Read by QxMD icon Read


(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005882.].
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Lu Wang, K Whittemore, S A Johnston, P Stafford
We have previously shown that the diversity of antibodies in an individual can be displayed on chips on which 130,000 peptides chosen from random sequence space have been synthesized. This immunosignature technology is unbiased in displaying antibody diversity relative to natural sequence space, and has been shown to have diagnostic and prognostic potential for a wide variety of diseases and vaccines. Here we show that a global measure such as Shannon's entropy can be calculated for each immunosignature. The immune entropy was measured across a diverse set of 800 people and in 5 individuals over 3 months...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Denicar Lina Nascimento Fabris Maeda, Milene Tavares Batista, Lennon Ramos Pereira, Mariana de Jesus Cintra, Jaime Henrique Amorim, Camila Mathias-Santos, Sara Araújo Pereira, Silvia Beatriz Boscardin, Sandriana Dos Ramos Silva, Eliana L Faquim-Mauro, Vanessa Barbosa Silveira, Danielle Bruna Leal Oliveira, Stephen Albert Johnston, Luís Carlos de Souza Ferreira, Juliana Falcão Rodrigues
The heat-labile toxins (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli display adjuvant effects to coadministered antigens, leading to enhanced production of serum antibodies. Despite extensive knowledge of the adjuvant properties of LT derivatives, including in vitro-generated non-toxic mutant forms, little is known about the capacity of these adjuvants to modulate the epitope specificity of antibodies directed against antigens. This study characterizes the role of LT and its non-toxic B subunit (LTB) in the modulation of antibody responses to a coadministered antigen, the dengue virus (DENV) envelope glycoprotein domain III (EDIII), which binds to surface receptors and mediates virus entry into host cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Michael Rowe, Jonathan Melnick, Robert Gerwien, Joseph B Legutki, Jessica Pfeilsticker, Theodore M Tarasow, Kathryn F Sykes
BACKGROUND: The complexity of the eukaryotic parasite Trypanosoma (T.) cruzi manifests in its highly dynamic genome, multi-host life cycle, progressive morphologies and immune-evasion mechanisms. Accurate determination of infection or Chagas' disease activity and prognosis continues to challenge researchers. We hypothesized that a diagnostic platform with higher ligand complexity than previously employed may hold value. METHODOLOGY: We applied the ImmunoSignature Technology (IST) for the detection of T...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Miryam Martinetti, Fausta Beneventi, Cristina Capittini, Elena Locatelli, Margherita Simonetta, Chiara Cavagnoli, Irene De Maggio, Annalisa De Silvestri, Annamaria Pasi, Arsenio Spinillo
We enrolled 151 healthy mother/newborn couples and 26 with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). HLA-G and PAPP-A plasma levels were measured by ELISA at first and second trimesters, at delivery, and in cord blood. HLA-G 14 bp ins/del and PAPP-A A/C polymorphisms were genotyped. HLA-G del/del and PAPP-A C/C genotypes were more frequent among GDM mothers than controls. We observed a genetic epistasis between the two polymorphisms: the HLA-G del/del and PAPP-A C/C combination was carried by 8% of GDM mothers and 1...
2017: Disease Markers
Sahajpreet Singh, Phillip Stafford, Karen A Schlauch, Richard R Tillett, Martin Gollery, Stephen Albert Johnston, Svetlana F Khaiboullina, Kenny L De Meirleir, Shanti Rawat, Tatjana Mijatovic, Krishnamurthy Subramanian, András Palotás, Vincent C Lombardi
Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is a complex, heterogeneous illness of unknown etiology. The search for biomarkers that can delineate cases from controls is one of the most active areas of ME research; however, little progress has been made in achieving this goal. In contrast to identifying biomarkers that are directly involved in the pathological process, an immunosignature identifies antibodies raised to proteins expressed during, and potentially involved in, the pathological process. Although these proteins might be unknown, it is possible to detect antibodies that react to these proteins using random peptide arrays...
