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FAD binding protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329928/cloning-and-characterization-of-%C3%A2-6-%C3%A2-5-fatty-acyl-desaturase-fad-gene-promoter-in-the-marine-teleost-siganus-canaliculatus
#1
Yewei Dong, Jianhong Zhao, Junliang Chen, Shuqi Wang, Yang Liu, Qinghao Zhang, Cuihong You, Óscar Monroig, Douglas R Tocher, Yuanyou Li
The rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus was the first marine teleost demonstrated to have the ability of biosynthesizing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from C18 PUFA precursors, and all genes encoding the key enzymes for LC-PUFA biosynthesis have been cloned and functionally characterized, which provides us a potential model to study the regulatory mechanisms of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in teleosts. As the primary step to clarify such mechanisms, present research focused on promoter analysis of gene encoding ∆6/∆5 fatty acyl desaturase (Fad), a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the first step in the conversion of C18 PUFA to LC-PUFA...
January 9, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321514/flavin-reductase-contributes-to-pneumococcal-virulence-by-protecting-from-oxidative-stress-and-mediating-adhesion-and-elicits-protection-against-pneumococcal-challenge
#2
Giora I Morozov, Nurith Porat, Tatyana Kushnir, Hastyar Najmuldeen, Asad Adawi, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Rachel Benisty, Ariel Ohayon, Ofir Liron, Shalhevet Azriel, Itai Malka, Shahar Dotan, Maxim Portnoi, Andrew A Piotrowski, Daniel Kafka, Barak Hajaj, Tali Fishilevich, Marilou Shagan, Michael Tal, Ron Ellis, Donald A Morrison, Andrea M Mitchell, Timothy J Mitchell, Ron Dagan, Hasan Yesilkaya, Yaffa Mizrachi Nebenzahl
Pneumococcal flavin reductase (FlaR) is known to be cell-wall associated and possess age dependent antigenicity in children. This study aimed at characterizing FlaR and elucidating its involvement in pneumococcal physiology and virulence. Bioinformatic analysis of FlaR sequence identified three-conserved cysteine residues, suggesting a transition metal-binding capacity. Recombinant FlaR (rFlaR) bound Fe2+ and exhibited FAD-dependent NADP-reductase activity, which increased in the presence of cysteine or excess Fe2+ and inhibited by divalent-chelating agents...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316637/bacterial-production-characterization-and-protein-modeling-of-a-novel-monofuctional-isoform-of-fad-synthase-in-humans-an-emergency-protein
#3
Piero Leone, Michele Galluccio, Alberto Barbiroli, Ivano Eberini, Maria Tolomeo, Flavia Vrenna, Elisabetta Gianazza, Stefania Iametti, Francesco Bonomi, Cesare Indiveri, Maria Barile
FAD synthase (FADS, EC 2.7.7.2) is the last essential enzyme involved in the pathway of biosynthesis of Flavin cofactors starting from Riboflavin (Rf). Alternative splicing of the human FLAD1 gene generates different isoforms of the enzyme FAD synthase. Besides the well characterized isoform 1 and 2, other FADS isoforms with different catalytic domains have been detected, which are splice variants. We report the characterization of one of these novel isoforms, a 320 amino acid protein, consisting of the sole C-terminal 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase domain (named FADS6)...
January 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298345/redox-modulation-of-nqo1
#4
David Siegel, Donna D Dehn, Samantha S Bokatzian, Kevin Quinn, Donald S Backos, Andrea Di Francesco, Michel Bernier, Nichole Reisdorph, Rafael de Cabo, David Ross
NQO1 is a FAD containing NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of quinones and related substrates. In cells, NQO1 participates in a number of binding interactions with other proteins and mRNA and these interactions may be influenced by the concentrations of reduced pyridine nucleotides. NAD(P)H can protect NQO1 from proteolytic digestion suggesting that binding of reduced pyridine nucleotides results in a change in NQO1 structure. We have used purified NQO1 to demonstrate the addition of NAD(P)H induces a change in the structure of NQO1; this results in the loss of immunoreactivity to antibodies that bind to the C-terminal domain and to helix 7 of the catalytic core domain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297973/altering-2-hydroxybiphenyl-3-monooxygenase-regioselectivity-by-protein-engineering-for-the-production-of-a-new-antioxidant
#5
Almog Bregman-Cohen, Batel Deri, Shiran Maimon, Yael Pazy, Ayelet Fishman
2-Hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase (HbpA) is a flavin-containing NADH-dependent aromatic hydroxylase that oxidizes a broad range of 2-substituted phenols. In order to modulate its activity and selectivity, several residues in the active site pocket were investigated by saturation mutagenesis. Variant M321A demonstrated altered regioselectivity by oxidizing for the first time 3-hydroxybiphenyl, thus enabling the production of a new antioxidant, 3,4-dihydroxybiphenyl, with similar ferric reducing capacity as the well-studied piceatannol...
