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Augmented Cognition

Lyndsey E DuBose, Laura L Boles Ponto, David J Moser, Emily Harlynn, Leah Reierson, Gary L Pierce
Greater aortic stiffness and pulse pressure are associated with cerebrovascular remodeling, reduced white matter microstructure, and cognitive performance with aging in humans. However, it is unclear whether aortic stiffness and pulse pressure are associated with reduced basal global cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve among older adults. Global CBF was quantified in 205 adults (range, 19-87 years; mean±SE: 30.6±1.3 years) using quantitative [15 O]water brain positron emission tomography imaging...
June 18, 2018: Hypertension
Guy Dove
A growing body of evidence suggests that cognition is embodied and grounded. Abstract concepts, though, remain a significant theoretical challenge. A number of researchers have proposed that language makes an important contribution to our capacity to acquire and employ concepts, particularly abstract ones. In this essay, I critically examine this suggestion and ultimately defend a version of it. I argue that a successful account of how language augments cognition should emphasize its symbolic properties and incorporate a view of embodiment that recognizes the flexible, multimodal and task-related nature of action, emotion and perception systems...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer, Anzalee Khan, Susan R McGurk, Mila Kirstie C Kulsa, Isidora Ljuri, Veronica Ozog, Samantha Fregenti, Gianna Capodilupo, Kiara Buccellato, Amod Thanju, Abraham Goldring, Mohan Parak, Benedicto Parker
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has shown significant improvement in cognition in schizophrenia. However, effect sizes of CRT have been reported to be modest raising the issue how to augment the effects of CRT on neurocognition and social cognition. Our aim was to examine whether the addition of computerized social cognition training would enhance the effects on neurocognition and social cognition as compared to CRT alone. METHODS: This is a 12-week, parallel group trial of 131 in- and out-patients with schizophrenia randomized to CRT (COGPACK or Brain Fitness) with computerized social cognition training (MRIGE), or CRT alone for 36 sessions...
June 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Zofia Rogóż, Agnieszka Wąsik, Elzbieta Lorenc-Koci
BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotic drugs have some efficacy in alleviating the negative and some cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia but those effects are small and mechanisms of this action are still unknown A few clinical reports have suggested that antidepressants (ADs), are able to augment the activity of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of ADs, escitalopram (ESC) or mirtazapine (MIR) and aripiprazole (an atypical antipsychotic drug) given separately or jointly, on the MK-801-induced positive and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia in mice...
February 24, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Steven Andrew Culpepper, Aaron Hudson
A Bayesian formulation for a popular conjunctive cognitive diagnosis model, the reduced reparameterized unified model (rRUM), is developed. The new Bayesian formulation of the rRUM employs a latent response data augmentation strategy that yields tractable full conditional distributions. A Gibbs sampling algorithm is described to approximate the posterior distribution of the rRUM parameters. A Monte Carlo study supports accurate parameter recovery and provides evidence that the Gibbs sampler tended to converge in fewer iterations and had a larger effective sample size than a commonly employed Metropolis-Hastings algorithm...
