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Augmented Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827871/cognitive-effects-with-rivastigmine-augmentation-of-risperidone-a-12-month-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-in-schizophrenia
#1
Pattath Narayanan Suresh Kumar, Seema P Mohemmedali, P K Anish, Chittaranjan Andrade
OBJECTIVE: An important challenge in schizophrenia therapeutics is to develop an efficacious treatment for cognitive impairment. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as rivastigmine, have been studied for improving cognitive performance in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rivastigmine (uptitrated to 6 mg/day) was given as an add-on therapy to risperidone-treated stable schizophrenia patients in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Of 67 patients who met eligibility criteria, 55 were recruited into the study...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827081/management-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#2
C Prakash Gyawali, Ronnie Fass
Management of GERD commonly starts with an empiric trial of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and complementary lifestyle measures, for patients without alarm symptoms. Optimization of therapy (improving compliance and timing of PPI doses), or increasing PPI dosage to twice daily in select circumstances, can reduce persistent symptoms. Patients with continued symptoms can be evaluated with endoscopy and tests of esophageal physiology, to better determine their disease phenotype and optimize treatment. Laparoscopic fundoplication, magnetic sphincter augmentation, and endoscopic therapies can benefit patients with well-characterized GERD...
August 4, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822228/computerized-neurocognitive-interventions-in-the-context-of-the-brain-training-controversy
#3
Rebeca Isabel García-Betances, María Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María T Arredondo
This article presents, in the form of an analytic narrative review, a complete picture of the state-of-the-art, challenges, and perspectives in the field of information and communication technology (ICT)-based neurocognitive interventions for older adults. The narrative particularly focuses on applications aimed at mild cognitive impairment and similar age-related cognitive deficits, which are analyzed in the context of the brain training controversy. Clarifying considerations are provided about the nature and present extent of the brain training debate, regarding the possible influence it has on the support received by research and development initiatives dealing with innovative computerized neurocognitive interventions...
August 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817828/fall-prone-older-people-s-attitudes-towards-the-use-of-virtual-reality-technology-for-fall-prevention
#4
Kim Dockx, Lisa Alcock, Esther Bekkers, Pieter Ginis, Miriam Reelick, Elisa Pelosin, Giovanna Lagravinese, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Anat Mirelman, Lynn Rochester, Alice Nieuwboer
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) technology is a relatively new rehabilitation tool that can deliver a combination of cognitive and motor training for fall prevention. The attitudes of older people to such training are currently unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate: (1) the attitudes of fall-prone older people towards fall prevention exercise with and without VR; (2) attitudinal changes after intervention with and without VR; and (3) user satisfaction following fall prevention exercise with and without VR...
August 18, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813956/semi-autonomous-mobility-assistance-for-power-wheelchair-users-navigating-crowded-environments
#5
Daniel Ashley, Kyle Ashley, Redwan Alqasemi, Rajiv Dubey
Power wheelchair users suffering from cognitive or physical impairment often face difficulties in maneuvering their wheelchairs through crowded environments. Currently, users need to be continuously aware of all traffic around them to actively avoid all collisions. This is an especially difficult task since many wheelchair users are unable to accurately view or perceive their surroundings. Additionally, imprecise joystick control, slowed reaction time, or imperfect interpretation of the environment can lead to unintended collisions with objects in the environment...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813432/basic-reversal-learning-capacity-in-flies-suggests-rudiments-of-complex-cognition
#6
Brad R Foley, Paul Marjoram, Sergey V Nuzhdin
The most basic models of learning are reinforcement learning models (for instance, classical and operant conditioning) that posit a constant learning rate; however many animals change their learning rates with experience. This process is sometimes studied by reversing an existing association between cues and rewards, and measuring the rate of relearning. Augmented reversal-learning, where learning rates increase with practice, can be an important component of behavioral flexibility; and may provide insight into higher cognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812419/the-effects-of-exergaming-and-treadmill-training-on-gait-balance-and-cognition-in-a-person-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-case-study
#7
Srikant Vallabhajosula, Amy K McMillion, Jane E Freund
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly impairs posture, gait, and cognition. Exercise in the form of aerobic activity as well as exergaming may improve motor ability and cognition in persons with PD. Exergaming and treadmill training can be a practical form of exercise within the home; however, there is minimal research on this combined multimodal intervention for persons with PD. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of this combined intervention on cognition, balance, and gait in a person with PD through supervised lab sessions augmented by home-based sessions...
