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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669855/squalene-epoxidase-drives-nafld-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-is-a-pharmaceutical-target
#1
Dabin Liu, Chi Chun Wong, Li Fu, Huarong Chen, Liuyang Zhao, Chuangen Li, Yunfei Zhou, Yanquan Zhang, Weiqi Xu, Yidong Yang, Bin Wu, Gong Cheng, Paul Bo-San Lai, Nathalie Wong, Joseph J Y Sung, Jun Yu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an emerging malignancy in the developed world; however, mechanisms that contribute to its formation are largely unknown, and targeted therapy is currently not available. Our RNA sequencing analysis of NAFLD-HCC samples revealed squalene epoxidase ( SQLE ) as the top outlier metabolic gene overexpressed in NAFLD-HCC patients. Hepatocyte-specific Sqle transgenic expression in mice accelerated the development of high-fat, high-cholesterol diet-induced HCC...
April 18, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625087/the-peculiar-npq-regulation-in-the-stramenopile-phaeomonas-sp-challenges-the-xanthophyll-cycle-dogma
#2
N Berne, T Fabryova, F Bistaz, P Cardol, B Bailleul
In changing light conditions, photosynthetic organisms develop different strategies to maintain a fine balance between light harvesting, photochemistry, and photoprotection. One of the most widespread photoprotective mechanisms consists in the dissipation of excess light energy in the form of heat in the photosystem II antenna, which participates to the Non Photochemical Quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence. It is tightly related to the reversible epoxidation of xanthophyll pigments, catalyzed by the two enzymes, the violaxanthin deepoxidase and the zeaxanthin epoxidase...
April 3, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614810/vpstya1-vpstya2b-of-variovorax-paradoxus-eps-an-aryl-alkyl-sulfoxidase-rather-than-a-styrene-epoxidizing-monooxygenase
#3
Dirk Tischler, Ringo Schwabe, Lucas Siegel, Kristin Joffroy, Stefan R Kaschabek, Anika Scholtissek, Thomas Heine
Herein we describe the first representative of an E2-type two-component styrene monooxygenase of proteobacteria. It comprises a single epoxidase protein ( Vp StyA1) and a two domain protein ( Vp StyA2B) harboring an epoxidase (A2) and a FAD-reductase (B) domain. It was annotated as Vp StyA1/ Vp StyA2B of Variovorax paradoxus EPS. Vp StyA2B serves mainly as NADH:FAD-oxidoreductase. A K m of 33.6 ± 4.0 µM for FAD and a k cat of 22.3 ± 1.1 s-1 were determined and resulted in a catalytic efficiency ( k cat K m -1 ) of 0...
April 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596888/squalene-epoxidase-as-a-promising-metabolic-target-in-cancer-treatment
#4
Gabriella Cirmena, Paola Franceschelli, Edoardo Isnaldi, Lorenzo Ferrando, Marilena De Mariano, Alberto Ballestrero, Gabriele Zoppoli
Oncogenic alteration of the cholesterol synthesis pathway is a recognized mechanism of metabolic adaptation. In the present review, we focus on squalene epoxidase (SE), one of the two rate-limiting enzymes in cholesterol synthesis, retracing its history since its discovery as an antimycotic target to its description as an emerging metabolic oncogene by amplification with clinical relevance in cancer. We review the published literature assessing the association between SE over-expression and poor prognosis in this disease...
March 26, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577447/high-terbinafine-resistance-in-trichophyton-interdigitale-isolates-in-delhi-india-harbouring-mutations-in-the-squalene-epoxidase-sqle-gene
#5
Ashutosh Singh, Aradhana Masih, Ananta Khurana, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Meenakshi Gupta, Ferry Hagen, Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary
In the last few years infections caused by dermatophytes along with a concomitant increase in the number of difficult to treat cases has increasingly been recognized indicating that dermatophytosis remains a challenging public health problem. The majority of infections are caused by Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. Terbinafine, an allylamine antifungal used orally and topically is considered to be a first-line drug in the therapy of dermatophyte infections. Terbinafine resistance has been predominately attributed to point mutations in the squalene epoxidase (SQLE) target gene a key enzyme in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway leading to single amino acid substitutions...
