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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097612/wip1-phosphatase-plays-a-critical-neuroprotective-role-in-brain-injury-induced-by-high-altitude-hypoxic-inflammation
#1
Dahu Li, Lijun Zhang, Xin Huang, Lili Liu, Yunling He, Lun Xu, Yiyao Zhang, Tong Zhao, Liying Wu, Yongqi Zhao, Kuiwu Wu, Yan Wu, Ming Fan, Lingling Zhu
The hypobaric hypoxic environment in high-altitude areas often aggravates the severity of inflammation and induces brain injury as a consequence. However, the critical genes regulating this process remain largely unknown. The phosphatase wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1) plays important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including the regulation of inflammation in normoxia, but its functions in hypoxic inflammation-induced brain injury remain unclear. Here, we established a mouse model of this type of injury and found that WIP1 deficiency augmented the release of inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral circulation and brain tissue, increased the numbers of activated microglia/macrophages in the brain, aggravated cerebral histological lesions, and exacerbated the impairment of motor and cognitive abilities...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097008/preclinical-findings-predicting-efficacy-and-side-effect-profile-of-ly2940094-an-antagonist-of-nociceptin-receptors
#2
Jeffrey M Witkin, Linda M Rorick-Kehn, Mark J Benvenga, Benjamin L Adams, Scott D Gleason, Karen M Knitowski, Xia Li, Steven Chaney, Julie F Falcone, Janice W Smith, Julie Foss, Kirsti Lloyd, John T Catlow, David L McKinzie, Kjell A Svensson, Vanessa N Barth, Miguel A Toledo, Nuria Diaz, Celia Lafuente, Alma Jiménez, Alfonso Benito, Conception Pedregal, Maria A Martínez-Grau, Anke Post, Michael A Ansonoff, John E Pintar, Michael A Statnick
Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is a 17 amino acid peptide whose receptor is designated ORL1 or nociceptin receptor (NOP). We utilized a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable antagonist with documented engagement with NOP receptors in vivo to assess antidepressant- and anxiolytic-related pharmacological effects of NOP receptor blockade along with measures of cognitive and motor impingement. LY2940094 ([2-[4-[(2-chloro-4,4-difluoro-spiro[5H-thieno[2,3-c]pyran-7,4'-piperidine]-1'-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-pyrazol-1-yl]-3-pyridyl]methanol) displayed antidepressant-like behavioral effects in the forced-swim test in mice, an effect absent in NOP (-/-) mice...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096876/effectiveness-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-augmentation-on-clozapine-resistant-schizophrenia
#3
Hye Sung Kim, Se Hyun Kim, Nam Young Lee, Tak Youn, Jeoung Hyuk Lee, Seunghyun Chung, Yong Sik Kim, In Won Chung
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective case series study of the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) augmentation on clozapine-resistant schizophrenia was conducted by EMR review. METHODS: Clozapine-resistance was defined as persistent psychotic symptoms despite at least 12 weeks of clozapine administration with blood levels over 350 ng/mL in order to rule out pseudo-resistance. Seven in-patients who were taking clozapine and treated with ECT were selected. We analyzed the psychopathology and subscales changed by ECT...
January 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095813/vocational-rehabilitation-for-adults-with-psychotic-disorders-in-a-scandinavian-welfare-society
#4
Erik Falkum, Ole Klungsøyr, June Ullevoldsæter Lystad, Helen Christine Bull, Stig Evensen, Egil W Martinsen, Svein Friis, Torill Ueland
BACKGROUND: This study examined the outcomes of a vocational rehabilitation program (The Job Management Program, JUMP) for persons with psychotic disorders based on close collaboration between health and welfare services. METHODS: Participants (N = 148) with broad schizophrenia spectrum disorders (age 18-65) were recruited from six counties in Norway. Three counties were randomized to vocational rehabilitation augmented with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), while the remaining three counties were randomized to vocational rehabilitation augmented with cognitive remediation (CR)...
January 17, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092055/differentiating-emotional-processing-and-attention-in-psychopathy-with-functional-neuroimaging
#5
Nathaniel E Anderson, Vaughn R Steele, J Michael Maurer, Vikram Rao, Michael R Koenigs, Jean Decety, David S Kosson, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Individuals with psychopathy are often characterized by emotional processing deficits, and recent research has examined the specific contexts and cognitive mechanisms that underlie these abnormalities. Some evidence suggests that abnormal features of attention are fundamental to emotional deficits in persons with psychopathy, but few studies have demonstrated the neural underpinnings responsible for such effects. Here, we use functional neuroimaging to examine attention-emotion interactions among incarcerated individuals (n = 120) evaluated for psychopathic traits using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)...
January 16, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091956/does-caffeine-influence-the-anticholinesterase-and-antioxidant-properties-of-donepezil-evidence-from-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#6
Ganiyu Oboh, Opeyemi Babatunde Ogunsuyi, Oluwaseyi Emmanuel Olonisola
Caffeine is adjudged world's most consumed pharmacologically active food component. With reports of the potential cognitive enhancing properties of caffeine, we sought to investigate if caffeine can influence the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of donepezil-a selective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor used in the management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vitro, we investigated the effect of donepezil (DON), caffeine (CAF) and their various combinations on the activity of AChE in rat brain homogenate, as well as determined their antioxidant properties...
