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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429081/cognitive-and-mood-improvements-following-acute-supplementation-with-purple-grape-juice-in-healthy-young-adults
#1
C F Haskell-Ramsay, R C Stuart, E J Okello, A W Watson
PURPOSE: Berry-derived phenolic compounds found in grapes have been associated with a number of health benefits, including the augmentation of human brain function and cognition. Previous intervention studies of Concord grape juice have demonstrated improvement to memory and driving ability following 3- to 4-month supplementation in middle-aged and older adults. However, no studies to date have demonstrated acute cognitive benefits of grape juice, and investigation of these effects in young adults is lacking...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419491/intrinsic-neural-activity-differences-among-psychotic-illnesses
#2
Matthew E Hudgens-Haney, Lauren E Ethridge, Justin B Knight, Jennifer E McDowell, Sarah K Keedy, Godfrey D Pearlson, Carol A Tamminga, Matcheri S Keshavan, John A Sweeney, Brett A Clementz
Individuals with psychosis have been reported to show either reduced or augmented brain responses under seemingly similar conditions. It is likely that inconsistent baseline-adjustment methods are partly responsible for this discrepancy. Using steady-state stimuli during a pro/antisaccade task, this study addressed the relationship between nonspecific and stimulus-related neural activity, and how these activities are modulated as a function of cognitive demands. In 98 psychosis probands (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder with psychosis), neural activity was assessed during baseline and during a 5-s period in preparation for the pro/antisaccade task...
April 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412602/secondary-outcomes-from-the-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-treatment-study-ii
#3
Christine A Conelea, Robert R Selles, Kristen G Benito, Michael M Walther, Jason T Machan, Abbe M Garcia, Jeffrey Sapyta, Sarah Morris, Martin Franklin, Jennifer B Freeman
The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II (POTS II) investigated the benefit of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) augmentation with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Primary outcomes focused on OCD symptom change and indicated benefit associated with a full course of CBT. Given that the majority of youth with OCD suffer from significant comorbid symptoms and impaired quality of life, the current study examined POTS II data for effects on secondary outcomes. Participants were 124 youth ages 7-17 years with a primary diagnosis of OCD who were partial responders to an adequate SRI trial...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410959/the-involvement-of-bdnf-creb-signaling-pathways-in-the-pharmacological-mechanism-of-combined-ssri-antipsychotic-treatment-in-schizophrenia
#4
Reef Einoch, Orly Weinreb, Nina Mandiuk, Moussa B H Youdim, Warren Bilker, Henry Silver
Previous studies into the mechanism of SSRI-antipsychotic synergism in our laboratory identified unique changes in the brain, particularly in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor and its modulators. This study examined the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein signaling pathways, including protein kinase B (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and related molecules in the molecular response to haloperidol, fluvoxamine, combined haloperidol+fluvoxamine and clozapine treatments in rat frontal cortex, hippocampus and primary cortical neuronal cultures...
April 11, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406285/serotonin-and-serotonin-transporters-in-the-adrenal-medulla-a-potential-hub-for-modulation-of-the-sympathetic-stress-response
#5
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Randy D Blakely, Kevin P M Currie
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system where it modulates circuits involved in mood, cognition, movement, arousal, and autonomic function. The 5-HT transporter (SERT; SLC6A4) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling, and genetic variations in SERT are associated with various disorders including depression, anxiety, and autism. This review focuses on the role of SERT in the sympathetic nervous system. Autonomic/sympathetic dysfunction is evident in patients with depression, anxiety, and other diseases linked to serotonergic signaling...
April 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396108/augmented-nurse-care-management-in-ckd-stages-4-to-5-a%C3%A2-randomized-trial
#6
Steven Fishbane, Sofia Agoritsas, Alessandro Bellucci, Candice Halinski, Hitesh H Shah, Vipul Sakhiya, Leah Balsam
BACKGROUND: Outcomes for patients with late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States are suboptimal. There is poor education and preparation for end-stage kidney disease, as well as a high rate of hospitalization in this group of patients. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, parallel-group, 2-arm, controlled trial. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted at 3 sites: a clinic of an academic medical center, a public hospital academic clinic, and a community-based private practice...
April 7, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391970/novel-5-ht7r-antagonists-arylsulfonamide-derivatives-of-aryloxy-propyl-piperidines-add-on-effect-to-the-antidepressant-activity-of-ssri-and-dri-and-pro-cognitive-profile
#7
Vittorio Canale, Anna Partyka, Rafał Kurczab, Martyna Krawczyk, Tomasz Kos, Grzegorz Satała, Bartłomiej Kubica, Magdalena Jastrzębska-Więsek, Anna Wesołowska, Andrzej J Bojarski, Piotr Popik, Paweł Zajdel
A novel series of arylsulfonamide derivatives of (aryloxy)propyl piperidines was designed to obtain potent 5-HT7R antagonists. Among the compounds evaluated herein, 3-chloro-N-{1-[3-(1,1-biphenyl-2-yloxy)2-hydroxypropyl]piperidin-4-yl}benzenesulfonamide (25) exhibited antagonistic properties at 5-HT7R and showed selectivity over selected serotoninergic and dopaminergic receptors, as well as over serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine transporters. Compound 25 demonstrated significant antidepressant-like activity in the forced swim test (0...
