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Blood pressure regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219987/a-unique-angiotensin-sensitive-neuronal-population-coordinates-neuroendocrine-cardiovascular-and-behavioral-responses-to-stress
#1
Annette D de Kloet, Lei Wang, Soledad Pitra, Helmut Hiller, Justin A Smith, Yalun Tan, Dani Nguyen, Karlena M Cahill, Colin Sumners, Javier E Stern, Eric G Krause
Stress elicits neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses that mitigate homeostatic imbalance and ensure survival; however, chronic engagement of such responses promotes psychological, cardiovascular and metabolic impairments. Over recent years, the renin-angiotensin system has emerged as a key mediator of stress responding and its related pathologies, but the neuronal circuits that orchestrate these interactions are not known. These studies combine the use of the Cre-recombinase/loxP system in mice with optogenetics to structurally and functionally characterize angiotensin type-1a receptor-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the goal being to determine the extent of their involvement in the regulation of stress responses...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217832/gestational-protein-restriction-study-of-the-probable-effects-on-cardiac-muscle-structure-and-function-in-adult-rats
#2
Mona G Amer, Nader M Mohamed, Aly A M Shaalan
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been linked to heart disease in adulthood. This study aimed to examine the effect of gestational protein restriction during fetal and early postnatal life on the cardiac muscle structure and function in adult offspring. Pregnant female rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups: normal-protein diet (NP) and low-protein diet (LP). Fifteen male offspring from each group were included in the study. Offspring body weights were recorded at birth and monthly from weaning until 24 weeks of age while systolic blood pressure was measured weekly...
February 20, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213404/hydrogen-sulfide-alleviates-hypertensive-kidney-dysfunction-through-an-epigenetic-mechanism
#3
Gregory Weber, Sathnur Pushpakumar, Utpal Sen
Hypertension is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal inflammation is an integral part in this pathology. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to mitigate renal damage through reduction in blood pressure and reactive oxygen species; however, the exact mechanisms are not clear. While several studies have underlined the role of epigenetics in renal inflammation and dysfunction, the mechanisms through which epigenetic regulators play role in hypertension are not well defined. In this study, we sought to identify if microRNAs are dysregulated in response to angiotensin-II (Ang-II) induced hypertension in the kidney and whether H2S donor, GYY 4137, could reverse the microRNA alteration and kidney function...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211916/role-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-endothelin-1-polymorphism-genes-with-the-pathogenesis-of-intraventricular-hemorrhage-in-preterm-infants
#4
Dawid Szpecht, Janusz Gadzinowski, Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Grażyna Kurzawińska, Marta Szymankiewicz
In the pathogenesis of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants, an important role is played by changes in venous and arterial cerebral flows. It has been shown that the ability of autoregulation of cerebral flows in response to variations in arterial blood pressure in preterm infants is impaired. This impaired autoregulation causes an increased risk of germinal matrix rupture and IVH occurrence. We examined three polymorphisms of genes, related to regulation of blood flow, for an association with IVH in 100 preterm infants born from singleton pregnancy, before 32 + 0 weeks of gestation, exposed to antenatal steroids therapy, and without congenital abnormalities...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210225/increased-apoptosis-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-mediated-by-at1r-ras-erk1-2-signaling-results-in-sympathetic-hyperactivity-and-renovascular-hypertension-in-rats-after-kidney-injury
#5
Hongguo Zhu, Lishan Tan, Yumin Li, Jiawen Li, Minzi Qiu, Lanying Li, Mengbi Zhang, Min Liang, Aiqing Li
Background: The central nervous system plays a vital role in the development of hypertension, but the molecular regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore signaling in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) which might contribute to renal hypertension. Methods: Renal hypertension model was established by five-sixth nephrectomy operation (5/6Nx) in male Sprague Dawley rats. Ten weeks afterwards, they were random assigned to no treatment, or intracerebroventricular injection (ICV) with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, losartan [angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) antagonist], farnesylthiosalicylic acid (Ras inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), or SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) and Z-DEVD-FMK (caspase-3 inhibitor)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209761/genetic-adaptation-of-the-schizothoracine-fishes-to-the-phased-uplifting-of-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#6
Dongsheng Zhang, Mengchao Yu, Peng Hu, Sihua Peng, Yimeng Liu, Weiwen Li, Congcong Wang, Shunping He, Wanying Zhai, Qianghua Xu, Liangbiao Chen
Many species of Schizothoracine, a sub-family of Cyprinidae, are highly endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). To characterize the adaptive changes associated with the Schizothoracine expansion in high-altitudes, we sequenced tissue transcriptomes of two highland and two sub-highland Schizothoracines, and analyzed gene evolution patterns by comparing to lowland cyprinids. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction and divergence time estimation indicated that the common ancestor of Schizothoracine fishes lived around 32...
