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Augmented Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454023/interaction-between-hypothermia-and-delayed-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#1
Josephine Herz, Christian Köster, Barbara S Reinboth, Mark Dzietko, Wiebke Hansen, Hemmen Sabir, Cindy van Velthoven, Ivo Bendix, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser
Acute hypothermia treatment (HT) is the only clinically established intervention following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. However, almost half of all cooled infants still die or suffer from long-lasting neurological impairments. Regenerative therapies, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) appear promising as adjuvant therapy. In the present study, we hypothesized that HT combined with delayed MSC therapy results in augmented protection, improving long-term neurological outcome. Postnatal day 9 (P9) C57BL/6 mice were exposed to hypoxia-ischemia followed by 4 hours HT...
February 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452601/reactive-hyperemia-index-rhi-and-cognitive-performance-indexes-are-associated-with-histologic-markers-of-liver-disease-in-subjects-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-a-case-control-study
#2
Antonino Tuttolomondo, Salvatore Petta, Alessandra Casuccio, Carlo Maida, Vittoriano Della Corte, Mario Daidone, Domenico Di Raimondo, Rosaria Pecoraro, Roberto Fonte, Anna Cirrincione, Rita Zafonte, Daniela Cabibi, Calogero Cammà, Vito Di Marco, Anna Licata, Franco Magliozzo, Giulio Marchesini, Giovanni Merlino, Antonio Craxì, Antonio Pinto
BACKGROUND: No study evaluated vascular health markers in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through a combined analysis of reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) and arterial stiffness indexes. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to assess whether NAFLD and its histological severity are associated with impairment of arterial stiffness and RH-PAT indexes in a mixed cohort of patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Kleiner classification was used to grade NAFLD grade...
February 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449801/lithium-inhibits-gsk3%C3%AE-and-augments-glun2a-receptor-expression-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Sarah A Monaco, Brielle R Ferguson, Wen-Jun Gao
Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in both psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer's disease; therefore regulating its activity has become an important strategy for treatment of cognitive impairments in these disorders. This study examines the effects of lithium on GSK3β and its interaction with β-catenin and NMDA receptors within the prefrontal cortex. Lithium, a clinically relevant drug commonly prescribed as a mood stabilizer for psychiatric disorders, significantly increased levels of phosphorylated GSK3β serine 9, an inhibitory phosphorylation site, and decreased β-catenin ser33/37/thr41 phosphorylation in vitro , indicating GSK3β inhibition and reduced β-catenin degradation...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445414/effects-of-a-new-nutraceutical-combination-on-cognitive-function-in-hypertensive-patients
#4
Giuseppe Giugliano, Alessia Salemme, Sara De Longis, Marialuisa Perrotta, Valentina D'Angelosante, Alessandro Landolfi, Raffaele Izzo, Valentina Trimarco
Background: Chronic increased arterial blood pressure has been associated with executive dysfunction, slowing of attention and mental processing speed, and later with memory deficits. Due to the absence of a concrete therapeutic approach to this pathophysiological process, in the last decades there has been an increasing interest in the use of nutraceuticals, especially those with antioxidant properties, which own strong neuroprotective potential, that may help to improve cognitive function and to delay the onset of dementia...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438400/nocturnal-insomnia-symptoms-and-stress-induced-cognitive-intrusions-in-risk-for-depression-a-2-year-prospective-study
#5
David A Kalmbach, Vivek Pillai, Christopher L Drake
Nearly half of US adults endorse insomnia symptoms. Sleep problems increase risk for depression during stress, but the mechanisms are unclear. During high stress, individuals having difficulty falling or staying asleep may be vulnerable to cognitive intrusions after stressful events, given that the inability to sleep creates a period of unstructured and socially isolated time in bed. We investigated the unique and combined effects of insomnia symptoms and stress-induced cognitive intrusions on risk for incident depression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438225/traits-associated-with-central-pain-augmentation-in-the-knee-pain-in-the-community-kpic-cohort
#6
Kehinde Akin-Akinyosoye, Nadia Frowd, Laura Marshall, Joanne Stocks, Gwen Fernandes, Ana Valdes, Daniel F McWilliams, Weiya Zhang, Michael Doherty, Eamonn Ferguson, David A Walsh
This study aimed to identify self-report correlates of central pain augmentation in individuals with knee pain. A subset of participants (n=420) in the Knee Pain and related health In the Community (KPIC) baseline survey undertook pressure pain threshold (PPT) assessments. Items measuring specific traits related to central pain mechanisms were selected from the survey based on expert consensus, face validity, item association to underlying constructs measured by originating host questionnaires, adequate targeting and PPT correlations...
