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Augmented Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684659/anxiety-sensitivity-and-suicide-risk-among-firefighters-a-test-of-the-depression-distress-amplification-model
#1
Ian H Stanley, Lia J Smith, Joseph W Boffa, Jana K Tran, N Brad Schmidt, Thomas E Joiner, Anka A Vujanovic
BACKGROUND: Firefighters represent an occupational group at increased suicide risk. How suicidality develops among firefighters is poorly understood. The depression-distress amplification model posits that the effects of depression symptoms on suicide risk will be intensified in the context of anxiety sensitivity (AS) cognitive concerns. The current study tested this model among firefighters. METHODS: Overall, 831 firefighters participated (mean [SD] age = 38...
April 7, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684335/emergence-of-breath-testing-as-a-new-non-invasive-diagnostic-modality-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#2
REVIEW
N Siva Subramaniam, C S Bawden, H Waldvogel, R M L Faull, G S Howarth, R G Snell
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are incapacitating disorders that result in progressive motor and cognitive impairment. These disease include Alzheimer's disease the most common cause of dementia, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's, Huntington's, Friedreich's ataxia, and prion disease. Dementia causing NDDs impose a high social and economic burden on communities around the world. Rapid growth in knowledge regarding the pathogenic mechanisms and disease-associated biomarkers of these diseases in the past few decades have accelerated the development of new diagnostic methods and therapeutic opportunities...
April 20, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680429/repetitive-thought-is-associated-with-both-subjectively-and-objectively-recorded-polysomnographic-indices-of-disrupted-sleep-in-insomnia-disorder
#3
Andrea Galbiati, Enrico Giora, Simone Sarasso, Marco Zucconi, Luigi Ferini-Strambi
BACKGROUND: Repetitive thought is a hallmark of several psychopathological conditions and in particular a perpetuating and maintaining factor in Insomnia Disorder. Accordingly, one of the primary complaints reported by Insomnia patients is the inability to shut-off or control thoughts. Worry and rumination are the two best-known styles of repetitive thought leading to sleep disturbances. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of these two cognitive processes on nocturnal sleep indices objectively recorded by polysomnography...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679204/efficacy-of-curcumin-for-age-associated-cognitive-decline-a-narrative-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#4
REVIEW
Marjana Rahman Sarker, Susan F Franks
Processes such as aberrant redox signaling and chronic low-grade systemic inflammation have been reported to modulate age-associated pathologies such as cognitive impairment. Curcumin, the primary therapeutic component of the Indian spice, Turmeric (Curcuma longa), has long been known for its strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity attributable to its unique molecular structure. Recently, an interest in this polyphenol as a cognitive therapeutic for the elderly has emerged. The purpose of this paper is to critically review preclinical and clinical studies that have evaluated the efficacy of curcumin in ameliorating and preventing age-associated cognitive decline and address the translational progress of preclinical to clinical efficacy...
April 21, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674331/ono-8590580-a-novel-gaba-a-%C3%AE-5-negative-allosteric-modulator-enhances-long-term-potentiation-and-improves-cognitive-deficits-in-preclinical-models
#5
Soichi Kawaharada, Miki Nakanishi, Nobuto Nakanishi, Keisuke Hazama, Masato Higashino, Arwel Lewis, Gary S Clark, Mark S Chambers, Scott A Maidment, Tetsuya Yasuhiro, Seishi Katsumata, Shuji Kaneko
GABAA receptors containing α5 subunits (GABAA α5) are highly expressed in the hippocampus and negatively involved in memory processing, as shown by the fact that GABAA α5 deficient mice show higher hippocampus-dependent performance than wild type mice. Accordingly, small molecule GABAA α5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) are known to enhance spatial learning and memory in rodents. Here we introduce a new, orally-available GABAA α5 NAM that improves hippocampal functions. ONO-8590580 binds to the benzodiazepine binding sites on recombinant human α5-containing GABAA receptors with a Ki of 7...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672404/surgical-telementoring-without-encumbrance-a-comparative-study-of-see-through-augmented-reality-based-approaches
#6
Edgar Rojas-Muñoz, Maria Eugenia Cabrera, Daniel Andersen, Voicu Popescu, Sherri Marley, Brian Mullis, Ben Zarzaur, Juan Wachs
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the benefits of a surgical telementoring system based on an augmented reality head-mounted display (ARHMD) that overlays surgical instructions directly onto the surgeon's view of the operating field, without workspace obstruction. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In conventional telestrator-based telementoring, the surgeon views annotations of the surgical field by shifting focus to a nearby monitor, which substantially increases cognitive load...
