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T Ma, R Weng, Y S Zheng, L J Xu, Q Sun
Objective: To investigate the effects of epicanthoplasty on the trichiasis caused by the entropion of lower eyelid with epicanthus. Methods: Epicanthoplasty was used to correct the trichiasis of lower eyelid with epicanthus from February 2010 to October 2015. Total of 72 patients were enrolled in this study, among whom 42 were male and 30 were female, and aged 8 to 58 years. Among those patients, 64 cases were found with bilateral trichiasis and 8 patients with unilateral trichiasis. And 3 cases received secondary operations for recurrence...
September 27, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
A Pinsent, I M Blake, M G Basáñez, M Gambhir
The World Health Organization has targeted the elimination of blinding trachoma by the year 2020. To this end, the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma (GET, 2020) alliance relies on a four-pronged approach, known as the SAFE strategy (S for trichiasis surgery; A for antibiotic treatment; F for facial cleanliness and E for environmental improvement). Well-constructed and parameterized mathematical models provide useful tools that can be used in policy making and forecasting in order to help to control trachoma and understand the feasibility of this large-scale elimination effort...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Ngy Meng, Do Seiha, Pok Thorn, Rebecca Willis, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Michael Dejene, Susan Lewallen, Paul Courtright, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: To determine whether trachoma is a public health problem requiring intervention in Cambodia. METHODS: Based on historical evidence and reports, 14 evaluation units (EUs) in Cambodia, judged to be most likely to harbor trachoma, were selected. The Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology was used to carry out rigorous surveys to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis in each EU. RESULTS: The EU-level prevalence of TF among 25,801 1-9-year-old children examined ranged from 0% to 0...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Khumbo Kalua, Alvin Chisambi, David Chinyanya, Zachariah Kamwendo, Michael Masika, Rebecca Willis, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Alexandre L Pavluck, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: Following a first phase of trachoma mapping in Malawi with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we identified and mapped trachoma districts previously suspected to be non-endemic, although adjacent to districts with estimated trachoma prevalences indicating a public health problem. METHODS: We conducted population-based surveys in eight evaluation units (EUs) comprising eight districts in Malawi (total population 3,230,272). A 2-stage cluster random sampling design allowed us to select 30 households from each of 30 clusters per EU; all residents aged 1 year and older in selected households were examined for evidence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trachomatous trichiasis (TT)...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Caleb Mpyet, Nasiru Muhammad, Mohammed Dantani Adamu, Habila Muazu, Murtala Muhammad Umar, Joel Alada, Uwazoeke Onyebuchi, Fracisca Olamiju, Sunday Isiyaku, Adamani William, Rebecca Willis, Rebecca Mann Flueckiger, Alexandre Pavluck, Brian K Chu, Danjuma Mohammed, Nicholas Olobio, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: To determine the need or otherwise for establishment of a trachoma elimination program in Gombe State, Nigeria, by estimating the population-based prevalence of trachoma in each Local Government Area (LGA) of Gombe. METHODS: Using a multi-stage, systematic, random, and quasi-random sampling approach and Global Trachoma Mapping Project support, we selected 25 clusters in each LGA. In each cluster, we selected 25 households and all consenting residents aged 1 year and older were examined for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis, using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Sarah E Burr, Ansumana Sillah, Anselme S Sanou, Anita C Wadagni, John Hart, Emma M Harding-Esch, Sarjo Kanyi, Robin L Bailey
BACKGROUND: The Gambia's National Eye Health Programme has made a concerted effort to reduce the prevalence of trachoma. The present study had two objectives. The first was to conduct surveillance following mass drug administrations to determine whether The Gambia has reached the World Health Organization's (WHO) criteria for trachoma elimination, namely a prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) of less than 5% in children aged 1 to 9 years. The second was to determine the prevalence of trichiasis (TT) cases unknown to the programme and evaluate whether these meet the WHO criteria of less than 0...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kassahun Mengistu, Mulugeta Shegaze, Kifle Woldemichael, Hailay Gesesew, Yohannes Markos