May 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389742/aortic-hemodynamics-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-normotensive-postmenopausal-women
#8
Jill N Barnes, Ronée E Harvey, Samantha M Zuk, Emily S Lundt, Timothy G Lesnick, Jeffrey L Gunter, Matthew L Senjem, Lynne T Shuster, Virginia M Miller, Clifford R Jack, Michael J Joyner, Kejal Kantarci
Hypertension is associated with development of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in the brain, which are risk factors for mild cognitive impairment. Hormonal shifts at menopause alter vascular function putting women at risk for both hypertension and WMH. Elevations in aortic hemodynamics precede the appearance of clinically defined hypertension but the relationship of aortic hemodynamics to development of WMH in women is not known. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize aortic hemodynamics in relationship to WMH in postmenopausal women...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387695/the-quest-to-apply-vr-technology-to-rehabilitation-tribulations-and-treasures
#9
Emily A Keshner, Joyce Fung
The papers that follow stem from a symposium presented at the International Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) in Seville, Spain, in July 2015. Four speakers were charged with presenting their methods of applying virtual reality (VR) technology to obtain meaningful rehabilitation outcomes. The symposium aims to explore characteristics of VR that modify mechanisms supporting motor relearning. Common impairments in posture and gait that can be modulated within virtual environments by employing motor learning concepts, including sensory augmentation and repetition, were examined...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387551/evaluation-of-nintendo-wii-balance-board-as-a-tool-for-measuring-postural-stability-after-sport-related-concussion
#10
Kian Merchant-Borna, Courtney Marie Cora Jones, Mattia Janigro, Erin B Wasserman, Ross A Clark, Jeffrey J Bazarian
CONTEXT: Recent changes to postconcussion guidelines indicate that postural-stability assessment may augment traditional neurocognitive testing when making return-to-participation decisions. The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) has been proposed as 1 measure of balance assessment. A new, freely available software program to accompany the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) system has recently been developed but has not been tested in concussed patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of using the WBB to assess postural stability across 3 time points (baseline and postconcussion days 3 and 7) and to assess concurrent and convergent validity of the WBB with other traditional measures (BESS and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test [ImPACT] battery) of assessing concussion recovery...
March 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385704/adjunctive-ketamine-in-electroconvulsive-therapy-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Alexander McGirr, Marcelo T Berlim, David J Bond, Peter Y Chan, Lakshmi N Yatham, Raymond W Lam
BackgroundKetamine has emerged as a novel therapeutic agent for major depressive episodes, spurring interest in its potential to augment electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).AimsWe sought to update our preliminary systematic review and meta-analysis, focusing on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving an index course of ECT, and testing the hypothesis that lack of efficacy is due to barbiturate anaesthetic co-administration.MethodWe searched EMBASE, CENTRAL and Medline to identify RCTs examining the efficacy of ketamine during a course of ECT...
April 6, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374107/carnosine-activates-the-creb-pathway-in-caco-2-cells
#12
Kaoru Fujii, Kayoko Abe, Keishi Kadooka, Takashi Matsumoto, Yoshinori Katakura
Imidazole dipeptide, carnosine, is a versatile compound composed of β-Ala and L-His. A recent study showed that carnosine might benefit the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and the maintenance of cognitive function. Based on the observation that carnosine is immediately degraded by serum carnosinase, we hypothesized that carnosine improves brain function by promoting brain-gut interaction. This study sought to present possible mechanisms regulating carnosine-induced activation of brain-gut interaction. We had previously found that carnosine augmented the expression of BDNF in human colorectal cancer cells, thus we became interested in cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), which is a dominant regulator of BDNF transcription...
April 3, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364550/individual-brain-structure-and-modelling-predict-seizure-propagation
#13
Timothée Proix, Fabrice Bartolomei, Maxime Guye, Viktor K Jirsa
See Lytton (doi:10.1093/awx018) for a scientific commentary on this article.Neural network oscillations are a fundamental mechanism for cognition, perception and consciousness. Consequently, perturbations of network activity play an important role in the pathophysiology of brain disorders. When structural information from non-invasive brain imaging is merged with mathematical modelling, then generative brain network models constitute personalized in silico platforms for the exploration of causal mechanisms of brain function and clinical hypothesis testing...