February 9, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435357/right-from-the-start-protocol-for-a-pilot-study-for-a-randomised-trial-of-the-new-baby-programme-for-improving-outcomes-for-children-born-to-socially-vulnerable-mothers
#7
Geraldine Macdonald, Fiona Alderdice, Mike Clarke, Oliver Perra, Fiona Lynn, Theresa McShane, Sharon Millen
Background: Children born to mothers who experience social complexity (e.g. substance misuse, intimate partner violence, mental ill health, a history of maltreatment) are at increased risk for a range of adverse outcomes at birth and during development. Home visiting programmes have been advocated as a strategy for improving outcomes for disadvantaged mothers and children, such as the Nurse-Family Partnership for young, socially disadvantaged first-time mothers. However, no evidence-based programme is available for multiparous women or older first-time mothers...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432331/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-fluvoxamine-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-under-risperidone-treatment-a-clinical-trial
#8
Alireza Haji Seyed Javadi, Ali Akbar Shafikhani, Seyed Mohsen Zamir, Zahra Farzane Khanshir
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the improvement of schizophrenia is a controversial issue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluvoxamine on the symptoms of schizophrenia including positive and negative symptoms, cognitive impairment, and quality of life. METHODS/PROCEDURES: This clinical trial was performed on 68 patients with chronic schizophrenia, treated with risperidone at 22 Bahman Hospital of Qazvin, Iran during 2015 to 2016...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428359/laparoscopic-simulator-for-pediatric-ureteral-reimplantation-lap-spur-following-the-lich-gregoir-technique
#9
Carolina Millán, Mercedes Rey, Manuel Lopez
OBJECTIVE: Acquiring surgical skills requires regular practice. Medical evidence supports that these skills can be learned outside the operating room (OR). The aim of the current study was to describe the first laparoscopic simulator for ureteral reimplantation (LAP-SPUR) following Lich- Gregoir technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LAP-SPUR was manufactured using reusable and disposable materials. The technique can be summarized in the following five steps: (1) a transperitoneal approach; (2) extra-vesical ureteral dissection; (3) detrusor division until exposing the mucosa; (4) reimplanting ureter into the new tunnel; and (5) reapproximation and suturing of the detrusor...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426874/oxytocin-curbs-calorie-intake-via-food-specific-increases-in-the-activity-of-brain-areas-that-process-reward-and-establish-cognitive-control
#10
Maartje S Spetter, Gordon B Feld, Matthias Thienel, Hubert Preissl, Maike A Hege, Manfred Hallschmid
The hypothalamic neurohormone oxytocin decreases food intake via largely unexplored mechanisms. We investigated the central nervous mediation of oxytocin's hypophagic effect in comparison to its impact on the processing of generalized rewards. Fifteen fasted normal-weight, young men received intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) or placebo before functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements of brain activity during exposure to food stimuli and a monetary incentive delay task (MID). Subsequently, ad-libitum breakfast intake was assessed...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425796/doxycycline-prevents-and-reverses-schizophrenic-like-behaviors-induced-by-ketamine-in-mice-via-modulation-of-oxidative-nitrergic-and-cholinergic-pathways
#11
Benneth Ben-Azu, Itivere Adrian Omogbiya, Adegbuyi Oladele Aderibigbe, Solomon Umukoro, Abayomi Mayowa Ajayi, Ezekiel O Iwalewa
The involvement of oxidative/nitrosative stress, cholinergic and inflammatory pathways have been reported to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder. Our previous studies have shown that doxycycline (DOX), a notable member of tetracyclines with proven antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, attenuated psychotic-like behaviors induced by apomophine and ketamine (KET) in mice. This present study was designed to further evaluate in detail the ability of DOX and its combination with risperidone (RIS) to prevent and reverse KET-induced schizophrenic-like behaviors and the role of oxidative/nitrosative and cholinergic pathways in mice...
February 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406271/the-protective-effects-of-igf-i-against-%C3%AE-amyloid-related-downregulation-of-hippocampal-somatostatinergic-system-involve-activation-of-akt-and-protein-kinase-a
#12
David Aguado-Llera, Sandra Canelles, Laura M Frago, Julie A Chowen, Jesús Argente, Eduardo Arilla, Vicente Barrios
Somatostatin (SRIF), a neuropeptide highly distributed in the hippocampus and involved in learning and memory, is markedly reduced in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. The effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) against β amyloid (Aβ)-induced neuronal death and associated cognitive disorders have been extensively reported in experimental models of this disease. Here, we examined the effect of IGF-I on the hippocampal somatostatinergic system in Aβ-treated rats and the molecular mechanisms associated with changes in this peptidergic system...
February 2, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397899/sodium-benzoate-a-d-amino-acid-oxidase-inhibitor-added-to-clozapine-for-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Chieh-Hsin Lin, Ching-Hua Lin, Yue-Cune Chang, Yu-Jhen Huang, Po-Wei Chen, Hui-Ting Yang, Hsien-Yuan Lane
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is the last-line antipsychotic agent for refractory schizophrenia. To date, there is no convincing evidence for augmentation on clozapine. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, including inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase that may metabolize D-amino acids, has been reported to be beneficial for patients receiving antipsychotics other than clozapine. This study aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of a D-amino acid oxidase inhibitor, sodium benzoate, for schizophrenia patients who had poor response to clozapine...
