during vocal production. 12 healthy speakers were tested under a vocal motor adaptation paradigm in which the fundamental frequency (F0) of their voice auditory feedback was pitch-shifted downward by one semi-tone (- 100 cents) during vowel vocalizations. Behavioral results revealed that subjects adapted to AAF by producing opposing (upward) responses to pitch-shift stimuli, and this adaptive behavior persisted after feedback alteration was removed (washout)...
April 25, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Hojeong Kim, Minjung Kim
We constructed a physiologically plausible computationally efficient model of a motor unit and developed simulation software that allows for integrative investigations of the input-output processing in the motor unit system. The model motor unit was first built by coupling the motoneuron model and muscle unit model to a simplified axon model. To build the motoneuron model, we used a recently reported two-compartment modeling approach that accurately captures the key cell-type-related electrical properties under both passive conditions (somatic input resistance, membrane time constant, and signal attenuation properties between the soma and the dendrites) and active conditions (rheobase current and afterhyperpolarization duration at the soma and plateau behavior at the dendrites)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Mattia Bramini, Giulio Alberini, Elisabetta Colombo, Martina Chiacchiaretta, Mattia L DiFrancesco, José F Maya-Vetencourt, Luca Maragliano, Fabio Benfenati, Fabrizia Cesca
The scientific community has witnessed an exponential increase in the applications of graphene and graphene-based materials in a wide range of fields, from engineering to electronics to biotechnologies and biomedical applications. For what concerns neuroscience, the interest raised by these materials is two-fold. On one side, nanosheets made of graphene or graphene derivatives (graphene oxide, or its reduced form) can be used as carriers for drug delivery. Here, an important aspect is to evaluate their toxicity, which strongly depends on flake composition, chemical functionalization and dimensions...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Yongtian He, Trieu Phat Luu, Kevin Nathan, Sho Nakagome, Jose L Contreras-Vidal
We present a mobile brain-body imaging (MoBI) dataset acquired during treadmill walking in a brain-computer interface (BCI) task. The data were collected from eight healthy subjects, each having three identical trials. Each trial consisted of three conditions: standing, treadmill walking, and treadmill walking with a closed-loop BCI. During the BCI condition, subjects used their brain activity to control a virtual avatar on a screen to walk in real-time. Robust procedures were designed to record lower limb joint angles (bilateral hip, knee, and ankle) using goniometers synchronized with 60-channel scalp electroencephalography (EEG)...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Data
Marianna Semprini, Matteo Laffranchi, Vittorio Sanguineti, Laura Avanzino, Roberto De Icco, Lorenzo De Michieli, Michela Chiappalone
Neurological diseases causing motor/cognitive impairments are among the most common causes of adult-onset disability. More than one billion of people are affected worldwide, and this number is expected to increase in upcoming years, because of the rapidly aging population. The frequent lack of complete recovery makes it desirable to develop novel neurorehabilitative treatments, suited to the patients, and better targeting the specific disability. To date, rehabilitation therapy can be aided by the technological support of robotic-based therapy, non-invasive brain stimulation, and neural interfaces...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Juanita Mathews, Michael Levin
Breakthroughs in biomedicine and synthetic bioengineering require predictive, rational control over anatomical structure and function. Recent successes in manipulating cellular and molecular hardware have not been matched by progress in understanding the patterning software implemented during embryogenesis and regeneration. A fundamental capability gap is driving desired changes in growth and form to address birth defects and traumatic injury. Here we review new tools, results, and conceptual advances in an exciting emerging field: endogenous non-neural bioelectric signaling, which enables cellular collectives to make global decisions and implement large-scale pattern homeostasis...
April 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Kaixin Zhang, Michael V Baratta, Guozhen Liu, Matthew G Frank, Nathan R Leslie, Linda R Watkins, Steven F Maier, Mark R Hutchinson, Ewa M Goldys
Mounting evidence indicates that cytokines secreted by innate immune cells in the brain play a central role in regulating neural circuits that subserve mood, cognition, and sickness responses. A major impediment to the study of neuroimmune signaling in healthy and disease states is the absence of tools for in vivo detection of cytokine release in the brain. Here we describe the design and application of a cytokine detection device capable of serial monitoring of local cytokine release in discrete brain regions...
April 17, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Zahra Emami, Tom Chau
OBJECTIVES: Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow users to operate a device or application by means of cognitive activity. This technology will ultimately be used in real-world environments which include the presence of distractors. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of visual distractors on BCI performance. METHODS: Sixteen able-bodied participants underwent neurofeedback training to achieve motor imagery-guided BCI control in an online paradigm using electroencephalography (EEG) to measure neural signals...
April 3, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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