March 2018: Applied Psychological Measurement
Katarzyna Stawarz, Chris Preist, Debbie Tallon, Nicola Wiles, David Coyle
BACKGROUND: Hundreds of mental health apps are available to the general public. With increasing pressures on health care systems, they offer a potential way for people to support their mental health and well-being. However, although many are highly rated by users, few are evidence-based. Equally, our understanding of what makes apps engaging and valuable to users is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to analyze functionality and user opinions of mobile apps purporting to support cognitive behavioral therapy for depression and to explore key factors that have an impact on user experience and support engagement...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Chittaranjan Andrade
Older age, poor sleep, and the use of the "Z" sedative hypnotic drugs (zopiclone, eszopiclone, zolpidem, and zaleplon) commonly go together. Each of these can increase the risk of falls and fractures through mechanisms related to cognitive and psychomotor impairment. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis examined the risk of falls and fractures associated with the use of the Z-drugs. The authors of that meta-analysis identified 14 relevant cohort and case-control studies. They found that Z-drugs increased the risk of falls in 2 out of 3 studies that provided information on this outcome; in the third, the increased risk narrowly missed statistical significance...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Flavia Turcato, Paul Kim, Austin Barnett, Yongming Jin, Mike Scerba, Anthony Casey, Warren Selman, Nigel H Greig, Yu Luo
OBJECTIVE: Although cerebral ischemia can activate endogenous reparative processes, such as proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ), the majority of these new cells die shortly after injury and do not appropriately differentiate into neurons, or migrate and functionally integrate into the brain. The purpose of this study was to examine a novel strategy for treatment of stroke after injury by optimizing the survival of ischemia-induced endogenous NSCs in the SVZ and SGZ...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Kazuhiro Yasuda, Kenta Saichi, Hiroyasu Iwata
Falls and fall-induced injuries are major global public health problems, and sensory input impairment in older adults results in significant limitations in feedback-type postural control. A haptic-based biofeedback (BF) system can be used for augmenting somatosensory input in older adults, and the application of this BF system can increase the objectivity of the feedback and encourage comparison with that provided by a trainer. Nevertheless, an optimal BF system that focuses on interpersonal feedback for balance training in older adults has not been proposed...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Brenna N Renn, Natalie E Hundt, Shubhada Sansgiry, Nancy J Petersen, Michael R Kauth, Mark E Kunik, Jeffrey A Cully
Background: Progressive illnesses such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) impart a high level of physical and psychological burden. Evidence-based psychotherapies hold the potential to improve perceptions of physical health impairment, yet few studies have documented these effects. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of brief cognitive behavioral therapy (bCBT) on disease-related illness intrusiveness. Methods: Participants were 175 Veterans with COPD and clinically elevated symptoms of depression and/or anxiety enrolled in a larger randomized trial (n = 99 randomized to bCBT, n = 76 to enhanced usual care; EUC)...
May 31, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Kevin M Pitt, Jonathan S Brumberg
Purpose: Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide access to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices using neurological activity alone without voluntary movements. As with traditional AAC access methods, BCI performance may be influenced by the cognitive-sensory-motor and motor imagery profiles of those who use these devices. Therefore, we propose a person-centered, feature matching framework consistent with clinical AAC best practices to ensure selection of the most appropriate BCI technology to meet individuals' communication needs...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Ning Ding, Zhiqiang Li, Zengxun Liu
Serum interleukin (IL)-6 levels in schizophrenia correlate with the severity of negative symptoms. This study aimed to explore the potential immune mechanism of SSRI augmentation in the management of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, assessing changes in IL-6 and CRP amounts. This was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week study of escitalopram augmentation in 62 schizophrenic patients treated in 2016-2017 at the Shandong Mental Health Center. Twenty-nine healthy controls were also included...
May 28, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Ramakrishna Nirogi, Renny Abraham, Vijay Benade, Rajesh B Medapati, Pradeep Jayarajan, Gopinadh Bhyrapuneni, NageswaraRao Muddana, Venkat R Mekala, Ramkumar Subramanian, Anil Shinde, Ramasastry Kambhampati, Venkat Jasti
Research in Alzheimer's disease is going through a big turnaround. New palliative therapies are being reconsidered for the effective management of disease because of setbacks in the development of disease-modifying therapies. Serotonin 6 (5-HT6) receptor has long been pursued as a potential target for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease. SUVN-502 is a novel 5-HT6 receptor antagonist (Ki=2.04 nmol/l) with high receptor affinity and high degree of selectivity. SUVN-502 at doses ranging from 1 to 10 mg/kg, per os (p...
May 29, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Keren Grinberg, Michal Granot, Lior Lowenstein, Liora Abramov, Irit Weissman-Fogel
OBJECTIVES: A patient's personal interpretations of a health threat or "illness perceptions" (IPs) are associated with their clinical outcomes. This study explored whether IPs are associated with pain severity and ability to modulate pain in women with chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), as well as the predictive value of IPs on Myofascial Physical Therapy (MPT) success. METHODS: Illness Perceptions Questionnaire - Revised (IPQ-R), mechanical and heat pain thresholds, mechanical temporal summation (mTS), and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were evaluated in CPPS patients (n=39) before, and 3 months after MPT...