December 26, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388899/change-in-biased-thinking-in-a-treatment-based-on-the-motive-oriented-therapeutic-relationship-for-borderline-personality-disorder
#14
Sabine Keller, Kelly Stelmaszczyk, Stéphane Kolly, Yves de Roten, Jean-Nicolas Despland, Franz Caspar, Martin Drapeau, Ueli Kramer
Biased thinking is a common feature of patients presenting with borderline personality disorder (BPD). For the treatment of BPD, it was shown that the individualizing of the treatment, by using the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (MOTR), had a beneficial short-term effect on process and outcome. So far, it remains unclear what the role of early change in biased thinking is in these treatments. The present study aims to assess whether there is a link between the MOTR, change in biased thinking, and outcome...
January 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386176/the-effects-of-social-presence-on-adherence-focused-guidance-in-problematic-cannabis-users-protocol-for-the-canreduce-2-0-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Manuel Amann, Severin Haug, Andreas Wenger, Christian Baumgartner, David D Ebert, Thomas Berger, Lars Stark, Marc Walter, Michael P Schaub
BACKGROUND: In European countries, including Switzerland, cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug. Offering a Web-based self-help tool could potentially reach users who otherwise would not seek traditional help. However, such Web-based self-help tools often suffer from low adherence. OBJECTIVE: Through adherence-focused guidance enhancements, the aim of this study was to increase adherence in cannabis users entering a Web-based self-help tool to reduce their cannabis use and, in this way, augment its effectiveness...
January 31, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385839/examining-sensory-ability-feature-matching-and-assessment-based-adaptation-for-a-brain-computer-interface-using-the-steady-state-visually-evoked-potential
#16
Jonathan S Brumberg, Anh Nguyen, Kevin M Pitt, Sean D Lorenz
PURPOSE: We investigated how overt visual attention and oculomotor control influence successful use of a visual feedback brain-computer interface (BCI) for accessing augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices in a heterogeneous population of individuals with profound neuromotor impairments. BCIs are often tested within a single patient population limiting generalization of results. This study focuses on examining individual sensory abilities with an eye toward possible interface adaptations to improve device performance...
January 31, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384234/development-and-evaluation-of-the-thinking-about-recovery-scale-measure-of-parent-posttraumatic-cognitions-following-children-s-exposure-to-trauma
#17
Elizabeth J Schilpzand, Rowena Conroy, Vicki Anderson, Eva Alisic
Researchers have recently suggested that parent posttraumatic appraisals potentially contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress in both parents and children following children's exposure to trauma. However, a single-instrument, multidimensional measure of parent posttraumatic cognitions as they relate to their child's recovery has yet to be operationalized. This study described the development and evaluation of a parent-report questionnaire of parent posttraumatic cognitions, designed to be used after a child's exposure to trauma...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378515/the-effects-of-an-8-week-computerized-cognitive-training-program-in-older-adults-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Lisanne F Ten Brinke, John R Best, Rachel A Crockett, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND: Given the world's aging population, it is important to identify strategies that promote healthy cognitive aging and minimize cognitive decline. Currently, no curative pharmaceutical therapy exists for cognitive impairment and dementia. As a result, there is much interest in lifestyle approaches. Specifically, complex mental activity, such as cognitive training, may be a promising method to combat cognitive decline in older adults. As such, the industry of commercial computerized cognitive training (CCT) applications has rapidly grown in the last decade...
January 30, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378454/possible-role-of-dpp4-inhibitors-to-promote-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Nehru Sai Suresh Chalichem, Pindiprolu S S Sai Kiran, Duraiswamy Basavan
As well-known to the scientific community that Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease that ends up with impairment of memory and cognition. Patient quality of life can be enhanced by targeting neurogenesis as a therapeutic paradigm. Preserving functional activity of SDF-1α and GLP-1 by DPPIV inhibition will enhance the homing of stem cells and modulates cell signaling pathways. The non-invasive approach presented in this article is a major advantage for managing AD, as regular/conventional stem-cell therapy necessarily relies on the application of regenerative stem cells exogenously...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376121/magnetosensitive-e-skins-with-directional-perception-for-augmented-reality
#20
Gilbert Santiago Cañón Bermúdez, Dmitriy D Karnaushenko, Daniil Karnaushenko, Ana Lebanov, Lothar Bischoff, Martin Kaltenbrunner, Jürgen Fassbender, Oliver G Schmidt, Denys Makarov
Electronic skins equipped with artificial receptors are able to extend our perception beyond the modalities that have naturally evolved. These synthetic receptors offer complimentary information on our surroundings and endow us with novel means of manipulating physical or even virtual objects. We realize highly compliant magnetosensitive skins with directional perception that enable magnetic cognition, body position tracking, and touchless object manipulation. Transfer printing of eight high-performance spin valve sensors arranged into two Wheatstone bridges onto 1...
January 2018: Science Advances
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