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Augmented Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045911/fuzzy-rough-cognitive-networks
#1
Gonzalo Nápoles, Carlos Mosquera, Rafael Falcon, Isel Grau, Rafael Bello, Koen Vanhoof
Rough Cognitive Networks (RCNs) are a kind of granular neural network that augments the reasoning rule present in Fuzzy Cognitive Maps with crisp information granules coming from Rough Set Theory. While RCNs have shown promise in solving different classification problems, this model is still very sensitive to the similarity threshold upon which the rough information granules are built. In this paper, we cast the RCN model within the framework of fuzzy rough sets in an attempt to eliminate the need for a user-specified similarity threshold while retaining the model's discriminatory power...
September 28, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041878/-influence-of-sympathetic-denervation-of-the-renal-artery-on-the-level-of-arterial-blood-pressure-cerebral-blood-flow-and-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-resistant-arterial-hypertension
#2
Y N Efimova, A V Lichikaki, B Y Lishmanov
PURPOSE: To study the effect of radiofrequency ablation of renal arteries on regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in patients with resistant arterial hypertension (AH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Transcatheter renal denervation (TRD) was performed in 17 patients with resistant AH. Examination before and after TRD included SPECT with mTc-HMPAO, 24-hours blood pressure (BP) monitoring, and comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Fifteen patients without angiographic signs of carotid atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and AH, neurological and psychiatric disorders were investigated as control group...
July 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034839/pharmacogenetics-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#3
Fabricio Ferreira de Oliveira, Elizabeth Suchi Chen, Marilia Cardoso Smith, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci
BACKGROUND: While the angiotensin-converting enzyme degrades amyloid-β, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) may slow cognitive decline by way of cholinergic effects, by increasing brain substance P and boosting the activity of neprilysin, and by modulating glucose homeostasis and augmenting the secretion of adipokines to enhance insulin sensitivity in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD). We aimed to investigate whether ACE gene polymorphisms rs1800764 and rs4291 are associated with cognitive and functional change in patients with AD, while also taking APOE haplotypes and anti-hypertensive treatment with ACEis into account for stratification...
October 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025977/an-approach-to-discovering-novel-muscarinic-m1-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulators-with-potent-cognitive-improvement-and-minimized-gastrointestinal-dysfunction
#4
Emi Kurimoto, Satoru Matsuda, Yuji Shimizu, Yuu Sako, Takao Mandai, Takahiro Sugimoto, Hiroki Sakamoto, Haruhide Kimura
Activation of muscarinic M1 receptor (M1R) is a promising approach for improving cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. However, an M1 selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM), benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA), at 30 mg/kg, induced diarrhea in wild-type mice, but not in M1R knock-out mice. Moreover, BQCA (0.1-1000 nM) augmented electric field stimulation (EFS) -induced ileum contraction in an in vitro Magnus assay. Thus, we decided to establish a drug-screening strategy to discover novel M1 PAMs producing potent cognitive improvement with minimized gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025830/randomised-controlled-pilot-trial-of-an-exercise-plus-behaviour-change-intervention-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-the-step-it-up-study
#5
Sara Hayes, Marcin Kacper Uszynski, Robert W Motl, Stephen Gallagher, Aidan Larkin, John Newell, Carl Scarrott, Susan Coote
OBJECTIVE: To investigate feasibility of multiple sclerosis (MS) exercise guidelines for inactive people with MS (PwMS) and to examine preliminary efficacy for walking. To investigate effect of augmenting that intervention with education based on social cognitive theory (SCT). DESIGN: Pilot multicentre, double-blind, randomised, parallel, controlled trial. SETTING: Community-delivered programme. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-five physically inactive PwMS walked independently, scored 0-3 on the Patient Determined Disease Steps Scale, had no MS relapse or change in MS medication in 12 weeks...
October 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025113/innovative-technology-using-virtual-reality-in-the-treatment-of-pain-does-it-reduce-pain-via-distraction-or-is-there-more-to-it
#6
Anita Gupta, Kevin Scott, Matthew Dukewich
Objective: Virtual reality (VR) is an exciting new technology with almost endless possible uses in medicine. One area it has shown promise is pain management. This selective review focused on studies that gave evidence to the distraction or nondistraction mechanisms by which VR leads to the treatment of pain. Methods: The review looked at articles from 2000 to July 29, 2016, focusing on studies concerning mechanisms by which virtual reality can augment pain relief...
