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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203557/a-single-oxidosqualene-cyclase-produces-the-seco-triterpenoid-%C3%AE-onocerin
#1
Aldo Almeida, Lemeng Dong, Bekzod Khakimov, Jean-Etienne André Bassard, Tessa Moses, Frederic Lota, Alain Goossens, Giovanni Appendino, Soren Bak
8,14-seco-triterpenoids are characterized by their unusual open C-ring. Their distribution in nature is rare and scattered in taxonomically unrelated plants. The 8,14-seco-triterpenoid α-onocerin is only known from the evolutionarily distant clubmoss genus Lycopodium and leguminous genus Ononis, which makes the biosynthesis of this seco-triterpenoid intriguing from an evolutionary standpoint. In our experiments with Ononis spinosa, α-onocerin was detected only in the roots. Through transcriptome analysis of the roots, an oxidosqualene cyclase, OsONS1, was identified that produces α-onocerin from squalene-2,3;22,23-dioxide, when transiently expressed in Nicotiana bethaminana...
December 4, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196684/squalene-epoxidase-plays-a-critical-role-in-determining-pig-meat-quality-by-regulating-adipogenesis-myogenesis-and-ros-scavengers
#2
Jeongim Ha, Seulgi Kwon, Jung Hye Hwang, Da Hye Park, Tae Wan Kim, Deok Gyeong Kang, Go Eun Yu, Hwa Chun Park, Sang Mi An, Chul Wook Kim
In mammals, Squalene epoxidase (SQLE) is an enzyme that converts squalene to 2,3-oxidosqualene, in the early stage of cholesterol generation. Here, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SQLE gene (c.2565 G > T) by RNA Sequencing from the liver tissue of Berkshire pigs. Furthermore, we found that homozygous GG pigs expressed more SQLE mRNA than GT heterozygous and TT homozygous pigs in longissimus dorsi tissue. Next, we showed that the SNP in the SQLE gene was associated with several meat quality traits including backfat thickness, carcass weight, meat colour (yellowness), fat composition, and water-holding capacity...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150930/photoautotrophic-production-of-macular-pigment-in-a-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-strain-generated-by-using-dna-free-crispr-cas9-rnp-mediated-mutagenesis
#3
Kwangryul Baek, Jihyeon Yu, Jooyeon Jeong, Sang Jun Sim, Sangsu Bae, EonSeon Jin
Lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids reported to be protective against age-related macular degeneration. Recently, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has received attention as a photosynthetic cell factory, but the potential of this alga for carotenoid production has not yet been evaluated. In this study, we selected the C. reinhardtii CC-4349 strain as the best candidate among seven laboratory strains tested for carotenoid production. A knock-out mutant of the zeaxanthin epoxidase gene induced by preassembled DNA-free CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins in the CC-4349 strain had a significantly higher zeaxanthin content (56-fold) and productivity (47-fold) than the wild type without the reduction in lutein level...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080907/m-type-thioredoxins-are-involved-in-the-xanthophyll-cycle-and-proton-motive-force-to-alter-npq-under-low-light-conditions-in-arabidopsis
#4
Qingen Da, Ting Sun, Menglong Wang, Honglei Jin, Mengshu Li, Dongru Feng, Jinfa Wang, Hong-Bin Wang, Bing Liu
M-type thioredoxins are required to regulate zeaxanthin epoxidase activity and to maintain the steady-state level of the proton motive force, thereby influencing NPQ properties under low-light conditions in Arabidopsis. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) helps protect photosynthetic organisms from photooxidative damage via the non-radiative dissipation of energy as heat. Energy-dependent quenching (qE) is a major constituent of NPQ. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of qE is not well understood...
October 28, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021224/a-violaxanthin-de-epoxidase-interacts-with-a-viral-suppressor-of-rna-silencing-to-inhibit-virus-amplification
#5
Ling Chen, Zhaoling Yan, Zihao Xia, Yuqin Cheng, Zhiyuan Jiao, Biao Sun, Tao Zhou, Zaifeng Fan
RNA silencing plays a critical role against viral infection. To counteract this antiviral silencing, viruses have evolved various RNA silencing suppressors. Meanwhile, plants have evolved counter-counter defense strategies against RNA silencing suppression (RSS). In this study, the violaxanthin de-epoxidase protein of maize (Zea mays L.) (ZmVDE) was shown to interact specifically with the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro, a viral RNA silencing suppressor) of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) via its mature protein region by yeast two-hybrid assay, which was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation in Nicotiana benthamiana cells...
