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FAD binding protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726126/characterization-of-a-cold-adapted-dna-photolyase-from-c-psychrerythraea-34h
#1
Sudipto Munshi, Ananthi Rajamoorthi, Robert J Stanley
The phrB gene encoding a putative cold-adapted DNA photolyase was cloned from the bacterial genomic DNA of Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H, a psychrophilic bacterium. Recombinant DNA photolyase, rCpPL, was overexpressed and purified from three different vectors. rCpPL binds its DNA substrate by flipping a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) into its active site and repairs CPD-containing DNA in vitro. rCpPL contains one catalytic flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor, but displays promiscuity in cofactor binding, in which either a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) or a methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) molecule is bound as an antenna molecule and found in sub-stoichiometric amounts...
July 19, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712956/refolding-of-a-novel-cholesterol-oxidase-from-pimelobacter-simplex-reveals-dehydrogenation-activity
#2
Hui-Min Qin, Jian-Wen Wang, Qianqian Guo, Songtao Li, Panpan Xu, Zhangliang Zhu, Dengyue Sun, Fuping Lu
Cholesterol oxidases, which catalyze the degradation of cholesterol to cholest-4-en-3-one, are widely used in the pharmaceutical and food processing industries. The cholesterol oxidase from Pimelobacter simplex (PsChO3) was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3), but it was expressed mainly as inclusion bodies, and any soluble PsChO3 failed to bind to Ni-NTA resin. To overcome this obstacle, we devised a simple yet efficient purification and refolding process using 8 M urea for the solubilization of PsChO3 and achieved a high yield of the enzyme in its active form...
July 13, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712849/structure-function-and-mechanism-of-proline-utilization-a-puta
#3
REVIEW
Li-Kai Liu, Donald F Becker, John J Tanner
Proline has important roles in multiple biological processes such as cellular bioenergetics, cell growth, oxidative and osmotic stress response, protein folding and stability, and redox signaling. The proline catabolic pathway, which forms glutamate, enables organisms to utilize proline as a carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. FAD-dependent proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and NAD(+)-dependent glutamate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GSALDH) convert proline to glutamate in two sequential oxidative steps. Depletion of PRODH and GSALDH in humans leads to hyperprolinemia, which is associated with mental disorders such as schizophrenia...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670303/3-hydroxybenzoate-6-hydroxylase-from-rhodococcus-jostii-rha1-contains-a-phosphatidylinositol-cofactor
#4
Stefania Montersino, Evelien Te Poele, Roberto Orru, Adrie H Westphal, Arjan Barendregt, Albert J R Heck, Robert van der Geize, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Andrea Mattevi, Willem J H van Berkel
3-Hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase (3HB6H, EC 1.13.14.26) is a FAD-dependent monooxygenase involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds in soil microorganisms. 3HB6H is unique among flavoprotein hydroxylases in that it harbors a phospholipid ligand. The purified protein obtained from expressing the gene encoding 3HB6H from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 in the host Escherichia coli contains a mixture of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, which are the major constituents of E. coli's cytoplasmic membrane...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666871/structural-bases-of-the-altered-catalytic-properties-of-a-pathogenic-variant-of-apoptosis-inducing-factor
#5
Luca Sorrentino, Federica Cossu, Mario Milani, Alessandro Aliverti, Eloise Mastrangelo
The apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a FAD-containing protein playing critical roles in caspase-independent apoptosis and mitochondrial respiratory chain biogenesis and maintenance. While its lethal role is well known, the details of its mitochondrial function remain elusive. So far, nineteen allelic variants of AIF have been associated to human diseases, mainly affecting the nervous system. A strict correlation is emerging between the degree of impairment of its ability to stabilize the charge-transfer (CT) complex between FAD and NAD(+) and the severity of the resulting pathology...
June 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634712/site-directed-mutagenesis-under-the-direction-of-in-silico-protein-docking-modeling-reveals-the-active-site-residues-of-3-ketosteroid-%C3%AE-1-dehydrogenase-from-mycobacterium-neoaurum
#6
Ning Qin, Yanbing Shen, Xu Yang, Liqiu Su, Rui Tang, Wei Li, Min Wang
3-Ketosteroid-Δ(1)-dehydrogenases (KsdD) from Mycobacterium neoaurum could transform androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) to androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione. This reaction has a significant effect on the product of pharmaceutical steroid. The crystal structure and active site residues information of KsdD from Mycobacterium is not yet available, which result in the engineering of KsdD is tedious. In this study, by the way of protein modeling and site-directed mutagenesis, we find that, Y122, Y125, S138, E140 and Y541 from the FAD-binding domain and Y365 from the catalytic domain play a key role in this transformation...