August 16, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812313/current-and-potential-pharmacological-and-psychosocial-interventions-for-anxiety-symptoms-and-disorders-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-structured-review
#8
REVIEW
Fleur M Howells, David G Kingdon, David S Baldwin
OBJECTIVE: Between 30% and 62% of patients with schizophrenia present with co-morbid anxiety disorders that are associated with increased overall burden. Our aim was to summarize current and potential interventions for anxiety in schizophrenia. DESIGN: Structured review, summarizing pharmacological and psychosocial interventions used to reduce anxiety in schizophrenia and psychosis. RESULTS: Antipsychotics have been shown to reduce anxiety, increase anxiety, or have no effect...
August 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810998/delayed-diagnosis-of-acromegaly-in-the-context-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-due-to-symptoms-mimicking-known-psychotropic-medication-side-effects
#9
Ray-Bernard Portier, Afshin Afarin, Sara Pope
BACKGROUND: Acromegaly is caused by elevated secretion of human growth hormone, which is frequently because of intracranial tumors. This diagnosis is fairly uncommon with an incidence of 3 to 4 cases per million patients per year. We are presenting a case of acromegaly diagnosed in an active duty Chief Petty Officer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 38-year-old male Chief Petty Officer with no previous mental health diagnosis experienced post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms in early 2012 after deploying to Iraq and Afghanistan from 2010 to 2011...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809700/cognitive-cost-of-using-augmented-reality-displays
#10
James Baumeister, Seung Youb Ssin, Neven A M ElSayed, Jillian Dorrian, David P Webb, James A Walsh, Timothy M Simon, Andrew Irlitti, Ross T Smith, Mark Kohler, Bruce H Thomas
This paper presents the results of two cognitive load studies comparing three augmented reality display technologies: spatial augmented reality, the optical see-through Microsoft HoloLens, and the video see-through Samsung Gear VR. In particular, the two experiments focused on isolating the cognitive load cost of receiving instructions for a button-pressing procedural task. The studies employed a self-assessment cognitive load methodology, as well as an additional dual-task cognitive load methodology. The results showed that spatial augmented reality led to increased performance and reduced cognitive load...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809687/sonifeye-sonification-of-visual-information-using-physical-modeling-sound-synthesis
#11
Hessam Roodaki, Navid Navab, Abouzar Eslami, Christopher Stapleton, Nassir Navab
Sonic interaction as a technique for conveying information has advantages over conventional visual augmented reality methods specially when augmenting the visual field with extra information brings distraction. Sonification of knowledge extracted by applying computational methods to sensory data is a well-established concept. However, some aspects of sonic interaction design such as aesthetics, the cognitive effort required for perceiving information, and avoiding alarm fatigue are not well studied in literature...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798411/group-augmentation-in-realistic-visual-search-decisions-via-a-hybrid-brain-computer-interface
#12
Davide Valeriani, Caterina Cinel, Riccardo Poli
Groups have increased sensing and cognition capabilities that typically allow them to make better decisions. However, factors such as communication biases and time constraints can lead to less-than-optimal group decisions. In this study, we use a hybrid Brain-Computer Interface (hBCI) to improve the performance of groups undertaking a realistic visual-search task. Our hBCI extracts neural information from EEG signals and combines it with response times to build an estimate of the decision confidence. This is used to weigh individual responses, resulting in improved group decisions...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783139/antipsychotic-induced-hdac2-transcription-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-leads-to-synaptic-and-cognitive-side-effects
#13
Daisuke Ibi, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Nebojsa Kezunovic, Carolina Muguruza, Justin M Saunders, Supriya A Gaitonde, José L Moreno, Maryum K Ijaz, Vishaka Santosh, Alexey Kozlenkov, Terrell Holloway, Jeremy Seto, Aintzane García-Bea, Mitsumasa Kurita, Grace E Mosley, Yan Jiang, Daniel J Christoffel, Luis F Callado, Scott J Russo, Stella Dracheva, Juan F López-Giménez, Yongchao Ge, Carlos R Escalante, J Javier Meana, Schahram Akbarian, George W Huntley, Javier González-Maeso
Antipsychotic drugs remain the standard for schizophrenia treatment. Despite their effectiveness in treating hallucinations and delusions, prolonged exposure to antipsychotic medications leads to cognitive deficits in both schizophrenia patients and animal models. The molecular mechanisms underlying these negative effects on cognition remain to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that chronic antipsychotic drug exposure increases nuclear translocation of NF-κB in both mouse and human frontal cortex, a trafficking event triggered via 5-HT2A-receptor-dependent downregulation of the NF-κB repressor IκBα...