January 3, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221464/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-ferredoxin-nadp-h-oxidoreductase-from-gracilaria-chilensis-and-its-complex-with-ferredoxin
#6
María Alejandra Vorphal, Carola Bruna, Traudy Wandersleben, Jorge Dagnino-Leone, Francisco Lobos-González, Elena Uribe, José Martínez-Oyanedel, Marta Bunster
BACKGROUD: Ferredoxin NADP(H) oxidoreductases (EC 1.18.1.2) (FNR) are flavoenzymes present in photosynthetic organisms; they are relevant for the production of reduced donors to redox reactions, i.e. in photosynthesis, the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH using the electrons provided by Ferredoxin (Fd), a small FeS soluble protein acceptor of electrons from PSI in chloroplasts. In rhodophyta no information about this system has been reported, this work is a contribution to the molecular and functional characterization of FNR from Gracilaria chilensis, also providing a structural analysis of the complex FNR/Fd...
December 8, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184765/the-novel-targets-of-dl-3-n-butylphthalide-predicted-by-similarity-ensemble-approach-in-combination-with-molecular-docking-study
#7
Yan Wang, Wei Qi, Li Zhang, Zhenguang Ying, Ou Sha, Chunman Li, Lanhai Lü, Xiangyan Chen, Zhenzhong Li, Feng Niu, Fang Xue, Dong Wang, Tzi-Bun Ng, Lihong Zhang
Background: DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is a drug for treating acute ischemic stroke, and may play a neuroprotective role by acting on multiple active targets. The aim of this study was to predict the target proteins of NBP in mammalian cells. Methods: The similarity ensemble approach search tool (SEArch), one of the commonly used public bioinformatics tools for target prediction, was employed in the experiment. The molecular docking of NBP to target proteins was performed by using the three-dimensional (3-D) crystal structure, substrate free...
October 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177972/conservation-of-the-enzyme-coenzyme-interfaces-in-fad-and-nadp-binding-adrenodoxin-reductase-a-ubiquitous-enzyme
#8
Israel Hanukoglu
FAD and NAD(P) together represent an ideal pair for coupled redox reactions in their capacity to accept two electrons and their redox potentials. Enzymes that bind both NAD(P) and FAD represent large superfamilies that fulfill essential roles in numerous metabolic pathways. Adrenodoxin reductase (AdxR) shares Rossmann fold features with some of these superfamilies but remains in a group of its own in the absence of sequence homology. This article documents the phylogenetic distribution of AdxR by examining whole genome databases for Metazoa, Plantae, Fungi, and Protista, and determines the conserved structural features of AdxR...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146915/transcriptional-profiling-provides-new-insights-into-the-role-of-nitric-oxide-in-enhancing-ganoderma-oregonense-resistance-to-heat-stress
#9
Cheng Chen, Qiang Li, Qiangfeng Wang, Daihua Lu, Hong Zhang, Jian Wang, Rongtao Fu
Ganoderma is well known for its use in traditional Chinese medicine and is widely cultivated in China, Korea, and Japan. Increased temperatures associated with global warming are negatively influencing the growth and development of Ganoderma. Nitric oxide is reported to play an important role in alleviating fungal heat stress (HS). However, the transcriptional profiling of Ganoderma oregonense in response to HS, as well as the transcriptional response regulated by NO to cope with HS has not been reported. We used RNA-Seq technology to generate large-scale transcriptome data from G...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122468/an-intronic-variation-in-slc52a1-causes-exon-skipping-and-transient-riboflavin-responsive-multiple-acyl-coa-dehydrogenation-deficiency
#10
Signe Mosegaard, Gitte Hoffmann Bruun, Karen Freund Flyvbjerg, Yngve Thomas Bliksrud, Niels Gregersen, Maja Dembic, Ellen Annexstad, Trine Tangeraas, Rikke Katrine Jentoft Olsen, Brage S Andresen
Vitamin B2, riboflavin is essential for cellular function, as it participates in a diversity of redox reactions central to human metabolism, through its role as precursor for the cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which are electron carriers. The electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) and its dehydrogenase (ETFDH), uses FAD as cofactor. The ETF and ETFDH are forming the electron transport pathway for many mitochondrial flavoprotein dehydrogenases involved in fatty acid, amino acid and choline metabolism...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114206/controversial-effects-of-d-amino-acid-oxidase-activator-daoa-g72-on-d-amino-acid-oxidase-dao-activity-in-human-neuronal-astrocyte-and-kidney-cell-lines-the-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-point-of-view