October 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959835/-cloning-and-expression-analysis-on-full-length-cds-of-zeaxanthin-epoxidase-gene-in-pseudostellaria-heterophylla
#6
Wei Zheng, Tao Zhou, Jun Li, Deng-Kai Long, Wei-Ke Jiang, Ling Ding
Zeaxanthin epoxidase plays an important role in indirect pathway of plant abscisic acid biosynthesis. According to the data of Pseudostellaria heterophylla transcriptome, zeaxanthin epoxidase gene was isolated and named as PhZEP. The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that the coding sequence of PhZEP was 1 263 bp long and encoded 420 amino acids. The putative protein molecular weight was 47.34 kDa and its theoretical isoelectric point was 6.64. The characteristic structure domains were predicted, including binding site of lipoprotein and flavoprotein monooxyenase...
February 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949044/a-functional-zeaxanthin-epoxidase-from-red-algae-shedding-light-on-the-evolution-of-light-harvesting-carotenoids-and-the-xanthophyll-cycle-in-photosynthetic-eukaryotes
#7
Oliver Dautermann, Martin Lohr
The epoxy-xanthophylls antheraxanthin and violaxanthin are key precursors of light-harvesting carotenoids and participate in the photoprotective xanthophyll cycle. Thus, the invention of zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) catalyzing their formation from zeaxanthin has been a fundamental step in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. ZEP genes have only been found in Viridiplantae and chromalveolate algae with secondary plastids of red algal ancestry, suggesting that ZEP evolved in the Viridiplantae and spread to chromalveolates by lateral gene transfer...
September 26, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910707/spectral-phasor-analysis-reveals-altered-membrane-order-and-function-of-root-hair-cells-in-arabidopsis-dry2-sqe1-5-drought-hypersensitive-mutant
#8
Florencia Sena, Mariana Sotelo-Silveira, Soledad Astrada, Miguel A Botella, Leonel Malacrida, Omar Borsani
Biological membranes allow the regulation of numerous cellular processes, which are affected when unfavorable environmental factors are perceived. Lipids and proteins are the principal components of biological membranes. Each lipid has unique biophysical properties, and, therefore the lipid composition of the membrane is critical to maintaining the bilayer structure and functionality. Membrane composition and integrity are becoming the focus of studies aiming to understand how plants adapt to its environment...
August 26, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898255/molecular-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-potato-collection-with-contrasting-tuber-carotenoid-content
#9
Maria Sulli, Giuseppe Mandolino, Monica Sturaro, Chiara Onofri, Gianfranco Diretto, Bruno Parisi, Giovanni Giuliano
After wheat and rice, potato is the third most important staple food worldwide. A collection of ten tetraploid (Solanum tuberosum) and diploid (S. phureja and S. chacoense) genotypes with contrasting carotenoid content was subjected to molecular characterization with respect to candidate carotenoid loci and metabolic profiling using LC-HRMS. Irrespective of ploidy and taxonomy, tubers of these genotypes fell into three groups: yellow-fleshed, characterized by high levels of epoxy-xanthophylls and xanthophyll esters and by the presence of at least one copy of a dominant allele of the β-Carotene Hydroxylase 2 (CHY2) gene; white-fleshed, characterized by low carotenoid levels and by the presence of recessive chy2 alleles; and orange-fleshed, characterized by high levels of zeaxanthin but low levels of xanthophyll esters, and homozygosity for a Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (ZEP) recessive allele...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888693/n-terminus-determines-activity-and-specificity-of-styrene-monooxygenase-reductases
#10
Thomas Heine, Anika Scholtissek, Adrie H Westphal, Willem J H van Berkel, Dirk Tischler
Styrene monooxygenases (SMOs) are two-enzyme systems that catalyze the enantioselective epoxidation of styrene to (S)-styrene oxide. The FADH2 co-substrate of the epoxidase component (StyA) is supplied by an NADH-dependent flavin reductase (StyB). The genome of Rhodococcus opacus 1CP encodes two SMO systems. One system, which we define as E1-type, displays homology to the SMO from Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120. The other system, originally reported as a fused system (RoStyA2B), is defined as E2-type. Here we found that E1-type RoStyB is inhibited by FMN, while RoStyA2B is known to be active with FMN...