August 7, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779944/effect-of-yoga-and-working-memory-training-on-cognitive-communicative-abilities-among-middle-aged-adults
#14
H G Namratha, Vinitha Mary George, Gagan Bajaj, J Mridula, Jayashree S Bhat
Several studies have reported improvements in cognitive communicative abilities with working memory training and alternative therapeutic methods conducted separately. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of combining yoga and working memory training among healthy middle aged adults. A total of 45 participants were randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 received both yoga and working memory training, group 2 received only working memory training and group 3 served as the control group. Working memory training was provided on six tasks...
August 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762896/ambulance-delivered-transdermal-glyceryl-trinitrate-versus-sham-for-ultra-acute-stroke-rationale-design-and-protocol-for-the-rapid-intervention-with-glyceryl-trinitrate-in-hypertensive-stroke-trial-2-right-2-trial-isrctn26986053
#15
Jason P Appleton, Polly Scutt, Mark Dixon, Harriet Howard, Lee Haywood, Diane Havard, Trish Hepburn, Tim England, Nikola Sprigg, Lisa J Woodhouse, Joanna M Wardlaw, Alan A Montgomery, Stuart Pocock, Philip M Bath
Rationale Vascular nitric oxide levels are low in acute stroke and donors such as glyceryl trinitrate have shown promise when administered very early after stroke. Potential mechanisms of action include augmentation of cerebral reperfusion, thrombolysis and thrombectomy, lowering blood pressure, and cytoprotection. Aim To test the safety and efficacy of four days of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (5 mg/day) versus sham in patients with ultra-acute presumed stroke who are recruited by paramedics prior to hospital presentation...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759254/emerging-utility-of-virtual-reality-as-a-multidisciplinary-tool-in-clinical-medicine
#16
Ali Pourmand, Steven Davis, Danny Lee, Scott Barber, Neal Sikka
OBJECTIVE: Among the more recent products borne of the evolution of digital technology, virtual reality (VR) is gaining a foothold in clinical medicine as an adjunct to traditional therapies. Early studies suggest a growing role for VR applications in pain management, clinical skills training, cognitive assessment and cognitive therapy, and physical rehabilitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To complete a review of the literature, we searched PubMed and MEDLINE databases with the following search terms: "virtual reality," "procedural medicine," "oncology," "physical therapy," and "burn...
July 31, 2017: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758591/brain-angiotensin-ii-involvement-in-chronic-mental-disorders
#17
Osvaldo Martin Basmadjian, Victoria Belen Occhieppo, Natalia Andrea Marchese, Gustavo Baiardi, Claudia Bregonzio
The functioning of the central nervous system is complex and it implies tight and coordinated interactions among multiple components. Neurotransmitters systems imbalance is a hallmark in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. These pathologies profoundly impact on social, cultural, and economic perspective worldwide. The etiopathology of CNS illnesses is still poorly understood making their treatment difficult. Brain angiotensin II (Ang II), through its AT1 receptors, modulates dopaminergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, which are responsible for movement control, cognition, emotions and stress responses...
July 28, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758313/altered-theta-oscillations-in-resting-eeg-of-fibromyalgia-syndrome-patients
#18
N Fallon, Y Chiu, T Nurmikko, A Stancak
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is a chronic pain disorder characterized by widespread pain, sleep disturbance, fatigue and cognitive/affective symptoms. Functional imaging studies have revealed that FM and other chronic pain syndromes can affect resting brain activity. This study utilized electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings to investigate the relative power of ongoing oscillatory activity in the resting brain. METHODS: A 64-channel EEG was recorded at rest in 19 female FM patients and 18 healthy, age-matched, control subjects...
July 31, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749091/efficacy-of-ziprasidone-augmentation-of-escitalopram-for-cognitive-symptoms-of-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Nadia Iovieno, Richard C Shelton, Samuel R Petrie, Cristina Cusin, Maurizio Fava, George I Papakostas
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of adjunctive ziprasidone for cognitive symptoms in adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiencing persistent symptoms after 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram. METHODS: This post hoc analysis was conducted on a database derived from a previously published study. The parent study was a multicenter, parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 3 academic medical centers in the United States from July 2008 to October 2013...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741230/new-therapeutic-strategies-for-lewy-body-dementias
#20
REVIEW
Latha Velayudhan, Dominic Ffytche, Clive Ballard, Dag Aarsland
This article reviews current treatment strategies and recent advances for the Lewy body dementias (LBDs). Current available symptom treatment strategies are based on monoaminergic, cholinergic and glutaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Relatively robust evidence exists for cholinesterase inhibitors for cognitive impairment in LBD and in Parkinson's disease for antidepressants, clozapine and recently pimavanserin for psychosis. interpidine (RVT 101) and nelotanserin are currently under investigation. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive stimulation, physical exercises and neuromodulation strategies, may be useful in Parkinson's disease but have not yet been tested in dementias...
September 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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