July 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625985/periplasmic-nicotine-dehydrogenase-ndhab-utilizes-pseudoazurin-as-its-physiological-electron-acceptor-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-s33
#7
Wenjun Yu, Rongshui Wang, Haiyan Huang, Huijun Xie, Shuning Wang
Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 can grow with nicotine as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy via a novel hybrid of the pyridine pathway and the pyrollidine pathway. Characterization of the enzymes involved in the hybrid pathway is important for understanding its biochemical mechanism. Here we report that the molybdenum-containing nicotine dehydrogenase (NdhAB), which catalyzes the initial step of nicotine degradation, is located in the periplasm of strain S33, while the 6-hydroxynicotine oxidase and 6-hydroxypseudooxynicoine oxidase are in the cytoplasm...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615448/structural-and-biochemical-analyses-reveal-insights-into-covalent-flavinylation-of-the-escherichia-coli-complex-ii-homolog-quinol-fumarate-reductase
#8
C A Starbird, Elena Maklashina, Pankaj Sharma, Susan Qualls-Histed, Gary Cecchini, T M Iverson
The Escherichia coli Complex II homolog quinol:fumarate reductase (QFR, FrdABCD) catalyzes the interconversion of fumarate and succinate at a covalently attached FAD within the FrdA subunit. The SdhE assembly factor enhances covalent flavinylation of Complex II homologs, but the mechanisms underlying the covalent attachment of FAD remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we explored the mechanisms of covalent flavinylation of the E. coli QFR FrdA subunit. Using a ΔsdhE E. coli strain, we show that the requirement for the assembly factor depends on the cellular redox environment...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607049/crystal-structures-and-atomic-model-of-nadph-oxidase
#9
Francesca Magnani, Simone Nenci, Elisa Millana Fananas, Marta Ceccon, Elvira Romero, Marco W Fraaije, Andrea Mattevi
NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are the only enzymes exclusively dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Dysregulation of these polytopic membrane proteins impacts the redox signaling cascades that control cell proliferation and death. We describe the atomic crystal structures of the catalytic flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)- and heme-binding domains of Cylindrospermum stagnale NOX5. The two domains form the core subunit that is common to all seven members of the NOX family. The domain structures were then docked in silico to provide a generic model for the NOX family...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602956/structure-function-studies-of-mical-the-unusual-multidomain-flavoenzyme-involved-in-actin-cytoskeleton-dynamics
#10
REVIEW
Maria Antonietta Vanoni
MICAL (from the Molecule Interacting with CasL) indicates a family of multidomain proteins conserved from insects to humans, which are increasingly attracting attention for their participation in the control of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, and, therefore, in the several related key processes in health and disease. MICAL is unique among actin binding proteins because it catalyzes a NADPH-dependent F-actin depolymerizing reaction. This unprecedented reaction is associated with its N-terminal FAD-containing domain that is structurally related to p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase, the prototype of aromatic monooxygenases, but catalyzes a strong NADPH oxidase activity in the free state...
June 8, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595543/alkaloids-and-leishmania-donovani-udp-galactopyarnose-mutase-anovel-approach-in-drug-designing-against-visceral-leishmaniasis
#11
Ankita Srivastava, Deepak Chandra
BACKGROUND: The unsatisfactory treatment options for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), needs identification of new drug targets. Among natural products, Alkaloids have been proved to be highly effective against number of diseases. In Leishmania UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) is a critical enzyme required for cell wall synthesis and thus a drug target for structure based drug designing against L. donovani. OBJECTIVE: To build the homology model of UDP galactopyranse mutase and investigate the interaction of selected alkaloids with this modeled UDP galactopyranose mutase by molecular docking...
June 5, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578385/%C3%AE-lapachone-suppresses-tumour-progression-by-inhibiting-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-nqo1-positive-breast-cancers
#12
Yang Yang, Xianchun Zhou, Ming Xu, Junjie Piao, Yuan Zhang, Zhenhua Lin, Liyan Chen
NQO1 is a FAD-binding protein that can form homodimers and reduce quinones to hydroquinones, and a growing body of evidence currently suggests that NQO1 is dramatically elevated in solid cancers. Here, we demonstrated that NQO1 was elevated in breast cancer and that its expression level was positively correlated with invasion and reduced disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates. Next, we found that β-lapachone exerted significant anti-proliferation and anti-metastasis effects in breast cancer cell lines due to its effects on NQO1 expression...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558236/identification-of-a-conserved-histidine-as-being-critical-for-the-catalytic-mechanism-and-functional-switching-of-the-multifunctional-proline-utilization-a-protein
#13
Michael A Moxley, Lu Zhang, Shelbi Christgen, John J Tanner, Donald F Becker
Proline utilization A from Escherichia coli (EcPutA) is a multifunctional flavoenzyme that oxidizes proline to glutamate through proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) activities, while also switching roles as a DNA-bound transcriptional repressor and a membrane-bound catabolic enzyme. This phenomenon, termed functional switching, occurs through a redox-mediated mechanism in which flavin reduction triggers a conformational change that increases EcPutA membrane binding affinity...