#11
Vinita Jagannath, Zacharias Faidon Brotzakis, Michele Parrinello, Susanne Walitza, Edna Grünblatt
Dysfunction of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and DAO activator (DAOA)/G72 genes have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. The glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia has proposed that increased DAO activity leads to decreased D-serine, which subsequently may lead to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction. It has been shown that DAOA binds to DAO and increases its activity. However, there are also studies showing DAOA decreases DAO activity. Thus, the effect of DAOA on DAO is controversial. We aimed to understand the effect of DAOA on DAO activity in neuron-like (SH-SY5Y), astrocyte-like (1321N1) and kidney-like (HEK293) human cell lines...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079576/ablation-of-the-riboflavin-binding-protein-retbindin-reduces-flavin-levels-and-leads-to-progressive-and-dose-dependent-degeneration-of-rods-and-cones
#12
Ryan A Kelley, Muayyad R Al-Ubaidi, Tirthankar Sinha, Ayse M Genc, Mustafa S Makia, Larissa Ikelle, Muna I Naash
The interface between the neural retina and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is critical for several processes, including visual pigment regeneration and retinal attachment to the RPE. One of its most important functions is the exchange of metabolites between the photoreceptors and RPE because photoreceptor cells have very high energy demands, largely satisfied by oxidative metabolism. The riboflavin (RF) cofactors, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) are two key cofactors involved in oxidative metabolism...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040199/in-vitro-effect-of-lysozyme-on-albumin-deposition-to-hydrogel-contact-lens-materials
#13
Negar Babaei Omali, Lakshman N Subbaraman, Miriam Heynen, Zohra Fadli, Chantal Coles-Brennan, Lyndon W Jones
SIGNIFICANCE: Albumin deposition on contact lenses could be detrimental to contact lens (CL) wear because this may increase the risk of bacterial binding and reduce comfort. Lysozyme deposition on selected lens materials would reduce albumin deposition on lenses. PURPOSE: This study aims to determine if lysozyme deposition on CLs could act as a barrier against subsequent albumin adsorption, using an in vitro model. METHODS: Six hydrogel CL materials (etafilcon A, polymacon, nelfilcon A, omafilcon A, ocufilcon B, and nesofilcon A) were evaluated...
November 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994401/crystal-structure-of-type-ii-nadh-quinone-oxidoreductase-from-caldalkalibacillus-thermarum-with-an-improved-resolution-of-2-15%C3%A2-%C3%A3
#14
Yoshio Nakatani, Wanting Jiao, David Aragão, Yosuke Shimaki, Jessica Petri, Emily J Parker, Gregory M Cook
Type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NDH-2) is a respiratory enzyme found in the electron-transport chain of many species, with the exception of mammals. It is a 40-70 kDa single-subunit monotopic membrane protein that catalyses the oxidation of NADH and the reduction of quinone molecules via the cofactor FAD. NDH-2 is a promising new target for drug development given its essential role in many bacterial species and intracellular parasites. Only two bacterial NDH-2 structures have been reported and these structures are at moderate resolution (2...
October 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966143/functional-efficiency-of-mera-protein-among-diverse-mercury-resistant-bacteria-for-efficient-use-in-bioremediation-of-inorganic-mercury
#15
Hirak R Dash, Mousumi Sahu, Bibekanand Mallick, Surajit Das
MerA protein of mer operon in mercury resistant bacteria influences transformation of Hg(2+) to Hg(0). Both in-silico and in-vivo studies have been carried out and MerA sequences, conserved motifs for mercury binding and NADPH (GCVPSK and LSCCA) varied widely in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. As MerA-NADPH-FAD complex plays an important role in mercury volatilization, molecular interaction studies between MerA, NADPH, FAD and Hg(2+) was carried out to study the efficiency of transformation of Hg(2+) to Hg(0) in mercury resistant bacteria...