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where people are socioeconomically deprived. Globally, approximately 1.2 billion people live in trachoma-endemic areas, in which, 40.6 million individuals have active trachoma and 8.2 million have trichiasis. According to the World Health Organization's 2007 report, globally close to 1.3 million people are blind due to trachoma, while approximately 84 million suffer from active trachoma...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Robert M R Butcher, Oliver Sokana, Kelvin Jack, Colin K Macleod, Michael E Marks, Eric Kalae, Leslie Sui, Charles Russell, Helena J Tutill, Rachel J Williams, Judith Breuer, Rebecca Willis, Richard T Le Mesurier, David C W Mabey, Anthony W Solomon, Chrissy H Roberts
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is endemic in several Pacific Island states. Recent surveys across the Solomon Islands indicated that whilst trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) was present at levels warranting intervention, the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) was low. We set out to determine the relationship between chlamydial infection and trachoma in this population. METHODS: We conducted a population-based trachoma prevalence survey of 3674 individuals from two Solomon Islands provinces...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Muneer Abbas, Noureddine Berka, Mozna Khraiwesh, Ali Ramadan, Victor Apprey, Paulette Furbert-Harris, Thomas Quinn, Hassan Brim, Georgia Dunston
AIM: To examine the association of TLR4 Asp299Gly and MICA exon 5 microsatellites polymorphisms with severity of trachoma in a sub-Saharan East Africa population of Tanzanian villagers. METHODS: The samples were genotyped for MICA exon 5 microsatellites and the TLR4 299 A/G polymorphism by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), and GeneScan(®), respectively. The association of TLR4 Asp299Gly and MICA exon 5 microsatellites with inflammatory trachoma (TI) and trichiasis (TI) were examined...
June 2016: Autoimmune Infect Dis
John W Simon, Kathryn H Williams, Jitka L Zobal-Ratner, Gerard P Barry
PURPOSE: Although much literature has focused on various techniques to repair epiblepharon, no study has addressed how frequently surgical intervention is required. METHODS: The authors tabulated data from all patients with epiblepharon seen over the past 15 years. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients were included, 61 (69%) with tearing, discharge, conjunctival injection, or eye rubbing. Trichiasis was present in 15 cases (17%), 6 (7%) with corneal staining...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Carleigh S Cowling, Bette C Liu, Thomas L Snelling, James S Ward, John M Kaldor, David P Wilson
Australia remains the only developed country to have endemic levels of trachoma (a prevalence of 5% or greater among children) in some regions. Endemic trachoma in Australia is found predominantly in remote and very remote Aboriginal communities. The Australian Government funds the National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit to collate, analyse and report trachoma prevalence data and document trachoma control strategies in Australia through an annual surveillance report. This report presents data collected in 2013...
2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
Colin K Macleod, Robert Butcher, Umesh Mudaliar, Kinisimere Natutusau, Alexandre L Pavluck, Rebecca Willis, Neal Alexander, David C W Mabey, Luisa Cikamatana, Mike Kama, Eric Rafai, Chrissy H Roberts, Anthony W Solomon
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have shown an abundance of both clinically active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in all divisions. This finding is at odds with the clinical experience of local healthcare workers who do not consider trachoma to be highly prevalent...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sumit Malhotra, Praveen Vashist, Noopur Gupta, Mani Kalaivani, Gita Satpathy, Anita Shah, Sujaya Krishnan, Rajvardhan Azad
BACKGROUND: A high proportion of active trachoma infection in children of Car-Nicobar Island was reported through the Trachoma Rapid Assessment survey conducted in year 2010 by the same researchers. Annual mass drug treatment with azithromycin was administered from years 2010-12 to all individuals residing in this island for reducing the burden of active trachoma infection. A cross-sectional prevalence survey was conducted in the year 2013 to assess the post-treatment burden of trachoma in this population...
