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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327523/methodological-challenges-in-protein-microarray-and-immunohistochemistry-for-the-discovery-of-novel-autoantibodies-in-paediatric-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis
#1
Patrick Peschl, Melanie Ramberger, Romana Höftberger, Karin Jöhrer, Matthias Baumann, Kevin Rostásy, Markus Reindl
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune-mediated demyelinating disease affecting mainly children and young adults. Differentiation to multiple sclerosis is not always possible, due to overlapping clinical symptoms and recurrent and multiphasic forms. Until now, immunoglobulins reactive to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG antibodies) have been found in a subset of patients with ADEM. However, there are still patients lacking autoantibodies, necessitating the identification of new autoantibodies as biomarkers in those patients...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326889/aquaporin-4-autoimmunity-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-predominantly-population-based-study
#2
Nasrin Asgari, Sven Jarius, Helle Laustrup, Hanne Pb Skejoe, Soeren T Lillevang, Brian G Weinshenker, Anne Voss
BACKGROUND: Serum immunoglobulin G targeting the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the central nervous system (CNS) is a biomarker for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD). Co-existence of NMOSD with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) putatively suggests susceptibility to antibody-mediated autoimmune disease. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of NMOSD in SLE and investigate the immunogenetic background for an association of NMOSD and SLE...
March 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326060/microbial-neuraminidase-induces-a-moderate-and-transient-myelin-vacuolation-independent-of-complement-system-activation
#3
Pablo Granados-Durán, María Dolores López-Ávalos, Manuel Cifuentes, Margarita Pérez-Martín, María Del Mar Fernández-Arjona, Timothy R Hughes, Krista Johnson, B Paul Morgan, Pedro Fernández-Llebrez, Jesús M Grondona
AIMS: Some central nervous system pathogens express neuraminidase (NA) on their surfaces. In the rat brain, a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of NA induces myelin vacuolation in axonal tracts. Here, we explore the nature, the time course, and the role of the complement system in this damage. METHODS: The spatiotemporal analysis of myelin vacuolation was performed by optical and electron microscopy. Myelin basic protein-positive area and oligodendrocyte transcription factor (Olig2)-positive cells were quantified in the damaged bundles...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326037/differences-on-brain-connectivity-in-adulthood-are-present-in-subjects-with-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-infancy
#4
Cecilia Algarin, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran, Sussanne Reyes, Cristian Morales, Betsy Lozoff, Patricio Peirano, Bharat Biswal
Iron deficiency continues to be the most prevalent micronutrient deficit worldwide. Since iron is involved in several processes including myelination, dopamine neurotransmission and neuronal metabolism, the presence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy relates to long-lasting neurofunctional effects. There is scarce data regarding whether these effects would extend to former iron deficient anemic human adults. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a novel technique to explore patterns of functional connectivity...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323064/the-relevance-of-%C3%AE-klotho-to-the-central-nervous-system-some-key-questions
#5
REVIEW
Marina Minto Lopes-Cararo, Caio Henrique Yokoyama Mazucanti, Cristoforo Scavone, Elisa Mitiko Kawamoto, Daniel Charles Berwick
α-Klotho is well described as an anti-aging protein, with critical roles in kidney function as a transmembrane co-receptor for FGF23, and as a soluble factor in serum. α-Klotho is also expressed in the choroid plexus, where it is released into the cerebrospinal fluid. Nonetheless, α-Klotho is also expressed in the brain parenchyma. Accumulating evidence indicates that this pool of α-Klotho, which we define as brain α-Klotho, may play important roles as a neuroprotective factor and in promoting myelination, thereby supporting healthy brain aging...
March 18, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322798/neuregulin-1-type-iii-knockout-mice-exhibit-delayed-migration-of-schwann-cell-precursors
#6
Yuki Miyamoto, Tomohiro Torii, Akito Tanoue, Kazuko Kawahara, Miyuki Arai, Hideki Tsumura, Toru Ogata, Motoshi Nagao, Nobuo Terada, Masahiro Yamamoto, Shou Takashima, Junji Yamauchi
In an embryonic developmental stage of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cell precursors migrate along neuronal axons to their final destinations. After birth, they eventually wrap around individual axons to form myelin sheaths, which insulate axons to increase the nerve conduction velocity. Some growth factors and adhesion molecules are known to control these developmental stages from in the fish to in the mammal. Neuregulin-1 (NRG1), which is composed of many alternative splicing variants, is such a growth factor...
