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Augmented Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212525/ablation-of-ferroptosis-regulator-glutathione-peroxidase-4-in-forebrain-neurons-promotes-cognitive-impairment-and-neurodegeneration
#1
William Sealy Hambright, Rene Solano Fonseca, Liuji Chen, Ren Na, Qitao Ran
Synaptic loss and neuron death are the underlying cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the modalities of cell death in those diseases remain unclear. Ferroptosis, a newly identified oxidative cell death mechanism triggered by massive lipid peroxidation, is implicated in the degeneration of neurons populations such as spinal motor neurons and midbrain neurons. Here, we investigated whether neurons in forebrain regions (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) that are severely afflicted in AD patients might be vulnerable to ferroptosis...
February 1, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197107/augmentation-of-psychotherapy-through-alternative-preconscious-priming-a-case-series-exploring-effects-on-residual-symptoms
#2
Melha Zidani, Jean-Sébastien Audet, François Borgeat, Frederick Aardema, Kieron Philip O'Connor, Yasser Khazaal
The current paper describes a case series using a new strategy for facilitating change based on Augmentation of Psychotherapy through Alternative Preconscious Priming (APAP) (1) in the treatment of eight treatment-resistant patients suffering from social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder. The patients had previously only shown a partial response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) despite good treatment adherence. The patients completed APAP using a computerized program, which consisted of three steps during which alternative, more functional thoughts and beliefs relevant to the idiosyncratic difficulties experienced by the patients were formulated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195187/sensory-augmentation-integration-of-an-auditory-compass-signal-into-human-perception-of-space
#3
Frank Schumann, J Kevin O'Regan
Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194835/mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-as-an-augmentation-treatment-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
Brenda L Key, Karen Rowa, Peter Bieling, Randi McCabe, Elizabeth J Pawluk
: A significant number of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients continue to experience symptoms that interfere with their functioning following cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Providing an additional augmentation treatment following CBT could help reduce these residual symptoms. Mindfulness interventions that facilitate less reactivity to thoughts and feelings may be helpful for patients suffering from residual OCD symptoms. The purpose of the current randomized waitlist control trial was to evaluate the feasibility and impact of providing an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) intervention following completion of a CBT intervention to OCD patients who continued to suffer from significant symptoms...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189059/augmented-reality-warnings-in-vehicles-effects-of-modality-and-specificity-on-effectiveness
#5
Felix Schwarz, Wolfgang Fastenmeier
In the future, vehicles will be able to warn drivers of hidden dangers before they are visible. Specific warning information about these hazards could improve drivers' reactions and the warning effectiveness, but could also impair them, for example, by additional cognitive-processing costs. In a driving simulator study with 88 participants, we investigated the effects of modality (auditory vs. visual) and specificity (low vs. high) on warning effectiveness. For the specific warnings, we used augmented reality as an advanced technology to display the additional auditory or visual warning information...
February 8, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184207/analysis-of-mental-workload-in-online-shopping-are-augmented-and-virtual-reality-consistent
#6
Xiaojun Zhao, Changxiu Shi, Xuqun You, Chenming Zong
A market research company (Nielsen) reported that consumers in the Asia-Pacific region have become the most active group in online shopping. Focusing on augmented reality (AR), which is one of three major techniques used to change the method of shopping in the future, this study used a mixed design to discuss the influences of the method of online shopping, user gender, cognitive style, product value, and sensory channel on mental workload in virtual reality (VR) and AR situations. The results showed that males' mental workloads were significantly higher than females'...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174611/pterostilbene-ameliorates-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-memory-decline-in-rats
#7
Bhagyashree Naik, Abhijit Nirwane, Anuradha Majumdar
There is strong evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction mediated oxidative stress results in aging and energy metabolism deficits thus playing a prime role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, neuronal death and cognitive dysfunction. Evidences accrued in empirical studies suggest the antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities of the phytochemical pterostilbene (PTS). PTS also exhibits favourable pharmacokinetic attributes compared to other stilbenes. Hence, in the present study, we explored the neuroprotective role of PTS in ameliorating the intracerebroventricular administered streptozotocin (STZ) induced memory decline in rats...
