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Hajime Seki, Song Xue, Sabine Pellett, Peter Šilhár, Eric A Johnson, Kim D Janda
Botulium neurotoxins (BoNTs) are among the most lethal toxins known to man. They are comprised of seven serotypes with BoNT/A being the most deadly; yet, there is no approved therapeutic for their intoxication or one that has even advanced to clinical trials. Botulinum neurotoxicity is ultimately governed through light chain (LC) protease SNARE protein cleavage leading to a loss of neurotransmitter release. Pharmacological attempts to ablate BoNT/A intoxication have sought to either nullify cellular toxin entry or critical biochemical junctions found within its intricate mechanism of action...
May 4, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Tae Hoon Oh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2014: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Shuang-yi Wang, Jin Yue, Yao-xiang Xu, Ling-fa Xue, Wen-lin Xiao, Chun-yang Zhang
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of injection of botulium toxin type A at trigger point for treatment of patients with primary trigeminal neuralgia. METHODS: Sixteen patients with primary Trigeminal Neuralgia were treated with injection of botulium toxin type A. Visual analog scores(VAS) at 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after treatment and Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain evaluation criteria were utilized to measure the degree of pain...
February 2014: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
Faezeh Javadi Larijani, Mastaneh Moghtaderi, Nilofar Hajizadeh, Farahnak Assadi
The most common cause of neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD) in newborn infants is myelomeningocele. The pathophysiology almost always involves the bladder detrusor sphincter dyssynergy (DSD), which if untreated can cause severe and irreversible damage to the upper and lower urinary tracts. Early diagnosis and adequate management of NBD is critical to prevent both renal damage and bladder dysfunction and to reduce chances for the future surgeries. Initial investigation of the affected newborn infant includes a renal and bladder ultrasound, measurement of urine residual, determination of serum creatinine level, and urodynamics study...
December 2013: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Lei Zhu, Cheng Zhang, Roy S Chuck
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the topical steroid, fluorometholone, and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), nepafenac and ketorolac, on inflammatory cytokine expression of the ocular surface in the botulium toxin B-induced murine dry eye model. METHODS: Topical artificial tears (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose sodium), 0.1% fluorometholone, 0.1% nepafenac, and 0.4% ketorolac were applied 3 times per day in a dry eye mouse model 1 week after intralacrimal botulium toxin B (BTX-B) or saline (sham) injection...
2012: Molecular Vision
Mariann Midori Yabiku, Juliana de Filippi Sartori, Eduardo Pantaleão Sarraff, Tammy Hentona Osaki, Sidarta Keizo Hossaka, Carolina Isolane Pereira, Wilson de Freitas, Midori Hentona Osaki, Angelino Julio Cariello
PURPOSE: To analyze the ocular wavefront aberrations in patients with facial dystonia treated with botulinum toxin A. METHODS: Patients with benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm in activity underwent slit lamp examination and bilateral wavefront analysis under pharmacologic mydriasis using Alcon LADARvision wavefront aberrometry system. After that, all patients were treated with botulinum toxin A injections performed by the same ophthalmologist. After one month, the wavefront analysis was performed in the same way and by the same examiner...
November 2011: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
R S Natt, M S McCormick, J M Clayton, C Ryall
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of the use of percutaneous injection of botulinum neurotoxin A under local anaesthesia in the management of cricophayngeus dysphagia in post-laryngectomy patients. METHODS: Fifteen post-laryngectomy patients (6 males, 9 females, age range 48-72 years) with surgery performed not less than five years with post-operative radiotherapy were recruited. Under video-fluoroscopic control and the attachment of a metal safety pin to the neck as a topographical marker for the cricopharyngeus muscle, botulinum neurotoxin was injected after local anaesthesia infiltration...