December 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Igor B Kuznetsov
Immunosignaturing is an emerging experimental technique that uses random sequence peptide microarrays to detect antibodies produced by the immune system in response to a particular disease. Two important questions regarding immunosignaturing are "Do microarray peptides that exhibit a strong affinity to a given type of antibodies share common sequence properties?" and "If so, what are those properties?" In this work, three statistical tests designed to detect non-random patterns in the amino acid makeup of a group of microarray peptides are presented...
May 2016: Biopolymers
Phillip Stafford, Daniel Wrapp, Stephen Albert Johnston
The humoral immune system is network of biological molecules designed to maintain a healthy homeostatic equilibrium. Because antibodies are an abundant and highly specific effector of immunological action, they are also an important reservoir of previous host exposures. Antibodies may play a major role in early detection of host challenge. Unfortunately, few practical methods exist for interpreting the information stored in antibody variable regions. Immunosignatures use a microarray of thousands of random sequence peptides to interrogate antibodies in a broad and unbiased fashion...
May 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Yariv Wine, Andrew P Horton, Gregory C Ippolito, George Georgiou
The ensemble of antibodies found in serum and secretions represents the key adaptive component of B-cell mediated humoral immunity. The antibody repertoire is shaped by the historical record of exposure to exogenous factors such as pathogens and vaccines, as well as by endogenous host-intrinsic factors such as genetics, self-antigens, and age. Thanks to very recent technology advancements it is now becoming possible to identify and quantify the individual antibodies comprising the serological repertoire. In parallel, the advent of high throughput methods for antigen and immunosignature discovery opens up unprecedented opportunities to transform our understanding of numerous key questions in adaptive humoral immunity, including the nature and dynamics of serological memory, the role of polyspecific antibodies in health and disease and how protective responses to infections or vaccine challenge arise...
August 2015: Current Opinion in Immunology
Andrei I Chapoval, J Bart Legutki, Philip Stafford, Andrey V Trebukhov, Stephen A Johnston, Yakov N Shoikhet, Alexander F Lazarev
Biomarkers for preclinical diagnosis of cancer are valuable tools for detection of malignant tumors at early stages in groups at risk and screening healthy people, as well as monitoring disease recurrence after treatment of cancer. However the complexity of the body's response to the pathological processes makes it virtually impossible to evaluate this response to the development of the disease using a single biomarker that is present in the serum at low concentrations. An alternative approach to standard biomarker analysis is called immunosignature...
2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Brian O'Donnell, Alexander Maurer, Antonia Papandreou-Suppappola, Phillip Stafford
One of the gravest dangers facing cancer patients is an extended symptom-free lull between tumor initiation and the first diagnosis. Detection of tumors is critical for effective intervention. Using the body's immune system to detect and amplify tumor-specific signals may enable detection of cancer using an inexpensive immunoassay. Immunosignatures are one such assay: they provide a map of antibody interactions with random-sequence peptides. They enable detection of disease-specific patterns using classic train/test methods...
2015: Cancer Informatics
Krupa Arun Navalkar, Stephan Albert Johnston, Phillip Stafford
Diagnostics using peptide ligands have been available for decades. However, their adoption in diagnostics has been limited, not because of poor sensitivity but in many cases due to diminished specificity. Numerous reports suggest that protein-based rather than peptide-based disease detection is more specific. We examined two different approaches to peptide-based diagnostics using Coccidioides (aka Valley Fever) as the disease model. Although the pathogen was discovered more than a century ago, a highly sensitive diagnostic remains unavailable...
February 2015: Journal of Immunological Methods
Stephen Albert Johnston, Douglas H Thamm, Joseph Barten Legutki
BACKGROUND: Cancer diagnosis in both dogs and humans is complicated by the lack of a non-invasive diagnostic test. To meet this clinical need, we apply the recently developed immunosignature assay to spontaneous canine lymphoma as clinical proof-of-concept. Here we evaluate the immunosignature as a diagnostic for spontaneous canine lymphoma at both at initial diagnosis and evaluating the disease free interval following treatment. METHODS: Sera from dogs with confirmed lymphoma (B cell n = 38, T cell n = 11) and clinically normal dogs (n = 39) were analyzed...