February 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159908/regulation-of-synaptic-a%C3%AE-generation-through-bace1-retrograde-transport-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Xuan Ye, Tuancheng Feng, Prasad Tammineni, Qing Chang, Yu Young Jeong, David J Margolis, Huaibin Cai, Alexander Kusnecov, Qian Cai
: β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides play a key role in synaptic damage and memory deficits in the early pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abnormal accumulation of Aβ at nerve terminals leads to synaptic pathology and ultimately to neurodegeneration. β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the major neuronal β-secretase for Aβ generation. However, the mechanisms regulating BACE1 distribution in axons and β cleavage of APP at synapses remain largely unknown...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143760/pretreatment-biomarkers-predicting-ptsd-psychotherapy-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Peter J Colvonen, Lisa H Glassman, Laura D Crocker, Melissa M Buttner, Henry Orff, Dawn M Schiehser, Sonya B Norman, Niloofar Afari
Although our understanding of the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), brain structure and function, neural networks, stress-related systems, and genetics is growing, there is considerably less attention given to which biological markers predict evidence-based PTSD psychotherapy outcomes. Our systematic PRISMA-informed review of 20 studies examined biomarkers as predictors of evidence-based PTSD psychotherapy outcomes. Results provide preliminary evidence that specific structural and functional neural systems (involved in information processing), glucocorticoid sensitivity and metabolism (part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the response to stress), heart rate (involved with fear habituation), gene methylation, and certain genotypes (associated with serotonin and glucocorticoids) predicted positive response to PTSD treatment...
January 28, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138837/donepezil-plus-solifenacin-cpc-201-treatment-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Thomas N Chase, Martin R Farlow, Kathleen Clarence-Smith
Available cholinergic drugs for treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) provide modest symptomatic benefit. We hypothesized that co-administration of a peripheral anticholinergic to reduce dose-limiting adverse effects (AEs) would enable the safe/tolerable use of higher cholinesterase inhibitor doses and thus improve their antidementia efficacy. A modified single-blind, ascending-dose, phase IIa study of donepezil plus solifenacin (CPC-201) lasting 26 weeks was conducted in 41 patients with probable AD of moderate severity...
January 30, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132883/modulation-of-bdnf-cleavage-by-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-contributes-to-alzheimer-s-neuropathology-and-cognitive-deficits
#11
Gorka Gerenu, Eva Martisova, Hilda Ferrero, Miguel Carracedo, Tomi Rantamäki, Maria Javier Ramirez, Francisco Javier Gil-Bea
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays pivotal roles in neuronal function. The cleaved - mature - form of BDNF (mBDNF), predominantly expressed in adult brains, critically determines its effects. However, insufficient proteolytic processing under pathology may lead to the precursor form of BDNF (proBDNF) and thereby increased neuronal apoptosis and synaptic weakening. Previous findings in our lab showed that cognitive stimulation (CS) delayed memory decline in Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), an effect that was tightly associated with augmented levels of mBDNF...