June 8, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509930/elucidation-of-inhibitor-binding-pockets-of-d-amino-acid-oxidase-using-docking-simulation-and-n-sulfanylethylanilide-based-labeling-technology
#14
Taiki Kohiki, Yusuke Kato, Yusuke Nishikawa, Kazuko Yorita, Ikuko Sagawa, Masaya Denda, Tsubasa Inokuma, Akira Shigenaga, Kiyoshi Fukui, Akira Otaka
Because of the relevance of d-serine (d-Ser) to schizophrenia, inhibitors of d-amino acid oxidase (DAO), which catalyzes degradation of d-Ser in the presence of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), are expected to be anti-schizophrenia therapeutics. In this study, binding pockets of DAO to its inhibitor 4-bromo-3-nitrobenzoic acid were searched by combining in silico docking simulation and labeling experiments employing an N-sulfanylethylanilide-based labeling technology that we have developed. The results clearly demonstrated that there are two binding pockets: one is shared with d-Ser and FAD, and the other is an unexpected cleft between the subunits of a DAO dimer...
June 27, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429324/photomovement-in-euglena
#15
Donat-P Häder, Mineo Iseki
Motile microorganisms such as the green Euglena gracilis use a number of external stimuli to orient in their environment. They respond to light with photophobic responses, photokinesis and phototaxis, all of which can result in accumulations of the organisms in suitable habitats. The light responses operate synergistically with gravitaxis, aerotaxis and other responses. Originally the microscopically obvious stigma was thought to be the photoreceptor, but later the paraxonemal body (PAB, paraflagellar body) has been identified as the light responsive organelle, located in the trailing flagellum inside the reservoir...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427558/a-computational-approach-to-identify-the-biophysical-and-structural-aspects-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-mthfr-mutations-a222v-e429a-and-r594q-leading-to-schizophrenia
#16
Himani Tanwar, P Sneha, D Thirumal Kumar, R Siva, Charles Emmanuel Jebaraj Walter, C George Priya Doss
The association between depression and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has been continually demonstrated in clinical studies, yet there are sparse resources available to build a relationship between the mutations associated with MTHFR and depression. The common mutations found to be associated with schizophrenia and MTHFR are A222V, E429A, and R594Q. Although abundant research on structural and functional effects caused by A222V mutation is available, very less amount of studies have been done on the other two mutants (E429A and R594Q)...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402850/fad-regulates-cryptochrome-protein-stability-and-circadian-clock-in-mice
#17
Arisa Hirano, Daniel Braas, Ying-Hui Fu, Louis J Ptáček
The circadian clock generates biological rhythms of metabolic and physiological processes, including the sleep-wake cycle. We previously identified a missense mutation in the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding pocket of CRYPTOCHROME2 (CRY2), a clock protein that causes human advanced sleep phase. This prompted us to examine the role of FAD as a mediator of the clock and metabolism. FAD stabilized CRY proteins, leading to increased protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of Riboflavin kinase (Rfk), an FAD biosynthetic enzyme, enhanced CRY degradation...
April 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393477/residues-at-a-single-site-differentiate-animal-cryptochromes-from-cyclobutane-pyrimidine-dimer-photolyases-by-affecting-the-proteins-preferences-for-reduced-fad
#18
Lei Xu, Bin Wen, Yuan Wang, Changqing Tian, Mingcai Wu, Guoping Zhu
Cryptochromes (CRYs) and photolyases belong to the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF). Reduced FAD is essential for photolyases to photorepair UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) or 6-4 photoproducts in DNA. In Drosophila CRY (dCRY, a type I animal CRY), FAD is converted to the anionic radical but not to the reduced state upon illumination, which might induce a conformational change in the protein to relay the light signal downstream. To explore the foundation of these differences, multiple sequence alignment of 650 CPF protein sequences was performed...
June 19, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373120/molecular-cloning-mrna-expression-and-nutritional-regulation-of-a-%C3%AE-6-fatty-acyl-desaturase-like-gene-of-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Zhideng Lin, Meilin Hao, Dashi Zhu, Shengkang Li, Xiaobo Wen
Fatty acyl desaturases (Fads) are critical enzymes in the pathways for the biosynthesis of the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). Here we report on the molecular cloning, tissue expression and nutritional regulation of a Δ6 fatty acyl desaturase-like (Δ6 Fad-like) gene from mud crab, Scylla paramamosain. The full-length cDNA was 1973bp, with a 201bp of 5'-UTR, a 443bp of 3'-UTR, and an ORF of 1329bp that encoded a protein of 442 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the deduced peptide sequence possessed the typical features of the microsomal Fads, including N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain containing the heme-binding motif (H-P-G-G), three histidine-rich boxes and three membrane-spanning regions...
June 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295778/the-ricaft-ymca-ylbf-yaat-complex-carries-two-4fe-4s-2-clusters-and-may-respond-to-redox-changes
#20
Andrew W Tanner, Valerie J Carabetta, Ryan J Martinie, Ameya A Mashruwala, Jeffrey M Boyd, Carsten Krebs, David Dubnau
During times of environmental insult, Bacillus subtilis undergoes developmental changes leading to biofilm formation, sporulation and competence. Each of these states is regulated in part by the phosphorylated form of the master response regulator Spo0A (Spo0A∼P). The phosphorylation state of Spo0A is controlled by a multi-component phosphorelay. RicA, RicF and RicT (previously YmcA, YlbF and YaaT) have been shown to be important regulatory proteins for multiple developmental fates. These proteins directly interact and form a stable complex, which has been proposed to accelerate the phosphorelay...
June 2017: Molecular Microbiology
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