February 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207876/circulating-c1q-complement-tnf-related-protein-ctrp-1-ctrp9-ctrp12-and-ctrp13-concentrations-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-vivo-regulation-by-glucose
#7
Bo Bai, Bo Ban, Zunjing Liu, Man Man Zhang, Bee Kang Tan, Jing Chen
OBJECTIVES: The C1q complement/TNF-related protein (CTRP) superfamily, which includes the adipokine adiponectin, has been shown in animal models to have positive metabolic and cardiovascular effects. We sought to investigate circulating CTRP1, CTRP9, CTRP12 and CTRP13 concentrations in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with age and BMI matched controls, and to examine the effects of a 2 hour 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on serum CTRP1, CTRP9, CTRP12 and CTRP13 levels in persons with T2DM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207613/vagal-regulation-of-cardiac-function-in-early-childhood-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-adolescence
#8
Meghan J Gangel, Lilly Shanahan, Jacek Kolacz, James A Janssen, Ashley Brown, Susan D Calkins, Susan P Keane, Laurie Wideman
OBJECTIVE: Poor behavioral self-regulation in the first two decades of life has been identified as an important precursor of disease risk in adulthood. However, physiological regulation has not been well-studied as a disease risk factor before adulthood. We tested whether physiological regulation at age two, in the form of vagal regulation of cardiac function (indexed by RSA change), would predict three indicators of cardiovascular risk at age 16 (diastolic and systolic blood pressure and body mass index)...
February 15, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205588/hypoxia-induced-angiotensin-ii-by-the-lactate-chymase-dependent-mechanism-mediates-radioresistance-of-hypoxic-tumor-cells
#9
Guozhu Xie, Ying Liu, Qiwei Yao, Rong Zheng, Lanfang Zhang, Jie Lin, Zhaoze Guo, Shasha Du, Chen Ren, Quan Yuan, Yawei Yuan
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a principal determinant of arterial blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance. RAS component dysregulation was recently found in some malignancies and correlated with poor patient outcomes. However, the exact mechanism of local RAS activation in tumors is still unclear. Here, we find that the local angiotensin II predominantly exists in the hypoxic regions of tumor formed by nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, where these tumor cells autocrinely produce angiotensin II by a chymase-dependent rather than an angiotensin converting enzyme-dependent mechanism...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205011/neural-control-of-blood-pressure-in-women-differences-according-to-age
#10
Ana B Peinado, Ronee E Harvey, Emma C Hart, Nisha Charkoudian, Timothy B Curry, Wayne T Nicholson, B Gunnar Wallin, Michael J Joyner, Jill N Barnes
PURPOSE: The blood pressure "error signal" represents the difference between an individual's mean diastolic blood pressure and the diastolic blood pressure at which 50% of cardiac cycles are associated with a muscle sympathetic nerve activity burst (the "T50"). In this study we evaluated whether T50 and the error signal related to the extent of change in blood pressure during autonomic blockade in young and older women, to study potential differences in sympathetic neural mechanisms regulating blood pressure before and after menopause...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202707/cadasil-accelerated-by-acute-hypotension-arterial-and-venous-contribution-to-leukoaraiosis
#11
Jacqueline A Pettersen, Julia Keith, Fuqiang Gao, J David Spence, Sandra E Black
OBJECTIVE: To underline the importance of blood pressure regulation in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and to describe changes that occur in the veins in this condition, specifically venous collagenosis associated with leukoaraiosis. METHODS: Case report with neuroimaging and pathologic data. RESULTS: A 61-year-old man with genetically confirmed CADASIL was initially lucid following a motor vehicle accident but subsequently became hypotensive (60/40 mm Hg) due to an open femur fracture and required intubation...
February 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202006/differences-in-serum-oxidative-status-between-glaucomatous-and-nonglaucomatous-cataract-patients
#12
Wojciech Rokicki, Jolanta Zalejska-Fiolka, Dorota Pojda-Wilczek, Alicja Hampel, Wojciech Majewski, Serap Ogultekin, Ewa Mrukwa-Kominek
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress contributes to both intraocular pressure regulation and glaucomatous neuropathy. The systemic redox status (solitary determination) was examined in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with cataract and nonglaucomatous cataract patients. Cataract-matched group comparisons appear more precise in the context of oxidative stress evaluation. The aim of this study was to establish if systemic oxidative status in POAG patients was elevated compared with the cataract only subjects...
February 15, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196131/altered-renal-sodium-handling-and-risk-of-incident-hypertension-results-of-the-olivetti-heart-study
#13
Lanfranco D'Elia, Francesco P Cappuccio, Roberto Iacone, Ornella Russo, Ferruccio Galletti, Pasquale Strazzullo
Renal tubular sodium (Na) handling plays a key role in blood pressure (BP) regulation. Several cross-sectional studies reported a positive association between higher proximal tubule fractional reabsorption of Na and BP, but no prospective investigation has been reported of this possible association. Hence, the purpose of this study was to estimate the predictive role of renal Na handling on the risk of incident hypertension and the changes in BP occurring in the 8-year follow-up observation of a sample of initially normotensive men (The Olivetti Heart Study)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196095/depth-dependent-flow-and-pressure-characteristics-in-cortical-microvascular-networks
#14
Franca Schmid, Philbert S Tsai, David Kleinfeld, Patrick Jenny, Bruno Weber
A better knowledge of the flow and pressure distribution in realistic microvascular networks is needed for improving our understanding of neurovascular coupling mechanisms and the related measurement techniques. Here, numerical simulations with discrete tracking of red blood cells (RBCs) are performed in three realistic microvascular networks from the mouse cerebral cortex. Our analysis is based on trajectories of individual RBCs and focuses on layer-specific flow phenomena until a cortical depth of 1 mm. The individual RBC trajectories reveal that in the capillary bed RBCs preferentially move in plane...