April 18, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657747/norm-compliance-affects-perceptual-decisions-through-modulation-of-a-starting-point-bias
#7
Ulf Toelch, Folco Panizza, Hauke R Heekeren
Adaptive decisions in social contexts depend on both perceptual information and social expectations or norms. These are potentially in conflict when certain choices are beneficial for an individual, but societal rules mandate a different course of action. To resolve such a conflict, the reliability of information has to be balanced against potentially deleterious effects of non-compliance such as ostracism. In this study, we systematically investigated how interactions between perceptual and social influences affect decision-relevant cognitive processes...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656951/auditory-system-target-engagement-during-plasticity-based-interventions-in-schizophrenia-a-focus-on-modulation-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-type-glutamate-receptor-function
#8
REVIEW
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Neal R Swerdlow, Walter Dunn, Sophia Vinogradov
Cognitive deficits are predictive of long-term social and occupational functional deficits in schizophrenia but are currently without gold-standard treatments. In particular, augmentation of auditory cortical neuroplasticity may represent a rate-limiting first step before addressing higher-order cognitive deficits. We review the rationale for N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) modulators as treatments for auditory plasticity deficits in schizophrenia, along with potential serum and electroencephalographic target engagement biomarkers for NMDAR function...
February 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652529/neurocognitive-predictors-of-clinical-improvement-in-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-treated-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#9
Fadi Maalouf, Rinad Bakhti, Hani Tamim, Safa Shehab, David Brent
OBJECTIVES: Numerous studies have suggested cognitive deficits as consistently associated with adolescent depression. No study to date, however, has assessed neurocognitive predictors of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment response in adolescents with depression. This study examined neurocognitive tasks at baseline as predictors of clinical improvement with SSRI treatment (fluoxetine) at week 6 and 12 in an adolescent population. METHODS: Adolescents with depression were recruited from a child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic at a university medical center...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627920/advances-in-pharmacotherapy-of-late-life-depression
#10
REVIEW
John L Beyer, Kim G Johnson
This paper reviews recent research on late-life depression (LLD) pharmacotherapy, focusing on updated information for monotherapy and augmentation treatments. We then review new research on moderators of clinical response and how to use the information for improved efficacy. RECENT FINDINGS: A recent review shows that sertraline, paroxetine, and duloxetine were superior to placebo for the treatment of LLD. There is concern that paroxetine could have adverse outcomes in the geriatric population due to anticholinergic properties; however, studies show no increases in mortality, dementia risk, or cognitive measures...
April 7, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623753/trait-rumination-and-response-to-negative-evaluative-lab-induced-stress-neuroendocrine-affective-and-cognitive-outcomes
#11
Suzanne Vrshek-Schallhorn, Elizabeth A Velkoff, Richard E Zinbarg
Theoretical models of depression posit that, under stress, elevated trait rumination predicts more pronounced or prolonged negative affective and neuroendocrine responses, and that trait rumination hampers removing irrelevant negative information from working memory. We examined several gaps regarding these models in the context of lab-induced stress. Non-depressed undergraduates completed a rumination questionnaire and either a negative-evaluative Trier Social Stress Test (n = 55) or a non-evaluative control condition (n = 69), followed by a modified Sternberg affective working memory task assessing the extent to which irrelevant negative information can be emptied from working memory...
April 6, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619533/the-effects-of-cannabidiol-cbd-on-cognition-and-symptoms-in-outpatients-with-chronic-schizophrenia-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
Douglas L Boggs, Toral Surti, Aarti Gupta, Swapnil Gupta, Mark Niciu, Brian Pittman, Ashley M Schnakenberg Martin, Halle Thurnauer, Andrew Davies, Deepak C D'Souza, Mohini Ranganathan
RATIONALE: Preliminary evidence suggests that cannabidiol (CBD) may be effective in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders; however, CBD has never been evaluated for the treatment of cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). OBJECTIVE: This study compared the cognitive, symptomatic, and side effects of CBD versus placebo in a clinical trial. METHODS: This study was a 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, fixed-dose study of oral CBD (600 mg/day) or placebo augmentation in 36 stable antipsychotic-treated patients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia...
April 5, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616397/adenosine-augmentation-evoked-by-an-ent1-inhibitor-improves-memory-impairment-and-neuronal-plasticity-in-the-app-ps1-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Chia-Chia Lee, Ching-Pang Chang, Chun-Jung Lin, Hsing-Lin Lai, Yu-Han Kao, Sin-Jhong Cheng, Hui-Mei Chen, Yu-Ping Liao, Emilie Faivre, Luc Buée, David Blum, Jim-Min Fang, Yijuang Chern
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive impairment and synaptic dysfunction. Adenosine is an important homeostatic modulator that controls the bioenergetic network in the brain through regulating receptor-evoked signaling pathways, bioenergetic machineries, and epigenetic-mediated gene regulation. Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) is a major adenosine transporter that recycles adenosine from the extracellular space. In the present study, we report that a small adenosine analogue (designated J4) that inhibited ENT1 prevented the decline in spatial memory in an AD mouse model (APP/PS1)...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614374/running-from-fear-exercise-modulation-of-fear-extinction
#14
REVIEW
Margaret K Tanner, Holly S Hake, Courtney A Bouchet, Benjamin N Greenwood
Extinction-based exposure therapy is the most common behavioral therapy for anxiety and trauma-related disorders, but fear tends to resurface even after successful extinction. Identification of novel strategies to enhance fear extinction and reduce fear relapse is of paramount importance to mental health. Exercise can enhance cognitive function, but it is not yet well understood whether exercise can be an effective augmentation strategy for fear extinction. In the current review, we present the current state of knowledge on the effects of exercise on fear extinction...