March 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321419/pvaxhsp65-vaccination-primes-for-high-il-10-production-and-decreases-experimental-encephalomyelitis-severity
#7
Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella-Pezavento, Fernanda Chiuso-Minicucci, Thais Graziela Donegá França, Larissa Lumi Watanabe Ishikawa, Larissa Camargo da Rosa, Priscila Maria Colavite, Bianca Balbino, Camila Marques, Maura Rosane Valerio Ikoma, Ana Paula Masson, Célio Lopes Silva, Alexandrina Sartori
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a demyelinating pathology of the central nervous system (CNS) used as a model to study multiple sclerosis immunopathology. EAE has also been extensively employed to evaluate potentially therapeutic schemes. Considering the presence of an immune response directed to heat shock proteins (hsps) in autoimmune diseases and the immunoregulatory potential of these molecules, we evaluated the effect of a previous immunization with a genetic vaccine containing the mycobacterial hsp65 gene on EAE development...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320172/neuropathological-findings-from-an-autopsied-case-showing-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-like-neuroradiological-findings-associated-with-premedication-including-tacrolimus-for-autologous-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-transplantation
#8
Yuichi Hayashi, Akio Kimura, Hiroshi Nakamura, Maya Mimuro, Yasushi Iwasaki, Akira Hara, Mari Yoshida, Takashi Inuzuka
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is diagnosed based on neuroradiological findings. Typically, PRES is reversible and presents with a good outcome; however, fatal outcomes have been reported. We report an autopsied case showing PRES-like neuroradiological findings associated with premedication including tacrolimus for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in a 28-year-old woman with a 2-year history of acute myeloid sarcoma/acute myeloid leukemia. Neurological examination revealed disturbed consciousness, muscle weakness in all extremities, and bilaterally diminished tendon reflexes...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320130/spg2-mimicking-multiple-sclerosis-in-a-family-identified-using-next-generation-sequencing
#9
Anna Rubegni, Carla Battisti, Alessandra Tessa, Alfonso Cerase, Stefano Doccini, Alessandro Malandrini, Filippo M Santorelli, Antonio Federico
Several single gene disorders can potentially be overlooked in the differential diagnostic evaluation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease and spastic paraplegia type 2 are allelic X-linked disorders associated with defective myelination of the central nervous system and mutations in PLP1. Neurological symptoms are occasionally observed in female carriers of these mutations. Two women - the proposita (Pt1) and her mother (Pt2) - reported walking difficulties since adolescence and showed progressive cognitive decline...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319253/heat-shock-protein-expression-in-cerebral-x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy-reveals-astrocyte-stress-prior-to-myelin-loss
#10
Anna Lena Görtz, Laura A N Peferoen, Wouter H Gerritsen, Johannes M van Noort, Marianna Bugiani, Sandra Amor
AIMS: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic white matter disorder in which demyelination occurs due to accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. Inflammation in the brain white matter is a hallmark of the pathology of cerebral X-ALD, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are still largely unknown. In other inflammatory demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis, the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in combination with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has been suggested to play a prominent role in the initiation of demyelination and inflammation...
March 20, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318976/assembly-of-cns-nodes-of-ranvier-in-myelinated-nerves-is-promoted-by-the-axon-cytoskeleton
#11
Veronica Brivio, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh, Elior Peles, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy
Nodes of Ranvier in the axons of myelinated neurons are exemplars of the specialized cell surface domains typical of polarized cells. They are rich in voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) and thus underpin rapid nerve impulse conduction in the vertebrate nervous system [1]. Although nodal proteins cluster in response to myelination, how myelin-forming glia influence nodal assembly is poorly understood. An axoglial adhesion complex comprising glial Neurofascin155 and axonal Caspr/Contactin flanks mature nodes [2]...
March 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318499/loss-of-function-mutations-in-lgi4-a-secreted-ligand-involved-in-schwann-cell-myelination-are-responsible-for-arthrogryposis-multiplex-congenita
#12
Shifeng Xue, Jérôme Maluenda, Florent Marguet, Mohammad Shboul, Loïc Quevarec, Carine Bonnard, Alvin Yu Jin Ng, Sumanty Tohari, Thong Teck Tan, Mung Kei Kong, Kristin G Monaghan, Megan T Cho, Carly E Siskind, Jacinda B Sampson, Carolina Tesi Rocha, Fawaz Alkazaleh, Marie Gonzales, Luc Rigonnot, Sandra Whalen, Marta Gut, Ivo Gut, Martine Bucourt, Byrappa Venkatesh, Annie Laquerrière, Bruno Reversade, Judith Melki
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a developmental condition characterized by multiple joint contractures resulting from reduced or absent fetal movements. Through genetic mapping of disease loci and whole-exome sequencing in four unrelated multiplex families presenting with severe AMC, we identified biallelic loss-of-function mutations in LGI4 (leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 4). LGI4 is a ligand secreted by Schwann cells that regulates peripheral nerve myelination via its cognate receptor ADAM22 expressed by neurons...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317919/scavenger-receptor-collectin-placenta-1-is-a-novel-receptor-involved-in-the-uptake-of-myelin-by-phagocytes
#13
Jeroen F J Bogie, Jo Mailleux, Elien Wouters, Winde Jorissen, Elien Grajchen, Jasmine Vanmol, Kristiaan Wouters, Niels Hellings, Jack Van Horsen, Tim Vanmierlo, Jerome J A Hendriks