January 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124230/study-on-lentivirus-mediated-abca7-improves-neurocognitive-function-and-related-mechanisms-in-the-c57bl-6-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Mengqian Li, Yefeng Yuan, Bo Hu, Lei Wu
ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 (ABCA7) is expressed in the hippocampus and cortex of the brain and was confirmed to be involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have demonstrated that ABCA7 regulated Aβ production, lipid transport, leading to AD characteristic pathological changes. However, the role and mechanism of ABCA7 in the context of AD needs further research. We augmented the expression of ABCA7 using lentiviral vector carrying ABCA7 gene to investigate the effect of ABCA7 overexpression on AD mice; then, we further explored the underlying mechanism in vitro...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122091/d-cycloserine-augmentation-of-exposure-based-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-anxiety-obsessive-compulsive-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
David Mataix-Cols, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, Benedetta Monzani, David Rosenfield, Erik Andersson, Ana Pérez-Vigil, Paolo Frumento, Rianne A de Kleine, JoAnn Difede, Boadie W Dunlop, Lara J Farrell, Daniel Geller, Maryrose Gerardi, Adam J Guastella, Stefan G Hofmann, Gert-Jan Hendriks, Matt G Kushner, Francis S Lee, Eric J Lenze, Cheri A Levinson, Harry McConnell, Michael W Otto, Jens Plag, Mark H Pollack, Kerry J Ressler, Thomas L Rodebaugh, Barbara O Rothbaum, Michael S Scheeringa, Anja Siewert-Siegmund, Jasper A J Smits, Eric A Storch, Andreas Ströhle, Candyce D Tart, David F Tolin, Agnes van Minnen, Allison M Waters, Carl F Weems, Sabine Wilhelm, Katarzyna Wyka, Michael Davis, Christian Rück
Importance: Whether and under which conditions D-cycloserine (DCS) augments the effects of exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and posttraumatic stress disorders is unclear. Objective: To clarify whether DCS is superior to placebo in augmenting the effects of cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and posttraumatic stress disorders and to evaluate whether antidepressants interact with DCS and the effect of potential moderating variables...
January 25, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115743/adnp-nap-dramatically-increase-microtubule-end-binding-protein-tau-interaction-a-novel-avenue-for-protection-against-tauopathy
#14
Y Ivashko-Pachima, C Laura Sayas, A Malishkevich, I Gozes
Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), vital for brain formation and cognitive function, is mutated in autism and linked to neurodegenerative/psychiatric diseases. An eight-amino-acid peptide snippet of ADNP, NAP (NAPVSIPQ), identified as a smallest active fragment, includes the SxIP microtubule (MT) end-binding protein (EB) association motif, and enhances ADNP-EB3 interaction. Depletion of EB1 or EB3 abolishes NAP protection against zinc intoxication. Furthermore, NAP enhances Tau-MT interaction, and Tau regulates the localization and function of EB1 and EB3 in developing neuronal cells...
January 24, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106060/brain-microvasculature-defects-and-glut1-deficiency-syndrome-averted-by-early-repletion-of-the-glucose-transporter-1-protein
#15
Maoxue Tang, Guangping Gao, Carlos B Rueda, Hang Yu, David N Thibodeaux, Tomoyuki Awano, Kristin M Engelstad, Maria-Jose Sanchez-Quintero, Hong Yang, Fanghua Li, Huapeng Li, Qin Su, Kara E Shetler, Lynne Jones, Ryan Seo, Jonathan McConathy, Elizabeth M Hillman, Jeffrey L Noebels, Darryl C De Vivo, Umrao R Monani
Haploinsufficiency of the SLC2A1 gene and paucity of its translated product, the glucose transporter-1 (Glut1) protein, disrupt brain function and cause the neurodevelopmental disorder, Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS). There is little to suggest how reduced Glut1 causes cognitive dysfunction and no optimal treatment for Glut1 DS. We used model mice to demonstrate that low Glut1 protein arrests cerebral angiogenesis, resulting in a profound diminution of the brain microvasculature without compromising the blood-brain barrier...
January 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105952/movement-visualisation-in-virtual-reality-rehabilitation-of-the-lower-limb-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Luara Ferreira Dos Santos, Oliver Christ, Kedar Mate, Henning Schmidt, Jörg Krüger, Christian Dohle
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) based applications play an increasing role in motor rehabilitation. They provide an interactive and individualized environment in addition to increased motivation during motor tasks as well as facilitating motor learning through multimodal sensory information. Several previous studies have shown positive effect of VR-based treatments for lower extremity motor rehabilitation in neurological conditions, but the characteristics of these VR applications have not been systematically investigated...