November 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911204/enhanced-vulnerability-of-human-proteins-towards-disease-associated-inactivation-through-divergent-evolution
#16
Encarnación Medina-Carmona, Julian E Fuchs, Jose A Gavira, Noel Mesa-Torres, Jose L Neira, Eduardo Salido, Rogelio Palomino-Morales, Miguel Burgos, David J Timson, Angel L Pey
Human proteins are vulnerable towards disease-associated single amino acid replacements affecting protein stability and function. Interestingly, a few studies have shown that consensus amino acids from mammals or vertebrates can enhance protein stability when incorporated into human proteins. Here, we investigate yet unexplored relationships between the high vulnerability of human proteins towards disease-associated inactivation and recent evolutionary site-specific divergence of stabilizing amino acids. Using phylogenetic, structural and experimental analyses, we show that divergence from the consensus amino acids at several sites during mammalian evolution has caused local protein destabilization in two human proteins linked to disease: cancer-associated NQO1 and alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase, mutated in primary hyperoxaluria type I...
September 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890319/arctic-a%C3%AE-40-blocks-the-nicotine-induced-neuroprotective-effect-of-chrna7-by-inhibiting-the-erk1-2-pathway-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#17
Ye Ju, Toru Asahi, Naoya Sawamura
Amyloid β protein (Aβ) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Point mutations in the Aβ sequence, which cluster around the central hydrophobic core of the peptide, are associated with familial AD (FAD). Several mutations have been identified, with the Arctic mutation exhibiting a purely cognitive phenotype that is typical of AD. Our previous findings suggest that Arctic Aβ40 binds to and aggregates with CHRNA7, thereby inhibiting the calcium response and signaling pathways downstream of the receptor...
September 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889232/modulation-of-the-flavin-protein-interactions-in-nadh-peroxidase-and-mercuric-ion-reductase-a-resonance-raman-study
#18
Julie Keirsse-Haquin, Thierry Picaud, Luc Bordes, Adrienne Gomez de Gracia, Alain Desbois
NADH peroxidase (Npx) and mercuric ion reductase (MerA) are flavoproteins belonging to the pyridine nucleotide:disulfide oxidoreductases (PNDO) and catalyzing the reduction of toxic substrates, i.e., hydrogen peroxide and mercuric ion, respectively. To determine the role of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in the detoxification mechanism, the resonance Raman (RR) spectra of these enzymes under various redox and ligation states have been investigated using blue and/or near-UV excitation(s). These data were compared to those previously obtained for glutathione reductase (GR), another enzyme of the PNDO family, but catalyzing the reduction of oxidized glutathione...
September 9, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888693/n-terminus-determines-activity-and-specificity-of-styrene-monooxygenase-reductases
#19
Thomas Heine, Anika Scholtissek, Adrie H Westphal, Willem J H van Berkel, Dirk Tischler
Styrene monooxygenases (SMOs) are two-enzyme systems that catalyze the enantioselective epoxidation of styrene to (S)-styrene oxide. The FADH2 co-substrate of the epoxidase component (StyA) is supplied by an NADH-dependent flavin reductase (StyB). The genome of Rhodococcus opacus 1CP encodes two SMO systems. One system, which we define as E1-type, displays homology to the SMO from Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120. The other system, originally reported as a fused system (RoStyA2B), is defined as E2-type. Here we found that E1-type RoStyB is inhibited by FMN, while RoStyA2B is known to be active with FMN...
September 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887045/the-molten-globule-residual-structure-is-critical-for-reflavination-of-glucose-oxidase
#20
Katarína Garajová, Martina Zimmermann, Martina Petrenčáková, Lenka Dzurová, Michal Nemergut, Ľudovít Škultéty, Gabriel Žoldák, Erik Sedlák
Glucose oxidase (GOX) is a homodimeric glycoprotein with tightly bound one molecule of FAD cofactor per monomer of the protein. GOX has numerous applications, but the preparation of biotechnologically interesting GOX sensors requires a removal of the native FAD cofactor. This process often leads to unwanted irreversible deflavination and, as a consequence, to the low enzyme recovery. Molecular mechanisms of reversible reflavination are poorly understood; our current knowledge is based only on empiric rules, which is clearly insufficient for further development...
November 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
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