September 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858245/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-carotenoid-pathway-genes-and-carotenoid-content-in-ixeris-dentata-var-albiflora
#11
Chinreddy Subramanyam Reddy, Sang-Hoon Lee, Jeong Su Yoon, Jae Kwang Kim, Sang Won Lee, Mok Hur, Sung Cheol Koo, Jin Meilan, Woo Moon Lee, Jae Ki Jang, Yoonkang Hur, Sang Un Park, And Yeon Bok Kim
Ixeris dentata var. albiflora is considered as a potential therapeutic agent against mithridatism, calculous, indigestion, pneumonia, hepatitis, and tumors as well as good seasoned vegetable in Far East countries. Phytoene synthase (PSY), phytoene desaturase (PDS) ξ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB), lycopene ε-cyclase (LCYE), ε-ring carotene hydroxylase (CHXB), and zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZDS) are vital enzymes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. We have examined these seven genes from I...
August 31, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822179/-research-of-genes-expression-related-to-ginsenosides-biosynthesis-by-methyl-jasmonic-acid-in-ginseng-hair-roots
#12
Kang-Yu Wang, Li-Li Yu, Mei-Ping Zhang, Rui Yin, Yan-Ping Lin, Ming-Zhu Zhao, Chun-Yu Sun, Yi Wang
In order to obtain the expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway related enzyme gene in ginseng hairy root under the control of elicitors, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was added exogenously as elicitors. Ginseng hairy root clones induced by 4-year-old ginseng root was used as material, total saponin content in ginseng hairy root before and after MeJA treatment was determined by vanillin-sulfuric acid colorimetry, Meanwhile, relative expression of squalene synthase genes, squalene epoxidase genes, oxidized squalene cyclase genes, dammarenediol synthase genes, β-amyrin synthase genes, cycloartenol synthase genes before and after MeJA treatment were determined by Real-time PCR...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818427/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-nadph-dependent-cytochrome-p450-reductase-from-the-green-microalga-botryococcus-braunii-b-race
#13
Chung-Yau Tsou, Shigeki Matsunaga, Shigeru Okada
The green microalga Botryococcus braunii of the B race accumulates various lipophilic compounds containing a 10,11-oxidosqualene epoxide moiety in addition to large amounts of triterpene hydrocarbons. While 2,3-squalene epoxidases have already been isolated and characterized from the alga, the enzyme that catalyzes the 10,11-epoxidation of squalene has remained elusive. In order to obtain a molecular tool to explore a 10,11-squalene epoxidase, cDNA cloning of an NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) that is required by both squalene epoxidases and cytochrome P450 enzymes was carried out...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802152/comparison-and-analysis-of-the-structures-and-binding-modes-of-antifungal-se-and-cyp51-inhibitors
#14
Bin Sun, Wanxu Huang, Min Liu, Kang Lei
With the abuse of clinical broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, immunosuppressive agents, chemotherapy drugs, the emergence of pathogenic fungi resistance is more and more frequent. However, there is still no effective treatment for the fungal resistance. Squalenee epoxidase (SE) and 14 α-demethylase (CYP51) are important antifungal drug targets. In order to achieve a deeper insight into the structural characteristics and the action modes of SE and CYP51inhibitors, the homology model of SE (Candida albicans) was constructed using monooxygenase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as template, and the reliability of model was confirmed by Ramachandran plots and Verify 3D...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800885/methyl-farnesoate-epoxidase-mfe-gene-expression-and-juvenile-hormone-titers-in-the-life-cycle-of-a-highly-eusocial-stingless-bee-melipona-scutellaris
#15
Carlos Antônio Mendes Cardoso-Júnior, Renato Pereira Silva, Naiara Araújo Borges, Washington João de Carvalho, S Leal Walter, Zilá Luz Paulino Simões, Marcia Maria Gentile Bitondi, Carlos Ueira Vieira, Ana Maria Bonetti, Klaus Hartfelder
In social insects, juvenile hormone (JH) has acquired novel functions related to caste determination and division of labor among workers, and this is best evidenced in the honey bee. In contrast to honey bees, stingless bees are a much more diverse group of highly eusocial bees, and the genus Melipona has long called special attention due to a proposed genetic mechanism of caste determination. Here, we examined methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression, encoding an enzyme relevant for the final step in JH biosynthesis, and measured the hemolymph JH titers for all life cycle stages of Melipona scutellaris queens and workers...
