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Augmented Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527057/behavioral-therapy-emotion-and-pain-a-common-anatomical-background
#1
Lauren A-M Dahlke, Jeffrey J Sable, Frank Andrasik
Emotion and pain are closely intertwined in the brain, as the human experience of pain includes both affective and nociceptive components. Although each of these components relies on a different system in the brain, the two systems converge on the anterior cingulate and insular cortices, which interact with the prefrontal cortex and other frontal structures to influence behavior. Both emotional and physical pain elicit activity in these common areas, and conditions that affect one system (e.g., drugs, neural plasticity) may affect the function of the other-ultimately altering the experience of pain...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525821/effect-of-exercise-augmentation-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-suicidal-ideation-and-depression
#2
Abbas Abdollahi, Daniel M LeBouthillier, Mahmoud Najafi, Gordon J G Asmundson, Simin Hosseinian, Shahriar Shahidi, Per Carlbring, Atefeh Kalhori, Hassan Sadeghi, Marzieh Jalili
BACKGROUND: Suicidal ideation and depression are prevalent and costly conditions that reduce quality of life. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of exercise as an adjunct to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for suicidal ideation and depression among depressed individuals. METHODS: In a randomized clinical trial, 54 mildly to moderately depressed patients (54% female, mean age=48.25) were assigned to a combined CBT and exercise group or to a CBT only group...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525592/neurosyphilis-increases-hiv-associated-central-nervous-system-inflammation-but-does-not-explain-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-syphilis
#3
Emily L Ho, Clare L Maxwell, Shelia B Dunaway, Sharon K Sahi, Lauren C Tantalo, Sheila A Lukehart, Christina M Marra
Background: HIV-infected individuals with previous syphilis have cognitive impairment. We tested the hypothesis that neurosyphilis causes cognitive impairment in HIV by amplifying HIV-related CNS inflammation. Methods: 132 HIV-infected participants enrolled in a study of CSF abnormalities in syphilis underwent the mental alternation test (MAT), venipuncture and lumbar puncture. CSF concentrations of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and neurofilament light (NFL) were determined by commercial assays...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514486/efficacy-of-42-pharmacologic-cotreatment-strategies-added-to-antipsychotic-monotherapy-in-schizophrenia-systematic-overview-and-quality-appraisal-of-the-meta-analytic-evidence
#4
Christoph U Correll, Jose M Rubio, Gabriella Inczedy-Farkas, Michael L Birnbaum, John M Kane, Stefan Leucht
Importance: Limited treatment responses in schizophrenia prompted the testing of combining an antipsychotic drug treatment with a second psychotropic medication. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of multiple medication combinations is missing. Objective: To summarize and compare the meta-analytically determined efficacy of pharmacologic combination strategies of antipsychotic drugs in adults with schizophrenia. Data Sources: Systematic search of PubMed and PsycInfo until May 13, 2016...
May 17, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505989/pediatric-robotic-rehabilitation-current-knowledge-and-future-trends-in-treating-children-with-sensorimotor-impairments
#5
Konstantinos P Michmizos, Hermano Igo Krebs
BACKGROUND: Robot-aided sensorimotor therapy imposes highly repetitive tasks that can translate to substantial improvement when patients remain cognitively engaged into the clinical procedure, a goal that most children find hard to pursue. Knowing that the child's brain is much more plastic than an adult's, it is reasonable to expect that the clinical gains observed in the adult population during the last two decades would be followed up by even greater gains in children. Nonetheless, and despite the multitude of adult studies, in children we are just getting started: There is scarcity of pediatric robotic rehabilitation devices that are currently available and the number of clinical studies that employ them is also very limited...