2016: PloS One
Ahmed M Hishmi, Konrad R Koch, Mario Matthaei, Edwin Bölke, Claus Cursiefen, Ludwig M Heindl
BACKGROUND: Tarsoconjunctival flap advancement, or the Hughes procedure, is among the techniques of choice for reconstructing full-thickness lower eyelid defects so as to restore normal anatomy and function with the best possible cosmetic outcome. The purpose of this study is to report the outcome of a series of patients treated with a modified Hughes procedure following malignant tumor removal. METHODS: This retrospective study included 45 consecutive cases of modified Hughes procedures performed between January 2013 and October 2015...
2016: European Journal of Medical Research
Olympia Kostopoulou, Andrzej Grzybowski, Constantinos Trompoukis
Trichiasis, recognized since the time of Hippocrates, is a cause of ocular irritation that may result in scarring of the cornea and threaten sight. We have reviewed the original Greek medical texts made from the 1st to the 7th century ce and present the existing medical knowledge relating to trichiasis, including its clinical picture, cause, diagnosis, and treatment. Recognition of trichiasis as a stage of trachoma and its distinction from pseudotrichiasis gave the impetus for physicians of the era to use a significant number of pharmaceutical and surgical treatments...
July 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
Tamsyn Derrick, Philip J Luthert, Hodan Jama, Victor H Hu, Patrick Massae, David Essex, Martin J Holland, Matthew J Burton
PURPOSE: To characterize the histological appearance and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases and biomarkers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in healthy control and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) conjunctival tissue. METHODS: Conjunctival biopsies were taken from 20 individuals with TT and from 16 individuals with healthy conjunctiva, which served as controls. Study participants were of varying ethnicity and were living in a trachoma-endemic region of northern Tanzania...
June 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Victor H Hu, Philip J Luthert, Tamsyn Derrick, James Pullin, Helen A Weiss, Patrick Massae, Tara Mtuy, William Makupa, David Essex, David C W Mabey, Robin L Bailey, Martin J Holland, Matthew J Burton
INTRODUCTION: The phenotype and function of immune cells infiltrating the conjunctiva in scarring trachoma have yet to be fully characterized. We assessed tissue morphology and immunophenotype of cellular infiltrates found in trachomatous scarring compared to control participants. METHODOLOGY: Clinical assessments and conjunctival biopsy samples were obtained from 34 individuals with trachomatous scarring undergoing trichiasis surgery and 33 control subjects undergoing cataract or retinal detachment surgery...
May 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tetsuji Uemura, Tetsu Yanai, Masato Yasuta, Hiroshige Kawano, Yasuhiro Ishihara, Mamoru Kikuchi
BACKGROUND: The results of a cohort of patients treated at one institution for upper eyelid reconstruction with the switch flap method after a defect due to excision of malignant tumor were reviewed. METHODS: A retrospective data file review of all patients who had undergone total upper eyelid reconstruction with the switch flap method was conducted at the Saga University Hospital between April 2000 and October 2014. The follow-up lasted for varying periods during which the preoperative and postoperative photographs were compared as well...
April 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Jay J Meyer, Charles N J McGhee
PURPOSE: Acute corneal hydrops is a rare complication of keratoconus and may be a risk factor for further complications such as microbial keratitis. METHODS: Retrospective, case series. RESULTS: Six eyes developed microbial keratitis during acute corneal hydrops. Risk factors for the development of microbial keratitis included epithelial defect, contact lens wear, trichiasis, and use of topical steroids. Two eyes developed corneal perforation and 1 eye was treated for possible endophthalmitis...
July 2016: Cornea
Helen Selma de Abreu Freitas, Norma Helen Medina, Maria de Fátima Costa Lopes, Oscar Espellete Soares, Marco Túlio Costa Teodoro, Karen Ruth Brock Ramalho, Ligia Santos Abreu Caligaris, Ricardo Mörschbächer, Maria Nazaré Correia de Menezes, Expedito José de Albuquerque Luna
PURPOSE: Trachoma, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory disease that affects the cornea and conjunctiva. Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of avoidable blindness worldwide. Its prevalence is higher among individuals of low socioeconomic status, and trachoma is common in indigenous communities. The present study presents aspects of the epidemiological profile of trachoma in indigenous communities in Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed data from two databases collected during trachoma screening activities among the population of indigenous settlements in Brazil between 2000 and 2008...
May 4, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
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