August 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714761/gamma-irradiation-of-medicinally-important-plants-and-the-enhancement-of-secondary-metabolite-production
#16
P Vivek Vardhan, Lata I Shukla
PURPOSE: The profitable production of some important plant-based secondary metabolites (ginsenosides, saponins, camptothecin, shikonins etc.) in vitro by gamma irradiation is a current area of interest. We reviewed different types of secondary metabolites, their mode of synthesis and effect of γ-radiation on their yield for different plants, organs and in vitro cultures (callus, suspension, hairy root). Special effort has been made to review the biochemical mechanisms underlying the increase in secondary metabolites...
September 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710558/pathway-engineering-for-the-production-of-%C3%AE-amyrin-and-cycloartenol-in-escherichia-coli-a-method-to-biosynthesize-plant-derived-triterpene-skeletons-in-e-coli
#17
Miho Takemura, Rie Tanaka, Norihiko Misawa
Cycloartenol is biosynthetically the first sterol skeleton, which is metabolized to phytosterols such as β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. β-Amyrin is the most commonly occurring aglycone skeleton for oleanane-type saponins such as glycyrrhizin and saikosaponins. It has been regarded that these cyclic triterpenes are unable to be produced in Escherichia coli, while no reports are available on their production with E. coli. Here, we describe a method to synthesize triterpene skeletons from higher plants, including cycloartenol and β-amyrin...
July 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709027/singlet-oxygen-triggers-chloroplast-rupture-and-cell-death-in-the-zeaxanthin-epoxidase-defective-mutant-aba1-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-under-high-light-stress
#18
Álvaro Sánchez-Corrionero, Inmaculada Sánchez-Vicente, Sergio González-Pérez, Ascensión Corrales, Anja Krieger-Liszkay, Óscar Lorenzo, Juan B Arellano
The two Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, aba1 and max4, were previously identified as sharing a number of co-regulated genes with both the flu mutant and Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures exposed to high light (HL). On this basis, we investigated whether aba1 and max4 were generating high amounts of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) and activating (1)O2-mediated cell death. Thylakoids of aba1 produced twice as much (1)O2 as thylakoids of max4 and wild type (WT) plants when illuminated with strong red light. (1)O2 was measured using the spin probe 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone hydrochloride...
September 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686465/characterization-and-primary-functional-analysis-of-a-bamboo-zep-gene-from-phyllostachys-edulis
#19
Yongfeng Lou, Huayu Sun, Lichao Li, Hansheng Zhao, Zhimin Gao
Zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) plays important roles in plant response to various environmental stresses by involving in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and xanthophyll cycle. A full-length cDNA of PeZEP was isolated from moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), which comprised of a 138-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 381-bp 3'-UTR, and a 2013-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 670 amino acids. PeZEP was mainly expressed in leaf blades and leaf sheaths, and less in roots and culms. The transcript level of PeZEP in bamboo leaf was elevated with the increasing light intensity...
September 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674547/integrated-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-of-five-panax-ginseng-cultivars-reveals-the-dynamics-of-ginsenoside-biosynthesis
#20
Yun Sun Lee, Hyun-Seung Park, Dong-Kyu Lee, Murukarthick Jayakodi, Nam-Hoon Kim, Hyun Jo Koo, Sang-Choon Lee, Yeon Jeong Kim, Sung Won Kwon, Tae-Jin Yang
Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a traditional medicinal herb that produces bioactive compounds such as ginsenosides. Here, we investigated the diversity of ginsenosides and related genes among five genetically fixed inbred ginseng cultivars (Chunpoong [CP], Cheongsun [CS], Gopoong [GO], Sunhyang [SH], and Sunun [SU]). To focus on the genetic diversity related to ginsenoside biosynthesis, we utilized in vitro cultured adventitious roots from the five cultivars grown under controlled environmental conditions. PCA loading plots based on secondary metabolite composition classified the five cultivars into three groups...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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