March 25, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551944/medically-important-carotenoids-from-momordica-charantia-and-their-gene-expressions-in-different-organs
#6
Do Manh Cuong, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Jin Jeon, Yun Ji Park, Soon-Jae Kwon, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Sang Un Park
Carotenoids, found in the fruit and different organs of bitter melon ( Momordica charantia ), have attracted great attention for their potential health benefits in treating several major chronic diseases. Therefore, study related to the identification and quantification of the medically important carotenoid metabolites is highly important for the treatment of various disorderes. The present study involved in the identification and quantification of the various carotenoids present in the different organs of M...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530857/mutation-in-the-squalene-epoxidase-gene-of-trichophyton-interdigitale-and-trichophyton-rubrum-associated-with-allylamine-resistance
#7
Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Shamanth A Shankarnarayan, Sunil Dogra, Dipika Shaw, Khurram Mushtaq, Raees A Paul, Tarun Narang, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Dermatophytosis, the commonest superficial fungal infection, has gained recent attention due to its change of epidemiology and treatment failures. Despite availability of several effective antifungal agents against dermatophytes, the incidence of chronic infection, re-infection and treatment failures are on the rise. Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale are the two frequent clinical isolates in India. Consecutive patients (n=195) with suspected dermatophytosis during second half of 2014 were included in this study...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510567/phenolic-compounds-from-belamcanda-chinensis-seeds
#8
Ying-Ying Song, Ying Liu, Yong-Ming Yan, Xi-Feng Lu, Yong-Xian Cheng
Two new sucrose derivatives, namely, belamcanosides A ( 1 ) and B ( 2 ), together with five other known compounds ( 3 - 7 ), were isolated from the seeds of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. Their structures were identified based on spectroscopic data. Especially, the absolute configurations of fructose and glucose residues in 1 and 2 were assigned by acid hydrolysis, followed by derivatization and gas chromatography (GC) analysis. Among the known compounds, (-)-hopeaphenol ( 3 ), (+)-syringaresinol ( 4 ), and quercetin ( 5 ), were isolated from B...
March 5, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501490/physiological-validation-of-photochemical-reflectance-index-pri-as-a-photosynthetic-parameter-using-arabidopsis-thaliana-mutants
#9
Kaori Kohzuma, Kouki Hikosaka
Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is the most important photoprotective system in higher plants. NPQ can be divided into several steps according to the timescale of relaxation of chlorophyll fluorescence after reaching a steady state (i.e., the fast phase, qE; middle phase, qZ or qT; and slow phase, qI). The dissipation of excess energy as heat during the xanthophyll cycle, a large component of NPQ, is detectable during the fast to middle phase (sec to min). Although thermal dissipation is primarily investigated using indirect methods such as chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, such analyses require dark adaptation or the application of a saturating pulse during measurement, making it difficult to continuously monitor this process...
February 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396745/high-level-recombinant-production-of-squalene-using-selected-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains
#10
Jong Yun Han, Sung Hwa Seo, Jae Myeong Song, Hongweon Lee, Eui-Sung Choi
For recombinant production of squalene, which is a triterpenoid compound with increasing industrial applications, in microorganisms generally recognized as safe, we screened Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to determine their suitability. A strong strain dependence was observed in squalene productivity among Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains upon overexpression of genes important for isoprenoid biosynthesis. In particular, a high level of squalene production (400 ± 45 mg/L) was obtained in shake flasks with the Y2805 strain overexpressing genes encoding a bacterial farnesyl diphosphate synthase (ispA) and a truncated form of hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHMG1)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378090/chimeric-styrene-monooxygenase-with-increased-efficiency-in-asymmetric-biocatalytic-epoxidation
#11
Maria Luisa Corrado, Tanja Knaus, Francesco Mutti
The styrene monooxygenase (SMO) system from Pseudomonas sp. is constituted by two enzymes (StyA and StyB). StyB catalyses the reduction of FAD at the expense of NADH. After the transfer of FADH2 from StyB to StyA, reaction with O2 generates FAD-OOH that is the epoxidising agent. The waste of redox equivalents due to a partial diffusive transfer of FADH2, the insolubility of recombinant StyB and the impossibility to express StyA and StyB in a 1:1 molar ratio reduce the catalytic efficiency of the natural system...