Myelin-containing macrophages and microglia are the most abundant immune cells in active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Our recent transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that collectin placenta 1 (CL-P1) is one of the most potently induced genes in macrophages after uptake of myelin. CL-P1 is a type II transmembrane protein with both a collagen-like and carbohydrate recognition domain, which plays a key role in host defense. In this study we sought to determine the dynamics of CL-P1 expression on myelin-containing phagocytes and define the role that it plays in MS lesion development...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317842/bde-99-impairs-differentiation-of-human-and-mouse-npcs-into-the-oligodendroglial-lineage-by-species-specific-modes-of-action
#14
Katharina Dach, Farina Bendt, Ulrike Huebenthal, Susanne Giersiefer, Pamela J Lein, Heike Heuer, Ellen Fritsche
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are bioaccumulating flame retardants causing developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) in humans and rodents. Their DNT effects are suspected to involve thyroid hormone (TH) signaling disruption. Here, we tested the hypothesis whether disturbance of neural progenitor cell (NPC) differentiation into the oligodendrocyte lineage (O4(+) cells) by BDE-99 involves disruption of TH action in human and mouse (h,m)NPCs. Therefore, we quantified differentiation of NPCs into O4(+) cells and measured their maturation via expression of myelin-associated genes (hMBP, mMog) in presence and absence of TH and/or BDE-99...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317272/roles-of-ng2-glia-in-ischemic-stroke
#15
REVIEW
Fei-Er Song, Jia-Lv Huang, Si-Han Lin, Shuo Wang, Guo-Fen Ma, Xiao-Ping Tong
Recent studies have shown that a widely distributed class of glial cells, termed NG2-glia, engages in rapid signaling with surrounding neurons through direct synaptic contacts in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). This unique glial cell group has a typical function of proliferating and differentiating into oligodendrocytes during early development of the brain, which is crucial to axon myelin formation. Therefore, NG2-glia are also called oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). In vitro and in vivo studies reveal that NG2-glia expressing receptors and ion channels demonstrate functional significance for rapid signaling with neuronal synapses and modulation of neuronal activities in both physiological and pathological conditions...
March 19, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315884/complementary-feeding-micronutrients-and-developmental-outcomes-of-children
#16
Jacqueline F Gould
The period of complementary feeding (6-24 months of age) can be a challenging and vulnerable time for infant nutrition due to disproportionately high requirements for metabolic processes, rapid developmental processes, and limited gastric capacity. This is a period of crucial brain development where high caloric intake is necessary to allow synaptogenesis (creation of channels between neurons for communication), and maintenance of established synapses, myelination (laying the myelin sheath around neuronal axons) and everyday psychological functioning...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315720/the-protective-effect-of-the-active-components-of-erpc-on-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-in-rats
#17
Gai-Mei Hao, Yong-Gang Liu, Yan Wu, Wei Xing, Shu-Zhen Guo, Yong Wang, Zheng-Lin Wang, Chun Li, Tian-Tian Lv, Hong-Liang Wang, Tian-Jiao Shi, Wei Wang, Jing Han
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Euonymus alatus, Radix trichosanthis, Panax notoginseng and Coptis chinensis are popular plants used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of the active components of Euonymus alatus, Radix trichosanthis, Panax notoginseng and Coptis chinensis (cERPC) on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the rats and explore the underlying mechanism involved...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315624/extrapontine-myelinolysis-manifested-selectively-by-acute-severe-parkinsonian-syndrome-case-report
#18
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODMS) is a rare and serious neurologic disorder with acute myelin disintegration, usually in the pontine area (central pontine myelinolysis) and to a lesser extent, even in other areas of the central nervous system (extrapontine myelinolysis). The main underlying mechanism is the change of serum osmolality with quick correction of low mineral levels, mainly hyponatraemia. Clinical manifestation is various and depends on the localization. DESIGN: We describe an acute isolated extrapontine myelinolysis causing acute onset of parkinsonism in a 61-year-old man who developed quickly progressing parkinsonian syndrome after the rapid correction of hyponatraemia...
November 19, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314941/neuropeptide-expression-and-morphometric-differences-in-crushed-alveolar-inferior-nerve-of-rats-effects-of-photobiomodulation
#19
Daniel Oliveira Martins, Fabio Martinez Dos Santos, Adriano Polican Ciena, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Luiz Roberto G de Britto, José Benedito Dias Lemos, Marucia Chacur
Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injuries may occur during various dental routine procedures, especially in the removal of impacted lower third molars, and nerve recovery in these cases is a great challenge in dentistry. Here, the IAN crush injury model was used to assess the efficacy of photobiomodulation (PBM) in the recovery of the IAN in rats following crushing injury (a partial lesion). Rats were divided into four experimental groups: without any procedure, IAN crush injury, and IAN crush injury with PBM and sham group with PBM...
March 17, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306572/neuromyelitis-optica-and-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#20
Romain Marignier, Alvaro Cobo Calvo, Sandra Vukusic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The discovery of highly specific auto-antibodies directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 was a quantum leap in the definition, classification and management of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Herein, we propose an update on epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic advances in the field, underlining unmet needs. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale epidemiological studies have recently provided a more precise evaluation of NMO prevalence and a better stratification regarding ethnicity and sex...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
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