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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416557/terbinafine-resistance-of-trichophyton-clinical-isolates-caused-by-specific-point-mutations-in-the-squalene-epoxidase-gene
#1
Tsuyoshi Yamada, Mari Maeda, Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Reiko Tanaka, Takashi Yaguchi, Olympia Bontems, Karine Salamin, Marina Fratti, Michel Monod
Terbinafine is one of the allylamine antifungal agents, whose target is squalene epoxidase (SQLE). This agent has been extensively used in the therapy of dermatophyte infections. The incidence of patients with tinea pedis or unguium tolerant to terbinafine treatment prompted us to screen terbinafine resistance of all Trichophyton clinical isolates from the laboratory of Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois collected over a three-year period, and to identify their mechanism of resistance. Among 2056 tested isolates, 17 (≈ 1%) showed reduced terbinafine susceptibility, all of which were found to harbor SQLE gene alleles with different single point mutations, leading to single amino acid substitutions at one of four positions (Leu(393), Phe(397), Phe(415) and His(440)) of the SQLE protein...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265283/exogenous-melatonin-mitigates-photoinhibition-by-accelerating-non-photochemical-quenching-in-tomato-seedlings-exposed-to-moderate-light-during-chilling
#2
Fei Ding, Meiling Wang, Bin Liu, Shuoxin Zhang
Melatonin plays an important role in tolerance to multiple stresses in plants. Recent studies have shown that melatonin relieves photoinhibition in plants under cold stress; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is a key process thermally dissipating excess light energy that plants employ as a protective mechanism to prevent the over reduction of photosystem II. Here, we report the effects of exogenous melatonin on NPQ and mitigation of photoinhibition in tomato seedlings exposed to moderate light during chilling...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246174/stilbene-epoxidation-and-detoxification-in-a-photorhabdus-luminescens-nematode-symbiosis
#3
Hyun Bong Park, Parthasarathy Sampathkumar, Corey E Perez, Joon Ha Lee, Jeannie Tran, Jeffrey B Bonanno, Elissa A Hallem, Steven C Almo, Jason M Crawford
Members of the gammaproteobacterial Photorhabdus genus share mutualistic relationships with Heterorhabditis nematodes, and the pairs infect a wide swath of insect larvae. Photorhabdus species produce a family of stilbenes, with two major components being 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropyl-trans-stilbene (compound 1) and its stilbene epoxide (compound 2). This family of molecules harbors antimicrobial and immunosuppressive activities, and its pathway is responsible for producing a nematode "food signal" involved in nematode development...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161629/gene-expression-analysis-of-enzymes-of-the-carotenoid-biosynthesis-pathway-involved-in-%C3%AE-cryptoxanthin-accumulation-in-wild-raspberry-rubus-palmatus
#4
Kouichi Mizuno, Tetsuo Tokiwano, Yuko Yoshizawa
β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cry), a xanthophyll, is unlike other abundant carotenoids, such as α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. It is not found in most fruits or vegetables but is found only in specific fruits, such as hot chili pepper, persimmon, and citrus fruits. Because recent reports suggest that β-Cry intake is beneficial to human health, the xanthophyll requires further investigation. Although β-Cry accumulates in the fruit of wild raspberry, Rubus palmatus, it is not present in cultivated raspberry...
February 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069586/sqle-induces-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-by-regulating-of-mir-133b-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
Yi Qin, Yi Zhang, Qinting Tang, Li Jin, Yong'an Chen
Increasing evidence suggests that microRNAs, which control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, are aberrantly expressed in cancers and play significant roles in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. In this study, we show differential miR-133b down-expression in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells and tissues. In addition, squalene epoxidase (SQLE), a key enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, is identified as the direct downstream target gene of miR-133b by luciferase gene reporter assay...