January 29, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345751/first-evidence-of-freezing-tolerance-in-a-resurrection-plant-insights-into-molecular-mobility-and-zeaxanthin-synthesis-in-the-dark
#12
Beatriz Fernández-Marín, Gilbert Neuner, Edith Kuprian, Jose Manuel Laza, J I José Ignacio García-Plazaola, Amy Verhoeven
The photoprotective mechanisms of desiccation tolerance and freezing tolerance and their relation to molecular mobility (cell vitrification) were assessed in a single model: the exceptional subalpine and resurrection plant Ramonda myconi. Dehydrated leaves showed a drop in Fv /Fm accompanied by synthesis of zeaxanthin (Z), even in the dark, which was limited by cell vitrification after complete desiccation. The recovery of Fv /Fm after a severe drying treatment (7 d at 50% RH) confirmed the tolerance of R. myconi leaves to desiccation...
January 18, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283570/heterologous-biosynthesis-of-nodulisporic-acid-f
#13
Kyle C Van de Bittner, Matthew J Nicholson, Leyla Y Bustamante, Sarah A Kessans, Arvina Ram, Craig J van Dolleweerd, Barry Scott, Emily J Parker
Nodulisporic acids comprise a group of valuable indole diterpenes that exhibit potent insecticidal activities. We report the identification of a gene cluster in the genome of the filamentous fungus Hypoxylon pulicicidum (Nodulisporium sp.) that contains genes responsible for the biosynthesis of nodulisporic acids. Using Penicillium paxilli as a heterologous host, and through pathway reconstitution experiments, we identified the function of four genes involved in the biosynthesis of the nodulisporic acid core compound, nodulisporic acid F (NAF)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203557/a-single-oxidosqualene-cyclase-produces-the-seco-triterpenoid-%C3%AE-onocerin
#14
Aldo Almeida, Lemeng Dong, Bekzod Khakimov, Jean-Etienne Bassard, Tessa Moses, Frederic Lota, Alain Goossens, Giovanni Appendino, Søren Bak
8,14- seco -Triterpenoids are characterized by their unusual open C-ring. Their distribution in nature is rare and scattered in taxonomically unrelated plants. The 8,14- seco -triterpenoid α-onocerin is only known from the evolutionarily distant clubmoss genus Lycopodium and the leguminous genus Ononis , which makes the biosynthesis of this seco -triterpenoid intriguing from an evolutionary standpoint. In our experiments with Ononis spinosa, α-onocerin was detected only in the roots. Through transcriptome analysis of the roots, an oxidosqualene cyclase, OsONS1, was identified that produces α-onocerin from squalene-2,3;22,23-dioxide when transiently expressed in Nicotiana bethamiana In contrast, in Lycopodium clavatum , two sequential cyclases, LcLCC and LcLCD, are required to produce α-onocerin in the N...
February 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196684/squalene-epoxidase-plays-a-critical-role-in-determining-pig-meat-quality-by-regulating-adipogenesis-myogenesis-and-ros-scavengers
#15
Jeongim Ha, Seulgi Kwon, Jung Hye Hwang, Da Hye Park, Tae Wan Kim, Deok Gyeong Kang, Go Eun Yu, Hwa Chun Park, Sang Mi An, Chul Wook Kim
In mammals, Squalene epoxidase (SQLE) is an enzyme that converts squalene to 2,3-oxidosqualene, in the early stage of cholesterol generation. Here, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SQLE gene (c.2565 G > T) by RNA Sequencing from the liver tissue of Berkshire pigs. Furthermore, we found that homozygous GG pigs expressed more SQLE mRNA than GT heterozygous and TT homozygous pigs in longissimus dorsi tissue. Next, we showed that the SNP in the SQLE gene was associated with several meat quality traits including backfat thickness, carcass weight, meat colour (yellowness), fat composition, and water-holding capacity...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150930/photoautotrophic-production-of-macular-pigment-in-a-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-strain-generated-by-using-dna-free-crispr-cas9-rnp-mediated-mutagenesis
#16
Kwangryul Baek, Jihyeon Yu, Jooyeon Jeong, Sang Jun Sim, Sangsu Bae, EonSeon Jin
Lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids reported to be protective against age-related macular degeneration. Recently, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has received attention as a photosynthetic cell factory, but the potential of this alga for carotenoid production has not yet been evaluated. In this study, we selected the C. reinhardtii CC-4349 strain as the best candidate among seven laboratory strains tested for carotenoid production. A knock-out mutant of the zeaxanthin epoxidase gene induced by preassembled DNA-free CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins in the CC-4349 strain had a significantly higher zeaxanthin content (56-fold) and productivity (47-fold) than the wild type without the reduction in lutein level...