March 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613819/information-pooling-bias-in-collaborative-security-incident-correlation-analysis
#15
Prashanth Rajivan, Nancy J Cooke
OBJECTIVE: Incident correlation is a vital step in the cybersecurity threat detection process. This article presents research on the effect of group-level information-pooling bias on collaborative incident correlation analysis in a synthetic task environment. BACKGROUND: Past research has shown that uneven information distribution biases people to share information that is known to most team members and prevents them from sharing any unique information available with them...
March 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593596/neural-dynamics-of-autistic-repetitive-behaviors-and-fragile-x-syndrome-basal-ganglia-movement-gating-and-mglur-modulated-adaptively-timed-learning
#16
Stephen Grossberg, Devika Kishnan
This article develops the iSTART neural model that proposes how specific imbalances in cognitive, emotional, timing, and motor processes that involve brain regions like prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum may interact together to cause behavioral symptoms of autism. These imbalances include underaroused emotional depression in the amygdala/hypothalamus, learning of hyperspecific recognition categories that help to cause narrowly focused attention in temporal and prefrontal cortices, and breakdowns of adaptively timed motivated attention and motor circuits in the hippocampus and cerebellum...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582053/adeno-associated-viral-vector-serotype-2-nerve-growth-factor-for-patients-with-alzheimer-disease-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Michael S Rafii, Mark H Tuszynski, Ronald G Thomas, David Barba, James B Brewer, Robert A Rissman, Joao Siffert, Paul S Aisen
Importance: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an endogenous neurotrophic factor that prevents the death and augments the functional state of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, a cell population that undergoes extensive degeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD). Objective: To determine whether stereotactically guided intracerebral injections of adeno-associated viral vector (serotype 2)-nerve growth factor (AAV2-NGF) are well tolerated and exhibit preliminary evidence of impact on cognitive decline in mild to moderate AD-associated dementia...
March 26, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581965/involvement-of-cholinergic-dysfunction-and-oxidative-damage-in-the-effects-of-simulated-weightlessness-on-learning-and-memory-in-rats
#18
Yongliang Zhang, Qiong Wang, Hailong Chen, Xinmin Liu, Ke Lv, Tingmei Wang, Yanli Wang, Guohua Ji, Hongqing Cao, Guanghan Kan, Yinghui Li, Lina Qu
The present study aimed to determine how the learning and memory gradually change with the prolonged hindlimb unloading (HU) treatment in rats. Different HU durations (7 d, 14 d, 21 d, and 28 d) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were implemented. Cognitive function was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) and the shuttle box test. Additionally, parameters about cholinergic activity and oxidative stress were tested. Results showed that longer-than-14 d HU led to the inferior performances in the behavioral tasks...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580634/the-relationship-between-posttraumatic-and-depressive-symptoms-during-virtual-reality-exposure-therapy-with-a-cognitive-enhancer
#19
Melissa Peskin, Katarzyna Wyka, Judith Cukor, Megan Olden, Margaret Altemus, Francis S Lee, JoAnn Difede
Two studies suggest that reductions in posttraumatic symptoms (Aderka et al., 2013) and cognitions (Zalta et al., 2014) precede reductions in depressive symptoms during prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female assault survivors. The present study explored the temporal relationship between posttraumatic and depressive symptoms in a randomized trial of D-Cycloserine (DCS) versus placebo augmented virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy for chronic World Trade Center-related PTSD following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567400/increased-exploratory-activity-in-rats-with-deficient-sensorimotor-gating-a-study-of-schizophrenia-relevant-symptoms-with-genetically-heterogeneous-nih-hs-and-roman-rat-strains
#20
Carles Tapias-Espinosa, Cristóbal Río-Álamos, Daniel Sampedro-Viana, Cristina Gerbolés, Ignasi Oliveras, Ana Sánchez-González, Adolf Tobeña, Alberto Fernández-Teruel
Schizophrenia involves positive, negative and cognitive symptoms, as well as comorbidity with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a measure of sensorimotor gating that is impaired in schizophrenia and animal models of the disease. Remarkably, impaired PPI has been related to other schizophrenia-like features in rodent models, such as cognitive deficits and hyperactivity. However, it remains to be investigated whether deficient PPI and increased exploratory activity are associated in genetically heterogeneous (outbred) naïve animals...
March 19, 2018: Behavioural Processes
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