2014: BMC Cancer
Joseph Barten Legutki, Zhan-Gong Zhao, Matt Greving, Neal Woodbury, Stephen Albert Johnston, Phillip Stafford
There is an increasing awareness that health care must move from post-symptomatic treatment to presymptomatic intervention. An ideal system would allow regular inexpensive monitoring of health status using circulating antibodies to report on health fluctuations. Recently, we demonstrated that peptide microarrays can do this through antibody signatures (immunosignatures). Unfortunately, printed microarrays are not scalable. Here we demonstrate a platform based on fabricating microarrays (~10 M peptides per slide, 330,000 peptides per assay) on silicon wafers using equipment common to semiconductor manufacturing...
September 3, 2014: Nature Communications
Phillip Stafford, Zbigniew Cichacz, Neal W Woodbury, Stephen Albert Johnston
Although the search for disease biomarkers continues, the clinical return has thus far been disappointing. The complexity of the body's response to disease makes it difficult to represent this response with only a few biomarkers, particularly when many are present at low levels. An alternative to the typical reductionist biomarker paradigm is an assay we call an "immunosignature." This approach leverages the response of antibodies to disease-related changes, as well as the inherent signal amplification associated with antigen-stimulated B-cell proliferation...
July 29, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Krupa Arun Navalkar, Stephen Albert Johnston, Neal Woodbury, John N Galgiani, D Mitchell Magee, Zbigniew Chicacz, Phillip Stafford
Valley fever (VF) is difficult to diagnose, partly because the symptoms of VF are confounded with those of other community-acquired pneumonias. Confirmatory diagnostics detect IgM and IgG antibodies against coccidioidal antigens via immunodiffusion (ID). The false-negative rate can be as high as 50% to 70%, with 5% of symptomatic patients never showing detectable antibody levels. In this study, we tested whether the immunosignature diagnostic can resolve VF false negatives. An immunosignature is the pattern of antibody binding to random-sequence peptides on a peptide microarray...
August 2014: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Stephanie Williams, Phillip Stafford, Steven A Hoffman
BACKGROUND: An accurate method that can diagnose and predict lupus and its neuropsychiatric manifestations is essential since currently there are no reliable methods. Autoantibodies to a varied panel of antigens in the body are characteristic of lupus. In this study we investigated whether serum autoantibody binding patterns on random-sequence peptide microarrays (immunosignaturing) can be used for diagnosing and predicting the onset of lupus and its central nervous system (CNS) manifestations...
2014: BMC Immunology
Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Alessandro Sette
We have recently described the first true genome-wide screen for CD4(+) T-cell reactivity directed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in latent TB-infected individuals. The approach relied on predictions of HLA-binding capacity for a panel of DR, DP, and DQ alleles representative of those most commonly expressed in the general population, coupled with high throughput ELISPOT assays. The results identified hundreds of novel epitopes and antigens, and documented the novel observation that T cells in latent MTB infection are confined to the CXCR3(+)CCR6(+) phenotype and largely directed against three antigenic "islands" within the MTB genome...
2014: Frontiers in Immunology
Luhui Shen, Debra Tumbula Hansen, Stephen Albert Johnston, Joseph Barten Legutki
The exciting prospect of developing a universal prophylactic cancer vaccine now seems more possible due to advances in technology and basic knowledge. However, the problem of testing the efficacy of such a vaccine in a clinical trial seems daunting. The low incidence and long lead-time to diagnosis of cancer would make a standard clinical trial long and expensive. Recently, we demonstrated that the immunosignatures diagnostic technology could be useful in evaluating vaccines. The technology is based on profiling the antibody diversity in an individual on a peptide chip platform...
May 2014: Expert Review of Vaccines
Joseph Barten Legutki, Stephen Albert Johnston
The development of new vaccines would be greatly facilitated by having effective methods to predict vaccine performance. Such methods could also be helpful in monitoring individual vaccine responses to existing vaccines. We have developed "immunosignaturing" as a simple, comprehensive, chip-based method to display the antibody diversity in an individual on peptide arrays. Here we examined whether this technology could be used to develop correlates for predicting vaccine effectiveness. By using a mouse influenza infection, we show that the immunosignaturing of a natural infection can be used to discriminate a protective from nonprotective vaccine...
November 12, 2013: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"