February 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191684/sequence-of-cardiovascular-autonomic-alterations-after-fingolimod-initiation
#15
Sakari Simula, Tomi P Laitinen, Tiina M Laitinen, Päivi Hartikainen, Juha E K Hartikainen
BACKGROUND: Homeostasis between heart rate and blood pressure is based on several interacting regulatory reflexes, which become influenced by fingolimod initiation. The aim of this study was to determine the sequence of changes in cardiovascular autonomic regulation after fingolimod initiation. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis underwent continuous electrocardiogram recording during the first 6 hr after the first dose of fingolimod...
February 13, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186430/cerebral-blood-flow-frontal-lobe-oxygenation-and-intra-arterial-blood-pressure-during-sprint-exercise-in-normoxia-and-severe-acute-hypoxia-in-humans
#16
David Curtelin, David Morales-Alamo, Rafael Torres-Peralta, Peter Rasmussen, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Mario Perez-Valera, Christoph Siebenmann, Ismael Pérez-Suárez, Evgenia Cherouveim, A William Sheel, Carsten Lundby, José Al Calbet
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated to secure brain O2 delivery while simultaneously avoiding hyperperfusion; however, both requisites may conflict during sprint exercise. To determine whether brain O2 delivery or CBF is prioritized, young men performed sprint exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (PIO2 = 73 mmHg). During the sprints, cardiac output increased to ∼22 L min(-1), mean arterial pressure to ∼131 mmHg and peak systolic blood pressure ranged between 200 and 304 mmHg. Middle-cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) increased to peak values (∼16%) after 7...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185984/hydrogen-sulfide-in-paraventricular-nucleus-attenuates-blood-pressure-by-regulating-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-high-salt-induced-hypertension
#17
Yan-Feng Liang, Dong-Dong Zhang, Xiao-Jing Yu, Hong-Li Gao, Kai-Li Liu, Jie Qi, Hong-Bao Li, Qiu-Yue Yi, Wen-Sheng Chen, Wei Cui, Guo-Qing Zhu, Yu-Ming Kang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important gaseous signaling molecule in neuro-modulation, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-hypertensive effects. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a major integrative nucleus in regulating BP and SNA. The aim of this study is to explore whether endogenous or exogenous H2S changed by hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA) or GYY4137 infused in the PVN affects RSNA and MAP by regulating oxidative stress or the balance between pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and anti-inflammatory cytokines in high salt-induced hypertensive rats...
February 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183584/monitoring-of-the-intraoperative-analgesia-by-pupillometry-during-laparoscopic-splenectomy-for-splenic-hydatid-cyst
#18
Ana Abad-Torrent, Albert Sueiras-Gil, Miquel Martínez-Vilalta, Josep Vallet-Fernández, María Guisasola-Rabés
Echinococcosis causes a hydatid cyst, a worldwide disease. Human beings are intermediate hosts, but dogs complete the life cycle of the cestode. The most common presentation sites are the liver and lungs. We present an unusual case of a primary splenic hydatid cyst. Open splenectomy has traditionally been the treatment of choice for splenic hydatid cysts. In recent years, minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery has been used in appropriate cases. A healthy 48-year-old woman was scheduled for laparoscopic splenectomy...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183450/the-role-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-kidney-injury-induced-by-gut-derived-inflammatory-response
#19
REVIEW
Wei Huang, Luping Zhou, Hengli Guo, Youhua Xu, Yong Xu
It has been found that several circulating metabolites derived from gut microbiota fermentation associate with a systemic immuno-inflammatory response and kidney injury, which has been coined the gut-kidney axis. Recent evidence has suggested that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are primarily originated from fermentation of dietary fiber in the gut, play an important role in regulation of immunity, blood pressure, glucose and lipid metabolism, and seem to be the link between microbiota and host homeostasis...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179809/sex-in-the-brain-hormones-and-sex-differences
#20
Jordan Marrocco, Bruce S McEwen
Contrary to popular belief, sex hormones act throughout the entire brain of both males and females via both genomic and nongenomic receptors. Many neural and behavioral functions are affected by estrogens, including mood, cognitive function, blood pressure regulation, motor coordination, pain, and opioid sensitivity. Subtle sex differences exist for many of these functions that are developmentally programmed by hormones and by not yet precisely defined genetic factors, including the mitochondrial genome. These sex differences, and responses to sex hormones in brain regions and upon functions not previously regarded as subject to such differences, indicate that we are entering a new era in our ability to understand and appreciate the diversity of gender-related behaviors and brain functions...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
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