March 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360847/effects-of-different-exercise-strategies-and-intensities-on-memory-performance-and-neurogenesis
#14
Kai Diederich, Anna Bastl, Heike Wersching, Anja Teuber, Jan-Kolja Strecker, Antje Schmidt, Jens Minnerup, Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz
It is well established that physical exercise affects both hippocampal neurogenesis and memory functions. Until now, distinctive effects of controlled and voluntary training (VT) on behavior and neurogenesis as well as interactions between exercise intensity, neurogenesis and memory performance are still elusive. The present study tested the impact of moderate controlled and VT on memory formation and hippocampal neurogenesis and evaluated interactions between exercise performance, learning efficiency and proliferation of progenitor cells in the hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359862/ketamine-augmentation-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-to-improve-neuropsychological-and-clinical-outcomes-in-depression-ketamine-ect-a-multicentre-double-blind-randomised-parallel-group-superiority-trial
#15
Ian M Anderson, Andrew Blamire, Tim Branton, Ross Clark, Darragh Downey, Graham Dunn, Andrew Easton, Rebecca Elliott, Clare Elwell, Katherine Hayden, Fiona Holland, Salman Karim, Colleen Loo, Jo Lowe, Rajesh Nair, Timothy Oakley, Antony Prakash, Parveen K Sharma, Stephen R Williams, R Hamish McAllister-Williams
BACKGROUND: The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is limited by concerns about its cognitive adverse effects. Preliminary evidence suggests that administering the glutamate antagonist ketamine with ECT might alleviate cognitive adverse effects and accelerate symptomatic improvement; we tested this in a randomised trial of low-dose ketamine. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, parallel-group study in 11 ECT suites serving inpatient and outpatient care settings in seven National Health Service trusts in the North of England, we recruited severely depressed patients, who were diagnosed as having unipolar or bipolar depressive episodes defined as moderate or severe by DSM-IV criteria, aged at least 18 years, and were able and willing to provide written consent to participate in the study...
March 27, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358358/the-cerebellum-in-dual-task-performance-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Linlin Gao, Jiarong Zhang, Yanan Hou, Mark Hallett, Piu Chan, Tao Wu
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have difficulty in performing a dual-task. It has been suggested that the cerebellum is important in dual-tasking. We used functional MRI to investigate the role of the cerebellum in performing a dual motor and cognitive task in PD patients. We have examined whether there are any areas additionally activated for dual-task performance, and compared the neural activity and functional connectivity pattern in the cerebellum between PD patients and healthy controls. We found that the right cerebellar vermis and left lobule V of cerebellar anterior lobe were additionally activated for dual-task performance in healthy controls and for motor task in PD patients...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351996/daily-supplementation-with-grandfusion-%C3%A2-improves-memory-and-learning-in-aged-rats
#17
Jin Yu, Hong Zhu, Stephen Perry, Saeid Taheri, Mark S Kindy
Studies have shown that supplementation with extracts from various sources, including fruits and vegetables reverse the age-related changes in movement and cognition. We hypothesized that these beneficial effects result from the presence of anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds in the fruits and vegetables that contribute to reduced oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death while potentially enhancing neurogenesis. The present study was performed to determine the impact of supplementation with GrandFusion(®)(GF) to aged Fisher 344 rats for 4 months to determine the impact on attenuation or reversal of the age-related deficits...
March 24, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347261/dopamine-d4-receptor-stimulation-contributes-to-novel-object-recognition-relevance-to-cognitive-impairment-in-schizophrenia
#18
Masanori Miyauchi, Nichole M Neugebauer, Herbert Y Meltzer
Several atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have high affinity for the dopamine (DA) D4 receptor, but the relevance to the efficacy for the treatment of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of D4 receptor stimulation or blockade on novel object recognition (NOR) in normal rats and on the sub-chronic phencyclidine (PCP)-induced novel object recognition deficit. The effect of the D4 agonist, PD168077, and the D4 antagonist, L-745,870, were studied alone, and in combination with clozapine and lurasidone...
April 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345579/inhibition-of-delta-secretase-improves-cognitive-functions-in-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Zhentao Zhang, Obiamaka Obianyo, Elfriede Dall, Yuhong Du, Haian Fu, Xia Liu, Seong Su Kang, Mingke Song, Shan-Ping Yu, Chiara Cabrele, Mario Schubert, Xiaoguang Li, Jian-Zhi Wang, Hans Brandstetter, Keqiang Ye
δ-secretase, also known as asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) or legumain, is a lysosomal cysteine protease that cleaves both amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau, mediating the amyloid-β and tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we report the therapeutic effect of an orally bioactive and brain permeable δ-secretase inhibitor in mouse models of AD. We performed a high-throughput screen and identified a non-toxic and selective δ-secretase inhibitor, termed compound 11, that specifically blocks δ-secretase but not other related cysteine proteases...
March 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338977/effects-of-augmenting-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-signaling-on-working-memory-and-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study-using-acute-d-cycloserine
#20
Jennifer K Forsyth, Peter Bachman, Daniel H Mathalon, Brian J Roach, Elissa Ye, Robert F Asarnow
Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been hypothesized to reflect N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction. However, the mechanisms through which the NMDAR contributes to individual cognitive functions differ. To explore how NMDAR signaling relates to specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, we tested the effects of enhancing NMDAR signaling on working memory and experience-dependent plasticity using d-cycloserine (DCS). Plasticity was assessed using an EEG paradigm that utilizes high-frequency visual stimulation (HFvS) to induce neural potentiation, and 2 learning tasks, the information integration (IIT) and weather prediction (WPT) tasks...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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