May 25, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
Mélanie Cogné, Sophie Auriacombe, Louise Vasa, François Tison, Evelyne Klinger, Hélène Sauzéon, Pierre-Alain Joseph, Bernard N Kaoua
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether visual cues are helpful for virtual spatial navigation and memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHOD: 20 patients with AD, 18 patients with MCI and 20 age-matched healthy controls (HC) were included. Participants had to actively reproduce a path that included 5 intersections with one landmark at each intersection that they had seen previously during a learning phase. Three cueing conditions for navigation were offered: salient landmarks, directional arrows and a map...
May 2018: Neuropsychology
Mirjam J Nijdam, Eric Vermetten
The field of treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been a pacesetter for the changing face of psychotherapy, as is illustrated in the introduction of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy. This paper outlines a novel approach that builds on a cognitive-motor interaction in a virtual interactive environment. It is based on the theory of memory reconsolidation and the embodiment of cognition. The framework we envision allows the patient to 'step into the past' by using forward motion as an essential ingredient to augment the impact of exposure to traumatic events...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Adar Adamsky, Adi Kol, Tirzah Kreisel, Adi Doron, Nofar Ozeri-Engelhard, Talia Melcer, Ron Refaeli, Henrike Horn, Limor Regev, Maya Groysman, Michael London, Inbal Goshen
Astrocytes respond to neuronal activity and were shown to be necessary for plasticity and memory. To test whether astrocytic activity is also sufficient to generate synaptic potentiation and enhance memory, we expressed the Gq-coupled receptor hM3Dq in CA1 astrocytes, allowing their activation by a designer drug. We discovered that astrocytic activation is not only necessary for synaptic plasticity, but also sufficient to induce NMDA-dependent de novo long-term potentiation in the hippocampus that persisted after astrocytic activation ceased...
May 18, 2018: Cell
Saroj Kumar Das, Priyanka Dhar, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Kalpana Barhwal, Sunil Kumar Hota, Tsering Norboo, Shashi Bala Singh
BACKGROUND: Monotony resulting due to the wilderness, sparse population and isolation from society could adversely affect human physiology and cause mood alterations. Thus, observations need to be conducted in order to elucidate the possible role of circulating biomarkers in inducing altered mood and cognitive performance following prolonged exposure to high altitude (HA) with persistent monotonous environment. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed towards investigating the impact of monotonous environment in remote HA on mood and cognitive performance of human volunteers and its correlation with serum brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and plasma homocysteine level...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Ying Song, Wei Ding, Yun Bei, Yan Xiao, Hai-Da Tong, Li-Bo Wang, Li-Yao Ai
PURPOSE: To investigate the neuroprotective effects of insulin on diabetic encephalopathy and its mechanism. EXPERIMENTAL AND APPROACH: The diabetic model was established by injection of streptozotocin. Behavior examinations were conducted by the Morris water maze. Histopathological alterations were detected by HE staining. ROS, CAT levels and SOD activity were measured using a microplate reader. In vitro, the viability of wild type and knock-down PC12 cells was detected by MTT assay, the morphology of cells was monitored under a microscope...
May 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Nicholas Fallon, Timo Giesbrecht, Andrej Stancak
Subjective and behavioral responsiveness to odor diminishes during prolonged exposure. The precise mechanisms underlying olfactory desensitization are not fully understood, but previous studies indicate that the phenomenon may be modulated by central-cognitive processes. The present study investigated the effect of attention on perceived intensity during exposure to a pleasant odor. A within-subjects design was utilized with 19 participants attending 2 sessions. During each session, participants continuously rated their perceived intensity of a 10-minute exposure to a pleasant fragrance administered using an olfactometer...
May 22, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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