December 19, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105372/association-between-central-blood-pressure-arterial-stiffness-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#17
R Suleman, R Padwal, P Hamilton, A Senthilselvan, K Alagiakrishnan
BACKGROUND: To determine the relationship between central blood pressure (CBP) indices and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in adults over the age of 50. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted using a non-invasive SphygmoCor XCEL device. CBP indices and brachial blood pressure were measured in 50 inpatients and outpatients. MCI was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) instrument and by the European Consortium Criteria (ECC). RESULTS: Seventy-six percent of subjects had hypertension, and 52% were diagnosed as having MCI using the ECC...
2017: Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097612/wip1-phosphatase-plays-a-critical-neuroprotective-role-in-brain-injury-induced-by-high-altitude-hypoxic-inflammation
#18
Dahu Li, Lijun Zhang, Xin Huang, Lili Liu, Yunling He, Lun Xu, Yiyao Zhang, Tong Zhao, Liying Wu, Yongqi Zhao, Kuiwu Wu, Yan Wu, Ming Fan, Lingling Zhu
The hypobaric hypoxic environment in high-altitude areas often aggravates the severity of inflammation and induces brain injury as a consequence. However, the critical genes regulating this process remain largely unknown. The phosphatase wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1) plays important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including the regulation of inflammation in normoxia, but its functions in hypoxic inflammation-induced brain injury remain unclear. Here, we established a mouse model of this type of injury and found that WIP1 deficiency augmented the release of inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral circulation and brain tissue, increased the numbers of activated microglia/macrophages in the brain, aggravated cerebral histological lesions, and exacerbated the impairment of motor and cognitive abilities...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097008/preclinical-findings-predicting-efficacy-and-side-effect-profile-of-ly2940094-an-antagonist-of-nociceptin-receptors
#19
Jeffrey M Witkin, Linda M Rorick-Kehn, Mark J Benvenga, Benjamin L Adams, Scott D Gleason, Karen M Knitowski, Xia Li, Steven Chaney, Julie F Falcone, Janice W Smith, Julie Foss, Kirsti Lloyd, John T Catlow, David L McKinzie, Kjell A Svensson, Vanessa N Barth, Miguel A Toledo, Nuria Diaz, Celia Lafuente, Alma Jiménez, Alfonso Benito, Conception Pedregal, Maria A Martínez-Grau, Anke Post, Michael A Ansonoff, John E Pintar, Michael A Statnick
Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is a 17 amino acid peptide whose receptor is designated ORL1 or nociceptin receptor (NOP). We utilized a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable antagonist with documented engagement with NOP receptors in vivo to assess antidepressant- and anxiolytic-related pharmacological effects of NOP receptor blockade along with measures of cognitive and motor impingement. LY2940094 ([2-[4-[(2-chloro-4,4-difluoro-spiro[5H-thieno[2,3-c]pyran-7,4'-piperidine]-1'-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-pyrazol-1-yl]-3-pyridyl]methanol) displayed antidepressant-like behavioral effects in the forced-swim test in mice, an effect absent in NOP (-/-) mice...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096876/effectiveness-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-augmentation-on-clozapine-resistant-schizophrenia
#20
Hye Sung Kim, Se Hyun Kim, Nam Young Lee, Tak Youn, Jeoung Hyuk Lee, Seunghyun Chung, Yong Sik Kim, In Won Chung
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective case series study of the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) augmentation on clozapine-resistant schizophrenia was conducted by EMR review. METHODS: Clozapine-resistance was defined as persistent psychotic symptoms despite at least 12 weeks of clozapine administration with blood levels over 350 ng/mL in order to rule out pseudo-resistance. Seven in-patients who were taking clozapine and treated with ECT were selected. We analyzed the psychopathology and subscales changed by ECT...
January 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
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