February 6, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025675/direct-isolation-of-a-functional-violaxanthin-cycle-domain-from-thylakoid-membranes-of-higher-plants
#6
Reimund Goss, Anne Greifenhagen, Juliane Bergner, Daniela Volke, Ralf Hoffmann, Christian Wilhelm, Susann Schaller-Laudel
A special domain of the thylakoid membrane of higher plants has been isolated which carries out the de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle pigment violaxanthin to zeaxanthin. Recent models indicate that in the chloroplast of higher plants, the violaxanthin (V) cycle takes place within specialized domains in the thylakoid membrane. Here, we describe a new procedure to directly isolate such a domain in functional state. The procedure consists of a thylakoid membrane isolation at a pH value of 5.2 which realizes the binding of the enzyme V de-epoxidase (VDE) to the membrane throughout the preparation process...
April 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000559/in-models-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-rivaroxaban-is-superior-to-warfarin-to-limit-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-hematoma-expansion
#7
Shigenobu Sawada, Yoko Ono, Yusuke Egashira, Toshinori Takagi, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Toru Iwama, Hideaki Hara
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during oral anticoagulation therapy with an oral vitamin K epoxidase reductase such as warfarin is a life-threatening complication. However, whether direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are associated with larger hematoma volume and higher mortality rates remains controversial. We evaluated the hematoma volume and pathophysiology of ICH during anticoagulation with warfarin or rivaroxaban, an orally active direct factor Xa inhibitor. Mice were orally pretreated with rivaroxaban (10 or 30 mg/kg), warfarin (4 mg/kg), or vehicle...
December 16, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999579/genome-wide-association-analysis-of-the-anthocyanin-and-carotenoid-contents-of-rose-petals
#8
Dietmar F Schulz, Rena T Schott, Roeland E Voorrips, Marinus J M Smulders, Marcus Linde, Thomas Debener
Petal color is one of the key characteristics determining the attractiveness and therefore the commercial value of an ornamental crop. Here, we present the first genome-wide association study for the important ornamental crop rose, focusing on the anthocyanin and carotenoid contents in petals of 96 diverse tetraploid garden rose genotypes. Cultivated roses display a vast phenotypic and genetic diversity and are therefore ideal targets for association genetics. For marker analysis, we used a recently designed Axiom SNP chip comprising 68,000 SNPs with additionally 281 SSRs, 400 AFLPs and 246 markers from candidate genes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993122/in-models-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-rivaroxaban-is-superior-to-warfarin-to-limit-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-hematoma-expansion
#9
Shigenobu Sawada, Yoko Ono, Yusuke Egashira, Toshinori Takagi, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Toru Iwama, Hideaki Hara
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during oral anticoagulation therapy with an oral vitamin K epoxidase reductase such as warfarin is a life-threatening complication. However, whether direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are associated with larger hematoma volume and higher mortality rates remains controversial. We evaluated the hematoma volume and pathophysiology of ICH during anticoagulation with warfarin or rivaroxaban, an orally active direct factor Xa inhibitor. Mice were orally pretreated with rivaroxaban (10 or 30 mg/kg), warfarin (4 mg/kg), or vehicle...