March 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080907/m-type-thioredoxins-are-involved-in-the-xanthophyll-cycle-and-proton-motive-force-to-alter-npq-under-low-light-conditions-in-arabidopsis
#17
Qingen Da, Ting Sun, Menglong Wang, Honglei Jin, Mengshu Li, Dongru Feng, Jinfa Wang, Hong-Bin Wang, Bing Liu
M-type thioredoxins are required to regulate zeaxanthin epoxidase activity and to maintain the steady-state level of the proton motive force, thereby influencing NPQ properties under low-light conditions in Arabidopsis. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) helps protect photosynthetic organisms from photooxidative damage via the non-radiative dissipation of energy as heat. Energy-dependent quenching (qE) is a major constituent of NPQ. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of qE is not well understood...
October 28, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021224/a-violaxanthin-deepoxidase-interacts-with-a-viral-suppressor-of-rna-silencing-to-inhibit-virus-amplification
#18
Ling Chen, Zhaoling Yan, Zihao Xia, Yuqin Cheng, Zhiyuan Jiao, Biao Sun, Tao Zhou, Zaifeng Fan
RNA silencing plays a critical role against viral infection. To counteract this antiviral silencing, viruses have evolved various RNA silencing suppressors. Meanwhile, plants have evolved counter-counter defense strategies against RNA silencing suppression (RSS). In this study, the violaxanthin deepoxidase protein of maize ( Zea mays ), ZmVDE, was shown to interact specifically with the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro; a viral RNA silencing suppressor) of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) via its mature protein region by yeast two-hybrid assay, which was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation in Nicotiana benthamiana cells...
December 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959835/-cloning-and-expression-analysis-on-full-length-cds-of-zeaxanthin-epoxidase-gene-in-pseudostellaria-heterophylla
#19
Wei Zheng, Tao Zhou, Jun Li, Deng-Kai Long, Wei-Ke Jiang, Ling Ding
Zeaxanthin epoxidase plays an important role in indirect pathway of plant abscisic acid biosynthesis. According to the data of Pseudostellaria heterophylla transcriptome, zeaxanthin epoxidase gene was isolated and named as PhZEP. The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that the coding sequence of PhZEP was 1 263 bp long and encoded 420 amino acids. The putative protein molecular weight was 47.34 kDa and its theoretical isoelectric point was 6.64. The characteristic structure domains were predicted, including binding site of lipoprotein and flavoprotein monooxyenase...
February 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949044/a-functional-zeaxanthin-epoxidase-from-red-algae-shedding-light-on-the-evolution-of-light-harvesting-carotenoids-and-the-xanthophyll-cycle-in-photosynthetic-eukaryotes
#20
Oliver Dautermann, Martin Lohr
The epoxy-xanthophylls antheraxanthin and violaxanthin are key precursors of light-harvesting carotenoids and participate in the photoprotective xanthophyll cycle. Thus, the invention of zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) catalyzing their formation from zeaxanthin has been a fundamental step in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. ZEP genes have only been found in Viridiplantae and chromalveolate algae with secondary plastids of red algal ancestry, suggesting that ZEP evolved in the Viridiplantae and spread to chromalveolates by lateral gene transfer...
September 26, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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