August 2010: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Yeoun Sook Chun, Jae Chan Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a large-diameter (16-20 mm) hydrogel contact lens (CL) or an injection of Botulinum Toxin A to Riolan muscle for the treatment of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK). METHODS: Eight eyes from 8 patients were fitted with large-diameter CL for 7 days. The clinical improvement and changes of fluorescein and rose bengal staining were examined on the day of diagnosis and 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after the CL was fitted. Three eyes showing symptoms of recurrence of SLK within 1 month after removal of the CL and 2 eyes with complications related to CL were treated with an injection of Botulinum Toxin A to pretarsal orbicularis muscle, Riolan...
August 2009: Cornea
Lei Zhu, Jikui Shen, Cheng Zhang, Choul Yong Park, Sahar Kohanim, Margaret Yew, John S Parker, Roy S Chuck
PURPOSE: Inflammation plays an important role in dry eye syndrome. In this study, inflammatory cytokine expression on the ocular surface in the Botulium toxin B (BTX-B) induced mouse dry eye model was investigated. METHODS: CBA/J mice received an injection of saline or 20 milliunits (mU) of BTX-B into the lacrimal gland. Tear production and corneal fluorescein staining were evaluated in all groups before injection and at 3 time points after. The pro-inflammatory cytokines macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF), interleukin-1beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in conjunctival and corneal epithelium were evaluated by real time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry...
2009: Molecular Vision
Susan Ronan, Joan T Gold
Central to the longitudinal management of childhood hypertonia are nonsurgical treatments. These include physical and occupational therapy, electrical stimulation, orthotics, botulium toxin, and drugs. This manuscripts reviews these treatment modalities as well as evaluation tools available to assess their impact on a child's hypertonia.
September 2007: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Kunlin Jin, Xiao Ou Mao, David A Greenberg
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),which is prominently involved in angiogenesis, also exerts direct effects on neurons, leading to neurite extension, neuroprotection, and neurogenesis. However, the signal transduction pathways employed by VEGF in neurons are incompletely understood. We investigated the molecular mechanisms through which VEGF stimulates neurogenesis in primary cultures of rat cerebral cortical neurons. VEGF increased neurite outgrowth, measured using a colorimetric assay for cresyl violet staining of neuronal processes, with half-maximal enhancement at 10 ng/mL and maximal, approximately 60% enhancement at 30-100 ng/mL...
February 15, 2006: Journal of Neurobiology
James M Spencer, Marsha Gordon, David J Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin injections represent the most commonly performed cosmetic procedure in the US. There is an enormous reported experience documenting the efficacy of botulinum toxin A injections. There is very limited published information about the efficacy and appropriate dosage of botulinum toxin B injections. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the dosage response and side effect profile of botulinum toxin B injections. METHOD: Twenty-six subjects received botulinum B injections to their glabellar area...
March 2002: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
W P Coleman, C W Hanke, N Orentreich, S B Kurtin, H Brody, R Bennett
BACKGROUND: Dermatologic surgery has a long and distinguished history in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To examine the specific contributions of American dermatologic surgeons. METHOD: The medical literature on cutaneous reconstructive and cosmetic surgery for the last century and a half was researched. RESULTS: Numerous American dermatologic surgeons have had a major impact on scientific and technological discoveries in cutaneous surgery...
January 2000: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
B Ford, E D Louis, P Greene, S Fahn
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long term outcome of selective ramisectomy denervation in patients with botulinum toxin resistant spasmodic torticollis. BACKGROUND: The published surgical series of ramisectomy treatment for torticollis do not provide systematic information on patients who develop resistance to the current standard of treatment-botulium toxin injections. Moreover, there is little information on surgical outcome using rating scale measurements of torticollis, or assessments of functional and occupational capacity...
October 1998: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
G E Bryce, M D Morrison
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to review the use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of essential palatal myoclonus tinnitus. DESIGN: Two case series. METHOD: Four to 10 units of botulium toxin are injected into the tensor veli palatini muscle. The dose and interval between doses is titrated according to patient symptoms. With bilateral symptoms, injection is alternated between sides at sequential visits. OUTCOME MEASURES: Relief of tinnitus with cessation of palatal contractions...
August 1998: Journal of Otolaryngology
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