December 16, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932998/gene-expression-dynamics-in-major-endocrine-regulatory-pathways-along-the-transition-from-solitary-to-social-life-in-a-bumblebee-bombus-terrestris
#10
Pavel Jedlička, Ulrich R Ernst, Alena Votavová, Robert Hanus, Irena Valterová
Understanding the social evolution leading to insect eusociality requires, among other, a detailed insight into endocrine regulatory mechanisms that have been co-opted from solitary ancestors to play new roles in the complex life histories of eusocial species. Bumblebees represent well-suited models of a relatively primitive social organization standing on the mid-way to highly advanced eusociality and their queens undergo both, a solitary and a social phase, separated by winter diapause. In the present paper, we characterize the gene expression levels of major endocrine regulatory pathways across tissues, sexes, and life-stages of the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, with special emphasis on critical stages of the queen's transition from solitary to social life...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917337/identification-characterization-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-antifungal-trichoderma-from-tomato-rhizosphere
#11
Shalini Rai, Prem Lal Kashyap, Sudheer Kumar, Alok Kumar Srivastava, Pramod W Ramteke
The use of Trichoderma isolates with efficient antagonistic activity represents a potentially effective and alternative disease management strategy to replace health hazardous chemical control. In this context, twenty isolates were obtained from tomato rhizosphere and evaluated by their antagonistic activity against four fungal pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctonia solani). The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of tested isolates was also measured...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898827/identification-of-genomic-loci-associated-with-the-photochemical-reflectance-index-by-genome-wide-association-study-in-soybean
#12
Matthew Herritt, Arun Prabhu Dhanapal, Felix B Fritschi
The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is determined from canopy spectral reflectance measurements and can provide important information about photosynthesis. The PRI can be used to assess the epoxidation state of xanthophyll pigments, which provides information on nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) and the amount of energy used for photosynthesis. Genome-wide association analyses were conducted to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genomic loci associated with PRI using data from a soybean [ (L...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865886/social-regulation-of-ageing-by-young-workers-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#13
Michael Eyer, Benjamin Dainat, Peter Neumann, Vincent Dietemann
Organisms' lifespans are modulated by both genetic and environmental factors. The lifespan of eusocial insects is determined by features of the division of labor, which itself is influenced by social regulatory mechanisms. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, the presence of brood and of old workers carrying out foraging tasks are important social drivers of ageing, but the influence of young adult workers is unknown, as it has not been experimentally teased apart from that of brood. In this study, we test the role of young workers in the ageing of their nestmates...
January 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830466/engineering-styrene-monooxygenase-for-biocatalysis-reductase-epoxidase-fusion-proteins
#14
Thomas Heine, Kathryn Tucker, Nonye Okonkwo, Berhanegebriel Assefa, Catleen Conrad, Anika Scholtissek, Michael Schlömann, George Gassner, Dirk Tischler
The enantioselective epoxidation of styrene and related compounds by two-component styrene monooxygenases (SMOs) has targeted these enzymes for development as biocatalysts. In the present work, we prepare genetically engineered fusion proteins that join the C-terminus of the epoxidase (StyA) to the N-terminus of the reductase (StyB) through a linker peptide and demonstrate their utility as biocatalysts in the synthesis of Tyrain purple and other indigoid dyes. A single-vector expression system offers a simplified platform for transformation and expansion of the catalytic function of styrene monooxygenases, and the resulting fusion proteins are self-regulated and couple efficiently NADH oxidation to styrene epoxidation...
April 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821754/the-biosynthetic-pathway-of-the-nonsugar-high-intensity-sweetener-mogroside-v-from-siraitia-grosvenorii
#15
Maxim Itkin, Rachel Davidovich-Rikanati, Shahar Cohen, Vitaly Portnoy, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Elad Oren, Shiri Freilich, Galil Tzuri, Nadine Baranes, Shmuel Shen, Marina Petreikov, Rotem Sertchook, Shifra Ben-Dor, Hugo Gottlieb, Alvaro Hernandez, David R Nelson, Harry S Paris, Yaakov Tadmor, Yosef Burger, Efraim Lewinsohn, Nurit Katzir, Arthur Schaffer