January 13, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077334/the-neuroprotective-compound-p7c3-a20-promotes-neurogenesis-and-improves-cognitive-function-after-ischemic-stroke
#7
Zachary B Loris, Andrew A Pieper, W Dalton Dietrich
Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition with few therapeutic interventions available. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 inhibits mature neuronal cell death while also increasing the net magnitude of postnatal neurogenesis in models of neurodegeneration and acute injury. P7C3 compounds enhance flux of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in mammalian cells, a proposed therapeutic approach to treating cerebral ischemia. The effectiveness of P7C3-A20 treatment on chronic histopathological and behavioral outcomes and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke has not previously been established...
January 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068613/behavioral-activation-treatment-for-major-depression-a-randomized-trial-of-the-efficacy-of-augmentation-with-cognitive-control-training
#8
Samantha J Moshier, Michael W Otto
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain region involved in emotion regulation and basic cognitive control processes. Recent studies have indicated that computerized interventions designed to activate this region may reduce depressive and ruminative symptoms. In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, we tested whether one such program, called Cognitive Control Training (CCT), enhanced treatment outcomes when used in adjunct to brief behavior therapy for MDD...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062203/semi-mechanistic-computer-simulation-of-psychotic-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-with-a-model-of-a-humanized-cortico-striatal-thalamocortical-loop
#9
Athan Spiros, Patrick Roberts, Hugo Geerts
Despite new insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and clinical trials with highly selective drugs, no new therapeutic breakthroughs have been identified. We present a semi-mechanistic Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) computer model of a biophysically realistic cortical-striatal-thalamo-cortical loop. The model incorporates the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathway of the basal ganglia and CNS drug targets that modulate neuronal firing, based on preclinical data about their localization and coupling to voltage-gated ion channels...
January 3, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058799/impact-of-asd-traits-on-treatment-outcomes-of-eating-disorders-in-girls
#10
Catherine S Stewart, Fiona S McEwen, Anna Konstantellou, Ivan Eisler, Mima Simic
Evidence links high levels of Autism Spectrum Disorder Traits in women with chronicity of anorexia nervosa. This study reports through clinical audit the impact of ASD traits on treatment outcomes of girls who were referred for treatment in a specialist eating disorder service. Presence of current, but not early childhood, ASD traits was elevated in comparison with previously reported community samples. Current ASD traits were correlated with emotional disorders and with need for treatment augmentation (psychiatric inpatient or day patient admission), but this relationship was not significant after the contribution of depression had been controlled for...
January 6, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056981/arterial-stiffness-endothelial-and-cognitive-function-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-in-accordance-with-absence-or-presence-of-diabetic-foot-syndrome
#11
Antonino Tuttolomondo, Alessandra Casuccio, Giovanni Guercio, Carlo Maida, Alessandro Del Cuore, Domenico Di Raimondo, Irene Simonetta, Danilo Di Bona, Rosaria Pecoraro, Vittoriano Della Corte, Eliana Gulotta, Gaspare Gulotta, Antonio Pinto
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is an early marker of cardiovascular disease so endothelial and arterial stiffness indexes are good indicators of vascular health. We aimed to assess whether the presence of diabetic foot is associated with arterial stiffness and endothelial function impairment. METHODS: We studied 50 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) compared to 50 diabetic subjects without diabetic foot, and 53 patients without diabetes mellitus, by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE) administered to evaluate cognitive performance...
January 6, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055228/preliminary-investigation-of-brain-network-activation-bna-and-its-clinical-utility-in-sport-related-concussion
#12
A Reches, J Kutcher, R J Elbin, H Or-Ly, B Sadeh, J Greer, D J McAllister, A Geva, A P Kontos
BACKGROUND: The clinical diagnosis and management of patients with sport-related concussion is largely dependent on subjectively reported symptoms, clinical examinations, cognitive, balance, vestibular and oculomotor testing. Consequently, there is an unmet need for objective assessment tools that can identify the injury from a physiological perspective and add an important layer of information to the clinician's decision-making process. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the EEG-based tool named Brain Network Activation (BNA) as a longitudinal assessment method of brain function in the management of young athletes with concussion...
January 5, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051833/cognitive-benefits-of-exercise-intervention
#13
T Archer, S Ricci, F Massoni, L Ricci, M Rapp-Ricciardi
Exercise, as a potent epigenetic regulator, implies the potential to counteract pathophysiological processes and alterations in most cardiovascular/respiratory cells and tissues not withstanding a paucity of understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and doseresponse relationships. In the present account, the assets accruing from physical exercise and its influence upon executive functioning are examined. Under conditions of neuropsychiatric and neurologic ill-health, age-related deterioration of functional and biomarker indicators during healthy and disordered trajectories, neuroimmune and affective unbalance, and epigenetic pressures, exercise offers a large harvest of augmentations in health and well-being...