May 11, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503155/djinni-a-novel-technology-supported-exposure-therapy-paradigm-for-sad-combining-virtual-reality-and-augmented-reality
#6
Maher Ben-Moussa, Marius Rubo, Coralie Debracque, Wolf-Gero Lange
The present paper explores the benefits and the capabilities of various emerging state-of-the-art interactive 3D and Internet of Things technologies and investigates how these technologies can be exploited to develop a more effective technology supported exposure therapy solution for social anxiety disorder. "DJINNI" is a conceptual design of an in vivo augmented reality (AR) exposure therapy mobile support system that exploits several capturing technologies and integrates the patient's state and situation by vision-based, audio-based, and physiology-based analysis as well as by indoor/outdoor localization techniques...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497075/development-of-a-novel-aav-gene-therapy-cassette-with-improved-safety-features-and-efficacy-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#7
Kamal K E Gadalla, Thishnapha Vudhironarit, Ralph D Hector, Sarah Sinnett, Noha G Bahey, Mark E S Bailey, Steven J Gray, Stuart R Cobb
Rett syndrome (RTT), caused by loss-of-function mutations in the MECP2 gene, is a neurological disorder characterized by severe impairment of motor and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of vector design, dosage, and delivery route on the efficacy and safety of gene augmentation therapy in mouse models of RTT. Our results show that AAV-mediated delivery of MECP2 to Mecp2 null mice by systemic administration, and utilizing a minimal endogenous promoter, was associated with a narrow therapeutic window and resulted in liver toxicity at higher doses...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493111/parasympathetic-regulation-and-inhibitory-control-predict-the-development-of-externalizing-problems-in-early-childhood
#8
Sarah Kahle, William T Utendale, Keith F Widaman, Paul D Hastings
The current report examined the longitudinal relations between cognitive self-regulation, physiological self-regulation, and externalizing problems. At age 4 (n = 98; 49 girls) and 6 (n = 87; 42 girls), children completed the Day-Night task, which taps the inhibitory control dimension of executive function. During the task, cardiac activity was measured and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was derived as an index of parasympathetic activity. Mothers reported on externalizing problems. A cross-lagged path model was used to estimate longitudinal predictions while controlling for stability in all constructs over time...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488948/the-effectiveness-of-augmented-versus-standard-individual-placement-and-support-programs-in-terms-of-employment-a-systematic-literature-review
#9
Carolyn S Dewa, Desmond Loong, Lucy Trojanowski, Sarah Bonato
BACKGROUND: The Individual Placement and Support (IPS) program is a well-studied vocational rehabilitation program. Although it is more effective than usual care, it is not effective for everyone. This offers an opportunity for program improvement. AIMS: This systematic literature review examines the state of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of augmented versus standard IPS for people with severe mental illness (SMI). We address the questions, "What IPS augmentations have been tested?" and "What is the evidence for the effectiveness of augmented IPS versus standard IPS in terms of employment?" METHODS: This systematic literature review used publically available peer-reviewed studies published between January 2002 and January 2016 in either: (1) Medline Current, (2) Medline In-process, (3) PsycINFO, (4) Econlit or (5) Web of Science...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487665/smartphones-and-cognition-a-review-of-research-exploring-the-links-between-mobile-technology-habits-and-cognitive-functioning
#10
REVIEW
Henry H Wilmer, Lauren E Sherman, Jason M Chein
While smartphones and related mobile technologies are recognized as flexible and powerful tools that, when used prudently, can augment human cognition, there is also a growing perception that habitual involvement with these devices may have a negative and lasting impact on users' ability to think, remember, pay attention, and regulate emotion. The present review considers an intensifying, though still limited, area of research exploring the potential cognitive impacts of smartphone-related habits, and seeks to determine in which domains of functioning there is accruing evidence of a significant relationship between smartphone technology and cognitive performance, and in which domains the scientific literature is not yet mature enough to endorse any firm conclusions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487222/neuroprotective-effects-of-ceftriaxone-treatment-on-cognitive-and-neuronal-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-accelerated-senescence
#11
Maria A Tikhonova, Shih-Chun Ho, Anna A Akopyan, Nataliya G Kolosova, Jun-Cheng Weng, Wan-Yun Meng, Chih-Li Lin, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Ying-Jui Ho
Rats of OXYS strain are characterized by genetically defined accelerated senescence. Ceftriaxone (CEF) exerts neuroprotective effects by decreasing the excitotoxicity and activation of antioxidant system. Here, we studied the effects of CEF (50 or 100mg/kg/day, i.p., 36 days) on cognitive and neuronal deficits in 5-month-old OXYS rats. Chronic CEF administration in a dose of 100mg/kg partially inhibited impairments of movement and restored the deficit in the novel object recognition in OXYS rats. Neuromorphologically, control OXYS rats exhibited a lowered neuronal density in the hippocampal CA1 area and there was a tendency to decrease in the substantia nigra pars compacta compared to Wistar controls...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482639/chinese-calligraphy-writing-for-augmenting-attentional-control-and-working-memory-of-older-adults-at-risk-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Sam C C Chan, Chetwyn C H Chan, Abiot Y Derbie, Irene Hui, Davynn G H Tan, Marco Y C Pang, Stephen C L Lau, Kenneth N K Fong
BACKGROUND: Nonpharmacological intervention for individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) needs further investigation. OBJECTIVES: Test efficacy of eight-week Chinese calligraphy writing training improving attentional control and working memory. METHODS: Ninety-nine participants with MCI were randomized into the eight-week calligraphy writing (n = 48) or control (tablet computer) training (n = 51). Outcomes of the interventions were attentional control, working memory, visual scan and processing speed...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474552/new-directions-in-the-use-of-brain-stimulation-interventions-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#13
Bernardo Dell'Osso, Laura Cremaschi, Lucio Oldani, Altamura Alfredo Carlo
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a highly disabling condition with early onset and chronic course in most of the affected patients. In addition, OCD may show high comorbidity and suicide attempt rates, which worsen the overall burden of the disease for patients and their caregivers. First-line treatments for OCD consist of pro-serotonergic compounds and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Nonetheless, many patients show only limited benefit from such interventions and require additional "next-step" interventions, including augmentative antipsychotics and glutamate-modulating agents...