The consumption of sweeteners, natural as well as synthetic sugars, is implicated in an array of modern-day health problems. Therefore, natural nonsugar sweeteners are of increasing interest. We identify here the biosynthetic pathway of the sweet triterpenoid glycoside mogroside V, which has a sweetening strength of 250 times that of sucrose and is derived from mature fruit of luo-han-guo (Siraitia grosvenorii, monk fruit). A whole-genome sequencing of Siraitia, leading to a preliminary draft of the genome, was combined with an extensive transcriptomic analysis of developing fruit...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811076/pglox6-encoding-a-lipoxygenase-contributes-to-jasmonic-acid-biosynthesis-and-ginsenoside-production-in-panax-ginseng
#16
Shadi Rahimi, Yu-Jin Kim, Johan Sukweenadhi, Dabing Zhang, Deok-Chun Yang
Ginsenosides, the valuable pharmaceutical compounds in Panax ginseng, are triterpene saponins that occur mainly in ginseng plants. It was shown that in vitro treatment with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is able to increase ginsenoside production in ginseng plants. To understand the molecular link between JA biosynthesis and ginsenoside biosynthesis, we identified a JA biosynthetic 13-lipoxygenase gene (PgLOX6) in P. ginseng that promotes ginsenoside production. The expression of PgLOX6 was high in vascular bundles, which corresponds with expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746309/fungal-elicitors-enhance-ginsenosides-biosynthesis-expression-of-functional-genes-as-well-as-signal-molecules-accumulation-in-adventitious-roots-of-panax-ginseng-c-a-mey
#17
Jinxin Li, Shujie Liu, Juan Wang, Jing Li, Dahui Liu, Jianli Li, Wenyuan Gao
In this work, we selected three fungi strains (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae) as elicitors prepared from mycelium or fermentation broth to improve ginsenosides production in adventitious roots culture. The results showed that ginsenosides production (29.90±4.67mgg(-1)) was significantly enhanced upon elicitation with 200mgL(-1)A. niger elicitor prepared from mycelium, which was 3.52-fold of untreated group. HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analysis was performed, showing that ginsenoside Rb3 was present after treatment with the A...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744265/molecular-characterization-expression-and-regulation-of-gynostemma-pentaphyllum-squalene-epoxidase-gene-1
#18
Huihong Guo, Rufang Li, Shibiao Liu, Na Zhao, Shuo Han, Mengmeng Lu, Xiaomin Liu, Xinli Xia
Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino is a perennial medicinal herb widely distributed in China. This herb contains important medicinal components called gypenosides, which belong to dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins. Squalene epoxidase (SE, EC 1.14.99.7) catalyzes the epoxidation of squalene to form oxidosqualene and is a key regulatory enzyme in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis. In this study, a SE gene designated as GpSE1 was isolated from G. pentaphyllum leaves. The deduced protein sequence of GpSE1 contained two conserved domains involved in the catalytic function of SE...
December 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682344/pathways-for-arene-oxidation-in-non-heme-diiron-enzymes-lessons-from-computational-studies-on-benzoyl-coenzyme-a-epoxidase
#19
Tibor András Rokob
Oxygenation of aromatic rings using O2 is catalyzed by several non-heme carboxylate-bridged diiron enzymes. In order to provide a general mechanistic description for these reactions, computational studies were carried out at the ONIOM(B3LYP/BP86/Amber) level on the non-heme diiron enzyme benzoyl coenzyme A epoxidase, BoxB. The calculations revealed four possible pathways for attacking the aromatic ring: (a) electrophilic (2e(-)) attack by a bis(μ-oxo)-diiron(IV) species (Q pathway); (b) electrophilic (2e(-)) attack via the σ* orbital of a μ-η(2):η(2)-peroxo-diiron(III) intermediate (Pσ* pathway); (c) radical (1e(-)) attack via the π*-orbital of a superoxo-diiron(II,III) species (Pπ* pathway); (d) radical (1e(-)) attack of a partially quenched bis(μ-oxo)-diiron(IV) intermediate (Q' pathway)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644996/gene-expression-of-glycyrrhizin-acid-and-accumulation-of-endogenous-signaling-molecule-in-glycyrrhiza-uralensis-fisch-adventitious-roots-after-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-meyerozyma-guilliermondii-applications
#20
Jianli Li, Shujie Liu, Juan Wang, Jing Li, Jinxin Li, Wenyuan Gao
This study reports the best culture conditions for roots growth and accumulation of active components by optimizing the parameters. Glycyrrhiza uralensis adventitious roots metabolites were significantly increased after adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Meyerozyma guilliermondii. The highest contents of polysaccharide, glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid and total flavonoids were obtained in Meyerozyma guilliermondii group, the content of glycyrrhizic acid was 5.3-fold higher than the control. In control and treatment groups, twelve compounds were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS),among which, some new compounds have been detected in elicitor groups including 5,7-Dihydroxyflavanone, glycyrrhisoflavanone, licorice saponin J2, uralsaponin B, (3R)-vestitol, uralenol...
September 20, 2016: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
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