November 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044261/cognitive-development-in-a-young-child-with-mucolipidosis-type-iv-a-case-report
#14
Evelyn L Fisher, Rose A Sevcik, MaryAnn Romski
Mucolipidosis Type IV (ML IV) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by severe psychomotor impairments and ophthalmologic abnormalities. Reports on the cognitive development of people with ML IV are limited, but suggest that achievement of language and cognitive milestones varies between a 3- and 18-month level. There is also variability in reports of whether people with ML IV make developmental progress, regress, or remain static after infancy. This study examines the longitudinal development of a young child with ML IV who participated in an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention...
January 3, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041917/cognitive-remediation-and-occupational-outcome-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-2year-follow-up-study
#15
June Ullevoldsæter Lystad, Erik Falkum, Vegard Øksendal Haaland, Helen Bull, Stig Evensen, Susan R McGurk, Torill Ueland
Neurocognitive impairment is prominent in schizophrenia and a significant predictor of poor occupational outcomes. Vocational rehabilitation (VR) is frequently implemented to counteract high unemployment rates. Individuals with schizophrenia however face numerous challenges such as neurocognitive impairments and psychotic symptoms. Hence, augmenting VR to address illness-related factors may optimize occupational outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Cognitive Remediation (CR) combined with VR(CR+VR) compared to techniques from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) combined with VR(CBT+VR) on neurocognition and occupational functioning over a 2year period...
December 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039795/visuomotor-adaptability-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-decline
#16
Jeffrey Schaffert, Chi-Mei Lee, Rebecca Neill, Jin Bo
The current study examined the augmentation of error feedback on visuomotor adaptability in older adults with varying degrees of cognitive decline (assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; MoCA). Twenty-three participants performed a center-out computerized visuomotor adaptation task when the visual feedback of their hand movement error was presented in a regular (ratio=1:1) or enhanced (ratio=1:2) error feedback schedule. Results showed that older adults with lower scores on the MoCA had less adaptability than those with higher MoCA scores during the regular feedback schedule...
December 28, 2016: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034697/the-representation-of-space-in-the-brain
#17
REVIEW
Roddy M Grieves, Kate J Jeffery
Animals can navigate vast distances and often display behaviours or activities that indicate a detailed, internal spatial representation of their surrounding environment or a 'cognitive map'. Over a century of behavioural research on spatial navigation in humans and animals has greatly increased our understanding of how this highly complex feat is achieved. In turn this has inspired half a century of electrophysiological spatial navigation and memory research which has further advanced our understanding of the brain...
December 26, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032141/vestibular-control-of-standing-balance-is-enhanced-with-increased-cognitive-load
#18
Michael A McGeehan, Marjorie H Woollacott, Brian H Dalton
When cognitive load is elevated during a motor task, cortical inhibition and reaction time are increased; yet, standing balance control is often unchanged. This disconnect is likely explained by compensatory mechanisms within the balance system such as increased sensitivity of the vestibulomotor pathway. This study aimed to determine the effects of increased cognitive load on the vestibular control of standing balance. Participants stood blindfolded on a force plate with their head facing left and arms relaxed at their sides for two trials while exposed to continuous electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS)...
December 28, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028812/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-efficacy-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-the-management-of-pediatric-migraine
#19
REVIEW
Qin Xiang Ng, Nandini Venkatanarayanan, Lakshmi Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Migraine headaches are common in children and adolescents. Current pharmacologic treatment options are limited despite the prevalence and debilitating effects of pediatric migraine. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based practice that focuses on the development of coping strategies and cognitive restructuring to alter the pain experience. Till date, no meta-analysis has been done to examine the use of CBT in pediatric migraine. METHODS: Using the keywords (cognitive behavioral therapy OR cognitive behavior therapy OR cognitive behavioral therapy OR cognitive behavior therapy OR CBT) AND (headache OR migraine), a preliminary search on the PubMed and Ovid database yielded 3841 articles published in English between 1 Jan 1980 and 1 May 2016...
December 28, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013123/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-trial-evaluating-the-effect-of-intranasal-insulin-on-cognition-and-mood-in-individuals-with-treatment-resistant-major-depressive-disorder
#20
Danielle S Cha, Michael W Best, Christopher R Bowie, Laura Ashley Gallaugher, Hanna O Woldeyohannes, Joanna K Soczynska, Gary Lewis, Glenda MacQueen, Barbara J Sahakian, Sidney H Kennedy, Jane P Lui, Rodrigo B Mansur, Roger S McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) is identified as a primary therapeutic target; no current treatment is approved for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in MDD. We examined whether intranasal insulin offered a beneficial effect across measures of cognitive function in adults with MDD. METHODS: Thirty-five adults (18-65 years of age: 47.09±9.89) meeting criteria for a major depressive episode as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV-Treatment Revised were included in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
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