May 4, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471267/technology-and-its-role-in-rehabilitation-for-people-with-cognitive-communication-disability-following-a-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi
#14
Melissa Brunner, Bronwyn Hemsley, Leanne Togher, Stuart Palmer
PURPOSE: To review the literature on communication technologies in rehabilitation for people with a traumatic brain injury (TBI), and: (a) determine its application to cognitive-communicative rehabilitation, and b) develop a model to guide communication technology use with people after TBI. METHOD: This integrative literature review of communication technology in TBI rehabilitation and cognitive-communication involved searching nine scientific databases and included 95 studies...
May 4, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466195/beneficial-neurocognitive-effects-of-transcranial-laser-in-older-adults
#15
Enrique Vargas, Douglas W Barrett, Celeste L Saucedo, Li-Da Huang, Jacob A Abraham, Hirofumi Tanaka, Andreana P Haley, F Gonzalez-Lima
Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) at 1064 nm, 250 mW/cm(2) has been proven safe and effective for increasing neurocognitive functions in young adults in controlled studies using photobiomodulation of the right prefrontal cortex. The objective of this pilot study was to determine whether there is any effect from TILS on neurocognitive function in older adults with subjective memory complaint at risk for cognitive decline (e.g., increased carotid artery intima-media thickness or mild traumatic brain injury)...
May 2, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456867/the-temporal-dynamics-of-response-inhibition-and-their-modulation-by-cognitive-control
#16
Liisa Raud, René J Huster
Behavioral adjustments require interactions between distinct modes of cognitive control and response inhibition. Hypothetically, fast and global inhibition is exerted in the reactive control mode, whereas proactive control enables the preparation of inhibitory pathways in advance while relying on the slower selective inhibitory system. We compared the temporal progression of inhibition in the reactive and proactive control modes using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) recordings...
April 29, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455126/neurochemical-arguments-for-the-use-of-dopamine-d4-receptor-stimulation-to-improve-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-schizophrenia
#17
Mei Huang, Sunoh Kwon, Wenqi He, Herbert Y Meltzer
BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) D4 receptors have been implicated in schizophrenia and the ability of some atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) to improve the cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). Systemic administration of a D4 agonist, PD168077, at a sub-effective dose, together with a sub-effective dose of lurasidone, an atypical APD which is a weak D4 receptor antagonist, reversed the deficit in novel object recognition (NOR) in rats treated subchronically with phencyclidine (PCP), a rodent model of CIAS...
April 25, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450301/neuron-specific-caveolin-1-overexpression-improves-motor-function-and-preserves-memory-in-mice-subjected-to-brain-trauma
#18
Junji Egawa, Jan M Schilling, Weihua Cui, Edmund Posadas, Atsushi Sawada, Basheer Alas, Alice E Zemljic-Harpf, McKenzie J Fannon-Pavlich, Chitra D Mandyam, David M Roth, Hemal H Patel, Piyush M Patel, Brian P Head
Studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that membrane/lipid rafts and caveolin (Cav) organize progrowth receptors, and, when overexpressed specifically in neurons, Cav-1 augments neuronal signaling and growth and improves cognitive function in adult and aged mice; however, whether neuronal Cav-1 overexpression can preserve motor and cognitive function in the brain trauma setting is unknown. Here, we generated a neuron-targeted Cav-1-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mouse [synapsin-driven Cav-1 (SynCav1 Tg)] and subjected it to a controlled cortical impact model of brain trauma and measured biochemical, anatomic, and behavioral changes...
April 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446118/motor-neurone-disease-progress-and-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Thanuja Dharmadasa, Robert D Henderson, Paul S Talman, Richard Al Macdonell, Susan Mathers, David W Schultz, Merrillee Needham, Margaret Zoing, Steve Vucic, Matthew C Kiernan
Major progress has been made over the past decade in the understanding of motor neurone disease (MND), changing the landscape of this complex disease. Through identifying positive prognostic factors, new evidence-based standards of care have been established that improve patient survival, reduce burden of disease for patients and their carers, and enhance quality of life. These factors include early management of respiratory dysfunction with non-invasive ventilation, maintenance of weight and nutritional status, as well as instigation of a multidisciplinary team including neurologists, general practitioners and allied health professionals...
May 1, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441442/the-effects-of-a-resistance-vs-an-aerobic-single-session-on-attention-and-executive-functioning-in-adults
#20
Ayelet Dunsky, Mona Abu-Rukun, Sharon Tsuk, Tzvi Dwolatzky, Rafi Carasso, Yael Netz
Evidence from recent studies showed that acute aerobic exercise results in improvements in different cognitive functions. The goal of this study was to assess the influence of acute bouts of aerobic versus resistance exercise on attention and executive function in adults. Thirty-nine physically active adults (age = 52±8 yr) served as participants. Each participant visited the laboratory four times: on the first visit participants performed a cognitive test (NeuroTrax) followed by an aerobic fitness assessment, as well as maximal strength test composed of six exercises...
2017: PloS One
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