August 31, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021765/enhancing-neuroplasticity-to-augment-cognitive-remediation-in-schizophrenia
#7
REVIEW
Carol Jahshan, Yuri Rassovsky, Michael F Green
There is a burgeoning need for innovative treatment strategies to improve the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation (CR) is effective at the group level, but the variability in treatment response is large. Given that CR may depend on intact neuroplasticity to produce cognitive gains, it is reasonable to combine it with strategies that harness patients' neuroplastic potential. In this review, we discuss two non-pharmacological approaches that can enhance neuroplasticity and possibly augment the effects of CR in schizophrenia: physical exercise and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020466/improving-post-stroke-cognitive-and-behavioral-abnormalities-by-using-virtual-reality-a-case-report-on-a-novel-use-of-nirvana
#8
Rosaria De Luca, Michele Torrisi, Adriana Piccolo, Giovanni Bonfiglio, Provvidenza Tomasello, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Cognitive impairment, as well as mood and anxiety disorders, occur frequently in patients following stroke. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combined rehabilitative treatment using conventional relaxation and respiratory techniques, in a specific rehabilitative virtual environment (by using Bts-Nirvana). A 58-year-old woman, affected by hemorrhagic stroke, underwent two different rehabilitation trainings, including either standard relaxation techniques alone in a common clinical setting or the same psychological approach in a semi-immersive virtual environment with an augmented sensorial (audio-video) and motor feedback (sensory motor-interaction)...
October 11, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993740/pharmacological-augmentation-of-psychosocial-and-remediation-training-efforts-in-schizophrenia
#9
REVIEW
Philip D Harvey, Michael Sand
Pharmacological approaches to cognitive enhancement have received considerable attention but have not had considerable success in improving their cognitive and functional targets. Other intervention strategies, such as cognitive remediation therapy (CRT), have been shown to enhance cognitive performance but have not been found to improve functional outcomes without additional psychosocial interventions. Recently, several studies have attempted to enhance the effects of CRT by adding pharmacological interventions to the CRT treatments...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986274/toward-a-model-of-human-information-processing-for-decision-making-and-skill-acquisition-in-laparoscopic-colorectal-surgery
#10
Eoin J White, Muireann McMahon, Michael T Walsh, J Calvin Coffey, Leonard O Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: To create a human information-processing model for laparoscopic surgery based on already established literature and primary research to enhance laparoscopic surgical education in this context. DESIGN: We reviewed the literature for information-processing models most relevant to laparoscopic surgery. Our review highlighted the necessity for a model that accounts for dynamic environments, perception, allocation of attention resources between the actions of both hands of an operator, and skill acquisition and retention...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976937/development-and-preliminary-validation-of-refugee-trauma-history-checklist-rthc-a-brief-checklist-for-survey-studies
#11
Erika Sigvardsdotter, Henrik Nilsson, Andreas Malm, Petter Tinghög, Maria Gottvall, Marjan Vaez, Fredrik Saboonchi
A high proportion of refugees have been subjected to potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs), including torture. PTEs, and torture in particular, are powerful predictors of mental ill health. This paper reports the development and preliminary validation of a brief refugee trauma checklist applicable for survey studies. METHODS: A pool of 232 items was generated based on pre-existing instruments. Conceptualization, item selection and item refinement was conducted based on existing literature and in collaboration with experts...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972834/how-we-care-for-an-older-patient-with-cancer
#12
Armin Shahrokni, Soo Jung Kim, George J Bosl, Beatriz Korc-Grodzicki
As the number of older patients with cancer is increasing, oncology disciplines are faced with the challenge of managing patients with multiple chronic conditions who have difficulty maintaining independence, who may have cognitive impairment, and who also may be more vulnerable to adverse outcomes. National and international societies have recommended that all older patients with cancer undergo geriatric assessment (GA) to detect unaddressed problems and introduce interventions to augment functional status to possibly improve patient survival...
February 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971006/dysfunctional-gaze-processing-in-bipolar-disorder
#13
Cristina Berchio, Camille Piguet, Christoph M Michel, Paolo Cordera, Tonia A Rihs, Alexandre G Dayer, Jean-Michel Aubry
Gaze conveys emotional information, and humans present sensitivity to its direction from the earliest days of life. Bipolar disorder is a disease characterized by fluctuating states of emotional and cognitive dysregulation. To explore the role of attentional control on face processing in bipolar patients (BP) we used gaze direction as an emotion modulation parameter in a two-back Working Memory (WM) task while high-density EEG data were acquired. Since gaze direction influences emotional attributions to faces with neutral expressions as well, we presented neutral faces with direct and averted gaze...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970969/slower-eeg-alpha-generation-synchronization-and-flow-possible-biomarkers-of-cognitive-impairment-and-neuropathology-of-minor-stroke
#14
Jelena Petrovic, Vuk Milosevic, Miroslava Zivkovic, Dragan Stojanov, Olga Milojkovic, Aleksandar Kalauzi, Jasna Saponjic
BACKGROUND: We investigated EEG rhythms, particularly alpha activity, and their relationship to post-stroke neuropathology and cognitive functions in the subacute and chronic stages of minor strokes. METHODS: We included 10 patients with right middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic strokes and 11 healthy controls. All the assessments of stroke patients were done both in the subacute and chronic stages. Neurological impairment was measured using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), whereas cognitive functions were assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and MoCA memory index (MoCA-MIS)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956336/regulation-of-striatal-neuron-activity-by-cyclic-nucleotide-signaling-and-phosphodiesterase-inhibition-implications-for-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Fernando E Padovan-Neto, Anthony R West
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis and inactivation of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP/cGMP) in the brain. Several classes of PDE enzymes with distinct tissue distributions, cyclic nucleotide selectivity, and regulatory factors are highly expressed in brain regions subserving cognitive and motor processes known to be disrupted in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, small-molecule inhibitors of several different PDE family members alter cyclic nucleotide levels and favorably enhance motor performance and cognition in animal disease models...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940660/adnp-plays-a-key-role-in-autophagy-from-autism-to-schizophrenia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Shlomo Sragovich, Avia Merenlender-Wagner, Illana Gozes
Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), discovered in our laboratory in 1999, has been characterized as a master gene vital for mammalian brain formation. ADNP de novo mutations in humans result in a syndromic form of autism-like spectrum disorder (ASD), including cognitive and motor deficits, the ADNP syndrome (Helsmoortel-Van Der Aa). One of the most important cellular processes associated with ADNP is the autophagy pathway, recently discovered by us as a key player in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
September 21, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938523/hypothermia-induced-by-anesthesia-regulates-various-signals-expressions-in-the-hippocampus-of-animals
#17
Huimei Hao, Shanshan Wang
Though important for a variety of medical procedures, general anesthesia is not a problem free. Some anesthetics have been suggested to affect a number of signals, which are associated with memory consolidation and cognition. In the present study, we attempted to investigate the molecular mechanism of anesthesia-regulated processes. We found that under hypothermic condition, anesthetic of isoflurane enhances various signals expression in hippocampus, including Hspd1, Actb, Mgst1, THBS4, Syp, C1QC, Serpine, Plat, and Ngf, which were related to cellular stress, neural plasticity responses, and hippocampal injury...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935618/social-communication-coaching-smartglasses-well-tolerated-in-a-diverse-sample-of-children-and-adults-with-autism
#18
Neha U Keshav, Joseph P Salisbury, Arshya Vahabzadeh, Ned T Sahin
BACKGROUND: Augmented reality (AR) smartglasses are an emerging technology that is under investigation as a social communication aid for children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and as a research tool to aid with digital phenotyping. Tolerability of this wearable technology in people with ASD is an important area for research, especially as these individuals may experience sensory, cognitive, and attentional challenges. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the tolerability and usability of a novel smartglasses system that has been designed as a social communication aid for children and adults with autism (the Brain Power Autism System [BPAS])...
September 21, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933261/pharmacological-treatment-of-cognitive-symptoms-in-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Zihang Pan, Radu C Grovu, Danielle S Cha, Nicole E Carmona, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Margarita Shekotikhina, Carola Rong, Yena Lee, Roger S McIntyre
: Background: Cognitive dysfunction is a core transdiagnostic domain of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and is a principal determinant of functional recovery. However, it has been insufficiently targeted within the current therapeutic framework for MDD. OBJECTIVE: To highlight these unmet cognitive needs in MDD. METHODS: An article search was conducted using PubMed from inception to November 2016: Major Depressive Disorder (and/or variant) was cross-referenced with the following terms: antidepressants, augmentation, cognition, cognitive deficits, cognitive dysfunction, functional outcomes, mechanism of action, and treatment...
September 18, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930760/medical-education-and-health-care-delivery-a-call-to-better-align-goals-and-purposes
#20
David P Sklar, Paul A Hemmer, Steven J Durning
The transformation of the U.S. health care system is under way, driven by the needs of an aging population, rising health care spending, and the availability of health information. However, the speed and effectiveness of the transformation of health care delivery will depend, in large part, upon engagement of the health professions community and changes in clinicians' practice behaviors. Current efforts to influence practice behaviors emphasize changes in the health payment system with incentives to move from fee-for-service to alternative payment models...
September 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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